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1 Methodology

1.1Hydrometry
1.1.1 Hydrometric Station
Hydromatric station is a station located on a riverside that measures discharge,
and other flow parameters. In a water basin system, it is used as a control point.
In order to achieve good results, the hydrometric station location should follow
some conditions. According to Boyer (1964), and Horst (1978), there are some
conditions which should be fulfilled, as follow:
a. The station should be easily accessible in any conditions,
b. The location should be at the straight stream flow, with the minimum
straight stream length is 3x stream width,
c. The location should have a stable cross section, which means the relation
between water level and flow discharge does not change,
d. There is no backwater occurs at the location,
e. There is no obstacles such as aquatic plants, and rocks.

1.1.2 Water Level Observation


Water level is a parameter which is very important to be observed. Water level is
different with water discharge, because it can be observed directly with simple
direct observation, which make it very important to be observed.
There are 2 different observations: automatic and manual.
1.1.2.1 Manual observation
Staff gauge is used for water level observation manually. Staff gauge is a
graduated rod, made of wood or aluminium. The rod should be placed over a
strong foundation so the position does not change. It is also important to have
the rod easy to read.
There are several different placement of rods, depends on the situation
1.1.2.2 Automatic observation
Automatic Water Level Recorder (AWLR) is an instrument used for automatic
observation. It records water level automatically in every specific time, for
example every minute.

1.1.3 Stream Flow Discharge


Stream flow discharge cannot be observed directly. In order to achieve the
discharge the area and the velocity are needed. Both parameter, however can be
measured directly at the river. The area and the velocity then can be used for
calculating the discharge by using this formula:
Q=VxA
With:
Q
V
A

:
:
:

discharge
velocity
area

1.1.3.1 Area
The area can be obtained after the cross section measurement is done. River
cross section is measured perpendicular to the flow direction. The cross section
measurement is done by measuring the depth at some points where the distance
between them usually the same. After the measurement is done, the cross
section can be divided into some subsections. The subsections are the area
between points with the same width on all subsections.
1.1.3.2 Velocity

The stream flow velocity can be observed using current meter. Current meter is a
propeller device. The velocity is obtained as a function of the current meters
rotation within a specific time. Current meter only measures velocity at a point,
however the velocity is different at all points in the river. in order to obtain the
average velocity the measurement should be done several time at different
subsections. At every subsections the measurement can be done using three
different methods:
1. Only one measurement done. The measurement is done at 0.6 depth. The
average velocity is the velocity obtained from the measurement.
2. Two measurements done. The measurement is done at 0.2 depth and 0.8
depth. The average velocity is (V 0.2+V0.8)/2.
3. Three measurements done. The measurement is done at 0.2 depth, 0.6
depth, and 0.8 depth. The average velocity is {(V 0.2+V0.8)/2+V0.6}/2.
Besides the total measurement done in every subsections, the measurement can
also be done using 4 difference ways depending on the river situation:
1. Measurement on the river without special tools. It can be done on Shallow
river.

2. Measurement using a boat. It is done when the river is deep, wide, but the
flow is not very fast.

3. Measurement on the bridge. It can be done if only there is a bridge. Not


like the measurement on a boat, the measurement on a bridge can also be
done on the river with fast flow.

4. Measurement using a cable train. This measurement should be done when


the river is deep, wide, and the flow is fast, but there is no bridge.

1.1.4 Rating Curve


After the discharge can be calculated, the rating curve should be calculated.
Rating curve is a curve that describes the relation between water level and
discharge. Rating curve is needed to predict the discharge using the water level,
which is the easiest to observe every time. The rating curve can be obtained
using manning equation.

1
V = R2 /3 S 0.5
n
With:
V
R
A

:
:
:

velocity
hydraulic radius
slope

The hydraulic radius is depended on the water level, so the rating curve can be
obtained after substitute the velocity in the discharge formula using the manning
equation.

1
2 /3
0.5
Q= A R S
n