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Estonian-Finnish Olympiad 2013 ii) (4 points) Let the corners be denoted

by A and B, and the tip of the prism (at

1. PRISM (8 points)
i) (4 points) The prism is acted on by three
~ l from the left-hand
forces: reaction force R
table, directed perpendicularly to the prisms
~ r from the right-hand
face; reaction force R
table, directed horizontally (with its point
of action to be determined yet); and gravitational force mg, directed vertically and applied at the triangles centre. (Considering a
planar triangular cross-section of the prism
is enough.)

On the verge of falling out, the force R
is applied at the lower corner of the triangle.
If a body in equilibrium is acted on by three
forces, then their lines of action must intersect at one point. This is because otherwise
the torque of one of those forces would not be
zero with respect to the intersection of the
lines of action of the two other forces.

its equilibrium position) by C . Let us consider a small rotation of the prism (assuming it remains in contact with the corners).
The trajectory of the tip is a circle ascribed
around the triangle ABC (it follows from the
property of the inscribed angles because the
6 ACB remains equal to 60 ). The radius of
that circle r = l / 3; its centre will be denoted
by O . Once the prism rotates by angle , so
that the new position of the tip will be D , the
central angle 6 COD = 2. Hence, the tip is
raised by r r cos(2) 2 r 2 . The height of
the centre of mass P of the prism is raised
because the tip is raised, and lowered because the vertical projection of the segment
CP is reduced p
by |CP |(1 cos ) |CP |2 /2.
Here, |CP | = a/ 3. So, the original position
is stable if pa 2 /2 < 2 pl 2 , hence l > 14 a.

As the distance between

the triangles
centre and its side is 63 a, the distance
~ l and R
~ r is
the points of action of R

6 a cos 30 = 4 a. Thus, d = 4 a cos 30 = 8 a.

P P0

6 a




2 O



f+ L
1 + /D
f 1+
1 /D
1 /D

f 1+

Lets consider that the camera is focused

to distance L and the image is formed exactly
on the sensors plane. The objects distance L
and its images distance a (corresponds to p0
on the figure) are related by the lens formula
L + a = f , thus


= f+ ,
L f
L(1 f /L)

where the approximation (1 + x)1 1 x (for

small x) was used. Images distance exceeds
the focal length by a = a f = f 2 /L.

Finally, f 2 / s = 2 f /D , or s = 12 D f / = L/2
2.75 m.

3. MISSION TO MARS (7 points)

i) (1 point) We can find the orbital period
of Mars from Keplers third law R a 3 /R g 3 =
T a 2 /T g 2 , giving t t 1.87 yr.
ii) (1.5 points) Again, we can use Keplers
third law to calculate half of the orbital

tt =

T g (R a + R g )3/2

(2R g )3/2

0.707 yr.

iii) (1.5 points) Background. v is important, because the sum of all v determines
i) (4 points) The light coming from an in- how much fuel is needed for a given mission.
finitely far away object will pass the focal The fuel needed is exponential of total v and
point F and form a cone which is cut by the is described by Tsiolkovsky rocket equation.
sensors plane. The diameter d of the cut on
Kinetic energy per unit mass of such a
the sensors plane can be found from similar
orbit where it intersects the Earths
triangles d /D = a/ f , thus d = D f /L. Taking
R g +Rs a + R g s . Using the orbital
into account the sharpness condition d ,
of Earth we can substitute
where = w/ N is the size of a single element angular speed
42 R 3g
of the sensor, we find that the limiting value GM s = T . The speed at the beginning of
of L is L = D f / = D f N /w 5.5 m.
the transfer orbit becomes
ii) (2 points) Well now find the shortest dis

tance s satisfying the sharpness condition.
v t0 = 2GM s

32.7 km/s
R g R g + Ra
Object at distance s will have an image at

distance b = f + f 2 / s and the light passing the

distance L is often called hyperfocal distance lens will converge behind the sensors plane . 0 The speed in Earths inertial frame is
in photography and it was calculated more forming a cone. The diameter d 2 of the cones v t0 = v t0 v g 2.94 km/h. To achive that, we
than one hundred years ago by Louis Derr cut with the sensors plane can be calculated first need to escape Earths gravity, so
(the figure is taken from his book Photo- from similar triangles: d 2 /D = ( b a)/ b. Ac!
u v0t 2 GM g
graphy for students of physics and chemistry, counting for sharpness condition d 2 = , we
v1 = 2
published in 1906).
can express b = a/(1 /D ), and substituting



the values of a and b gives


Using the surface gravity of Earth we can

substitute r g g = g g r g so v1 11.2 km/s.
iv) (1.5 points) We can calculate the speed
of the transfer orbit where it intersects the
orbit of Mars from Keplers second law v t1 =
v t0 /1.52 21.5 km/s. The speed of the spacecraft relative to Mars is v0t1 3.25 km/s. The
speed of the spacecraft once near Mars surface is
u v0t 2
vt m = 2
+ r a g a 5.98 km/s
Since the speed of low Mars orbit is v e a =
r a g a 3.55 km/s, we need to brake for
v2 2.43 km/s.

v) (1.5 points) The EarthSunMars angle

at the launch of the mission needs to
be = wa t t 0.77 for the spacecraft to
reach Mars. Likewise for the return trip
= w g t t 1.301. If we go to the corotating frame of referense with earth, we can
see that the minimal time between those two
angles is wa w g 1.96 yr. The minimal duration of the trip is therefore longer by t t , giving
2.67 yr.

4. MAGNETIC DIPOLES (7 points)

i) (3 points) There is no torque on the square
if = 0 or = , so one of them is stable
and the other unstable. If we start from
= 0 and turn the square to some , but
keep two sides of the square perpendicular
~ , Lorentz forces on these two sides give a
to B
torque = BIa a sin = Bm sin towards
decreasing . By symmetry, we get the same
result if we keep the other keep two sides
~ . It is posof the square perpendicular to B
sible to conclude that the torque depends
only on (at least near = 0), not on the
exact orientation of the square. Since torque
acts to restore = 0, we find that s = 0 and
u = . To find the work to get from s to

u , we can again keep two sides perpendicu~ - the answer cannot depend on the
lar to B
path, so we choose the simplest one. Integrating = Bm sin from = 0 to gives us
w = 2Bm.

ii) (4 points) Let us denote the number

of electrons (per unit volume) with magnetic moment projection +B as n + and the
ones with B as n . Their sum is always
the same, n + + n = n. Also, in thermal
equilibrium, their ratio is given by nn+ =

2 B
exp k BT , where k B is Boltzmanns conB
stant. Solving the equations, we can find
n + and n . The total magnetic moment per
~ ) is given by
unit volume (in the direction of B
M = B ( n + n ). After substituting,

2 B

1 exp k BT

= B n tanh
M = B N
2B B
kB T
1 + exp
kB T

Additional comments. We see B and M

~ is
always have the same sign, therefore M
parallel with B. This makes sense, as we
~ ) orientation
~ parallel to B
saw that = 0 ( m
had lowest energy. The graph of M vs B goes
to B n for very large B or to B n for very
~ ). At B = 0,
small B (all spins aligned with B
M = 0 as well, since both spin orientations
have the same energy. Around zero, the curve
is linear, as tanh x x for small x gives us


2B nB
kB T .


Lets first calculate the difference of tension
force T between two ends of a sliding string
arced over a cylinder by an angle . Furthermore, lets look at a short piece of the arc
that subtends an angle d . On one hand,
dT = dR is the friction force acting on the
piece, where dR is the reaction force. On the
other hand, dR T d , because both ends
of the piece are pulled by a force with a ra-

dial component of T d2 (where is measured stant acceleration a directed parallel to the

in radians). Therefore, we get a differen- surface. Lets express a from the equation
tial equation: dT = T d or d ln T = d , v2 = 2a x:
whence T = T0 e .
a = g sin /(1 + k).
As a solution to the problem, we can measThe times are now easy to calculate as t =
ure the change of the tension force for differv/a , giving

ent angles (for example, 2 , , 2 , 2, 2

etc. for several turns; however, keeping the
t = 1+k
strings vertical offers better precision) and
g sin
plot ln T with respect to . The slope of the
Replacing k s = 25 for sphere and k c = 12 for
graph is the to be measured.
Extra solution (not as exact). Those who cylinder, we find that the sphere is faster by
cannot derive the necessary formula can still a relativesfactor
do the experiment by doing the same meas1 + kc
1 =
1 0.035.
urements and noting from the plot that the
1 + ks
relationship between and T looks exponential. Thus, we can make an ansatz that ii) (2.5 points) As found in previous subpart,
T = T0 X : as = 0 must correspond to the accelerations parallel component to the
T = T0 , we cannot reasonably write the slope a is smaller than the contribution by
anywhere else without over-complicating the gravity g sin . The difference is contributed
formula. Now, we can re-measure the given by the friction force F f = mg sin ma . Slidpencil (it may be reasonably enough approx- ing starts, if the necessary friction reaches
imated with a cylinder here; more exact ap- the maximal value Fmax = N = mg cos .
proaches exist) and conclude that X 2.7. Equating the two expressions gives
From there on, the calculation is the same.
mg sin mg sin /(1 + k) = mg cos ,
tan =
i) (2 points) Since no energy is lost due to
friction on sliding, the change in potential For the cylinder the limiting angle is =
energy E p = mgH is transformed to kinetic arctan(3).
energy consisting of both translational and
rotational motion. Taking into account the iii) (2.5 points) When the maximal friction
force is reached, the motion goes into rolling
rolling condition v = r , we have
and sliding mode, where the total force com1
ponent along the surface is given by the difE p = E k = mv2 + I 2
ference of gravity and friction:
= mv2 + kmv2 = (1 + k) mv2 ,
F = mg sin Fmax = mg sin mg cos .
where general expression I = kmr 2 for mo- We note that the acceleration in this mode
ment of inertia is used. Therefore, v2 = does not depend on the moment of inertia any
2 gH /(1 + k).
On the other hand, the bodies travel disCalculating the limiting angle of slipping
tance x = H / sin along the slope with a con- mode also for the sphere sph = arctan( 72 ) >

0 shows that for all angles larger than

m = sph both bodies are in the slipping
mode and thus have equal accelerations and
arrival times.

7. BURNING WITH A LENS (7 points) The

solar energy flux which is focused by the lens
to the image of the Sun can be calculated
as P = 4 d 2 I ; the image of the Sun radiates
according to the Stefan-Boltzmann law with
the total power P = 4 ( f )2 T 4 . From the
heat balance we obtain 4 d 2 I = 4 ( f )2 T 4 ,
u d
4500 K.
Due to the second law of thermodynamics,
it is impossible to direct heat energy from a
lower temperature body to a higher temperature body. Hence, the image temperature
cannot exceed the temperature of the Sun.
Now we can use the known temperature of
Sun T0 = 6000 K, but it is better to use the
Stefan-Boltzmann law for solar radiation flux
density: near the Suns surface, I 0 = T04 ,
with the total flux of P t = 4R 2s I 0 . Near
the Earth, the total flux P t = 4L2 I ; here,
R s is the Suns radius, and L the orbital
radius of the Earth. From here we obtain
I = I 0 R 2s /L2 = T04 R 2s /L2 ; using the previous
d Rs
T = T0
f L

the frequency = p 1 and we can immedi- summarize the equations as follows:

ately write q( t) = q 0 cos t, while I ( t) = q ( t) =
if q < 0
L q + = Vd
q 0 sin t.
Note that
L q + = Vd
if q > 0
q2 + 2 I 2 = q20 (sin2 t + cos2 t) = q20 ,
Let us introduce the new variables q 1,2

such that q 1 = q CVd and q 2 = q + CVd .

and therefore the phase diagram of the sys- Then we can rewrite the two equations above
tem is an ellipse centred at the origin, with in a more familiar form:
semi-axes q 0 and q 0 . Alternatively, this req1
lation comes directly from the conservation
L q 1 +
if q < 0
of energy:
L q 2 +
if q > 0
LI 2 q2
= E0 =
Thus the introduction of the diode only serves
to shift the equilibrium points for the othBy looking at q and I a quarter-period erwise simple harmonic orbits. For q > 0,
later from t = 0, say, its not hard to see that the equilibrium point is q 2 = 0 or q = CVd ,
the system must evolve in a clockwise sense while for q < 0 it is q = CVd . So the orbit will
on the phase diagram. Note that in this in- consist of half-ellipses in the upper and the
stance, only q = 0 is an equilibrium point: lower parts of the I q diagram, centred at
for all non-zero q there will be never-ending q = CVd for the upper half and at q = CVd
for the lower half. As the evolution is continuoscillations in the circuit.
ous, these half-ellipses will join up at I = 0.

Note that we have the right to talk about

half- and full periods because the oscillations still happen at the immutable frequency
= p 1 . Therefore the time between the
two maxima is just a full period of oscillation,
T = 2 .

Once q( t) has a zero derivative inside the

region bounded by CVd , it will remain at
that particular value forever. For a large initial
q 0 , we expect there to be approximately
| q0 |
total oscillations.
q = 4CV

GLASS CYLINDER (7 points) The axis

of the half-cylinder is where the stripe and
its image coincide (form a straight line). The
front edge of the half-cylinder is at the 28th
line, counting from the axis, hence the radius
of the cylinder R 28. Let us consider the
refracting ray s which is very close to a total
internal reflection. One can see the images
of 20 lines (ca 20.2, to be more precise), when
counting from the central line upwards; the
upper edge of the half-cylinder coincides with



which means that d 2 f .

8. ZENER DIODE (7 points)

i) (1 point) Kirchoffs 2nd law gives L I + ii) (2 points) Now the sign of the voltage on
q/C = 0 or q + LC
q = 0. This is the equa- the diode depends on the direction of the cur- iii) (2 points) We can see on the diagram
tion of a simple harmonic oscillator with rent, giving either of L q + C Vd = 0. We can that there is a dead zone between CVd

iv) (2 points) Lets use the phase diagram

to figure this out. Suppose the capacitor
initially has the charge q 0 CVd . Then
the charge will first swing to the other way
of CVd and will become q T /2 = CVd ( q 0
CVd ) = 2CVd q 0 . Then it will perform the
other half-oscillation around CVd and the
charge at the end of that is q T = CVd +
(CVd (2CVd q 0 )) = q 0 4CVd , and therefore q = 4CVd .

More exactly, the distance from the dead

zone is initially | q 0 | CVd and decreases during each half-oscillation by 2CVd .jThe total
| q 0 |CVd
number of half-oscillations is N =

and the total time t = N T2 = N

= N LC .

Let us note that L = 2R s , hence

T = T0
T0 ,

(for I = 0). If a trajectory reaches any of

the points in that segment, it will stay there
forever. The extent of that region is 2CVd .

the 42nd line at the background.

the perpendicular of the paper surface. The Measure the temperature at the end, after

So, the ray s arrives at the camera at incidence angle of the ray s is + 45.9 , waiting a bit or stirring the calorimeter. We
want to get maximum temperature difference
the angle = arcsin(28/42) 41.8 with re- hence n = 1/ sin( + ) 1.39.
spect to the plane of the paper. The pro- 10. RESISTIVE HEATING (8 points) After for precise measurement. Since P = R I ,
jection of the refraction point to the paper noting the temperature of the calorimeter,
t( I n /2 + I n+1 /2)2 ,
surface lies at the distance a = 28 sin = connect the batteries, resistor (in the calorR
28 /42 18.7 lines from the axis. There- imeter) and ammeter in series. Choose a
( c a m a + c w m w ) T
fore, before refraction, ray s forms an angle convenient time interval t and note the amR= P

n t( I n /2 + I n+1 /2)
= arcsin[(20.2 18.7)/(28 cos )] 4.1 with meter reading until batteries are depleted.

The resistance used was R = 0.47 5%.

In the described circuit the batteries were
depleted in 10 to 15 minutes and the temperature of the calorimeter rose by 7 to 10