Sunteți pe pagina 1din 379
MICROPILE US Department of T r a n s p o r t a t
MICROPILE US Department of T r a n s p o r t a t
MICROPILE US Department of T r a n s p o r t a t
MICROPILE US Department of T r a n s p o r t a t
MICROPILE US Department of T r a n s p o r t a t

MICROPILE

US Department

of Transportation

DESIGN

AND

CONSTRUCTION

a n s p o r t a t i o n DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Federal

Federal Highway Administration

GUIDELINES

Priority Technologies Program

Administration GUIDELINES Priority Technologies Program NEW BRIDGE STRUCTURE E ABUTMENT SECTION A-A NEW MlCROPlLE
Administration GUIDELINES Priority Technologies Program NEW BRIDGE STRUCTURE E ABUTMENT SECTION A-A NEW MlCROPlLE

NEW BRIDGE STRUCTURE

E ABUTMENT

Technologies Program NEW BRIDGE STRUCTURE E ABUTMENT SECTION A-A NEW MlCROPlLE FOUNDATION SUPPORT FOUNDATION
Technologies Program NEW BRIDGE STRUCTURE E ABUTMENT SECTION A-A NEW MlCROPlLE FOUNDATION SUPPORT FOUNDATION

SECTION A-A

NEW MlCROPlLE

NEW BRIDGE STRUCTURE E ABUTMENT SECTION A-A NEW MlCROPlLE FOUNDATION SUPPORT FOUNDATION SUPPORT S E I

FOUNDATION SUPPORT

FOUNDATION

SUPPORT

SEISMIC

RETROFIT OF BRIDGES

ORIGINAL

CONCRETECAP

\

SURCHARGE

,I

i”‘:‘y;]:,‘:rrr

t*

*AG&&.

\ SURCHARGE ,I i”‘:‘y;]:,‘:rrr t* *AG&&. WALL FACING .-• NON RETICULATED MICROPILE STRUCTURE SLOPE

WALL FACING .-•

i”‘:‘y;]:,‘:rrr t* *AG&&. WALL FACING .-• NON RETICULATED MICROPILE STRUCTURE SLOPE STABILIZATION
i”‘:‘y;]:,‘:rrr t* *AG&&. WALL FACING .-• NON RETICULATED MICROPILE STRUCTURE SLOPE STABILIZATION

NON RETICULATED

MICROPILE STRUCTURE

WALL FACING .-• NON RETICULATED MICROPILE STRUCTURE SLOPE STABILIZATION EARTH RETENTION IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL
WALL FACING .-• NON RETICULATED MICROPILE STRUCTURE SLOPE STABILIZATION EARTH RETENTION IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL

SLOPE

STABILIZATION

EARTH RETENTION

IMPLEMENTATION

MANUAL

STRUCTURE SLOPE STABILIZATION EARTH RETENTION IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL PUBLICATION NO. FHWA - SA - 97 - 070

PUBLICATION

NO.

FHWA -

SA -

97 -

070

June 2000

STRUCTURE SLOPE STABILIZATION EARTH RETENTION IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL PUBLICATION NO. FHWA - SA - 97 - 070
STRUCTURE SLOPE STABILIZATION EARTH RETENTION IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL PUBLICATION NO. FHWA - SA - 97 - 070
STRUCTURE SLOPE STABILIZATION EARTH RETENTION IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL PUBLICATION NO. FHWA - SA - 97 - 070
STRUCTURE SLOPE STABILIZATION EARTH RETENTION IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL PUBLICATION NO. FHWA - SA - 97 - 070
STRUCTURE SLOPE STABILIZATION EARTH RETENTION IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL PUBLICATION NO. FHWA - SA - 97 - 070

--

NOTICE The contentsof this reportreflecttheviews of the authors,who areresponsiblefor the factsandthe accuracyof the
NOTICE The contentsof this reportreflecttheviews of the authors,who areresponsiblefor the factsandthe accuracyof the
NOTICE The contentsof this reportreflecttheviews of the authors,who areresponsiblefor the factsandthe accuracyof the
NOTICE The contentsof this reportreflecttheviews of the authors,who areresponsiblefor the factsandthe accuracyof the
NOTICE The contentsof this reportreflecttheviews of the authors,who areresponsiblefor the factsandthe accuracyof the
NOTICE The contentsof this reportreflecttheviews of the authors,who areresponsiblefor the factsandthe accuracyof the
NOTICE The contentsof this reportreflecttheviews of the authors,who areresponsiblefor the factsandthe accuracyof the
NOTICE The contentsof this reportreflecttheviews of the authors,who areresponsiblefor the factsandthe accuracyof the
NOTICE The contentsof this reportreflecttheviews of the authors,who areresponsiblefor the factsandthe accuracyof the
NOTICE The contentsof this reportreflecttheviews of the authors,who areresponsiblefor the factsandthe accuracyof the

NOTICE

NOTICE The contentsof this reportreflecttheviews of the authors,who areresponsiblefor the factsandthe accuracyof the

The contentsof this reportreflecttheviews of the authors,who areresponsiblefor the factsandthe accuracyof the datapresentedherein. The contentsdo not necessarilyreflectthepolicy of the Departmentof Transportation.This reportdoesnot constitutea standard,specifications,or regulation. The United StatesGovernmentdoesnot endorseproductsor manufacturers.Tradeor manufacturer’s namesappearhereinonly becausethey areconsideredessentialto theobjectiveof this document.

manufacturer’s namesappearhereinonly becausethey areconsideredessentialto theobjectiveof this document.
manufacturer’s namesappearhereinonly becausethey areconsideredessentialto theobjectiveof this document.
manufacturer’s namesappearhereinonly becausethey areconsideredessentialto theobjectiveof this document.
manufacturer’s namesappearhereinonly becausethey areconsideredessentialto theobjectiveof this document.
manufacturer’s namesappearhereinonly becausethey areconsideredessentialto theobjectiveof this document.
manufacturer’s namesappearhereinonly becausethey areconsideredessentialto theobjectiveof this document.
manufacturer’s namesappearhereinonly becausethey areconsideredessentialto theobjectiveof this document.
manufacturer’s namesappearhereinonly becausethey areconsideredessentialto theobjectiveof this document.
manufacturer’s namesappearhereinonly becausethey areconsideredessentialto theobjectiveof this document.
manufacturer’s namesappearhereinonly becausethey areconsideredessentialto theobjectiveof this document.
manufacturer’s namesappearhereinonly becausethey areconsideredessentialto theobjectiveof this document.
1. 4. 7. 9. 12. 15. Report No. FHWA-SA-97-070 Title and Subtitle Micropile Design andConstruction
1. 4. 7. 9. 12. 15. Report No. FHWA-SA-97-070 Title and Subtitle Micropile Design andConstruction
1. 4. 7. 9. 12. 15. Report No. FHWA-SA-97-070 Title and Subtitle Micropile Design andConstruction

1.

4.

7.

9.

12.

15.

Report No.

FHWA-SA-97-070

Title and Subtitle Micropile Design andConstruction GuidelinesImplementationManual Priority TechnologiesProgram(PTP) Project

2. GovernmentAccessionNo.

Author(s)

Tom Armour, P.E., Paul Groneck, P.E., JamesKeelev. P.E. and

Sunil Sharma,P.E., PhD.

<-

Performing OrganizationName and Address

DBM

ContractorsInc.

1220 S. 356th

FederalWay, WA 98063

SponsoringAgency Name and Address

FHWA

Office of Technology Applications

FHWA

FederalLands Highway Division Offices

FHWA Region 10

3.

5.

Technical Report Documentation Pat Recipients CatalogNo.

Report Date

June,2000

6. Performing Organization Code:

8. Performing Organization Report No.

I

!

10.Work Unit No.(TRAIS)

11.Contract or Grant No. Coop AgreementNo. 95-A-17-0046

13 Type of Report andPeriod

Covered

Technical Manual 1995-l 14. SponsoringAgency Code

997

SupplementaryNote FHWA COTR: Alan P. Kilian, P.E. WesternFederalLands Highway Division, Vancouver, WA Technical Review by Joint FHWA / STATE DOT / INDUSTRY Technical Working Group

16. Abstract

The use of micropiles has grown significantly since their conception in the 195Os,and in particular since the mid-1980s.

havebeenusedmainly aselementsfor foundation supportto resist static andseismicloading conditions andless

frequently as in-situ reinforcements for slope and excavation stability.

transportationstructures.

Implementationof micropile technology on U.S. transportationprojects has been hindered by lack of practical designand construction guidelines. In responseto this need, the FHWA sponsoredthe developmentof this Micropile Design and Construction Guidelines Implementation Manual. Funding and developmentof the manual has beena cooperative effort between FHWA, several U.S. micropile specialty contractors, and several State DOT’s This manual is intended as a “practitioner-oriented” document containing sufficient information on micropile design, construction specifications, inspectionand testing procedures,cost data, and contracting methodsto facilitate and speedthe implementationand cost effective useof micropiles on United Statestransportationprojects.

Chapter 1 provides a general definition and historic framework of micropiles. Chapter2 describesthe newly developed classificationsof micropile type andapplication. Chapter3 illustrates the useof micropiles for transportationapplications. Chapter4 discussesconstructiontechniquesandmaterials.Chapter5presentsdesignmethodologiesfor structuralfoundation support for both Service Load Design (SLD) and Load Factor Design (LFD). Chapter 6, which was supposedto presenta designmethodologyfor slopestabilization, is not includedin thisversion. Chapter7describesmicropile loadtesting. Chapter 8 reviews construction inspection and quality control procedures. Chapter 9 discussescontracting methodsfor micropile applications. Chapter 10presentsfeasibility andcostdata. Appendix A presentssampleplansandspecificationsfor Owner Controlled Design with Contractor Design Build of the micropiles, and/or micropiles and footings.

Micropiles

Many of these applications are suitable for

Micropiles Many of these applications are suitable for 17. Key Words micropile, structure foundation, slope

17. Key Words micropile, structure foundation, slope stabilization, underpinning, seismicretrofitting,

18.Distribution Statement No restrictions. This documentis availableto the public from the National Technical Information Service,

specifications,load testing, insitu reinforcement Springfield, Virginia 22161.

19. Security Classif. (of this report) Unclassified

Form DOT F 1700.7(8-72)

20. Security Classif. (of this page) Unclassified

21.No. of Pages

376

22. Price

Reproduction of completedpageauthorized

PREFACE The long-term performance of micropiles has beenproven after 25+ yearsof use in Europe and
PREFACE The long-term performance of micropiles has beenproven after 25+ yearsof use in Europe and

PREFACE

The long-term performance of micropiles has beenproven after 25+ yearsof use in Europe and North America. The purpose of this “practitioner-oriented” manual is to facilitate the implementation of micropile technology into American transportation design and construction

practice and to provide guidancefor selecting, designing and specifying micropiles for those applications to which it is technically suited and economically attractive. A comprehensive review of current design and construction methodshas beenmade and results compiled into a guideline procedure. The intent of presenting the guideline procedure is to help ensurethat

agenciesadopting useof micropile investigation through construction.

technology follow a safe,rational procedure from site

Chapter 1 provides a generaldefinition and historic framework of micropiles. Chapter 2 describesthe newly developedclassifications of micropile type and application. Chapter 3 illustrates the use of micropiles for transportation applications. Chapter4 discusses construction techniquesandmaterials. Chapter 5 details the designmethodologies for structural foundation support and includes worked designexamples. Chapter 6 was intended to cover slope stabilization details, but due to a lack of consensuson design methods, this chapter is not included and is still under preparation. When finished, Chapter 6 will be made available as a supplementto this manual. Chapter 7 describespile load testing. Chapter 8 reviews construction inspection and quality control procedures. Chapter 9 discussescontracting methods for micropile applications. Chapter 10presentsfeasibility and cost data. Appendix A presentsguideline plans and specifications for Owner Controlled Design with Contractor Design Build of the micropiles, and/or micropiles and footings.

Build of the micropiles, and/or micropiles and footings. This document is disseminatedunder the sponsorship of the
Build of the micropiles, and/or micropiles and footings. This document is disseminatedunder the sponsorship of the

This document is disseminatedunder the sponsorship of the Department of Transportation in the interest of

information exchange. The United StatesGovernment assumesno liability for its contents or

contentsof this report reflect the views of the authors,who areresponsiblefor the accuracyof the datapresented herein. The contentsdo not necessarilyreflect the official policy of the Departmentof Transportation. This report doesnot constitute a standard,specification, or regulation.

use thereof. The

MANUAL

LIMITATIONS

The United StatesGovernmentdoesnot endorseproductsor manufacturers. Tradeor manufacturers’namesappear herein only becausethey are consideredessentialto the objective of this document.

herein only becausethey are consideredessentialto the objective of this document. FHWA-SA-97-070 (~00-06) i
herein only becausethey are consideredessentialto the objective of this document. FHWA-SA-97-070 (~00-06) i
herein only becausethey are consideredessentialto the objective of this document. FHWA-SA-97-070 (~00-06) i
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The preparation of this manual hasbeenfunded through a cooperative effort betweenFHWA and severalU.S.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The preparation of this manual hasbeenfunded through a cooperative effort betweenFHWA and severalU.S.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The preparation of this manual hasbeenfunded through a cooperative effort betweenFHWA and severalU.S.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The preparation of this manual hasbeenfunded through a cooperative effort betweenFHWA and severalU.S.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The preparation of this manual hasbeenfunded through a cooperative effort betweenFHWA and severalU.S.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The preparation of this manual hasbeenfunded through a cooperative effort betweenFHWA and severalU.S. micropile specialty contractorsand manufacturers,including:

FHWA Region 10 and Federal Lands Division Program Funds provided by the FHWA Office

DBM Contractors, Inc.

Dywidag SystemsInternational, Inc.

Hayward Baker, Inc.

Condon-Johnsonand Associates,Inc.

Offices (using Priority Technology of Technology Applications.)

Malcolm Drilling Company,Inc.

Nicholson Construction Company

SchnabelFoundation Company

Specialthanks are dueparticularly to Mr. JamesKeeley (FHWA, Central FederalLands Division), for co-authoring Chapter 5 on “Structural Foundations; Mr. Al Kilian (FHWA, WesternFederalLands Division) and Mr. Ron Chassie(FHWA, Region lo), for providing the constantassistance,encouragementand funding support that madethis manual possible and to Dr. Sunil Sharma(University of Idaho) for technical assistanceand for assemblingand publishing the final version. An interactive, CD-version of this manual is currently being developedby Dr. Sharmafor releasein Fall 2000.

being developedby Dr. Sharmafor releasein Fall 2000. Special acknowledgment is made to the following volunteer

Special acknowledgment is madeto the following volunteer Technical Working Group members(listed in alphabetical order) for significant contributions to the manual and for providing the QA/QC to help assurethat the design and construction guidelines and guide specificationspresentedin the manual are sound,rational, andpractitioner oriented:

Tom Armour

DBM Contractors,Inc.

(Lead Coordinator)

Don Chadboume

Washington StateDepartment of Transportation

(Lead Coordinator) Don Chadboume Washington StateDepartment of Transportation FHWA-SA-97-070 (~00-06) 111
(Lead Coordinator) Don Chadboume Washington StateDepartment of Transportation FHWA-SA-97-070 (~00-06) 111

Ron Chassie

FHWA-Region 10

R o n C h a s s i e FHWA-Region 10 K e r r

Kerry Cook

FHWA-WFLHD

 

Paul Groneck

DBM Contractors,Inc.

Francis Gularte

Hayward Baker, Inc.

SamHolder

FHWA-CFLHD

Fahmi Ismail

FHWA-WFLHD

JamesJohnson

Condon-JohnsonandAssociates,Inc.

Gary Kast

Dwyidag Systems,Canada,Ltd.

Jim Keeley

FHWA-CFLHD

 

Al Kilian

FHWA-WFLHD

Jim Klamerus

FHWA-CFLHD

Heimich Majewski

Malcolm Drilling Company,Inc.

Jim Moese

California

Department of Transportation

SharonNaramore

California

Department of

Transportation

California Department of Transportation SethPearlman Nicholson Construction ThomasRichards

SethPearlman

Nicholson Construction

ThomasRichards

Nicholson Construction

Construction ThomasRichards Nicholson Construction D a v i d W e a t h e r
Construction ThomasRichards Nicholson Construction D a v i d W e a t h e r

David Weatherby

SchnabelFoundation Company

Jan Six

Oregon Department of Transportation

John Wolosick

Hayward Baker, Inc.

Special recognition is given to Dr. FernandoLizzi of Italy, the “father” of micropiles and to Dr. Donald Bruce, formerly Technical Director with Nicholson Construction Companyand currently a Principal with EC0 Geosystems,for preparing the FHWA State-of-PracticeReview Reports from which someof the information in this manual has been excerpted,and for his tireless efforts asa “champion” of Micropile Technologyin North America.

for his tireless efforts asa “champion” of Micropile Technologyin North America. i v FHWA-SA-97-070 (~00-06)
for his tireless efforts asa “champion” of Micropile Technologyin North America. i v FHWA-SA-97-070 (~00-06)

Thanks are also due to the membersof the Deep Foundation Institute (DFI) Micropile Technical Committee for their thorough technical review of the final draft manual.

their thorough technical review of the final draft manual. The many figures in this manual were

The many figures in this manual were originally preparedby DBM Contractors, Inc., and were subsequentlyenhancedand colorized by Dr. Sharmaand Rob Barnesof the University of Idaho. Lastly, andmost importantly, heartfelt thanks are given to Ms. Mary Ellen Bruce, who developedChaptersl-3, Mr. Don Olson (FHWA, retired), who provided technical assistance with Chapter 5 and Ms. Patty Roman0 of DBM Contractors, Inc., who typed the original version of the manual.

and Ms. Patty Roman0 of DBM Contractors, Inc., who typed the original version of the manual.
and Ms. Patty Roman0 of DBM Contractors, Inc., who typed the original version of the manual.
and Ms. Patty Roman0 of DBM Contractors, Inc., who typed the original version of the manual.
and Ms. Patty Roman0 of DBM Contractors, Inc., who typed the original version of the manual.
and Ms. Patty Roman0 of DBM Contractors, Inc., who typed the original version of the manual.
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ENGLISH TO METRIC (SI) CONVERSION FACTORS The primary metric (SI) units usedin civil and strnctural
ENGLISH TO METRIC (SI) CONVERSION FACTORS The primary metric (SI) units usedin civil and strnctural

ENGLISH

TO METRIC

(SI) CONVERSION

FACTORS

ENGLISH TO METRIC (SI) CONVERSION FACTORS The primary metric (SI) units usedin civil and strnctural engineering

The primary metric (SI) units usedin civil and strnctural engineering are:

.

.

.

.

.

meter (m)

kilogram (kg)

second(s)

Newton (N)

Pascal(Pa= N/m2)

The following are the conversion factors for units presented in this manual:

Quantity

From English

Units

Mass

lb

Force

lb

kiP

Force/unit length

Plf

klf

Pressure,stress,

Psf

modulus of

ksf

elasticity

psi

ksi

Length

inch

foot

foot

Area

squareinch

squarefoot

squareyard

Volume

cubic inch

cubic foot

cubic yard

To Metric (SI) Units

kg

N

kN

N/m

kNlm

Pa

kPa

kPa

MPa

mm

m

mm

mm2

ni2

m2

mm3

m3

m3

Multiply

For Aid to Quick

 

by

Mental Calculations

0.453592

4.44822

1

lb(force) = 4.5N

4.44822

14.5939

1plf = 14.5N/m

14.5939

1klf = 14.5kN/m

47.8803

1 psf = 48 Pa

47.8803

1 ksf = 48 kPa

6.89476

1psi = 6.9 kPa

6.89476

1ksi = 6.9 MPa

25.4

1 in=25mm

0.3048

1 ft = 0.3 m

304.8

1ft=300mm

645.16

0.09290304

1 sq ft = 0.09 m2

0.83612736

1 sa vd = 0.84 m2

16386.064

 

0.0283168

0.764555

vd = 0.84 m2 16386.064   0.0283168 0.764555 A few points to remember: 1. In a

A few points to remember:

1. In a “soft” conversion, an English measurementis mathematically converted to its exact metric equivalent.

2. In a “hard”

conversion, a new rounded, metric number is createdthat is convenient to work

with andremember.

3. Use only the meter and millimeter for length (avoid centimeter).

4. The Pascal (Pa) is the unit for pressureand stress(Pa and N/m’).

5. Structural calculations should be shown in MPa or kPa.

6. A few basic comparisonsworth rememberingto help visualize metric dimensions are:

.

.

.

.

.

One mm is about l/25 inch or slightly less than the thickness of a dime.

One m is the length of a yardstick plus about 3 inches.

One inch is just a fraction (l/64 inch) longer than 25 mm (1 inch = 25.4 mm).

Four inches are about l/16 inch longer than

One foot is about 3/16 inch longer than 300 mm (12 inches = 304.8 mm).

100 mm (4 inches = 101.6mm).

3/16 inch longer than 300 mm (12 inches = 304.8 mm). 100 mm (4 inches =
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TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION l- 1 l.A PURPOSEANDSCOPEOFMANUAL 1.B MICROPILE DEFINITION AND
TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION l- 1 l.A PURPOSEANDSCOPEOFMANUAL 1.B MICROPILE DEFINITION AND

TABLE

OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

l-

1

l.A

PURPOSEANDSCOPEOFMANUAL

1.B

MICROPILE DEFINITION AND DESCRIPTION

1.C

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

l-l

1

1

-

-

2

5

C A L B A C K G R O U N D l - l

.

CHAPTER 2

MICROPILE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

2.A MICROPILETYPESINCURRENTUSE

2.A.l

Design Application Classification

2.A.2

Construction Type Classification

.2 -

.2-

.2 -

.2 -

1

1

1

6

s s i f i c a t i o n .2 - .2- .2 -

CHAPTER 3

MICROPILE APPLICATIONS IN TRANSPORTATION PROJECTS

3.A

INTRODUCTION

 

3.B

STRUCTURAL SUPPORT

3.B.l

New Foundations

3.B.2

Underpinning of Existing Foundations

3.B.3

Seismic Retrofit

3.C

IN-SITU REINFORCEMENT (SLOPE STABILIZATION EARTHRETENTION)

&

.3 -

3-

.3 -

.3 -

.3 -

.3 -

3-10

1

1

4

5

6

9

T E N T I O N ) & . 3 - 3- . 3 -
T E N T I O N ) & . 3 - 3- . 3 -
T E N T I O N ) & . 3 - 3- . 3 -

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T E N T I O N ) & . 3 - 3- . 3 -
T E N T I O N ) & . 3 - 3- . 3 -

ix

3.D

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE CHOICE OF MICROPILES

3 -

15

3.D.1

Physical Considerations

3 -

17

3.D.2

SubsurfaceConditions

3 -

18

3.D.3

Environmental Conditions

3 -

19

3.D.4

Existing Structure Adaptation

3

- 20

3.D.5

Micropile Limitations

3 -

21

3.D.6

Economics of Micropiles

3 -

22

CHAPTER

4

CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES AND MATERIALS

4 -

1

 

4.A

INTRODUCTION

 

4-l

4.B

DRTLLING

4-2

 

4.B.l

DrillRigs

 

4-4

4.B.2

Drilling Techniques

4 -

7

4.B.3

OverburdenDrilling Techniques

4 -

8

4.B.4

Open-Hole Drilling Techniques

 

4 - 13

 

4.C

GROUTING

 

4-14

 

4.C.l

Grout Equipment

 

4 -

17

4.C.2

Grout

Mixing

4 -

18

4.C.3

Grout

PlacementTechniques

4 -

20

 

4.c.3.1 Gravity Fill Techniques (Type A Micropiles)

 

4 -

20

4.C.3.2

PressureGrouting Through the Casing (Type B Micropiles)

.

4 -

20

4.c.3.3 Postgrouting (Type C and D Micropiles)

4

-

22

 

4.C.4

Top-Off (Secondary)Grouting

4 -

26

 

4.D

REINFORCING STEEL

4 -

26

 

4.D.l

Placementof Reinforcement

4 -

26

4.D.2

Reinforcement Types

4

- 27

4.D.3

Reinforcement Corrosion Protection

4 -

36

 

X

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-~~.

-

----.

--

-.

CHAPTER 5

CHAPTER 5 DESIGN OF MICROPILES FOR STRUCTURE FOUNDATIONS (CASE 1   1 5 . A I
CHAPTER 5 DESIGN OF MICROPILES FOR STRUCTURE FOUNDATIONS (CASE 1   1 5 . A I
CHAPTER 5 DESIGN OF MICROPILES FOR STRUCTURE FOUNDATIONS (CASE 1   1 5 . A I
CHAPTER 5 DESIGN OF MICROPILES FOR STRUCTURE FOUNDATIONS (CASE 1   1 5 . A I

DESIGN OF MICROPILES FOR STRUCTURE FOUNDATIONS (CASE 1

 

1

5.A

INTRODUCTION

 

5-

1

5.B

COMMENTONTHEUSEOFTHISMANUALFORDESIGN

.5-4

5.C

EXPLANATION OF SLD AND LFD DESIGN METHODS

.5 -

5

5.D

GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN

.5 -

12

5.D. 1

Geotechnical Investigation Requirements

.5

-

12

5.D.2

Geotechnical Bond Capacity

.5

-

13

5.D.3

SUIIIIIICQJJof Grout-to-Ground a non,,NominalsWengthValues

5 -

15

 

5.D.3.1

Geotechnical Bond Length Tension And Compression AllowableAxialLoad-SLD

.5-

17

5.D.3.2

GeotechnicalBond Length Tension And Compression DesignAxial Strength-LFD

.5 -

17

 

5.D.4

Geotechnical End Bearing Capacity

.5

-

17

5.D.5

Group Effect For Axially Loaded Micropiles

.5

-

17

5.E

MICROPILE STRUCTURAL DESIGN

.5 -

19

5.E.l

Notation

.5 -20

5.E.2

Pile CasedLength Structural Capacity

.5

-

21

5.E.2.1

Pile

CasedLength (Service Load Design)

.5

-

21

5.E.2.2

Pile

CasedLength (Load Factor Design)

.5

- 22

5.E.3

Pile UncasedLength

.5

-23

5.E.3.1

Pile UncasedLength (Service Load Design)

.5 -

23

5.E.3.2

Pile UncasedLength (Load Factor Design)

.5 -

24

5.E.4

RecommendedSafetyFactorsand Test Loads for Field Verification and Proof Tests

.5 - 25

5.E.4.1

PileCasedLength

5-2

9

5.E.4.2

PileUncasedLength

5-3

0

5.E.5

GrouttoSteelBondCapacity

5-30

5.E.6

DesignofPlungeLength

.5-31

 

5.E.7

Strain Compatibility Between Structural Components

.5 -

33

5 . E . 7 Strain Compatibility Between Structural Components .5 - 33 FHWA-SA-97-070 (~00-06) xi
5 . E . 7 Strain Compatibility Between Structural Components .5 - 33 FHWA-SA-97-070 (~00-06) xi
5 . E . 7 Strain Compatibility Between Structural Components .5 - 33 FHWA-SA-97-070 (~00-06) xi
 

5.E.8

Reinforcing Bar and Casing Connections

 

5 -

34

5.E.9

Pile to Footing Connection

5 -

35

5.F

ADDITIONAL GEOTECHNICAL / STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS

5 -

41

5.F.l

Prediction of Anticipated Structural Axial Displacements

 

5 -

41

5.F.2

Long Term Ground Creep Displacement

5

- 44

5.F.3

Settlementof Pile Groups

5 -

45

5.F.4

Lateral

Load Capacity

5 -

46

5.F.5

Lateral

Stability (Buckling)

5 -

50

5.F.6

Downdrag and Uplift Considerations

 

5 -

54

5.G

SAMPLE PROBLEM NO. 1 - BRIDGE ABUTMENT FOUNDATION SUPPORT

5 -

55

5.G.1

Problem Statement

5 -

55

5.G.2

Step 1 -AbutmentDesignLoads

 

5-61

 

5.G.2.1 ActiveEarthPressure-P,

5-61

5.G.2.2

Earth PressureDue to Live Load Surcharge- HL

5 -

62

5.G.2.3

Seismic Earth Pressure- P,,

5 -

63

5.G.2.4

Seismic Inertia Forces

5

-

64

 

5.G.3

Service Load Design (SLD) Method

5 - 65

 

5.G.3.1 Step2 (SLD) - Determine Pile Design Loads Per MeterLength

5-65

5.G.3.2

Step 3 (SLD) - Determine Allowable Structural and Geotechnical Pile Loads

 

5

-

67

5.G.3.2.1

Step3 (SLD)

- Pile CasedLength Allowable Load

5 -

68

5.G.3.2.2

Step 3

(SLD) -Pile

UncasedLength Allowable Load

 

5 -

70

5.G.3.2.3

Step 3

(SLD)

-Allowable

Geotechnical Bond Load .

.

5 -

71

5.G.3.2.4

Step 3

(SLD) - Verify Allowable Axial Loads

5 -

72

5.G.3.2.5

Step 3

(SLD)

- Verify Allowable Lateral Loads

5 -

72

5.G.3.2.6

Step 3

(SLD)

- Compute Field Test Loads

5 -

73

5.G.3.2.7

Step3 (SLD) -Pile Structural Design for Field TestLoads

 

5-74

5.G.3.3 Step 4 (SLD) - Anticipated Axial Displacement

5 - 77

5 . G . 3 . 3 Step 4 (SLD) - Anticipated Axial Displacement 5 -
  5.G.3.4 Step5(SLD)-PileConnectionDesign   . . . . . . . . . . .
 

5.G.3.4

Step5(SLD)-PileConnectionDesign

 

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5-79

5.G.4

Load Factor Design (LFD) Method

 

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5.G.4.1

Step2 (LFD) - MeterLength.

Determine Pile Required StrengthsPer .

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5.G.4.2

Step3 (LFD) - Determine Structural and Geotechnical

 
 

Pile Design Strengths

 

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5.G.4.2.1

Step 3 (LFD) - Pile CasedLength Design Strength

5 - 89

5.G.4.2.2

Step3 (LFD) - Pile UncasedLength Design Strength . 5 - 91

 

5.G.4.2.3 Step 3 (LFD) - Geotechnical Bond Design Strength

 

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.5 - 92

5.G.4.2.4

Step 3 (LFD)

-

Verify

Axial

Design Strengths

 

.5

-

94

5.G.4.2.5

Step 3

(LFD)

-

Verify

Lateral Design Strength

 

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95

5.G.4.2.6

Step 3

(LFD)

- Compute Field Test Load.

 

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96

5.G.4.2.7

Step3 (LFD) -Pile Structural Design for Field

 
 

TestLoads

 

5-97

 
 

5.G.4.2.8

Step4 (LFD) -Anticipated

Axial Displacement

 

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.

5 -

97

5.G.4.2.9

Step 5 (LFD) - Pile Connection Design

 

5 -

97

5.G.5

Step6 (SLD & LFD) - Complete Detail Drawings

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5 -

102

. . . . . . . . . . 5 - 102 CHAPTER 6 DESIGN

CHAPTER 6

DESIGN OF MICROPILES FOR SLOPE STABILIZATION

AND EARTH RETENTION

6.A

SPECIALNOTE

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6-1

CHAPTER 7

 

PILELOADTESTING

 

7-

 

1

7.A

INTRODUCTION

 

7-

1

7.B

TYPESANDPURPOSEOFLOADTEST

.7-2

7.B.l

UltimateTest

7-

3

7.B.2

Verification Test

.7 - 4

7.B.3

ProofTest

7-

4

7.B.4

CreepTest

7-

5

.7 - 4 7 . B . 3 ProofTest 7- 4 7.B.4 CreepTest 7- 5 FHWA-SA-97-070
.7 - 4 7 . B . 3 ProofTest 7- 4 7.B.4 CreepTest 7- 5 FHWA-SA-97-070
.7 - 4 7 . B . 3 ProofTest 7- 4 7.B.4 CreepTest 7- 5 FHWA-SA-97-070
.7 - 4 7 . B . 3 ProofTest 7- 4 7.B.4 CreepTest 7- 5 FHWA-SA-97-070

7.C

DETERMINATION OF PROJECT LOAD TESTING REQUIREMENTS

7 -

5

7.C.l NumberofLoadTests

7-6

7.C.2

Micropile Load-Testing Guidelines

7 -

7

 

7.C.2.1

Micropile Load-Testing Guidelines for New Users (Owners/Contractors)

7 -

7

7.C.2.2

Micropile Load-Testing Guidelines for ExperiencedUsers (Owners/Contractors)

7 -

9

 

7.C.3

SampleProblem No. 1 (Chapter 5) - Pile Load Testing Requirements

7 - 10

7.C.4

TestLoadMagnitude

7- 11

7.D

MICROPILE LOAD TESTING METHODS AND PROCEDURES

7 -

12

7.D.l

Method of Load Application

7 -

12

7.D.2

Load-Hold Duration

7 -

13

7.D.3

Load Test AcceptanceCriteria

7 -

13

7.E

LOAD-TEST SETUP AND

INSTRUMENTATION

7 -

14

7.F

DATA RECORDING AND

PRESENTATION

7 -

22

7.G

PILE LOAD-TEST REPORT

7 -

33

7.H

TESTPILEFALLURE

 

7-34

CHAPTER 8

 

CONSTRUCTION INSPECTION/QUALITY

CONTROL

8 -

1

8.A

INTRODUCTION

 

8-l

8.B

QUALITY CONTROL INSPECTION

8 -

2

8.B.l MaterialHandlingandStorage

8-2

8.B.2 Construction Monitoring

8 -

6

8.C

QUALITY CONTROL DOCUMENTATION

8 -

13

8.C.l. PileLoadTesting

8-13

8.C.2 ProductionPiles

8-14

. C . l . PileLoadTesting 8-13 8 . C . 2 ProductionPiles 8-14 x i
. C . l . PileLoadTesting 8-13 8 . C . 2 ProductionPiles 8-14 x i
. C . l . PileLoadTesting 8-13 8 . C . 2 ProductionPiles 8-14 x i

CHAPTER 9

CHAPTER 9 CONTRACTINGMETHODS 9.A INTRODUCTION   9.B SPECLFICATIONS 9- 9.B.1 Owner-Controlled
CHAPTER 9 CONTRACTINGMETHODS 9.A INTRODUCTION   9.B SPECLFICATIONS 9- 9.B.1 Owner-Controlled

CONTRACTINGMETHODS

9.A

INTRODUCTION

 

9.B

SPECLFICATIONS

9-

9.B.1

Owner-Controlled Design Methods

9.B.2.

Contractor Design/Build Methods

9.B.3

OtherMethods

9.C.

CONTRACTPLANS

9-1

9-

9-

2

.9 - 4

.9 -

11

8

1

1

.9-

1

CONTRACTPLANS 9-1 9- 9- 2 .9 - 4 .9 - 11 8 1 1 .9- 1

CHAPTER 10

FEASIBILITY AND COST DATA

10.A FEASIBILITY

10.B

1O.C SAMPLE PROBLEMS-COST ESTIMATES

MICROPILE COST DATA

10

1

- 2

10- 4

10

lo-

1

-

10.C.1 SampleProblem No. 1 (Chapter 5-Bridge Abutment Support)

lO.C.2 SampleProblem No. 2 (Seismic Retrofit)

10- 4

5

10-

No. 2 (Seismic Retrofit) 1 0 - 4 5 1 0 - GLOSSARY OF TERMS REFERENCES

GLOSSARY

OF TERMS

REFERENCES

1 0 - 4 5 1 0 - GLOSSARY OF TERMS REFERENCES APPENDIX A-l MICROPILE GUIDE

APPENDIX A-l

MICROPILE GUIDE CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATION AND SAMPLE PLANS - CONTRACTOR DESIGN/BUILD OF MICROPILES

1.0

DESCRIPTION

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Al-2

 

1.1 Micropile Contractor’s Experience RequirementsAnd

 

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1.2 Pre-approvedList

 

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1.3 Related Specifications

 

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1.4 Definitions

Al-5

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FHWA-SA-97-070

(~00-06)

. . . . . . . . . . . . Al - 5 1.4
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xv

  1.5 ReferencedCodesand Al - 8 1.5.1 American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) A
  1.5 ReferencedCodesand Al - 8 1.5.1 American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) A
  1.5 ReferencedCodesand Al - 8 1.5.1 American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) A
 

1.5 ReferencedCodesand

Al

-

8

1.5.1 American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)

Al

-

8

1.5.2 American Welding Society (AWS)

Al

-

9

1.5.3

American

PetroleumInstitute (API)

Al

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1.6 Available

Al

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9

1.7 Construction Site Survey

Al

-

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1.8 Micropile Design

Al

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11

1.8.1

Micropile Design

Al

-

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1.8.2 Design

Al

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12

1.8.3 Working

Al

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1.9 Construction

Al

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16

1.10 Pre-construction

Al

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18

2.0

Al-19

3.0

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

Al

-

22

3.1 Site Drainage

Al

- 22

3.2 Excavation

Al-2

3

3.3 Micropile

Allowable Construction Tolerances

Al

- 23

3.4 Micropile Installation

Al

-

23

3.4.1

Drilling

Al

-24

3.4.2 Ground Heave or

Al

- 24

3.4.3 Pipe Casing and Reinforcing Bars Placementand

Al

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25

3.4.4 Grouting.

Al

-26

3.4.5 Grout Testing

Al

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27

3.5 Micropile Installation

Al

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3.6 PileLoadTests

Al-2

8

3.6.1 VerificationLoadTests

Al

-29

3.6.2 Testing Equipment and Data

Al

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30

3.6.3 Verification Test Loading

Al

-

31

3.6.4 Verification Test Pile Rejection

Al

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33

3.6.5 ProofLoadTests

Al-3

4

xvi

FHWA-SA-97-070 (~00-06)

Test Pile Rejection A l - 3 3 3.6.5 ProofLoadTests Al-3 4 xvi FHWA-SA-97-070 (~00-06)
Test Pile Rejection A l - 3 3 3.6.5 ProofLoadTests Al-3 4 xvi FHWA-SA-97-070 (~00-06)
Test Pile Rejection A l - 3 3 3.6.5 ProofLoadTests Al-3 4 xvi FHWA-SA-97-070 (~00-06)
  3.6.6 Proof Test Loading Schedule   Al - 34 3.6.7 Proof Test Pile Rejection
  3.6.6 Proof Test Loading Schedule   Al - 34 3.6.7 Proof Test Pile Rejection
  3.6.6 Proof Test Loading Schedule   Al - 34 3.6.7 Proof Test Pile Rejection
 

3.6.6 Proof Test Loading Schedule

 

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3.6.7 Proof Test Pile Rejection

 

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4.0

METHOD OF MEASUREMENT.

 

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5.0

BASISOFPAYMENT

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-36

APPENDIX A-2

MICROPILE GUIDE CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATION AND SAMPLE PLANS - CONTRACTOR DESIGN/BUILD OF FOUNDATION (MICROPILES AND FOOTINGS)

1.0 DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.0
DESCRIPTION
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AZ-2
1.1 Micropile Contractor’s Experience RequirementsAnd
A2
-
3
1.2 Pre-approvedList
A2 -
4
1.3 Related Specifications
A2 -
5
1.4 Definitions
A2-5
1.5 ReferencedCodesand Standards
A2 -
8
1.5.1 American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
A2
-
8
1.5.2 American Welding Society (AWS)
A2
-
9
1.5.3 American
Petroleum Institute (API)
A2
-
9
1.6 Available Information.
A2 - 9
1.7 Construction Site Survey
A2
-
10
1.8 Micropile Design
A2
-
11
1.8.1 Micropile Design
A2
-
12
1.8.2 Design
A2
-
12
1.8.3 Working
A2 -
13
1.9
Construction
A2
-
16
1.10
A2 -
18
2.0
MATERIALS.
A2-19
3.0
CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS
A2 -
22
3.1 Site Drainage
A2 -
22

3.2 Excavation

A2-23

3.1 Site Drainage A2 - 22 3 . 2 E x c a v a t
3.1 Site Drainage A2 - 22 3 . 2 E x c a v a t
3.1 Site Drainage A2 - 22 3 . 2 E x c a v a t
3 . 3 Micropile Allowable Construction Tolerances   A2 - 23 3 . 4 M
3 . 3 Micropile Allowable Construction Tolerances   A2 - 23 3 . 4 M
3 . 3 Micropile Allowable Construction Tolerances   A2 - 23 3 . 4 M
3 . 3 Micropile Allowable Construction Tolerances   A2 - 23 3 . 4 M

3.3 Micropile Allowable Construction Tolerances

 

A2 -

23

3.4 Micropile

Installation

A2 - 23

3.4.1

Drilling

.A2-24

 

3.4.2 Ground Heave or

 

A2

- 24

3.4.3 Pipe Casing and Reinforcing Bars Placementand

A2 - 25

3.4.4 Grouting.

A2 -26

3.4.5 Grout Testing

A2

-

27

3.5 Micropile Installation

A2 -

27

3.6 PileLoadTests

A2-2

8

3.6.1 VerificationLoadTests

 

A2-2

9

3.6.2 Testing Equipment and Data

A2

-

30

3.6.3 Verification

Test Loading

A2 -

31

3.6.4 Verification Test Pile Rejection

3.6.5 ProofLoadTests

A2 - 33

.A2-34

3.6.6 Test Loading Schedule

Proof

A2

-

34

Proof

3.6.7 Test Pile Rejection

A2

-

35

4.0

METHOD OF MEASUREMENT.

A2 -

36

5.0

BASIS OFPAYMENT

A2-36

B A S I S O F P A Y M E N T A 2

APPENDIX

B

Washington StateDOT Guide for Preparationof a “Summary of

Geotechnical Conditions

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