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HP LP BYPASS SYSTEM:

The HP LP Bypass System is designed to maintain the M. S. Pressure


at Turbine end at a pre-set desire value during the different Load
Conditions of the machine.
Functions:
The main functions of HP-LP Bypass System are:

Maintains Turbine end Main Steam Pressure at a pre-set desire


value by dumping the excess steam, which is generated in the
Boiler, directly to the Condenser by bypassing its normal flow path.
Reduces Start-up Time by circulating huge quantity of steam in the
bypass path, which causes faster rise of steam parameters (mainly
steam temperature and pressure), during start up period.
Introduces Economic Operation by saving D. M. Water loss
particularly during start-up.
Drastically cuts down the Sound Pollution Level particularly during
start-up.
Protects Super-heater and Re-heater Coil against over-heating by
circulating steam through it particularly during start-up.

HIGH PRESSURE BYPASS i.e. HP BYPASS SYSTEM:


Introduction:

As the name indicates, the HP Bypass System dumps the Main


Steam (MS) from MS Line to CR Line directly by bypassing the H. P.
Turbine.
The main object of H. P. Bypass System is to maintain Main Steam
Pressure at H. P. Turbine end at a pre-set desire value by dumping
the excess main steam to the C. R. Line in such a way so that the
parameters (Pressure and Temperature) of the dumped steam will
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matches with the design parameters (Pressure and Temperature) of


the C. R. Pipe Line.
The schematic diagram of HP Bypass System is shown in Fig - 1
bellow.

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From the schematic diagram of HP Bypass Station, it is clear that


there are two numbers Steam Valve namely HBP1 & HBP2 and
three numbers Spray Water Valve namely BPE1, BPE2 & BD.
All these five valves are basically Control Valve.

HBP1 & HBP2:

Now, HBP1 & HBP2 are the Pressure Controller, which controls
its Upstream Pressure i.e. HBP1 & HBP2 controls the M. S.
Pressure at H. P. Turbine inlet at a pre-set desire value by dumping
the excess main steam, if there, directly to the C. R. Line.
The valve HBP1 & HBP2 starts to OPEN when M. S. Pressure
at H. P. Turbine inlet rises above the pre-set desire value and starts
to CLOSE when M.S. Pressure at H. P. Turbine inlet falls below
the pre-set desire value.

BPE1 & BPE2:

Now, BPE1 & BPE2 are the Temperature Controller, which


maintains the Down Stream Temperature of HBP1 & HBP2
respectively at a pre-set desire value by spraying water into the
dumped steam.
Basically it controls the quantity of attemperation flow (Spray
Water). So, BPE-1 & BPE2 are the Spray Water Flow Controller.
The valve BPE1 starts to OPEN when the Down Stream
Temperature of HBP1 valve rises above the pre-set desire value
and starts to CLOSE when the Down Stream Temperature of
HBP1 valve falls below the pre-set desire value.
The valve BPE2 starts to OPEN when the Down Stream
Temperature of HBP2 valve rises above the pre-set desire value
and starts to CLOSE when the Down Stream Temperature of
HBP1 valve falls below the pre-set desire value.

BD:
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Basically, BD is a Pressure Controller, which controls its Down


Stream Pressure i.e. the Spray Water Pressure at the inlet of BPE1
& BPE2 valves at a pre-set desire value (Say 100 Kg/cm2).
Practically, BD is the Spray Water Pressure Controller.
The valve BD starts to OPEN when its Down Stream Spray
Water Pressure falls below the pre-set desire value [Spray Water
Pressure is less than 100 Kg / cm2 - say] and starts to CLOSE
when its Down Stream Spray Water Pressure rises above the preset desire value [Spray Water Pressure is more than 100 Kg / cm2 say].

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How HP Bypass Station Controls M.S. Pressure at H. P. Turbine


Inlet and the Temperature of the steam, which is dumped into the
C. R. Line:
Pressure Control:
When High Pressure Steam (fluid) mixes with the comparatively Low
Pressure Steam (fluid), then there are the chances of creation of
turbulence. Some times, the energy of this turbulence may be so high
that it may collapse the system. So, whenever, we will mix highpressure steam with comparatively low pressure steam, then we
have to take care to avoid turbulence.
Now, HP Bypass Station dumps the high-pressure main steam to the
CR Line, through which low pressure cold reheat steam is flowing.
Now, without taking any precautionary measure, if HP Bypass Station
directly dumps the high-pressure main steam to the CR Line, then
huge turbulence will be generate inside the CR Line when highpressure main steam will try to mix with the comparatively very low
pressure Cold Reheat Steam. The energy of the said turbulence will
be so high that it will totally destroy the whole CR Line.

To avoid this, the HB Bypass Station reduces the pressure of the


dumped steam before dumping it into the CR Line. The HP Bypass
Vales are itself a PRDS Unit. The Valves are designed & constructed
in such a fashion so that a huge pressure drop takes place inside the
valve.
To reduce the pressure further, a Throttling Device is erected on
the down steam of each HP Bypass Valve and pressure drop is
assured by increasing the area (i.e. volume) of the steam flow
path, just after the Throttling Device, suddenly.
In the Fig. 2, an attempt has been taken to explain the
construction of PRDS (Pressure

Reducing and De-super Heating) unit and Throttling Device of the


H. P. Bypass Station.

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HP Bypass Station dumps main steam to CR Line by controlling


the OPENING of its two steam valve BP-1 & BP-2. One Pressure
Master Controller and two Slave Controller control the opening of
steam valve BP-1 & BP-2.
The Pressure Master Controller is common for both BP-1 & BP-2
but Slave Controller is separate and independent for BP-1 & BP-2.
Out of above said two Slave Controller, one is for BP-1 and other one
is for BP-2.
The Pressure Master Controller comprises of Pressure Transmitter
(PT) and Current to Voltage converter (I/E), Pressure Setter, Error
Generator and one PI Controller.
The Slave Controller comprises of Memory Card, Position
Feedback Transmitter and Current to Voltage converter (I/E), Error
Generator, Output amplifier and Electro-Hydraulic Actuator.
Actual MS Pressure at HPT end is sensed (measured) by Pressure
Transmitter (PT) and Position Feedback Transmitter (F/B Transmitter)
is used to measure the actual opening the valve (here either BP-1 or
BP-2). Pressure Setter is to generate Desire Set Value for main
steam at HP turbine end.
Depending upon the difference between Actual MS Pressure and
Set Pressure, Pressure Master Controller generates the signal (PI
position demand signal) for final opening position of BP-1 & BP-2.
Now, if the memory is in AUTO mode then the Slave Controller will
take action to re-position the valve, if required, after comparing the
actual valve position (Output of F/B Transmitter) with PI position
demand signal.
Control Scheme for BP-1 is shown in Fig. 3 bellows.

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How Controller is Functioning to control MS Pressure at HPT end?

To Control the Upstream Pressure i.e. M. S. Pressure at HPT


Inlet, the M. S. Pressure (P actual) is compared with the Pre-set
desire Pressure (P set).
If the actual M. S. Pressure (P actual) is higher than the Pre-set
desire Pressure (P set), then HP Bypass Valve will start to OPEN.
If the actual M. S. Pressure (P actual) is lower than the Pre-set desire
Pressure (P set), then HP Bypass Valve will start to CLOSE.
In both the above cases, the HP Bypass Valves will continue to
OPEN / CLOSE till the actual M. S. Pressure is not matching with
the Pre-set desire Pressure.
As soon as the actual M.S. Pressure matched with the set
Pressure, the HP Bypass Valve will stand hold at its last position.
The schematic diagram of the Pressure Control Loop of HP
Bypass System is shown in Fig.- 3 bellow.

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Fig. - 3: Loop Diagram of the Pressure Controller of HP Bypass


System.

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HP Bypass Stations Down Stream Temperature Control i.e. HP


Bypass Stations Spray Water Flow Control:
For what Temperature Control of dumped main steam is essential?

When High Temperature Steam mixes with the comparatively Low


Temperature Steam, then there are the chances of development of
thermal stress. Some times, the energy of this thermal stress may be
so high that it may be the cause thermal failure of the system. So,
whenever, we will mix high-temperature steam with comparatively low
temperature steam, then we have to take care to avoid thermal
stress.

Now, HP Bypass Station dumps the hot main steam, having


temperature in the range of 540 oC, to the CR Line, through which
comparatively low hot cold reheat steam, having temperature in the
range of 360 oC - 380 oC, is flowing.

Now, without taking any precautionary measure, if HP Bypass


Station directly dumps the hot main steam to the CR Line, then huge
thermal stress will be develop inside the CR Line when hot main
steam will try to mix with the comparatively cool Cold Reheat Steam.
The energy of the said thermal stress will be so high that it will totally
destroy the whole CR Line.

To avoid this, the HB Bypass Station reduces the temperature of


the dumped steam before dumping it into the CR Line.
How the Temperature of dumped main steam is controlled?

To reduce the temperature of the dumped steam, in the Valve


Chamber, attemparation water is sprayed into the dumped steam. We
said early that the HB Bypass Valves are itself a PRDS unit. The
valves are designed / constructed in such a manner so that its
attemparator breaks spray water into particle before injecting it into
the dumped steam.
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Spray water is sprayed after breaking it into particle for the reason
so that it can easily mix with the dumped steam completely and no
water particle can reach into the re-heater coil.

It is clear that by injecting attemparation water, HP Bypass Station


controls the temperature of the dumped steam i.e. the downstream
temperature HP Bypass Station.
How the HP Bypass Temperature Controller i.e. HP Bypass
Stations Spray Water Flow Controller is Functioning ?

The HP Bypass station has two steam valves, which dumps main
steam into the CR Line. Now, these two valves may dump different
quantity (Tonnage) of main steam. So, downstream temperature of
these valves may be different. As a result, the downstream
temperature of each HP Bypass Valves is controlled separately.
To control the temperature, the actual downstream temperature
(Tactual) of each valve is separately compared with a pre-set desire
value (Tset).
If Tactual > Tset, then the corresponding attemparation flow control
valve [BPE 1 for HBP 1 and BPE 2 for HBP 2] will start to
OPEN.
Now, if Tactual < Tset, then the corresponding attemparation flow
control valve [BPE 1 for HBP 1 and BPE 2 for HBP 2] will start to
CLOSE.
As soon as Tactual matches with Tset, then the corresponding
attemparation flows control valve [BPE 1 for HBP 1 and BPE 2 for
HBP 2] will stand hold at its latest position.
The schematic diagram of the Temperature Control Loop of HP
Bypass System is shown in Fig. 4 bellow.

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Spray Water Pressure Controller i.e.


the Function of BD Valve of HP Bypass System:

The function of HP Bypass Spray Water Pressure Controller is to


maintain pre-set (desire) water pressure at Up-stream of the valves
BPE 1 & BPE 2 by re-positioning the Valve BD, which is basically
a Control Valve.
So, Valve BD controls its down-stream pressure.
We know that a Flow Control Valve i.e. a Flow Controller will
function smoothly and properly if dp (Differential Pressure) across
the related Flow Control Valve is maintained at a fixed constant
value.
Now, here, to maintain the down-stream temperature of HP Bypass
Station, we are using attemperation water from BFP discharge
header.
Now, the water pressure at BFP Discharge Header is variable and
varying with Boiler Drum Pressure.
So, without deploying any pressure control valve i.e. spray water
pressure controller, if we use water directly from BFP Discharge
Header for down-stream temperature control of HP Bypass Station
then the said Temperature Controller will not able to control the
downstream temperature smoothly and perfectly.
So, for the interest of smooth and proper downstream temperature
control, Spray Water Pressure Controller i.e. Spray Water Pressure
Control Valve (BD) becomes essential for HP Bypass System.
Schematic diagram of HP Bypass Spray Water Pressure Control
Loop is shown Fig. 5 bellow.
The main object of HP Bypass Spray Water Pressure Control
Valve BD is to maintain its downstream pressure (P Spray (Actual)) at a
pre-set desire value (P Spray (Set)), which is fixed (Normally 100 Kg /
cm2).

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Now, when the measured pressure (P Spray (Actual)) becomes higher


than the set pressure (P Spray (Set)), then the BD valve will start to
CLOSE.
Again, when the measured pressure (P Spray (Actual)) becomes lower
than the set pressure (P Spray (Set)), then the BD valve will start to
OPEN.
Now, when the measured pressure (P Spray (Actual)) becomes equal
to the set pressure (P Spray (Set)), then the BD valve will hold
standstill at its last position.

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LOW PRESSURE BYPASS i.e. LP BYPASS STATION:

Bypassing the IP Turbine and LP Turbine, the LP Bypass Station


dumps Hot Re-heat Steam directly into the Condenser.
The main object of LP Bypass System is to maintain Hot Re-heat
Steam Pressure at IP Turbine inlet at a pre-set desire value by
dumping excess Hot Re-heat Steam, if any, directly into the
Condenser in such a manner so that the parameters (Pressure &
Temperature) of the dumped steam matches with the design
parameters of the Condenser.
Practically, the LP Bypass Station dumps Hot Re-heat steam into
the STD (Steam Throw-off Device) of the Condenser in such a way
so that the jet of the dumped steam does not damage the Copper
Tube of the Condenser.
The schematic diagram of LP Bypass Station is shown in Fig. 6
bellow.

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It is clear that there are Two numbers Steam Valves, namely LBP
1 & LBP 2, and Two numbers Spray Water Valves, namely
LBPE 1 & LBPE 2, in LB Bypass System.
All these four valves are Control Valve in type.
The task of LP Bypass System is to maintain the IP Turbine inlet
pressure of Re-heat Steam at the pre-set desire value and dumps
excess Re-heat Steam, if any, after lowering down the pressure &
temperature within the permissible limit of the Condenser, directly in
to the Condenser.

LBP 1 & LBP 2:

The Steam Valves LBP 1 & LBP 2 are responsible for


controlling the Re-heat Steam pressure at IP Turbine Inlet at a preset desire value. Now, this set pressure is Load dependent i.e. it
depends upon the actual machine load (MW) and when the machine
is connected with grid, the set pressure is derived from the
chamber pressure of the HP Turbine (True for BkTPP) by means
of special electronic ckt.
Now, to control Hot Re-heat Steam Pressure at IP Turbine inlet,
the steam valves LBP 1 & LBP 2 of LP Bypass System dumps
the excess Re-heat steam, if any, directly into the Condenser in
such a manner so that the parameters i.e. the pressure of dumped
Re-heat steam matches with the allowable design steam pressure
of the Condenser.
In short, the steam valves LBP 1 & LBP 2 of LP Bypass
System maintains the Hot Re-heat Steam Pressure at the pre-set
desire value and if necessary, bypassing the IP Turbine and LP
Turbine, dumps Re-heat Steam, after changing its pressure which is
in the allowable / permissible limits of the Condenser, directly in to
the Condenser.
To control i.e. to reduce the pressure of the dumped steam, special
care has been taken in the design of the valve LBP 1 & LBP 2.
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These two valves are designed in such a fashion so that they act as
PR Unit (Pressure Reducer).
So, basically, the valve LBP 1 & LBP 2 are the pressure
control valves which is driven by a single Master Pressure Controller
and two separate Slave Controller.

LBPE 1 & LBPE 2:

The task of Spray Water Valves LBPE 1 & LBPE 2 are to


control the Temperature of dumped Steam at the downstream of
LBP 1 & LBP 2 respectively.
To control the Temperature of dumped steam at the down stream
of LBP 1 & LBP 2 i.e. in short, the down stream temperature of
LBP 1 & LBP 2 at a pre-set desire value, the valves LBPE 1 &
LBPE 2 sprayed water, which is taken from the Discharge Header
of CEP, in to the dumped steam is such way so that the
attemperated water mixes with the dumped steam properly.
Practically, by means of attemperator, water is sprayed in particle
form.
Actually, the valves LBPE 1 & LBPE 2 are the Spray Water Flow
Control Valve, which is driven by two separate Temperature Controller.

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LP Bypass Pressure Controller:

The schematic diagram of Pressure Control Loop is shown in Fig.:


7 bellow.

To Control the Upstream Pressure i.e. HR Steam Pressure at IPT


Inlet, the HR Steam Pressure (P actual) is compared with the Pre-set
desire Pressure (P set).
If the actual HR Steam Pressure (P actual) is higher than the Pre-set
desire Pressure (P set), then LP Bypass Valves LBP-1 & LBP-2 will
start to OPEN.

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If the actual HR Steam Pressure (P actual) is lower than the Pre-set


desire Pressure (P set), then LP Bypass Valves LBP-1 & LBP-2 will
start to CLOSE.
In both the above cases, the LP Bypass Valves LBP-1 & LBP-2 will
continue to OPEN / CLOSE till the actual HR Steam Pressure is not
matching with the Pre-set desire Pressure.
As soon as the actual HR Steam Pressure matched with the set
Pressure, the LP Bypass Valve will stand hold at its last position.

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LP Bypass Temperature Controller i.e.


LP Bypass Spray Water Flow Controller:

The schematic diagram of Temperature Control Loop of LBPE -1 is


shown in Fig.: 8 bellow.

The LP Bypass station has two steam valves, which dumps HR


Steam into the Condenser. Now, these two valves may dump
different quantity (Tonnage) of HR Steam. So, downstream
temperature of these valves may be different. As a result, the
downstream temperature of each LP Bypass Valve is controlled
separately.

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To control the temperature, the actual downstream temperature


(Tactual) of each valve is separately compared with a pre-set desire
value (Tset).
If Tactual > Tset, then the corresponding attemparation flow control
valve [LBPE 1 for LBP 1 and LBPE 2 for LBP 2] will start to
OPEN.
Now, if Tactual < Tset, then the corresponding attemparation flow
control valve [LBPE 1 for LBP 1 and LBPE 2 for LBP 2] will
start to CLOSE.
As soon as Tactual matches with Tset, then the corresponding
attemparation flow control valve [LBPE 1 for LBP 1 and LBPE 2
for LBP 2] will stand hold at its latest position.

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Fig 9: Servo Valve.

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Fig 10: Blocking Element.

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