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Dead Band: The range through which an input signal can be varied, upon reversal of direction,

without initiating an observable change in the output signal. Dead band is the name given to a
general phenomenon that can apply to any device.

Dead Time: The time interval (Td) in which no response of the system is detected following a
small (usually 0.25% - 5%) step input. It is measured from the time the step input is initiated to
the first detectable response of the system being tested.

Gain: An all-purpose term that can be used in many situations. In its most general sense, gain is
the ratio of the magnitude of the output change of a given system or device to the magnitude of
the input change that caused the output change. Gain has two components: static gain and
dynamic gain. Static gain is the gain relationship between the input and output and is an indicator
of the ease with which the input can initiate a change in the output when the system or device is
in a steady-state condition. Sensitivity is sometimes used to mean static gain. Dynamic gain is
the gain relationship between the input and output when the system is in a state of movement or
flux. Dynamic gain is a function of frequency or rate of change of the input.

Hysteresis*: The maximum difference in output value for any single input value during a
calibration cycle, excluding errors due to dead band.
Hysteresis: A retardation of an effect when the forces acting upon a body are changed (as if
from viscosity or internal friction).

Process Variability: A precise statistical measure of how tightly the process is being controlled
about the set point. Process variability is defined in percent as typically (2s/m), where m is the
set point or mean value of the measured process variable and s is the standard deviation of the
process variable.

Resolution: The minimum possible change in input required to produce a detectable change in
the output when no reversal of the input takes place. Resolution is typically expressed as a
percent of the input span.

Response Time: Usually measured by a parameter that includes both dead time and time
constant. (See T63, Dead Time, and Time Constant.) When applied to the valve, it includes the
entire valve assembly.
T63 (Tee-63): A measure of device response. It is measured by applying a small (usually 1-5%)
step input to the system. T63 is measured from the time the step input is initiated to the time
when the system output reaches 63% of the final steady-state value. It is the combined total of
the system Dead Time (Td) and the system Time Constant (t). (See Dead Time and Time

Process Gain: The ratio of the change in the controlled process variable to a corresponding
change in the output of the controller.

Time Constant: A time parameter that normally applies to a first-order element. It is the time
interval measured from the first detectable response of the system to a small (usually 0.25% -
5%) step input until the system output reaches 63% of its final steady-state value. (See T63.)
When applied to an open-loop process, the time constant is usually designated as _ (Tau). When
applied to a closed-loop system, the time constant is usually designated as 
Span*: The algebraic difference between the upper and lower range values (for example: Range
= 0 to 150_F; Span = 150_F; Range = 3 to 15 psig, Span = 12 psig).

Sensitivity*: The ratio of the change in output magnitude to the change of the input that causes it
after the steady-state has been reached.

Zero Error*: Error of a device operating under specified conditions of use when the input is at
the lower range value. It is usually expressed as percent of ideal span.

Repeatability or test-retest reliability is the variation in measurements taken by a single person

or instrument on the same item and under the same conditions. A measurement may be said to be
repeatable when this variation is smaller than some agreed limit.
Repeatability conditions include:
• the same measurement procedure
• the same observer
• the same measuring instrument, used under the same conditions
• the same location
• repetition over a short period of time.
Reproducibility is one of the main principles of the scientific method, and refers to the ability of
a test or experiment to be accurately reproduced, or replicated, by someone else working
the accuracy of a measurement system is the degree of closeness of measurements of a quantity
to its actual (true) value

The precision of a measurement system, also called reproducibility or repeatability, is the degree
to which repeated measurements under unchanged conditions show the same results.
A measurement system can be accurate but not precise, precise but not accurate, neither, or both.
For example, if an experiment contains a systematic error, then increasing the sample size
generally increases precision but does not improve accuracy. Eliminating the systematic error
improves accuracy but does not change precision.
A measurement system is called valid if it is both accurate and precise. Related terms are bias
(non-random or directed effects caused by a factor or factors unrelated by the independent
variable) and error (random variability), respectively.
The resolution of a sensor is the smallest change it can detect in the quantity that it is measuring.
Often in a digital display, the least significant digit will fluctuate, indicating that changes of that
magnitude are only just resolved. The resolution is related to the precision with which the
measurement is made. For example, a scanning tunneling probe (a fine tip near a surface collects
an electron tunnelling current) can resolve atoms and molecules.
If the sensor is not ideal, several types of deviations can be observed
• The sensitivity may in practice differ from the value specified. This is called a sensitivity
error, but the sensor is still linear.
• Since the range of the output signal is always limited, the output signal will eventually
reach a minimum or maximum when the measured property exceeds the limits. The full
scale range defines the maximum and minimum values of the measured property.
• If the output signal is not zero when the measured property is zero, the sensor has an
offset or bias. This is defined as the output of the sensor at zero input.
• If the sensitivity is not constant over the range of the sensor, this is called nonlinearity.
Usually this is defined by the amount the output differs from ideal behavior over the full
range of the sensor, often noted as a percentage of the full range.
• If the deviation is caused by a rapid change of the measured property over time, there is a
dynamic error. Often, this behaviour is described with a bode plot showing sensitivity
error and phase shift as function of the frequency of a periodic input signal.
• If the output signal slowly changes independent of the measured property, this is defined
as drift (telecommunication).
• Long term drift usually indicates a slow degradation of sensor properties over a long
period of time.
• Noise is a random deviation of the signal that varies in time.
• Hysteresis is an error caused by when the measured property reverses direction, but there
is some finite lag in time for the sensor to respond, creating a different offset error in one
direction than in the other.
• If the sensor has a digital output, the output is essentially an approximation of the
measured property. The approximation error is also called digitization error.
• If the signal is monitored digitally, limitation of the sampling frequency also can cause a
dynamic error.
• The sensor may to some extent be sensitive to properties other than the property being
measured. For example, most sensors are influenced by the temperature of their