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LTE Technology Overview

Prepared by:
Samsung
Approved by:
RJIL

Course Name: LTE Technology Overview

Course Objective
Who should attend
This module will enable participants
Management and LTE Beginners
to understand high-level overview of
Pre-Requisite
LTE system and network architecture
Basic understanding of 2G & 3G
cellular network

Afternoon Session (2:30pm to 6pm)

Introduction to LTE
LTE Network Architecture
Day 1

LTE Air Interface Basics


LTE UE Functionalities & Categories

Lunch break

Morning Session (11am to 1:30pm)

QoS
Policy Control & Charging
Self-Organizing Network
VoLTE

Good to know
Keep your mobile phone in the silent mode during the session
Need to sign attendance sheet at the start and end of each day
At the end of each training pre and post test will be conducted

Stick to break timings


Your valuable feedback will be taken at the end to enhance training experience
Certificate will be issued to successful participant
For logistics support contact the co-ordinator

Agenda
Introduction to LTE
Evolution of cellular networks
Comparison of 2G, 3G and LTE
LTE Targets

LTE Network Architecture

Cellular Architecture (2G and 3G)


LTE RAN & Core Philosophies
LTE Architecture Overview
Functions of LTE network nodes

LTE Air Interface Basics

Techniques for High Data Rates


Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)
Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA)
Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)
LTE Releases

Agenda (2)
Quality of Service (QoS)
Sessions, Bearers & Flows
QoS Levels
Quality Class Indicator (QCI)

Policy Control & Charging


PCC Functions
PCC Rules
Charging

Self-Organizing Network (SON)


Motivation
Overview
Samsung SON Features

Agenda (3)
Voice over LTE (VoLTE)

Approaches to voice in LTE


IMS Architecture
Basic VoLTE Call Setup
Advantages of VoLTE

Introduction to LTE

Evolution of Cellular Networks

1G

2G

3G

Analog
Cellular

1980

1990

4G

GSM (9.6
Kbps)

UMTS (2
Mbps)

LTE (100
Mbps)

GPRS (144
Kbps)

HSPA (14
Mbps)

LTE-A (1
Gbps)

EDGE (384
Kbps)

HSPA+ (42
Mbps)

2000

2010

Evolution of Cellular Networks


Packet core
Packet switched
data

Peak data
rates
Circuit switched
voice support

1G

1980s

1990s

Late 90s

2000

2003

2008

2010 onwards

Comparison: 2G, 3G and LTE


Features

GSM / GPRS / EDGE

WCDMA / HSPA

LTE

Multiple Access

FDMA + TDMA

CDMA

OFDMA

Carrier Bandwidth

200 KHz

5 MHz

1.4 - 20 MHz

Peak Data Rate

GSM 9.6 Kbps


GPRS 144 Kbps
EDGE 384 Kbps

WCDMA 2 Mbps
HSPA 14 Mbps
HSPA+ 42 Mbps

LTE 100 Mbps


LTE-A 1Gbps

Transmission Time
Interval (TTI)

EDGE 20ms

WCDMA 10 ms
HSPA 2ms

1ms

Latency (user plane)

~120 ms

~40 ms

~20 ms

Modulation schemes

GMSK, 8-PSK

QPSK, 16-QAM,
64-QAM

QPSK, 16-QAM,
64-QAM

Access Network

BTS + BSC

NodeB + RNC

eNodeB

Core Network

CS MSC, GMSC
PS SGSN, GGSN

CS MSC, GMSC
PS SGSN, GGSN

PS MME, S-GW,
P-GW

Voice & Video Calls

CS

CS

PS

Comparison: 2G, 3G and LTE Architectures


IP

PSTN

IP

GGSN

GMSC

Core
Network
MSC

BSC / RNC

Access
Network
BTS / NodeB

GSM / WCDMA

SGSN

Single-node access
network
Completely PS network
Separate user and control
planes

Controller node in access


network
Separate CS and PS cores
Combined user and
control planes

eNodeB

LTE

3GPP Releases
Release

Functional Freeze Date

Key Features

R99

March 2000

UMTS 3.84 Mcps (WCDMA FDD &TDD)

R4

March 2001

1.28 Mcps TD-SCDMA

R5

June 2002

HSDPA

R6

March 2005

HSUPA (E-DCH)

R7

Dec 2007

HSPA+ (64QAM DL, MIMO, 16QAM UL), LTE &


SAE feasibility study

R8

Dec 2008

LTE work item OFDMA, SAE work item, new


IP core, 3G femtocells, DC HSDPA

R9

Dec 2009

LTE-A feasibility study, SON, LTE femtocells, Dual


Cell HSUPA

R10

March 2011

CoMP study, 4-carrier HSDPA

Source: Aglient Technologies

LTE Requirements
Data Rates

100 Mbps DL & 50 Mbps UL for 20 MHz


Spectral efficiency of 5 bps/Hz DL and 2.5
bps/Hz UL

Latencies

Control plane < 100 ms


User plane (RAN) < 5ms

Interworking

LTE WCDMA 500 ms NRT, 300 ms RT


LTE GSM 500 ms NRT, 300 ms RT

LTE Spectrum
Bandwidths supported

15 MHz Existing Spectrum


10 MHz
5 MHz

5 MHz LTE
10 MHz LTE

LTE Flexible Bandwidth Deployment

1.4 MHz
3 MHz
5 MHz
10 MHz
15 MHz
20 MHz

TD LTE RF Bands
LTE Band Number

Allocation (MHz)

Width of Band (MHz)

33

1900 - 1920

20

34

2010 - 2025

15

35

1850 - 1910

60

36

1930 - 1990

60

37

1910 - 1930

20

38

2570 - 2620

50

39

1880 - 1920

40

40

2300 - 2400

100

41

2496 - 2690

194

42

3400 - 3600

200

43

3600 - 3800

200

LTE Specifications
URL: http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/36-series.htm
Specification index
TS 36.100 series

Description of contents
Equipment Requirements:
Terminals, Base stations, and Repeaters
Layer 1 (Physical layer):

TS 36.200 series

Physical channels, Modulation, Multiplexing, Channel


coding, etc.
Layers 2 and 3:

TS 36.300 series

Medium Access Control, Radio Link Control, and Radio


Resource Control.

TS 36.400 series
TS 36.500 series

Network Signaling & Interfaces:


Architecture, S1, X2 Interfaces, etc.
UE equipment conformance testing

Summary
LTE is the next generation in cellular evolution
It offers high data rates (up to 100 Mbps DL) and low latencies (< 5ms user
plane)
It allows flexible bandwidth deployment
It uses small 1ms Transmission Time Interval (TTI) to reduce latency
It supports interworking with existing cellular standards

LTE Network Architecture

GSM / GPRS Architecture


PSTN

BSS

CS Core

MSC

GMSC

BTS
Abis

PS Core
BSC

MS

BTS
GGSN

SGSN

IP

WCDMA Architecture
PSTN
CS Core

RAN

MSC

GMSC

NodeB

Iub

PS Core

RNC
NodeB

MS
Iur

GGSN

SGSN

RNC
NodeB

IP

LTE RAN Philosophy


Single node e-UTRAN
IP Cloud

Packet based while supporting real


time conversational traffic
Minimize number of interfaces

EPC
Minimizes single points of failure

eUTRAN

Supports end-to-end QOS


Supports
QOS
differentiation
between control, user and O&M
traffic

LTE Core Philosophy


IP Cloud

Flat architecture single logical


node

EPC
Supports interworking with
variety of wireless networks

eUTRAN

LTE Network
External 3GPP Core
Network

EPC

E-UTRAN

S3
S6a
S4

X2

eNodeB

S1-MME

Uu

Gx

S11
eNodeB
S1-U

S5 / S8

SGi

Combined into
SAE - GW

PDN

eNodeB
RRM functions

Radio Bearer Control


Radio Admission Control
Connection Mobility Control
Dynamic resource allocation UL
& DL

IP header compression and


encryption of user data
Selection of
attachment

MME

at

UE

Measurements for mobility &


scheduling
Scheduling and transmission of
paging and broadcast

Samsung eNodeB: DU & RRU

RRU
CPRI

DU
UAMA Card

L9CA Card

Samsung eNodeB

L9CA (DU) Card(LTE eNB Channel card


board Assembly)

Fan

UAMA Card(Universal platform type


A Management board
Assembly)

Samsung Smart Scheduler


Uses general purpose hardware
platform IBM BladeCenter HT
Chassis and HS23 Blade server
LSM

SC1

Implemented in software by
General Purpose Processor
(GPP)
Minimizes inter-cell interference

X2
SC1

Improves cell-edge throughput


Centralized management
multiple eNBs

for

10 blades per server support


total 2880 cells

Mobility Management Entity


Mobility functions
PDN Gateway and Serving
Gateway selection
MME selection for inter-MME
handovers (via S10 interface)
Roaming via S6a
Authentication, authorization
Inter CN signaling for mobility
between 3GPP access networks
via S3 interface, including SGSN
selection

Ensuring UE reachability in IDLE


state (paging)
Bearer management, including
dedicated bearer establishment

Legal interception of signaling


traffic

Samsung MME
Item

Specification

10M Subscribers, 30M Bearers


FAN

L L L L L L L L L L L L L L

Capacity/
36,000 CPS (1 CPS = 1 Attach and 1 Detach per second)
Performance

EEEEEEEEEEEEEE

16 x GE

S S S S S S MM S S S S S S
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA

FAN

Rack
Dimension

600 mm(W) x 800 mm(D) x 2,000 mm(H)

LEMA LTE EPC Management board Assembly : Switch and Management


RAID

Board

LENA LTE EPC Network Interface board Assembly : Network interface

FAN

L L L B
L
EEE
A
SSS
N
AAAK

L L L L L L L L L L

LESA

EEEEEEEEEE

LTE EPC Session management board Assembly : Session/Mobility


management

N NMMS S S S S S
AAAAAAAAAA

FAN

LEMA, LENA 1:1 (active/standby)


Redundancy
LESA 2:1 (active/standby)

Serving Gateway
Anchor point for
Inter-eNodeB handovers
Inter 3GPP handovers via S4
Facilitates reordering

IDLE mode DL packet buffering

Initiation of network triggered


service request
Transport level QOS
Inter-operator charging
Legal interception
Note: UE has only one Serving
Gateway at any given time

PDN Gateway

Allocating IP address to UE
Policy and charging related
functions
DHCP functions
Transport level QoS

Samsung SAE-GW
Item

Specification
2.8M IP-CAN sessions / 8.4M bearers with full redundancy

Capacity/
Performance

100Gbps for only data forwarding with


redundancy
60Gbps including DPI/PCC with redundancy
44Gbps including HHE[1]/DPI/PCC with
redundancy

Simultaneous
packet & call
processing

16,000 CPS (1 CPS = 1 Attach and 1 Detach per


sec)
12 x 40GE and 48 x 10GE
RAID

Rack Dimension 600 mm(W) x 800 mm(D) x 2,000 mm(H)


LEMA

LTE EPC Management board Assembly : Switch and


Management

LENA

LTE EPC Network Interface board Assembly : Network interface

LEDA

LTE EPC Data Processing board Assembly : Call control

FAN

L L L L L L L L L L L L L L
EEEEEEEEEEEEEE
N N N N N NMMD D D D D D

Board

AAAAAAAAAAAAAA

FAN

LEMA, LENA 1:1 (active/standby)


Redundancy
LEDA 2:1 (active/standby)

R4G Network Schematic


AG-3

AG-2

AG-1

R4G Network Deployment Quantification


Mumbai
Zones
( 2)

IPSM /
SMSC

IMS Apps

NW IVR

MNP GW

OCS

Self Care

OSS

Content
Mgmt

NP GW

LIM - BE

West (Mumbai)

Regions
(4)

Delhi
IMS Apps

IPSM / SMSC

eSMLC /
GMLC

OCS

South (Chennai)

OCS

eSMLC / GMLC

East (Kolkata)

North (Delhi)

HSS

DNS/ENU
M

HSS

DNS/ENU
M

HSS

DNS/ENU
M

HSS

DNS/ENU
M

DRA

MGCF

DRA

MGCF

DRA

MGCF

DRA

MGCF

PCRF

IMS Core

PCRF

IMS Core

PCRF

IMS Core

PCRF

IMS Core

Ld Bal.

NPDB

Ld Bal.

NPDB

Ld Bal.

NPDB

Ld Bal.

NPDB

AAA /
PS

TAS/OTM

AAA /
PS

TAS/OTM

AAA /
PS

TAS/OTM

AAA /
PS

TAS/OTM

SAE GW

Circles
( 22)

MME

BMSC

MCE
IBR

L2 SW

MGW

EPC

NIMS

eMBMS GW

LIM FE

Legend

NW
NPIVRGW

Content Mgmt

LSM R/C

EPC
( 18)

MNP GW

L4/L7
SBC

RAN Scheduler

IMS

EPC++

Wi-Fi

Supporting

DPI

NIMS
MRF
eNodeB

OSS/BSS

RAN

Zonal & Regional Level Nodes will work in Active- Active (Load sharing) mode

WAG

Summary
LTE architecture is completely packet-based
Single node RAN
Flat architecture EPC

eNodeB performs all the RRM functions


MME performs all control plane core functions
S-GW is the local mobility anchor. Facilitates inter-3GPP handovers
P-GW assigns IP address and applies policy and QoS

Quiz
Radio resources are allocated by
eNodeB
S-GW
_____ establishes a connection between the UE and EPC
S-GW
P-GW
MME

During handover DL data is buffered at


S-GW
MME
P-GW

LTE Air Interface Basics

Techniques for High Data Rates


Forward & backward
error detection
Fast, access-network
based

Hybrid ARQ

MIMO
Diversity
Beam-forming

Link
Adaptation

High Data
Rates

Multiple
Antennas

Adaptive Modulation &


Coding
Adaptive Source
Coding

Channeldependent
Scheduling

Based on Channel
Quality indicator (CQI)
Small 1ms TTI

MIMO

Spatial
Multiplexing
UE1

Multiple, parallel
data streams to
single user

eNodeB

Spatial Multiplexing

Transmit
Diversity
UE2
eNodeB

Transmit Diversity

Multiple copies of
same stream to
single user

OFDMA
Flexible resource allocation
Robustness against multipath
Total Bandwidth

The peak (centre


frequency) of one
subcarrier
intercepts the
nulls of the
neighbouring
subcarriers
15 kHz in LTE: fixed

LTE Time-Frequency Grid

Fast time-domain scheduling


Frequency

Radio resources on a timefrequency grid

Time
Resource Block 180 KHz x 0.5 ms
Each RB = 12 x 7 = 84 REs

OFDMA PAPR Ratio


The transmitted power is the sum of
the powers of all the subcarriers.
The higher the peaks, the greater
the range of power levels.
Not best suited for use with mobile
(battery-powered) devices

SC-FDMA v/s OFDMA

LTE Key Parameters


Frequency Range

Channel Bandwidth,
1Resource Block
(RB) = 180KHz

UMTS FDD bands and UMTS TDD bands

1.4MHz

3MHz

5MHz

10MHz

15MHz

20MHz

6 RBs

15RBs

25RBs

50RBs

75RBs

100RBs

Modulation
scheme

Downlink: QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM


Uplink: QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM (optional for handset)

Multiple Access

Downlink: OFDMA
Uplink: SC-FDMA

MIMO

- Transmit diversity, (Max. 4 antenna at Base station and handset)


- Spatial multiplexing, Multiuser MIMO

Peak Data rate

Downlink: 150Mbps (UE category 4, 2x2 MIMO, 20MHz)


300Mbps (UE category 5, 4x4 MIMO, 20MHz)
Uplink: 75Mbps (20MHz)

Summary
LTE uses MIMO, higher-order modulation, channel dependent scheduling to
achieve higher data rates

OFDMA allows flexible resource allocation and is robust against multipath


Due to OFDMA PAPR issues, SC-FDMA is used on the uplink
MIMO can be used for spatial multiplexing to improve data rates or for
transmit diversity to reduce interference

Quiz
Name 3 techniques used in the air interface to improve data rates
Higher-order modulation
MIMO
Adaptive Modulation & Coding

LTE offers radio resources in


Time-domain
Frequency Domain
Both time & frequency domain
Scheduling of LTE radio resources depends on
Radio channel conditions
Availability of resources
Both

LTE UE Categories & Functionalities

Basic Functions of an LTE UE


Physical layer processing

Encoding & decoding, modulation &


demodulation OFDM, appropriate MIMO, etc.

Mobility Management

Update tracking area, handover


measurements, handovers to other
technologies

Session Management

Setup, maintenance and teardown of IP


sessions

Identity Management

Maintain and update identities provided by


the eNodeB & EPC

UE Categories
All categories support 20 MHz
2x2 MIMO mandatory in other classes except Class 1

UE Category

Class 1

Class 2

Class 3

Class 4

Class 5

Peak Data rate DL (Mbps)

10

50

100

150

300

Peak Data rate UL (Mbps)

25

50

50

75

Modulation DL

64QAM

64QAM

64QAM

64QAM

64QAM

Modulation UL

16QAM

16QAM

16QAM

16QAM

64QAM

MIMO DL

Optional

2x2

2x2

2x2

4x4

QoS

Service Types Need for QoS

Person to Person

Video Call
Multimedia (MMS, Real-Time Video Sharing)
VOIP
POC
Multiplayer Games

Content to Person

Browsing
Streaming
Download
MBMS

LTE Bearers
EPS Bearer
Logical pipe between UE and PGW
Associated with a set of QoS
parameters

PDN Connection
IP / PDN Connection
PDN
EPS Bearer
UE
EPC

IP session between UE and the


PDN
EPS bearers in a PDN
connection have the same IP

Types of EPS Bearers

Default
bearer

Established along
with a new PDN
connection and
active for the
lifetime of the PDN
connection
Always a non-GBR
bearer

Default Bearer

Dedicated Bearer
UE
EPC

Dedicated
bearer

Additional EPS
bearer that may be
activated based on
demand
Can be GBR or nonGBR

Service Data Flow (SDF)


A set of IP flows corresponding
to a service

Identified
headers

SDF2

EPC

packet

IP

IP Flow 1
Filtering

SDF1

using

IP Flow 2
IP Flow 3

PDN

An SDF corresponds to a QoS /


policy treatment by the policy
function

An EPS Bearer can carry only


one SDF Aggregate

QoS Levels
Service Level

Service Data Flows (SDFs) defined


QoS and policy applied based on the SDF

Bearer Level

Default (Non-GBR) and Dedicated (GBR or


Non-GBR) bearers defined
Policy binds Dedicated Bearer to a QCI

UE Level

Limits to per-UE AMBR


Enforced by eNodeB

QCI Table
QCI

Resource
Type

Priority

PDB

PELR

Example Services

100 ms

10-2

Conversational Voice

150 ms

10-3

Conversational Video (Live Streaming)

50 ms

10-3

Real Time Gaming

300 ms

10-6

Non-Conversational Video (Buffered Streaming)

100 ms

10-6

IMS Signalling

GBR

Non-GBR

300 ms

10-6

100 ms

10-3

Voice, Video (Live Streaming), Interactive


Gaming

10-6

Video (Buffered Streaming), TCP-based (e.g.,


www, e-mail, chat, ftp, p2p file sharing,
progressive video, etc.)

Video (Buffered Streaming), TCP-based (e.g.,


www, e-mail, chat, ftp, p2p file sharing,
progressive video, etc.)

300 ms

Operator-specified class

Summary
LTE QoS operates at service, session and bearer levels as well as on a per UE
basis

A Service Data Flow is defined to determine the policy & QoS treatment to be
applied to a service
A Quality Class Indicator is used to define different QoS types and priorities
A UE has Default and Dedicated bearers logical connections to the EPC

QoS uses notions of GBR and AMBR to differentiate between services

Quiz
A PDN Connection can consist of multiple EPS bearers
True
False
Default bearer is always
GBR
Non-GBR
AMBR

The following nodes agree upon a per APN-AMBR


UE and eNodeB
eNodeB and P-GW
UE and P-GW

Policy Control & Charging

Policy Control & Charging (PCC) Architecture


Policy & Charging Rules Function
(PCRF) provides flow-based policy
and charging control decisions

Policy & Charging Enforcement


Function (PCEF) enforces gating
and QoS control on behalf of the
PCRF

S5 / S8
BBERF

PCEF

Bearer Binding & Event Reporting


Function (BBERF) binds flows to IP
bearers and reports events

Gx

Rx
AF

Sp

SPR

Subscriber Profile Repository (SPR)


stores subscriber profiles
Application
Function
(AF)
represents
applications
that
require dynamic policy and QoS
control

PCC Rule
A collection
enabling

information

Detection of SDFs
Providing parameters for Policy
& Charging Control

Source IP

Destination
IP

Protocol Type

Flow Descriptor

Destination
Port

of

Source Port

A flow descriptor is made up of


the 5-tuple

Source IP
Destination IP
Source Port
Destination Port
Protocol Type

PCC Rule Types

Dynamic

PreDefined

Definition is
provided by the
PCRF via the Gx
interface

Provisioned
directly into the
PCEF by the
operator

Example of Policy Enforcement for SDFs

SDF1

Policy 2
SDF2

EPC

IP Flow 1
Filtering

Policy 1

IP Flow 2
IP Flow 3

PDN

Components of Charging
Charging Key

Determines the tariff to be applied to an SDF

Service Identifier

Allows Flow-Based Charging (FBC)

Charging Method

Online, Offline, Neither

Measurement Method

Volume, Duration, Combination or Event

Online & Offline Charging Systems


3GPP Charging

Online
OCS

Provides credit
management and
grants credit to PCEF

Gy
Online Charging
System

Gz

Offline
OFCS
Offline Charging
System

Charging
mechanism where
service can be
affected in real-time

Charging
mechanism where
service is not
affected in real-time
Receives events
from PCEF and
generates CDRs

Summary
Policy control involves binding, gating, event reporting & QoS control
A PCC rule detects an SDF and sets its policies
An SDF is described by IP address & port number of source & destination and
the protocol being used
Charging consists of a charging key, service identifier, and charging &
measurement methods

Quiz
A ___________ rule is provided by the PCRF via the Gx interface
Dynamic
Pre-defined
A ______ allows flow-based charging
Service Identifier
Rule Identifier
Binding is the creation of an association between _______ and ________
QoS and Policy
SDF and IP bearer
IP bearer and EPS bearer

Self-Organizing Networks

Motivations for SON

Automate Routine
Processes

Reduce manual intervention


Reduce scope for error
Reduce operational expenses
e.g. Self-Configuration

Automate Difficult
Processes

Too fast and / or too complex to be done


manually
Near real-time and accurate actions
Improves performance and operations
e.g. Self-Optimization

Samsung eNodeB Self-Establishment


2) Acquire configuration
from LSM

1) Acquire eNB & LSM


IP from DHCP server

DHCP

LSM

Backhaul
Network

MME

eNodeB

3) Configure VLANs for


a) S1-C b)S1-U & X2

SAE
GW

eNodeB

Samsung eNodeB Self-Establishment (Continued)

DHCP

LSM

4) Establish S1-C

Backhaul
Network

MME

eNodeB

6) Establish X2

SAE
GW
5) Establish S1-U
eNodeB

Samsung Automatic Neighbor Relations (ANR)


Initial Auto-configuration

NR Self Optimization

NR Management
(Handover statistics based)

Based on NRT obtained from LSM

UE Based
Network Based

Ranking neighbor relations


Removal of neighbors

Voice over LTE (VoLTE)

Approaches to Voice in LTE


CircuitSwitched
Fallback
(CSFB)

VoLTE
Offload voice to 2G /
3G networks

Voice carried in LTE as


VOIP

Quick, temporary
solution

Long-term solution for


voice

Only CS voice used

IP Multimedia
Subsystem (IMS) is
used

IMS Architecture
IMS

SIP

Application Environment

Diameter
IP

H.248
ISUP

IP Network

TDM

Gm
(SIP)

PSTN

EPC

IP Transport

IMS Architecture (Continued)


IMS

SIP

Application Environment

Diameter
IP

H.248
ISUP

IP Network

TDM

Gm
(SIP)

PSTN

EPC

IP Transport

UE Registration with IMS


IMS
Application Environment

4) Obtain UE
Authentication and
Service Profiles
EPC / IMS HSS
1) Attach and
establish IP
Session

Default Bearer

Gm
(SIP)

UE

2) IMS
Registration

EPC
3) Obtain S-CSCF name and
capabilities

IMS Call Setup


IMS
Application Environment

4) Setup Dedicated Bearer

3) Send service info


to PCRF

2) Interworking with application


servers
4a)Routing call to
terminating IMS

1) IMS Call Setup

Default Bearer

4b) Routing call to


terminating PSTN
Dedicated Bearer
UE

EPC
IP Transport

VoLTE v/s OTT VoIP


Over The
Top VoIP

VoLTE
QoS aware

QoS Unaware

Native to the UE

External to UE

Call Holding

No call holding

Summary
CSFB is a short term approach
In the long-term, VoLTE is the way to carry voice in LTE
VoLTE uses IMS to route calls

IMS uses SIP and nodes that translate from SIP to PSTN
VoLTE has advantages over OTT VOIP applications

Quiz
Give three advantages of VoLTE / SRVCC
Minimizes need for handover to other radio technologies
Ensures seamless transition for UE traveling out of LTE coverage
Native to the UE

Voice packets are carried by _____ bearer


Default
Dedicated
Either
The ____ obtains S-CSCF capabilities from the HSS
S-CSCF
P-CSCF
I-CSCF

Summary
LTE offers high data rates (up to 100 Mbps DL) and low latencies (< 5ms user
plane) through OFDMA, MIMO and other techniques

LTE architecture is completely packet-based with minimal nodes and interfaces


LTE QoS operates at service, session and bearer levels as well as on a per UE
basis. It uses QCI, GBR and AMBR to apply appropriate QoS to different
services
Policy control involves binding, gating, event reporting & QoS control

Charging consists of a charging key, service identifier, and charging &


measurement methods
VoLTE is the long-term solution in LTE. It uses IMS to route calls and has
advantages over OTT VoIP