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Network = Group of devices interconnected to share resources and communicate

Network type
A LAN (local area network) is a group of computers and network devices connected
together, usually within the same building. By definition, the connections must
be high speed and relatively inexpensive (e.g., token ring or Ethernet). Most I
ndiana University Bloomington departments are on LANs.
A LAN connection is a high-speed connection to a LAN. On the IUB campus, most co
nnections are either Ethernet (10 Mbps) or Fast Ethernet (100 Mbps), and a few l
ocations have Gigabit Ethernet (1000 Mbps) connections.
A MAN (metropolitan area network) is a larger network that usually spans several
buildings in the same city or town. The IUB network is an example of a MAN.
A WAN (wide area network), in comparison to a MAN, is not restricted to a geogra
phical location, although it might be confined within the bounds of a state or c
ountry. A WAN connects several LANs, and may be limited to an enterprise (a corp
oration or an organization) or accessible to the public. The technology is high
speed and relatively expensive. The Internet is an example of a worldwide public

Devices - 3 categories
1.Endpoint devices - PC , laptop, Cellphone , printer,
2.MediaConnects Endpoints device to Internetworking devices
ethernet cable, connectors,wireless signal
3.Internetworking devices Switches/Hub that connects multiple endpoint devices to form LAN
Router thats connect one or more LAN to form WAN
Lets study more closely two network .
1. Home network
2. LAN network
For Home network (wired) - What devices do we need ?
Cable Modem - From ISP
Hub - If you want to share between different family members
For Home network (wireless) - What devices do we need ?
Cable Modem - From ISP
wireless router - If you want to share between different family members
For office
Lets say 25 users per floor
25 computers connects to a Switch and switch connects a Router
after we connected all the devices
Physical vs logical

Star: All stations are connected by cable (or wireless) to a central point, such
as hub or a switch. If the central node is operating in a broadcast fashion suc
h as a Hub, transmission of a frame from one station to the node is retransmitte
d on all of the outgoing links. In this case, although the arrangement is physic
ally a star, it is logically a bus. In the case of the central node acting as sw
itch, an incoming frame is processed in the node and then retransmitted on an ou
tgoing link to the destination station. Ethernet protocols (IEEE 802.3) are ofte
n used in the Star topology LAN.
Ring: All nodes on the LAN are connected in a loop and their Network Interface C
ards (NIC) are working as repeaters. There is no starting or ending point. Each
node will repeat any signal that is on the network regardless its destination. T
he destination station recognizes its address and copies the frame into a local
buffer as it goes by. The frame continues to circulate until it returns to the s
ource station, where it is removed. Token Ring (IEEE 802.5) is the most popular
Ring topology protocol. FDDI (IEEE 802.6) is another protocol used in the Ring t
opology, which is based on the Token Ring.
Bus: All nodes on the LAN are connected by one linear cable, which is called the
shared medium. Every node on this cable segment sees transmissions from every o
ther station on the same segment. At each end of the bus is a terminator, which
absorbs any signal, removing it from the bus. This medium cable apparently is th
e single point of failure. Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) is the protocols used for this
type of LAN