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Solutions

1. PRISM (8 points)

i) (4 points) The prism is acted on by three

~ l from the left-hand

forces: reaction force R

table, directed perpendicularly to the prisms

~ r from the right-hand

face; reaction force R

table, directed horizontally (with its point

of action to be determined yet); and gravitational force mg, directed vertically and applied at the triangles centre. (Considering a

planar triangular cross-section of the prism

is enough.)

~r

On the verge of falling out, the force R

is applied at the lower corner of the triangle.

If a body in equilibrium is acted on by three

forces, then their lines of action must intersect at one point. This is because otherwise

the torque of one of those forces would not be

zero with respect to the intersection of the

lines of action of the two other forces.

its equilibrium position) by C . Let us consider a small rotation of the prism (assuming it remains in contact with the corners).

The trajectory of the tip is a circle ascribed

around the triangle ABC (it follows from the

property of the inscribed angles because the

6 ACB remains equal to 60 ). The radius of

p

that circle r = l / 3; its centre will be denoted

by O . Once the prism rotates by angle , so

that the new position of the tip will be D , the

central angle 6 COD = 2. Hence, the tip is

raised by r r cos(2) 2 r 2 . The height of

the centre of mass P of the prism is raised

because the tip is raised, and lowered because the vertical projection of the segment

CP is reduced p

by |CP |(1 cos ) |CP |2 /2.

Here, |CP | = a/ 3. So, the original position

is stable if pa 2 /2 < 2 pl 2 , hence l > 14 a.

3

the triangles

p

centre and its side is 63 a, the distance

~ l and R

~ r is

between

the points of action of R

p

p

3

3

1

1

P P0

A

p

3

6 a

m~

g

~l

R

~r

R

d

2 O

DC

f2

f+ L

1 + /D

2

f2

=

=f

f 1+

f+

s

1 /D

1 /D

D

2

f 1+

.

D

to distance L and the image is formed exactly

on the sensors plane. The objects distance L

and its images distance a (corresponds to p0

on the figure) are related by the lens formula

1

1

1

L + a = f , thus

Lf

Lf

f

f2

Lf

=

1+

= f+ ,

a=

L f

L(1 f /L)

L

L

L

small x) was used. Images distance exceeds

the focal length by a = a f = f 2 /L.

Finally, f 2 / s = 2 f /D , or s = 12 D f / = L/2

2.75 m.

i) (1 point) We can find the orbital period

of Mars from Keplers third law R a 3 /R g 3 =

T a 2 /T g 2 , giving t t 1.87 yr.

ii) (1.5 points) Again, we can use Keplers

third law to calculate half of the orbital

period.

tt =

T g (R a + R g )3/2

2

(2R g )3/2

0.707 yr.

iii) (1.5 points) Background. v is important, because the sum of all v determines

i) (4 points) The light coming from an in- how much fuel is needed for a given mission.

finitely far away object will pass the focal The fuel needed is exponential of total v and

point F and form a cone which is cut by the is described by Tsiolkovsky rocket equation.

sensors plane. The diameter d of the cut on

Kinetic energy per unit mass of such a

the sensors plane can be found from similar

transfer

orbit where it intersects the Earths

triangles d /D = a/ f , thus d = D f /L. Taking

GM

GM

orbit

is

R g +Rs a + R g s . Using the orbital

into account the sharpness condition d ,

of Earth we can substitute

where = w/ N is the size of a single element angular speed

42 R 3g

of the sensor, we find that the limiting value GM s = T . The speed at the beginning of

g

of L is L = D f / = D f N /w 5.5 m.

the transfer orbit becomes

s

ii) (2 points) Well now find the shortest dis

1

1

tance s satisfying the sharpness condition.

v t0 = 2GM s

32.7 km/s

R g R g + Ra

Object at distance s will have an image at

distance L is often called hyperfocal distance lens will converge behind the sensors plane . 0 The speed in Earths inertial frame is

in photography and it was calculated more forming a cone. The diameter d 2 of the cones v t0 = v t0 v g 2.94 km/h. To achive that, we

than one hundred years ago by Louis Derr cut with the sensors plane can be calculated first need to escape Earths gravity, so

v

(the figure is taken from his book Photo- from similar triangles: d 2 /D = ( b a)/ b. Ac!

u

u v0t 2 GM g

graphy for students of physics and chemistry, counting for sharpness condition d 2 = , we

0

t

v1 = 2

+

.

published in 1906).

2

rg

can express b = a/(1 /D ), and substituting

2.

1

4a

GM

substitute r g g = g g r g so v1 11.2 km/s.

iv) (1.5 points) We can calculate the speed

of the transfer orbit where it intersects the

orbit of Mars from Keplers second law v t1 =

v t0 /1.52 21.5 km/s. The speed of the spacecraft relative to Mars is v0t1 3.25 km/s. The

speed of the spacecraft once near Mars surface is

v

!

u

u v0t 2

1

t

vt m = 2

+ r a g a 5.98 km/s

2

Since the speed of low Mars orbit is v e a =

p

r a g a 3.55 km/s, we need to brake for

v2 2.43 km/s.

at the launch of the mission needs to

be = wa t t 0.77 for the spacecraft to

reach Mars. Likewise for the return trip

= w g t t 1.301. If we go to the corotating frame of referense with earth, we can

see that the minimal time between those two

2+

angles is wa w g 1.96 yr. The minimal duration of the trip is therefore longer by t t , giving

2.67 yr.

i) (3 points) There is no torque on the square

if = 0 or = , so one of them is stable

and the other unstable. If we start from

= 0 and turn the square to some , but

keep two sides of the square perpendicular

~ , Lorentz forces on these two sides give a

to B

torque = BIa a sin = Bm sin towards

decreasing . By symmetry, we get the same

result if we keep the other keep two sides

~ . It is posof the square perpendicular to B

sible to conclude that the torque depends

only on (at least near = 0), not on the

exact orientation of the square. Since torque

acts to restore = 0, we find that s = 0 and

u = . To find the work to get from s to

u , we can again keep two sides perpendicu~ - the answer cannot depend on the

lar to B

path, so we choose the simplest one. Integrating = Bm sin from = 0 to gives us

w = 2Bm.

of electrons (per unit volume) with magnetic moment projection +B as n + and the

ones with B as n . Their sum is always

the same, n + + n = n. Also, in thermal

equilibrium, their ratio is given by nn+ =

2 B

exp k BT , where k B is Boltzmanns conB

stant. Solving the equations, we can find

n + and n . The total magnetic moment per

~ ) is given by

unit volume (in the direction of B

M = B ( n + n ). After substituting,

2 B

1 exp k BT

B B

B

= B n tanh

M = B N

.

2B B

kB T

1 + exp

kB T

~ is

always have the same sign, therefore M

~

parallel with B. This makes sense, as we

~ ) orientation

~ parallel to B

saw that = 0 ( m

had lowest energy. The graph of M vs B goes

to B n for very large B or to B n for very

~ ). At B = 0,

small B (all spins aligned with B

M = 0 as well, since both spin orientations

have the same energy. Around zero, the curve

is linear, as tanh x x for small x gives us

5.

2B nB

kB T .

Lets first calculate the difference of tension

force T between two ends of a sliding string

arced over a cylinder by an angle . Furthermore, lets look at a short piece of the arc

that subtends an angle d . On one hand,

dT = dR is the friction force acting on the

piece, where dR is the reaction force. On the

other hand, dR T d , because both ends

of the piece are pulled by a force with a ra-

in radians). Therefore, we get a differen- surface. Lets express a from the equation

tial equation: dT = T d or d ln T = d , v2 = 2a x:

whence T = T0 e .

a = g sin /(1 + k).

As a solution to the problem, we can measThe times are now easy to calculate as t =

ure the change of the tension force for differv/a , giving

3

5

ent angles (for example, 2 , , 2 , 2, 2

1

etc. for several turns; however, keeping the

p

2

2H

t = 1+k

.

strings vertical offers better precision) and

2

g sin

plot ln T with respect to . The slope of the

Replacing k s = 25 for sphere and k c = 12 for

graph is the to be measured.

Extra solution (not as exact). Those who cylinder, we find that the sphere is faster by

cannot derive the necessary formula can still a relativesfactor

r

do the experiment by doing the same meas1 + kc

15

1 =

1 0.035.

=

urements and noting from the plot that the

1 + ks

14

relationship between and T looks exponential. Thus, we can make an ansatz that ii) (2.5 points) As found in previous subpart,

T = T0 X : as = 0 must correspond to the accelerations parallel component to the

T = T0 , we cannot reasonably write the slope a is smaller than the contribution by

anywhere else without over-complicating the gravity g sin . The difference is contributed

formula. Now, we can re-measure the given by the friction force F f = mg sin ma . Slidpencil (it may be reasonably enough approx- ing starts, if the necessary friction reaches

imated with a cylinder here; more exact ap- the maximal value Fmax = N = mg cos .

proaches exist) and conclude that X 2.7. Equating the two expressions gives

From there on, the calculation is the same.

mg sin mg sin /(1 + k) = mg cos ,

6. SPHERE AND CYLINDER (7 points)

1+k

tan =

.

i) (2 points) Since no energy is lost due to

k

friction on sliding, the change in potential For the cylinder the limiting angle is =

0

energy E p = mgH is transformed to kinetic arctan(3).

energy consisting of both translational and

rotational motion. Taking into account the iii) (2.5 points) When the maximal friction

force is reached, the motion goes into rolling

rolling condition v = r , we have

and sliding mode, where the total force com1

1

ponent along the surface is given by the difE p = E k = mv2 + I 2

2

2

ference of gravity and friction:

1

1

1

= mv2 + kmv2 = (1 + k) mv2 ,

F = mg sin Fmax = mg sin mg cos .

2

2

2

where general expression I = kmr 2 for mo- We note that the acceleration in this mode

ment of inertia is used. Therefore, v2 = does not depend on the moment of inertia any

2 gH /(1 + k).

more.

On the other hand, the bodies travel disCalculating the limiting angle of slipping

tance x = H / sin along the slope with a con- mode also for the sphere sph = arctan( 72 ) >

m = sph both bodies are in the slipping

mode and thus have equal accelerations and

arrival times.

solar energy flux which is focused by the lens

to the image of the Sun can be calculated

as P = 4 d 2 I ; the image of the Sun radiates

according to the Stefan-Boltzmann law with

the total power P = 4 ( f )2 T 4 . From the

heat balance we obtain 4 d 2 I = 4 ( f )2 T 4 ,

hence

v

s

u

u d

I

t

T=

4500 K.

f

Due to the second law of thermodynamics,

it is impossible to direct heat energy from a

lower temperature body to a higher temperature body. Hence, the image temperature

cannot exceed the temperature of the Sun.

Now we can use the known temperature of

Sun T0 = 6000 K, but it is better to use the

Stefan-Boltzmann law for solar radiation flux

density: near the Suns surface, I 0 = T04 ,

with the total flux of P t = 4R 2s I 0 . Near

the Earth, the total flux P t = 4L2 I ; here,

R s is the Suns radius, and L the orbital

radius of the Earth. From here we obtain

I = I 0 R 2s /L2 = T04 R 2s /L2 ; using the previous

result,

s

d Rs

T = T0

.

f L

LC

ately write q( t) = q 0 cos t, while I ( t) = q ( t) =

q

if q < 0

L q + = Vd

q 0 sin t.

C

q

Note that

L q + = Vd

if q > 0

C

1

q2 + 2 I 2 = q20 (sin2 t + cos2 t) = q20 ,

Let us introduce the new variables q 1,2

and therefore the phase diagram of the sys- Then we can rewrite the two equations above

tem is an ellipse centred at the origin, with in a more familiar form:

semi-axes q 0 and q 0 . Alternatively, this req1

lation comes directly from the conservation

L q 1 +

=0

if q < 0

C

of energy:

q2

L q 2 +

=0

if q > 0

C

q20

LI 2 q2

+

= E0 =

.

Thus the introduction of the diode only serves

2

2C

2C

to shift the equilibrium points for the othBy looking at q and I a quarter-period erwise simple harmonic orbits. For q > 0,

later from t = 0, say, its not hard to see that the equilibrium point is q 2 = 0 or q = CVd ,

the system must evolve in a clockwise sense while for q < 0 it is q = CVd . So the orbit will

on the phase diagram. Note that in this in- consist of half-ellipses in the upper and the

stance, only q = 0 is an equilibrium point: lower parts of the I q diagram, centred at

for all non-zero q there will be never-ending q = CVd for the upper half and at q = CVd

for the lower half. As the evolution is continuoscillations in the circuit.

ous, these half-ellipses will join up at I = 0.

I

I

half- and full periods because the oscillations still happen at the immutable frequency

= p 1 . Therefore the time between the

LC

two maxima is just a full period of oscillation,

T = 2 .

region bounded by CVd , it will remain at

that particular value forever. For a large initial

q 0 , we expect there to be approximately

q0

| q0 |

total oscillations.

q = 4CV

d

of the half-cylinder is where the stripe and

its image coincide (form a straight line). The

front edge of the half-cylinder is at the 28th

line, counting from the axis, hence the radius

of the cylinder R 28. Let us consider the

refracting ray s which is very close to a total

internal reflection. One can see the images

of 20 lines (ca 20.2, to be more precise), when

counting from the central line upwards; the

upper edge of the half-cylinder coincides with

9.

CVd

CVd

i) (1 point) Kirchoffs 2nd law gives L I + ii) (2 points) Now the sign of the voltage on

1

q/C = 0 or q + LC

q = 0. This is the equa- the diode depends on the direction of the cur- iii) (2 points) We can see on the diagram

q

tion of a simple harmonic oscillator with rent, giving either of L q + C Vd = 0. We can that there is a dead zone between CVd

3

to figure this out. Suppose the capacitor

initially has the charge q 0 CVd . Then

the charge will first swing to the other way

of CVd and will become q T /2 = CVd ( q 0

CVd ) = 2CVd q 0 . Then it will perform the

other half-oscillation around CVd and the

charge at the end of that is q T = CVd +

(CVd (2CVd q 0 )) = q 0 4CVd , and therefore q = 4CVd .

zone is initially | q 0 | CVd and decreases during each half-oscillation by 2CVd .jThe total

k

| q 0 |CVd

number of half-oscillations is N =

2CVd

p

= N LC .

s

d

T = T0

T0 ,

2f

the points in that segment, it will stay there

forever. The extent of that region is 2CVd .

the perpendicular of the paper surface. The Measure the temperature at the end, after

So, the ray s arrives at the camera at incidence angle of the ray s is + 45.9 , waiting a bit or stirring the calorimeter. We

want to get maximum temperature difference

the angle = arcsin(28/42) 41.8 with re- hence n = 1/ sin( + ) 1.39.

2

spect to the plane of the paper. The pro- 10. RESISTIVE HEATING (8 points) After for precise measurement. Since P = R I ,

jection of the refraction point to the paper noting the temperature of the calorimeter,

Q X

t( I n /2 + I n+1 /2)2 ,

surface lies at the distance a = 28 sin = connect the batteries, resistor (in the calorR

2

n

28 /42 18.7 lines from the axis. There- imeter) and ammeter in series. Choose a

( c a m a + c w m w ) T

fore, before refraction, ray s forms an angle convenient time interval t and note the amR= P

.

2

n t( I n /2 + I n+1 /2)

= arcsin[(20.2 18.7)/(28 cos )] 4.1 with meter reading until batteries are depleted.

In the described circuit the batteries were

depleted in 10 to 15 minutes and the temperature of the calorimeter rose by 7 to 10

degrees.