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9

0
T F = T C +32
5
The lowest temperature that has
been extrapolated for the Celsius
Temperature qualitatively
scale is -273.150C, which has
describes the hotness & coldness been designated the zero
of objects. An object is
temperature (absolute zero) of
considered hot when its
the Kelvin scale, the absolute
temperature is higher than a
temperature scale of the metric
reference temperature; it is
system.
considered cold when its
temperature is lower than said
T K =T C +273.15
reference temperature.
Temperature is related to the
average kinetic energy of the
molecules comprising the
material of the object.

1000C
2120F

Kelvin scale temperature is not


expressed in degrees (i.e. 100K).

When 2 objects or system have


the same temperature, they
considered to be in Thermal
Two common temperature scales Equilibrium.
are the Celsius Scale (i.e. 300C)
& the Fahrenheit Scale (i.e. 50F).

00C
320F

When talking about temperature difference, where


the temperature unit is slightly different for
the Celsius & Fahrenheit scales.

T =T f T i =50 C150 C=10C0

It has been observed that most materials


expand when their temperatures increase.
And when their temperatures decrease,
these materials contract. This phenomenon
is called Thermal Expansion.
When looking at how the length of an
object changes due to changes in
temperature, we have Linear Expansion.

L= L0 T

L = change in length
L0 = original length
T = change in temperature
= coefficient of linear
expansion

COEFFICIENTS OF LINEAR EXPANSION


[K-1 or (C0)-1
Material
Aluminum
2.4 x 10-5
2.0 x 10-5
Brass
A= A 0 T
Copper
1.7 x 10-5
0.4-0.9 x 10-5
Glass
0.09 x 10-5
Invar (nickel-iron alloy)
= coefficient of area expansion Quartz (fused)
0.04 x 10-5
1.2 x 10-5
Steel

When looking at how the area (surface or


cross-section) of an object changes, we
have Area Expansion.

where

And for Volume Expansion,

V = V 0 T
where
= coefficient of volume
expansion
The 3 expansion coefficients are related to
each other as follows

=2
3
=3 =
2

Heat is energy associated with changes in


temperature.
Heat is energy in transition. Heat (Q)
flows from one object to another.

Even though no object possesses heat, we where


still say object A losses heat while
Q = heat gained or lost
object B gains heat when heat flows from
m = mass of the object
A to B.
c = specific heat of the material
comprising the object
Unit of heat:
T = change in temperature
1 joule = 1 J
1 calorie = 1 cal = 4.186 J
Qgain = +
(positive)
1 food calorie = 1 Cal = 1kcal
Q =(negative)
1 British thermal unit = 1 Btu = 252 cal loss
Heat flows from hot to cold. That is, heat
flows from the object with higher
temperature to the object with lower
temperature.
When an object gains heat, it's temperature
increases and vice-versa.

dQ=mcdT
Q=mc T

APPROXIMATE SPECIFIC HEATS


Material
c (J/kg-K)
Aluminum
910
Berylium
1970
Copper
390
Ethanol
2428
Ethylene glycol
2386
Ice (near 00C)
2100
Iron
470
Lead
130
Mercury
138
Silver
234
Water
4190

When an object at the right temperature


gains the right amount of heat, the object
changes in phase.
A solid object will melt when it gains heat
and it is at its melting point temperature.
While a liquid object will freeze when it
loses heat and it is at its freezing point
temperature.

T melting=T freezing
Q=mL f
where
Q = heat gained (+) or lost (-)
m = mass of the object
Lf = heat of fusion of the material

A liquid object will


vaporize when it gains
heat and it is as its
boiling point
temperature. While a
gaseous object will
condense when it loses
heat and it is at its
condensation point
Temperature.

T boiling=T condensation
Q=mLv
where
Lv = heat of vaporization of the
material
For water,
Tfreezing = 00C
Tboiling = 1000C
Lf = 334 x 103 J/kg
Lv = 2,256 x 103 J/kg

It must be noted that temperature change


and phase change do not happen at the
same time.
A solid substance can sometimes transition
directly to gaseous phase. This
phenomenon is referred to as sublimation.

What is lost by one part of the system is


gained by another part of the system.
Heat is a form of energy and as such is
subject to the Principle of Conservation of
Energy.

Q gain+Qloss =0
mc T + (mL)=0

Since heat energy may be converted into


other forms of energy and vice-versa,

mc T + (mL)+ E
+ W done=0

T H T C
dQ
H=
=kA
dt
L
where
H = heat transer rate or heat current
Heat is transferred via different
k = thermal conductivity of the
mechanisms: Conduction, Convection,
material comprising the object
and Radiation.
A = cross-section area of the object
L = length of the object
When heat flows within a body or between
TH = hot temperature
2 bodies in thermal contact, heat transfer
TC = cold temperature
via conduction is said to occur. This
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES
particularly true with solid objects.
Substance
k (W/m-K)
Heat transfer is measured in terms of Heat
Transfer Rate.

Aluminum
Brass
Copper
Lead
Steel
Concrete
Cork
Glass
Ice
Styrofoam
Air
Helium
Oxygen

205.000
109.000
385.000
34.700
50.200
0.800
0.040
0.800
1.600
0.010
0.024
0.140
0.023

When 2 materials are connected one after


another, the temperature at their connection
point adjusts such that the 2 will have the
same heat transfer rate.

H 1=H 2 =H
T H T
T T C
k1 A1
=k 2 A 2
L1
L2
And when 2 materials are arranged parallel
to each other, their heat transfer rates add
together.

H=H 1+H 2
T H1T C1
T H2T C2
H=k 1 A 1
+k 2 A 2
L1
L2

While conduction also occurs with fluids,


heat transfer via convection is more
dominant. Heat convection is heat transfer
via the physical motion of fluids.

0e1
Since surfaces are both emitting and
absorving energy in the form of
electromagnetic radiation,
Heat radiation is the transfer of heat via the
H net =H emit H absorb
motion of electromagnetic waves like
4
4
visible light, infrared, and ultraviolet
H net = A emit e T obj A absorb e T surrounding
radiation.
Every object emits energy in the form of
electromagnetic waves. Only at absolute
zero temperature will an object stop
emitting energy.

H= Ae T 4
where

A = area of the emitting surface


e = emissivity of the surface
= Stefan-Boltzmann constant
= 5.67 x 108 W/m2K4
T = temperature (in Kelvin) of the
emitting object

Example 1
The Humber Bridge in England has the
world's longest single span, 1410 m in
length. Calculate the change in length of
the steel deck of the span when the
temperature increases from 5.00C to
18.00C. steel = 1.2 x 105 K1

T =180 C(50 C )=23C0 =23K


L0 =1,410 m
5 1
steel=1.210 K
L= steel L0 T
5 1
=(1.210 K )(1,410 m)(23K)
=0.38916 m
L=0.389 m

Example 2
A copper cylinder is initially at 20.00C. At
what temperature will its volume be
0.150% larger that it is at 20.00C?
copper = 1.7 x 105 K1

T =T f 293.15 K
5 1
copper =1.710 K
copper =3 copper =5.1105 K 1
V
=0.0015 V =0.0015 V 0
V0
V = V 0 T
T =0.0015
0.0015
T f 293.15 K =

0.0015
T f=
+293.15 K
5 1
5.110 K
=322.5617647K
T f =322.562K

Example 3
A machinist bores a hole of diameter 1.350
cm in a steel plate at a temperature of 250C.
What is the cross-sectional area of the hole
when the temperature of the plate is
increased to 1750C? steel = 1.2 x 105 K1

T =1750 C250 C=150C0=150K


d 0=1.350 cm=0.0135 m
5 1
steel=1.210 K
steel=2 steel=2.4105 K 1
2
d0
2
A 0=
=0.000143138 m
4
A= steel A 0 T
5 1
2
=(2.410 K )(0.000143138 m )
(150K)
=0.000000515 m2
A= A 0+ A=0.000143653m 2
A=1.437104 m2

Example 4
Steel train rails are laid in 12-m-long
segments placed end-to-end. The rails are
laid on a winter day when their temperature
is 2.00C. How much space must be left
between adjacent rails if they are just to
touch on a summer day when their
temperature is 33.00C?
steel = 1.2 x 105 K1

L0 =12m
0
0
0
T =33 C(2 C)=35C =35K
5 1
steel =1.210 K
L01 L02
D=
+
= L
2
2
= steel L0 T
5 1
=(1.210 K )(12 m)(35K)
=0.00504 m
D=5.04103 m

Example 5
While running, a 70-kg student generates
thermal energy at a rate of 1200W. If this
heat could not be removed by perspiration
or other mechanisms to maintain a constant
body temperature of 370C, for what amount
of time could the student run before
irreversible body damage occurs? Protein
structures in the body are irreversibly
damaged if body temperature rises to 440C
or higher. The specific heat of a typical
human body is around 3480J/kgK.

Example 6
While painting the top of an antenna 225m
in height, a worker accidentally lets a 1.00L water bottle fall from his lunchbox. The
bottle lands in some bushes at level ground
and does not break. If a quantity of heat
equal to the magnitude of the change in
mechanical energy of the water goes into
the water, what is its increase in
temperature?

H2O=1,000 kg/ m3
3
3 3
V
=1.00
L=1,000
cm
=110
m
m=70 kg
m
P=1,200 W
H2O=
m= H2O V =1 kg
V
T =440 C370 C=7 C 0=7K
h=225 m c=4,190 J /kgK
c=3,480 J / kgK
U =Q mgh=mc T
Pt =Q Pt=mc T
2
(9.8
m/
s
)(225 m)
gh
mc T (70 kg)(3,480 J /kgK )(7K) T = =
t=
=
c
4,190 J / kgK
P
1,200 W
=0.526252983 K
=1,421 s
t =1,421.00 s

T =0.526 K

Example 7
An ice cube tray of negligible mass
contains 0.350kg of water at 18.00C. How
much heat, in Btu, must be removed to cool
the water to 0.00C and freeze it?

m=0.350kg
T =0.00 C18.00 C=18.0C0
=18.0K
c=4,190 J / kgK
Lf =334103 J /kg
Qremove =Qloss =(mc T mLf )
=(0.35)(4,190)(18)
+(0.35)(334103 )
=143,297 J =135.8265403 Btu
Qremove =135.827 Btu

Example 8
A copper pot with mass 0.500kg contains
0.170kg of water at 20.00C. A 0.250-kg
block of iron at 85.00C is dropped into the
pot. Find the final temperature, assuming
no heat loss to the surroundings.
ccopper = 390 J/kgK
ciron = 470 J/kgK

m1=0.500 kg
m2=0.170 kg
m3=0.250 kg
c 1=390 J / kgK
c 2=4,190 J /kgK c 3 =470 J /kgK
T 1 =T 2 =20.00 C=293.15K
0
T 3 =85.0 C=358.15 K
Q gain+Qloss=0
m1 c 1 (T T 1 )+m2 c 2 (T T 2 )
+m3 c 3 (T T 3 )=0
m1 c 1 T 1 +m2 c 2 T 2 +m3 c 3 T 3
T=
m1 c 1+m2 c 2 +m3 c 3
T =300.603 K

Example 9
A thirsty mechanic cools a 2.00-L bottle of
softdrink (mostly water) by pouring it into
a large aluminum mug with mass 0.257kg
and adding 0.120kg of ice initially at 0.00C.
If the softdrink and mug are initially at
20.00C, what is the final temperature of the
system?
caluminum = 910 J/kgK

V =2.00 L
=1,000 kg / m3
m1 =2 kg
m2=0.257 kg m3 =0.120 kg
0
T 1 =T 2 =20.0 C=293.15 K
0
T 3 =0.0 C=273.15 K
c 1 =4,190 J /kgK c 2=910 J / kgK
3
c 3=c 1
L3 =33410 J /kg
Q gain+Qloss=0
m3 L3+m3 c 3 (T T 3 )
+m1 c 1 (T T 1 )+m2 c 2 (T T 2 )=0

m1 c 1 T 1 +m2 c 2 T 2 +m3 c 3 T 3 m3 L3
T=
m1 c1+m2 c 2+m3 c 3
=287.6506236 K
T =287.651 K
Example 10
One end of an insulated metal rod is
maintained at 0.00C by an ice-water
mixture. The rod is 60.0cm long and has a
cross-sectional area of 1.25cm2. The heat
conducted by the rod melts 8.50g of ice in
10min. Find the thermal conductivity of
the metal.

T H =100 0 C=373.15 K
0
T C =0 C=273.15 K
Lf =334103 J /kg
L=60.0 cm=0.60 m
2
2
A=1.25 cm =0.000125 m
m=8.50 g=0.0085 kg
t =10 min=600 s

Q mLf
H= =
t
t
T H T C mLf
H=kA
=
L
t
mLf L
k=
At (T H T C )
3
(0.0085)(33410 )(0.6)
=
(0.000125)(600)(100)
=227.12 W / mK
k =227.12 W /mK

e=0.35
r=1.50 cm=0.015 m
A=4 r 2=0.002827433 m2
T =3,000 K
T S =290 K
4
4
H= Ae T Ae T S
=4,544.546804 W =heat loss rate
P input needed =4,544.547W
Example 12
If solar radiation energy incident per
second on the frozen surface of a lake is
600W/m2 and 70% of this energy is
absorbed by the ice, how much time will it
take for a 2.50-cm-thick layer of ice to
melt? The ice and the water beneath it are
at a temperature of 00C.

Example 11
The emissivity of tungsten is 0.35. A
tungsten sphere with radius 1.50cm is
suspended within a large evacuated
enclosure whose walls are at 290K. What
power input is required to maintain the
H
2
2
sphere at a temperature of 3,000K if heat
=(0.7)(600W /m )=420 W /m
conduction along the supports is neglected? A
2

H=(420 W /m ) A

L=2.5 cm=0.025 m
=1,000 kg / m3
m m
= =
V LA
m= LA
Lf =334103 J /kg
Q mL f LA Lf
H= =
=
t
t
t
LA Lf
2
=(420 W /m ) A
t
L Lf
t=
=19,880.95238 s
2
420 W /m
=331.349064 min
t =331.349 min