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PRESSURE SENSORS

By
Jean Raynell Bello
Khazel Bustillo

BASIC TERMS
Pressure force applied over a surface area
Fluid any substance that can flow
Pressure sensor devices designed to accurately detect the
magnitude of external applications.
Sensitivity measure of the change in output in response to a
change in input

Accuracy specifies the maximum error to be expected from a


device

PRESSURE SENSORS
They can alternatively be called
pressure transducers
pressure transmitters

pressure senders
pressure indicators

Piezometers
and manometers, among other names.

PRESSURE SENSORS
It is important that the pressure sensor used be
able
to give accurate and precise readings as needed for a
long period of time without need for maintenance
to endure the conditions of the system.

PRESSURE SENSORS
Several factors influence the suitability of a
particular pressure sensor for a given process:
the characteristics of the substances involved in the
process
the environmental conditions of the system
the pressure range of the process

the level of precision and sensitivity required in


measurements.

THEORY

Pressure

TYPES OF PRESSURE

Gage
Pressure

Total
Pressure
Atmospheric Reference
(Standard Atmospheric Pressure)

Reduced (or Vacuum)


Pressure
Barometric
Pressure

Absolute
Pressure

Absolute Reference

PRESSURE-MEASURING DEVICES
There are two types of measuring devices:
Mechanical Pressure Transducer and elements
Electrical Pressure Transducer and elements

MECHANICAL
Bourdon-tube
As pressure is applied
internally, the tube
straightens and returns
to its original form
when the pressure is
released
The tip moves with
internal pressure and is
converted with a
pointer onto a scale

MECHANICAL
Bourdon-tube
Advantages:

Inexpensive
Wide operating range
Fast response
Good sensitivity
Direct pressure measurement

Disadvantages:

For indication only


Hysteresis on cycling
Sensitive to temperature variation
Vulnerable to shock and vibration

MECHANICAL
Helix and Spiral tubes
The pressure causes
the tube to
straighten out
The degree of its
uncoiling is linked to
a pointer that
indicates the
pressure reading

MECHANICAL
Helix and Spiral tubes
Advantages:
Increased accuracy and
sensitivity
Advantage over the
Bourdon-tube as there
are no movement losses
due to links and levers

Disadvantages:
Very expensive

MECHANICAL
Spring and Bellows
Bellows made up of series
of folds which allow
expansion. One end is fixed
while the other moves in
response to the applied
pressure
Spring opposes the applied
pressure and a linkage
connects the end of the
bellows to a pointer for
indication
This device is used for
ON/OFF controls

MECHANICAL
Spring and Bellows
Advantages:
Simple construction
Easily maintained
Inexpensive

Disadvantages:
Sensitive to temperature
variation
Work hardening of bellows
Hysteresis
Poor over range protection

MECHANICAL

Diaphragm
Used as a means of
isolating the process fluids
or for high pressure
application
Provides pressure
measurement with
electrical transducers

MECHANICAL
Diaphragm
Advantages:
Simple construction
Easily maintained
Inexpensive

Disadvantages:
Sensitive to temperature
variation
Work hardening of bellows
Hysteresis
Poor over range protection

MECHANICAL
Manometer
Pressure measured
are applied to the
open ends of the
tube
Difference in height
will be read as the
pressure difference

MECHANICAL
Manometer
Advantages:
Simple operation and
construction
Inexpensive

Disadvantages:
Low pressure range
High pressure range
requires mercury
Readings are localized

MECHANICAL
Single and Double
Inverted Bell
It measures the
pressure difference in a
compartment on each
side of a bell-shaped
chamber

ELECTRICAL
Strain gauge
Uses semiconductor
chip to measure
pressure changes
Change in pressure
also causes a change in
resistance as the metal
is deformed

ELECTRICAL
Strain gauge
Advantages:

Wide range
Accuracy of 0.1%
Small in size
Stable with fast response
No moving parts

Disadvantages:
Temperature sensitive
Thermo-elastic strain causes
hysteresis

ELECTRICAL
Vibrating Wire
Consists of an electronic
oscillator which causes a
wire to vibrate at its
natural frequency under
tension
As the pressure changes
on the diaphragm, so
does the tension on the
wire which affects the
frequency on the wire
Frequency changes then
cause pressure changes

ELECTRICAL
Vibrating Wire
Advantages:

Good accuracy and repeatability


Stable
Low hysteresis
High resolution
Absolute, gage, or differential
measurement

Disadvantages:
Temperature sensitive
Affected by shock and vibration
Physically large

ELECTRICAL
Piezoelectric
Pressure sensing is
applied to crystals that
becomes elastically
deformed upon
application
When a crystal
deforms, it generates
an electric charge
signals

ELECTRICAL
Piezoelectric
Advantages:
Accuracy 0.0075%
Very high pressure
measurement
Small in size
Fast response
Self-generate signal

Disadvantages:
Dynamic sensing only
Temperature sensitive

ELECTRICAL
Capacitance
Pressure
measurement
involves sensing the
change in
capacitance that
results from the
diaphragm
movement

ELECTRICAL
Capacitance
Advantages:

Accuracy 0.01 to 0.2%


Wide range
Linearity
Fast response

Disadvantages:
Temperature sensitive
Vibration
Limited overpressure
capability
Costly

ELECTRICAL
Optical
Used to measure the
movement of the
diaphragm due to pressure
An opaque vane is
mounted to the diaphragm
and moves in front of an
infrared light beam
As the light is disturbed, the
received light on the
measuring diode indicates
the position of the
diaphragm

ELECTRICAL
Optical
Advantages:
Temperature corrected
Good repeatability
Negligible hysteresis

Disadvantages:
Expensive

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