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IS 4999: 1991

Indian Standard

RECOMMENDATIONSFORGROUTINGOF

PERVIOUSSOILS

( First Revision 1

1 SCOPE

 

involve

stipulations

which

 

cannot

 

be

achieved

 

in a reasonable

time

or

at

a

cost

commensurate

 

1.1 This

standard

 

gives recommendations

 

for

with the purpose.

 

On the

other

hand

there

is

grouting

of pervious

soils for control

of seepage.

the danger

of relaxing

field

control

to

a point

These

are applicable

wherever the primary

pur-

that

the

efficacy

of

grouting

treatment

would

pose

of grouting

 

is

to

reduce

the

permeability

 

be seriously compromised.

 

of the

soil.

soil would

In

such cases,

be a subsidiary

consolidation

objective.

 

of

the

3.2 Grout

flow

generally

tends

 

to

concentrate

 

in

more

pervious

soil

 

pockets

or

strata.

1.2 After

the width

and depth

of

the

curtain

is

Hence

separate

injections

are

necessary

where

decided

as contained

in IS

11293 ( Part

1 )

:

1985

strata

w th

a

wide

range

of

grain

sizes

and

or any

other

 

relevant

Indian

Standard,

it

is

permeability

exist

in

close

proximity.

Quite

necessary

to

 

choose

the

equipment,

materials

often

these

characteristics

 

change

within

a few

and field techniques

so that

the

desired

imper-

metres

and

 

a

soil

stratum

may

contain

a

meabilization

 

can

 

be

achieved

with

reasonable

 

sequence

of

inclined

layers

only

a

few centi-

assurance.

The

principal

 

objective

of

these

metres

thick.

 

recommendations

 

is

to

set

out

the

basic consi-

 

derations

governing

choice of

grout

materials,

 

3.3

The seepage

through

 

a pervious

stratum

is

equipment

and field procedures.

 

generally

governed

by

the presence

of

a

~few

   

pockets

 

or layers

of high

permeability.

Hence

 

it may

often

be

sufficient

to

treat

only

such

2 REFERENCES

 

layers

to

achieve

 

the

necessary

reduction

of

The Indian Standards

listed

below

are

necessary

permeability.

 

adjuncts to this standard:

 
 

3.4

Groutability

of

a soil

deposit

should

there-

 

IS No.

 

Title

fore

be

judged

not

merely

in

terms

of

the

1892

:

1979

Code

of

surface

foundations

practice

for

sub-

investigations

for

( first

revision )

grain

size distribution

or

lense but

in terms

overall

permeability.

of

each

individual

of

its

When

contribution

the curtain

is

to

layer

the

wide

 

enough,

 

lenses

of

some

 

of the

finer ungrouted

2132

:

1986

Code

of

practice

for

thin

soil may be completely

surrounded

by

grouted

 

walled tube

sampling

of soils

soil.

 

( second

revision )

3.5

Relatively

wide curtains

can

tolerate

greater

4453

: 1989

Code

of

practice

for

sub-

extent,

of pervious

pockets

than narrow

curtains,

 

surface

exploration

by

pits,

for example,

 

single line grout

curtains

in

rock.

trenches,

drifts

and

shafts

The tolerance

limit

also depends

on

the

relation

( first

revision )

 

of the permeability

of the ungrouted

zones

and

5529

Code

of practice

for

 

in

situ

the overall

permeability

 

of

the

pervious

stratum

( Part

1 )

:

1985

permeability

test:

Part

1

in which

the grout

curtain

is installed.

 
 

Tests

in

overburden

( first

 

revision )

 

3.6 Conventional Widths

 

11293

 

Guidelines

for

the

design

of

     

( Part

1 )

 

:

1985

grout curtains:

Part

and rockfill

dams

1 Earth

3.6.1 The thickness

of the

curtain

to

l/3

the

an overall

head

) is generally

sufficient

reduction

of permeability

(

that

is

l/S

to achieve

in

ratio

of

12584:1989

 

Specification

for

bentonite

l/100.

 

Pregrouting

overall

permeability

may be

 

for

grouting

in

civil

assessed

by pumping

tests

to

an

accuracy

suffi-

engineering

works

cient

for

practical

purposes.

It

is difficult

to

 

judge

the

overall

permeability

of

the

curtain

3 LIMITATIONS

AND CAPABILITY OF

 

without piezometric observations.

 

GROUTING

 

TECHNIQUE

 

3.6.1.1

The thickness

of the grout

curtain

should

3.1

Initially

 

it

is

necessary

to

ascertain

what

be such

as

to

dissipate

the head

to

the

required

grouting

can achieve

and what

it cannot.

Other-

extent.

 

The head

dissipated

through

the curtain,

wise there

is always

a risk

that

the

specifications

may

be

obtained

by

converting

the

curtain

 

IS

4999

:

1991

subject

to

considerable

uncertainty

when

the

by

the

tube

as

it is raised.

 

In this

manner

curtain

is

only

5 to

10

metres

 

wide.

This

is

the tube

is lifted

progressively

until

 

the

because

of

the

irregularity

of

the

curtain

and

entire

depth

required

to

be

grouted

is

the

abrupt

changes

in

flow

conditions

in

the

treated.

 

vicinity

of the

bore

well

and

the

boundary

of

b)

Descending

Stage

( see Fig.

2 )

 

the

curtain.

 
 

In this method,

grouting

is done

through

5 GROUTING

SELECTION

METHODS

AND THEIR

 

the lower

openend

short

stages

of

1 to

of

the

2 metres

grout

pipe

in

starting

with

   

the

top

of the

grouted

zone.

 

The

process

5.1

Pervious

soils are

generally

 

heterogeneous,

 

involves

repetition

of a sequence

of

ope-

and

the

grain

size

distribution

may

change

rations

comprising

drilling

through

 

the

abruptly

over

a short

distance.

The grout

flow

length

of each

stage and grouting

followed

generally

concentrates

 

along

layers

or

pockets

 

by redrilling.

 

of coarser

and

relatively

pervious

soils.

Hence

cl

Grouting

( see Fig.

Through

3 )

Tubes

 

with

Sleeves

it

is

necessary

to

treat

short

 

lengths

of grout

 

holes

at

a time

and

 

repeat

injections

to

ensure

   

that

the least

pervious

and

fine grained

soils are

 

In this system

of

grouting,

 

a

pipe,

with

treated

thoroughly.

   

rubber

sleeves

fitted

at 30 cm intervals,

is

 

installed

in

the

borehole

 

by

filling

the

The method of grouting

selected

 

should,

there-

 

annular

space around

the tube

by

a

sheath

fore, satisfy the following requirements:

 

of clay cement

grout.

Grouting

is done

 

a)

Soils

treated

of different

individually;

characteristics

should

be

the

by seating

sleeves

a set

of double

which

open

packers

under

opposite

pressure.

   

The sheath

grout

is cracked

 

under

pressure

 

b)

It

should

be

possible

to

treat

short

 

every time injections are made.

 
 

sections

of the bore-holes

 

in

any

desired

 

sequence

and

repeat

the

injection,

if

5.3

Choice of the Method

of Injection

 

required;

and

 

5.3.1

Possibilities

and Limitations

 

of the Methods

 

c)

Leakage

along

 

the

boreholes

 

shall

be

 

prevented.

 

5.3.1.1

Rising

tube method

 

5.2 Description of Grouting

Methods

 

In this method,

there

is always

 

a

possibility

of

plastering

 

of

the

sides

of

the

hole

by grout.

The

following

methods

are

generally

 

followed

Leakage

may

occur

along

the

grout

pipe

as

for

grouting

soils:

   

some

avoided

disturbance

when the

around

grouting

the

tube

tube

is

cannot

pulled

be

up.

 

a)

Rising

Tube

( see Fig.

1 )

Hence

it

is

difficult

to

treat

the

soil

layers

 

In

this

method,

grouting

is done

through

individually.

 

the

casing

which

is driven

 

to

the

bottom

5.3.1.2

Descending

stage

method

 

of

the

hole.

The

tube

is

withdrawn

a

   

short

distance

 

and

grout

is

injected

In

this

method,

short

passes

 

can

be

treated

through

the open

end into

the

cavity

left

individually

and

there

is

no

risk

of

leakage

 

I

PHASE

3

 

Fro.

1

PHASE GROUTING BY ASCENDING STAGES RISING TUBE METHOD

1

PHASE

2

 

3

 

PHASE

1

 

FIG.

2

RUBBER

XEE

YE-k

 

GROUT

SHEATH

OF

CL

AND

CEMEN

 

3A

DETAILS

 

WITH

SLEEVES

 

FIG.

3

GROUTING

OF GROUTING

PHASE

2

GROUTING

BY DESCENDING STAGES

ZONE

OF

INJECTION

 

GROUT%@

PIPE

RUBBER

SLEEVE

 

GROUTING

PIPE

 

DUBLE

PACKER

HOLES

IN

OUT

DOUBLE PACKER

 

OUTER

PIPE

 

SERIES

OF HOLES

 

TO PASS

GROUT

BY TUBE

38

ENLARGED

DETAIL

0F:GROUTING

 

TUBE WITH

SLEEVES

THROUGH TUBES WITH SLEEVES

4

 

IS

4999

: 1991

along

the

hole into

ungrouted

zon:s.

Bat

the

structure

(for

example

criteria

me~ltioned

 

in 3.7

).

time-lost

in

redrilling

Results

in

low

output

of

Th:se considerations

enable

only

 

a

preliminary

drilling equipment.

redrill

if injections

It

hnve

necessary to be repeated.

is

also

to

selection

to

be m3de

of the

should

be verified

by

trial

grout

material

which

grouting

in

situ and

5.3.1.3

Grouting

through

tubes with sleevea

sufficient

number

of pre

and

post-grouting

tests

during

various

stages of execution.

 

With

this method

it is possible

desired sequence;

but

required

for

indurated

high

soils.

pressure

required

to crack

the uncertainty

regarding

the

the

to

grout

in

pressures

Because

may

of

sheath

grout

resistance

to

any

be

the

and

flow

6.4

For continuous

flow

cspillari:s,

the dismster

without

blocking

of ths solid particles

the

in

grout

mix mxst

not

of

&O

size

of

be more

the

soil.

than

ab~out 1llOth

Criteria

such

as

in the irregular

passage

through

th:

sleeves

and

~15 DQ,

<

z~is 1

also

in

use.

 

However,

 

these

cracks

in

the

sheath

 

grout,

it

is

difficult

to

   

interpret

the pressure

intake

data.

 

criteria

should

be used

as a

guide

 

only,

espe-

 

cially

when the grain

size distribution

is irregular

5.3.2

Generally

in

homogeneous

strata,

open

or

gaps

are

present

in

the

grading.

The

sedi-

gravels

or boulders,

repested

grouting

may

not

mzntation

test often

fails to indicate

the

siz?

of

be

necessary;

hence

 

rising

tube

method

of

particle

in

a grout

susp-nsion

 

as

the

degree

of

grouting

may be useful

in such

cases.

In

hetero-

disp:rsion

or

agglomeration

depends

on

the

geneous

strata

where

each stratum

or

layer

has

chemical composition

of thz

grout.

 

to

b:

treated

individually,

the

descending

stage

   

method

or

the

method

 

of

groutmg

tubes

with

6.5 Limits

of the

grain

size

distribution

 

curves

sleeves

is

generally

preferred.

Guidance

on

of

soils

which

may

be

 

penetrated

 

by

various

drilling

through

gravels,

boulder,

and

heavy

types

of

grouts

may

be

judged

 

from

 

Fig.

4.

silt are

given

in Annex

 

A.

There

is some

divergence

in

the

views

of various

 

authors

because

of

the

differences

 

in

the

6 CHOKE

OF GROUTING

MATERIALS

 

characteristics

 

of grout

materials

 

and

the

macro-

AND MiXTURES

 

structure

 

of

the

soil

treated

 

as

well as

the

       

efficacy

of

the

field

techniques

used.

 

%‘hen

the

6.1

Grouting

treating

following

material

and mixtures

pervious

soils

should

basic requirements:

selected

satisfy

for

the

grading

essential

grouts

curves

are

irregular,

for

verifying

intended

to

be

the

used.

laboratory

penetrability

 

tests

of

are

the

 

a) Particle

size

( in

suspension

) should

be

6.5.1

The

criteria

 

in

Table

 

1

 

be

used

 

small

enough,

so

that

penetrate

the soil easily.

the

grout

The viscosity

the grout

mix should

be sufficiently

low

can

of

so

as

a guide

fissures.

for

given

grouting

of fine

may

grained

soils

and

that

the

mix

canStravel

sufficient

distance

           

in

the

soil

practicable

to achieve

an economical

spacing

of holes.

and

Table

1

Criteria

Soils

for

and

Grouting

Fissures

Fine

Grained

 

b)

After

penetration

into the

soil,

the

grout

Grout

Material

Finest

Size that

Permeability

 

Grouted

Can be Grouted

 
 

should

form

a deposit

which

will

not

be

mm

eroded

by the pressure

gradient

imposed

Cement

Fissures

0.10

K>l

cm/see

on

the

curtain

over

the

entire

serviceable

Loose

sand D,,=

0.5

life

of the

structure.

 

Dense sand

D1,=1.4

 

6.2

Economy

and

practicability

of

grouting

 

Soil

 

D1,=O-75

to

1

Clay

Soil

D1,=0.2

 

K>

10-l cm/set

depends

on

the

cost

of

availability

of

suitable

Silicates

Soil

D1,=0*1

lo-l>K>

10-s

materials

and

the cost

of

drilling

and

grouting

 

cm/see

to the required

depth.

The~selection

of

grout-

 

satisfactory results. Difficulty increases

 

ing

materials

should

therefore

be

considered

with decreasing grain

together

with the selection

of drilling

and

grout-

size. Sand-silt or

ing

methods.

Due

consideration

should

also

sand clay mixtures cannot be treated

be given

to

the

presence

of

hard

boulders

and

at all

indurated

strata

and wastage

and

overtravel

of

Chemical

Soil

 

Dl,=O’l

 

K>

lo-* cm/set

grout

along

preferential

paths

of

seepage.

   

Restrictions

on pressure

due to

risk

of

damage

 

NOTES

 

to

overlying

structures

may

sometimes

render

1

Groutability

 

of

a

uniform

 

granular

 

medium

grouting

infeasible

or

a

large

number

of

holes

depends

on

the

grain

size

distribution

and the

may

be

economical.

required

which

may

make

it

un-

resulting

criteria

ever.

permeability.

in terms

of both

Hence

these

Table

1

parameters.

sp:cifies

How-

wherever

there

are difficulties

in

samoline

as

6.3

difficult

to frame

 

narrated

under

3.2.2,

more

weightage

maybd

g&k;

It is, therefore

governing

selection

of

grout

general

materials

rules

and

 

to

in

grout

situ

permeability

matefial.

 

values

 

while

selecting

the

mixtures.

Preliminary

indications

of groutability

2

D,,=W5

mm means

100/bparticles

 

are

finer

than

may,

however,

be had

from

an

examination

of

0.5 mm size.

 

grain

size

distribution

 

data

and

by

using per-

 

3

Chemical

grouts

are

 

those

 

grouts

 

which

are

meability

criteria

based

on

past

experience

of

initially

in solution

form

and

which

gellify

after

a

soils

of similar

geological

origin,

age and macro-

 

predetermined

 

and

controllable

aellification

time.

5

Shearing

resistance,

 

size

of

grout

particles,

 

the

After completion

 

of grouting

of the

zone

below,

grain

size

distribution

of

the

soil

grouted

and

the ungrouted

 

surface

 

zone

may

be

excavated

 

the

chemical

stability

of

the components

of the

and backfilled

with impervious

material.

 

grout.

No

general

rules

have

yet

been establi-

       

shed;

however,

guidelines

-of

chemical

grouts

are

based

detailed

on

in

experience

Annex

B.

Hence

it

is

advisable

to

verify

the

stability

of

the

grout

by prolonged

tests on grouted

samples

subjected

to

comparable

by

comparison

successfully

used

with

the

in similar

seepage

gradients

and

strength

of

conditions.

grouts

7.4.2

Generally

it is advantageous

to

grouting

of

highly

pervious

zones,

start

if they

identified

in contact

during

exploration,

with residual

soil

for

or

the

example,

contact

of alluvium

and

rock.

The

strata

immediately

below

can be taken

up afterwards.

or

grouting

above

these

of

with

are

talus

zone

the

zones

   

CONTROL

 

OF

 

GROUTING

 

7.4.3

The

sequence

of

grouting

 

along

a

hole,

7

FIELD

OPERATIONS

that

is top

to bottom

or bottom

to

top,

depends

 

of

grouting.

In

the

descending

 

7.1

Field

control

of grouting

operations

involves

on the method stage method,

the sequence

has

to

be necessarily

the following:

 

top

downwards.

In

the

rising

tube

method,

it

of

the

 

of

grouting

 

of

has

to

be

necessarily

from

bottom

upwards.

 

a)

Choice

 

sequence

While

when

grouting

through

tubes

with

sleeves

 

holes

in

the

given

pattern

and

the seque-

any sequence

is possible

but it is more convenient

 

nce

of

hole;

injection

 

along

the

depth

of

each

to

grout

from

bottom

 

upwards.

 

The

initial

 

grouting

of more

pervious

zones

should

however

 

b)

The

sequence

 

in

which

various

grout

be completed

first as mentioned

in 7.4.2.

 

materials

have

to

be

injected;

 

7.4.4

When

high

pressures

are

used

which

are

 

c)

Choice

of

the

consistency

of

the

grout;

liable

to crack

the soil,

the

sequence

 

of grouting

 

and

from

bottom

 

upwards

is

desirable.

This

will

 

d)

Control

of the

pressure,

rate

of

injection

ensure

that

the cracks,

which are

always formed

 

( discharge

of

the

grout

pump

) and

the

above

the grouted

zorne

will be

filled

by

subse-

volume

of

the

grout

injected.

 

quent

grouting.

Such

a

sequence

is not

obliga-

7.2

While

   

soils,

are

if

highly

identified

tory

if

it

is

confirmed

 

~by observation

and

pervious

grouting

zones

or

pervious

large

voids

experience

that

the

cracks

are

too

fine

to

be

of

during

exploration,

 

such zones

should

be

filled

any consequence.

 

in

the

first

operation

preferably

with

coarser

7.4.5

While

grouting

pervious

soils,

it

is custo-

grouts.

 

Otherwise

it is difficult

to prevent

over-

mary

to

begin

with

coarser

and

more

viscous

travel

and wastage

of gr;out.

Grouting

of zones

grouts

and follow

up

in

further

stages

by injec-

having

relatively

finer

materials

is

fluid

taken

up

tions

of more

fluid and finer grouts.

 

In

this way

subsequently

by

employing

more

grouts.

it

can

be assured

that

the

finer

and

more

fluid

Under

such

circumstances

it may

also be

advan-

grouts,

which

generally

form

softer

gels,

do

not

tageous

travel

inner

to grout

outer

of

subsequent

zones

grout

first

to

confine

injection.

the

The

 

fill the larger

voids;

otherwise

there

is a risk

of

 

internal

erosion

of such

grouts

under

the action

rows can

then

be grouted

more

thoroughly

 

of

the

hydrostatic

 

pressure

operating

on

the

and

at

a higher

pressure.

 

Spacing

in the central

curtain.

   

row

may be reduced

if

possible.

If

such identi-

 

fication

 

of pervious

 

zones

is

not

possible,

then

7.4.6

During

 

the

same stage

of

grouting,

it

is

all

the

holes

may have

to be grouted

with

a finer

desirable

to thicken

the

grout

progressively

and

grout

first and

those

holes

which

indicate