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z IN|OIU] UNOS 0} MOH = @ . a ie Sound: A Vocabulary Auoingooon ¥ Intelligent sopiing eseundor ul juebi in Japanese Wi Doe he Und Kien come Eve epi © 9, 201 by Chat De Wat ev donc. Preface sane Invroduction (Chapter 1: Ideas and Theories (Chapter 2: Philosophy and Religion (Chapter 3: Politics and Government (Chapter 4: The Fine Arts, Human and Social Sciences ‘Chapter 5: Science and Technology Chapter 6: Law and Justice (Chapter 7: Business and Economics Index 5 2s x 8 B 9 7 126 Preface Jee rps comme ne dame dla cour de Verses. ui da in hiragana, 1 have sed 0 rather than ow. Thus, ECS “political pany” becomes seitd eather than sitou, The principle of consistency might seem to dictate that I write BR "movie" a eg bt here the Spelling eflets Japanese convention: ga 59 “say? writen 99 in hiagana bot pronounced [yuu], {stkewise romanized la japonaise su. Chemical ames that appear in Chapter 5, on the other band, eg baryumu and ‘magunesuimu on the other hand, are rendered phonetically "yphenation in the romanization is Based en both mexpho- logical principles and the more practical consideration of ap- prance. The desire for absolute consistency Os yield othe regiment of readability. Except where minimal pits are already inthe ext or come Immediately to mind, pitch accent distinctions have been ig- tore. The author trust that is inteligent reader are aso a8 te listeners Acknowledgements Lastminute revision of outdated examples remind me bow Tong this book has ben nthe making. To Michael Bras, who first proposed the ies and piety usted it with sound and ineligent advice, am greatly indebwed, Special thanks also go to Shigeyoshi Suzuki, Ikewise of Kodansha International, for any hours of astute and careful sertiny of entes and lust tive sentences that were ther structurally awkward or silly inmplausible. To Masako Nakamura, my star pupil long sufer ing teacher, and wise counsellor, who generously checked each tnd every chapter and offered valuable advice, I can only ‘express enormous grate. Responsibility for such eros that remain despite the heroic effons of these ure ar, of couse, ny own Finally, fr puting up with kapuserv ni jtomoa papa, ear arigad vo my wite Keiko Suda and ou four chien. RABE ALOMPLERMDTARESACKECRENZOR. ANE EARS LV DANTHS. MADKE LMA, MOE: SME REONMCATENTNS, CORK. FHSS Le, AIG WELAMELIAULES OL GHMON LAMENESS. MOMERDEALS EB ALRARERCMRPSE Ls, GE REDE SELiLeALb mo TOT, MHORAD "HLA W SWE SOE LIE LEMLITFICA HO TES Se. oomueneencrannnn, DAMEREL THEMEN DUA IERMES, SONATE MOTE LEAMTLE SC LTAS, MFOMENEMEA MEL MELUICMN, MIENOMUEDIEMRSLMERSE SIC, EDWSA, KATURC AMT bene Deh Wi325ieK6. ToL 7 774—oMmieHe cL Sev EWS Rb DIE, COLT AYR Bh RUM. ESE peeve 8d. DELRRERMICMLMLR I SELAERZ LE Oe 2D, CHUL TERED RAM RELBELE LOT MYOCAR CASE, RIORTRMM, RETMENE ELON PV IDI T RERMTERERUEE SEES. HOMIE R OMNES EAE —TEMOM LILI, TASC LBORLIEL ET WAP EU TRMEHIED. ENS OKKOEOTRON. POUCH, ABMOARGESTADAEE ToKMDeT IY bo EMLHOUI TAS, NAME oTROE Leo THEMEIEN, RBM, SMOPCHRS E ICO ABCC ORE. WREMA THERA LEME LOTe 2. MHCLEOMUNAMERSE LEMED SNES. MINER Wit. Ri —XKONARE EDL, SHTEAROELE ANCA CH ALANT SERS LBRMAEO CHE. Introduction Barbar hc ex san quia non nega wi (Her am a arin fr no one understands me) (Ov. 48 BC-AD") Sedo cra umanasationes non idee ron lagere neque etre imelegere (hve endeavored nts eae Sew odndin man behavior bu wanders i). (Garuch Spina, 1632-77) "An nellgent boy! a Scroge. “A remarkable boy! ‘Doyo know wheter they ve wld he pe turkey fat wae hanging up there? (Chases Dickens, 1812-70) (vid ded nelle onthe Black Se. For foreigners in eden Sepa. he ky Yo enping the post's ngs ne ee ineligence ‘At det of Lain wil remeber, tlie the r= sent paricpal stem ofthe vero inter "understand be Come sare fo erly, pater nd chose rm among ‘av cones mo Egan an een eating (ip clever espacio i sil more rece ‘he various translations found in Kenkytsa's New English JepaneseDisionary ne karo no ar thing the power ode, eek ma “aoa” el a “naan kooweigesles monowoart no i od am “seas kh “wise ‘Sve hui) god en ene nae Hi mo Kit “ne of ian a nati“ ape moh Her isan example of ria “ingen” hy itt. LAROAPUME, MME ORMNET LOK LET qusr. Daigaa no ial shite wa rita-rok yor Koko o tame summon dato han sarete ima University enuance examinations are being estcized for measur ing the otto meme rer han ue ilipence isis nai ess key to suggest keen mind than the general power of reason. AS a noun, rst is used as a philo- Sopical erm o translate Greck nous, Geman Vernunf 2A FO TRMRUER) CIR ELH eyientin abe kato no “jan ris-hikan” o yomihaimets tokoro Kn iivaneneae Last night Tstaned reading Kat's Critigueof Pure Reason td pt oexted that couldn sep ‘Richi-tet smacks of intellectuals, and though intellect als are reputedly ineliget, appearances can deceive. 3 AOALAMIME LCUt E, SII ‘Ano ho wa ich tek a oo shia do, ja wa aka da, Hemay have the look of an inter, bat in fat he's ook “Mono-wakar no ican suggest a worlly-wise understand ing butis not recesarly related t inelleetual or verbal dexter AURESAONL} TA LODHNOUUAH OS. teikA! 207 EKER EIEN LEB, CE ORME BLn Yauit-san no otdsan wa mono-watar no i hie da kara, kanji ga nrantjn fo kellon sure tsunort da to Rte, up ome dat sta Being a9 understanding man, Yuriko’ father immeiatelycon- stted when she od him of ker itetion to ary» Norwegian, ila, a the English gloss implies, sme na moe ike- ly evokes the fut of long experience (or imate wisdom) than the power of raw intellect. Not that the more oles literal meaning is "wit et and eyes wide open.” S489 AOMEAT fuey Kanto‘gkaha no kannen on shugo pir de hirometa no wa, "isorando-umare nota Kain dev {i wae the Scotaman Thomas Caryl who diseminaed Kartan ‘elim in ran. “The word "eyni." when used as an historia erm refering to the “dogclike” school of Greck philosophy, is RIE Kenju-gatuha “Cynies” (it, dog Confucian schoo), but the ma 2, we Popa Raton 31 ner term fora nical person of one noticeably fond of ion is 0 hiya skin sh person Hii has cae {o be used inte gener sese of ny, sarcasm (rom Grek, 1 esh-earing)" (Ona eros cual tet meh be men Sioned thatthe Japanese tm general scem less inclined Can Westemers fo appreciate scam, that whe you ay ink 20 ae being wily iron, the Japanese may judge you as Ineely 9 Utara mean and pres) Inetering to the Skeptics ak «Crk cholo pilosophy you shoul say ARE haga “holm dou acon but ui mere wish tay that you are "shepcal” aboat x parc lar idea or proposal iis more common o say VRC E19 is$ 4 gimonftagal 0 mote imasn “(| have questions! outs tan EAC." hal etn mite ke & Skeptical view" ‘We supa isnot ose in uit the same broad seme as English “philosophic, ta coogualy can meantjer sora policy, ay of thinking” Whereas Southam Califor fies lb proper may speak of his “body bulling piles phy one might refer to sch in Japanese by the es ty sounding #27 C0 bei no mich Cay), Roe Gem te ea pel vw i ing eee io aR (wash ho) vesuge“(9) plop along with ACL jnsesan “ie view.” b if you wat 8) My ph Iosophy has always been to avoid Between mea! sacks his beter to say simplye HU Eieez node pie Sholtan mi mona abenai no ga wash mo hishn (= pe) eve HM koememeste Bere eiwey Weta no jase 9 ini Aetvoky “sugtara we nao bac poh kt nna desi 1 suppose my pilot fife cms down 0 “Going oo fr is ‘Be se a noc far enough” the. of Co. ssc Horace’ are meer te pln cas Wordworth may speak ofthe years that bring the pio: sophie mind” but to speak of FPR retouch a Selhininapanese sacks of rslationese. More nat 1824 sen koro calm sr” SPE EORDEHMC och, FRAbENERITONEE tik FaErecMmuvance 52 iy a Reign mn 28h. ‘Tash oto a ok ga waka nate mo, heise na Kahr 0 och tricaderarert tow kairnasen Advancing ape ad thinning bai il D0 neces pve one en ing ee. ‘Traditional Japanese Philosophical ‘and Religious Terminology ELROIRHEAEN PATER. NIHON NO DENTO-TEKI SHUKYO + TETSUGAKU YOGO [Even more than the West, Japan may bea largely “secularized” (thi worl) society. Everyday Japanese conversation s none theless replcte with expressions reflecting Japan's religious and philosophical waditons, a lustated inthe following selection fof words and idioms. We begin with ff sezobu Ct. worldly Ways), the mundane, secular world 16 HS Ka DO CMACEMBED ET, 6917 HIE Uo ALBIN ES ee C RAID D2 [Nomurason a Kiwarce sesh shup)ek na io de, kane~ "make suse ota sez na tom mat yom 80 Me- Namur san extremely spiritually mind person who has no inert in rmandane matics Sachs mati weallh O socal Simbing Originally, te ecoku was a Buddhist tem, refering tothe Avision between the mona andthe mundane. Ina broader modern sense, however, i refers tothe general tendency i ‘many soe today toward descralization. Funhermor. jst 25 with English “mundane” (it of this world), FE seco tek also used in a cultural sense ie, “unrefined, vlga,” ‘hough i) rsizoku tli (it passing though the oxdinar)) appears tobe more common, "The dictionary wil ll you that sezolurka means sculr- zation, but move commonly the tem refers t the popolriza tion of an institution or ustom once limited to ariscraic or ‘terete cles, “Other Boddist expressions, many of ther sir “secu arc,” inclue: #2) 88 tark-hongan “eiance on ober for lp.” Literally “other-power-oiginal vow,” this refers orig Pp adios 33 rally the concept of slvaio by fait inthe Amida Bodh, ‘whose vow its wo save all enn beings. fa popular usage, the ‘erm tends to havea negative connotation, NAMES 61M eagiLUo UMA, MELO G BEE PEL TOMIZIOON TT. -Kecik-san wa lomata tok we uno tarikhonga dest Kondo ‘nur amy fo she mo tautena ims des. Whenever Kazako gets into a jam, she always eapets oes to ‘i her vt Tis time no ater how mach se bales op 1 sme, Fat pong help het 1) rk “slf-power” is the logical opposite ofthe ark concept Note the go reading of 1 aris which is epical of Such Blais wer, and the contrast with 873 dokuryok, “lone power.” WARE, ALPS EG BTR (Bre) Bean te In ya kara sen mo mora jr de (doar de ‘than mariah ome My younger sister became a doctor quite on ber own, without ak nga pemy front or pares ter examples of words originating in Buddhism with fall oc pial go readings are: Bt Gigot el (0 (otal Bobi paraine ‘% (go karma, deeds commitedn previous xisense 1B (dona founding, exeton ofa emplesvienon®. 14 Gach) saling st stad (it ie taming 6 ‘=o go1oberebom) “dani tis etn) wee (ha) (4c (ash ari ‘A nj) disposition ature, mentality tena Hey (87 ahugy) waning ovis apprenceskip 259 ages) wold of sternal of prowition ‘(chlo bestia (orn oe dan a nse previous existence peti Min bud ene niibomes | Beet, ‘Sore wa ga ward i or yahar zens no dard 1 mia, 2M py nd Regn ‘etieve i's not so much «mater of ad ck theres of mi evs rm a previews existence ‘You wil hear older women say 8477 goshd da kara asin the Following DiiRteshe, BIGEMAT So Ue Cee. (Goths da hare, rake onomisiina de das Forth love of mer plese dot dik 00 much. ALRBORNC, RMA L Oat, ‘ind mo fd densa gat she ima cause of yesteriays lizard in are now som 2, (IMME) it, ALTUAACROR ToS LHAL oO, Saimaganttonjs™ wks worn mi agiarte ru 1 wa ‘One can by no means say that "isla" ited to parse. 1.48) menbuts (suru) refers (erally) 1 prayer to the Buddha, while 24CF 2) nengam (sur) has the vaguer mean- ing of "eamesty pray, wish hope for" 2 KEMLOMEOACHATS AWKRO ROSES 4 eigen hats no hitomi sik sr hwo ga mia ‘mot kon no naganen no mengan des na long been Miyamoto's ferent hope tobe reunited with the ‘ithe rat lin love with mle nae a aries. 1 poor Miyamoto should break a leg on his way to ther meeting he may say BALE» engi ga mara, i that he was ‘unlucky or thatthe underaking was ikomened rom the bein hing. € en is wed by ise nthe sense of “harmic) relation- Ship, fate” cf. WHE innen, It. “cause and circumstance,” in ‘which, for phonological reasons, we find an “ext” atthe be- ining ofthe second element. BMAD. MRROM ERIM 2 Li En go ane, days no inte 1 keto smash. [A fate would have iT maid the younger sister of a classmate ‘nen shook 25, EMER 9 AINA C908, AMIEL EE Lt Seema Cae Kare emo ta iw i “oto hake nt wake deena oma shi to aha Pushy Regn 38 shard for met say why ended my cnship wit in, but the facta be edo edocs my wie stir 2s BKUMDORUERS cALREORM TACHA L LOI, aonb Gar fee, Miyamoto gt hava no yabarichan to onan no konchi- gota "de satla sh no wa an a no lame am sree ve twas fate hat Miyamoto met up agai with Yukat, the love of his ie, at at ears entomlogy Solty MCU. [Not suprisingly, #8 en is commonly used in association with mariage, as ean be Seen in such combinations as #88 ddan “maciage propos” #918 naien “eommon-aw marriage” 1K rien “divorce.” and #48 sain “emariage.” An unhappy relationship that somehow cannot be broken is vividly de- Serbed asa 848 kusare-n "raid relationship.” “The native Japanese reading of 48 is yukar, asin HOA ular no mono “a relative, «person with whom one bas some Sor of tis” When such es ar cut, however, the Sino-Japanese realng is used: 9109 emir SLA (or B88) dana “master,” ef. danna-san “your, Net) ‘naband” is originally fom Sanat danape "ch patton of religion.” (Other Sanskrit elements which have entered Japanese via Chinese include ME ma’ demon” [cE jama “interference” and SEER mahd-bin "arg thermos bot” it magic botle), 22% # [388] daruma “Bodhidnirs, drama {Goll and 8 shaba “this wont, fre Society Te. 8 op- posed to prison”) DMRESLOUMSAL, HHIe THON EOL) Bel Fate una no danna-san wa, cine nate kara daruma no 3 if shat ‘Yumio's husband became fra «drums oll when he reiched ‘msl age me RE BRUT UE LI, Tain lama iashmasia Pease excuse me for having disturbed you (a thera pie way sain tye oa apg oa ern o 36 nny Reon weer seERer, Shabe we disehagul dese ‘When you come dwn he wor is nothing bt al of ear Be TERORRERO ME.) CREE) “Shabana eiga rym no ene" (Pom The Taleo the Heike) “The glory ofthis world bot a ream of eam.” (the well Tow Latin etm Ste ans plora mand?) ML RROMAOHS, FSC CORLERE ELE, ‘Sengono Konan no mkt de, masa nt ano yo wa alo ksi ‘The chase afeonath ofthe war tamed the noma misery ofthe ‘word into genuine bel, “The Sino-lepanese erm for nrvana—the sate of release not only om fuga but also for rine (Sans samsara), the tendest cycle of Birth, death, and rebith—is 1298 nan. A ft ‘more commonly understood Japanese word inthis regard. as popularized in English through interest in Zen is 180 sao, ‘Served from the verb {5-2 (3L=) stor cf adjective x) Sat “clever, pereptive.” Keakyasha’s New Japanese- English Dictionary offers te fllowing example: 22 Ui OHO FM CBD ER. ‘Basa was Boat no shit suvate stoi hirharea. ‘Gautama sat under Banyan toe and experienced situa avak ng ‘Bussuda, another Indic word borrowed through Chinese, refers ofcourse. t Gait, the historical Buddha. sear, ‘Nam Arid Bsa Hail Arid Buda! ‘Combinations with bts incase the following 1498 uta) Buss stave PR dan pea Sate of he Buda 15 elie) one Beha ‘8 (asa) Buds meri service 4rd) Budi aise 1. (aug) Bait paitiog “4. aug Bad aise {Ja atage ya) Budi (ata ate shop 1, jeu) Neva, Boddabood Papago 7 ‘2 nenbusu) prayer the Boda MECOSAHE REET, RICUUMEHD LEK CLE Olson ga nour made, uch mwa butsadan go arimaten de: ht Un year, we i ake a Badd ar in cr Another word fr “Buddha,” ako writen, is hotoke, ape pacaly an older bowing via an Alta language. 3.3065 dt (A Japanese proverb) Sra ga hook. " ‘gnoranc is bis. Lt Nott now so be Buddha) Ina profane sense, hrokt-sama) often refers to anyone who has recently died, specifically to the remains. A policeman, atleast ofthe TV variety, may be heard to say WENT DEI FOMEME REE DID. [Kore det ano ook mo hooker naa a wake a. Sots finaly mthis maker” [Note that fs, the kan reading of (refers now exclusve- Iyto France, eg, (3% fs bunk “French herature ‘The priest who wil preside atthe Buddhist funeral ofthe victim i of course, a4: zu, an older form of which the source for English “bonze.” Buddhist priests are usually fefered 9 as £3) obésan. Combinations with baz in le: 5:25 bézn-atama, lit. bonze head (Le. hair cropped very shon), and = 805 mika boeu, ite day bong, e fering to the Fickle and weak-wiled, wih their easily brcken resoltions. SEAR I 2 698 EA GERL. Genie, ‘Shujn wa faba © yamery wo nana mo yakusol shits koto ga “raked, tum mith da wa. [My husband hak promised to uit smoking many times, bathe never lst ong waene uo Words and expressions of Shinto origin are far less pervs sive of obvious than thse driving from Japan's Buds ra ion. Here ae provided fen examples, “The old word for “heaven” in Janese is ame/ama-. as in the name of KAUR AmaterainO-ikami “heavenni- ating great revered- goddess” the sun deity whose grandson Ninig no Mikoto descends to earth to found Jaan. A humor fu ineverent alison tothe myth is implied inthe expres Sion JF ama-dart, i. coming dow from heaven, refer Ting wo high-level government bueaveratsrerng to assume igh poying positions in pate indus ‘Visitors toa Shinto sve, eg the Grand Shrines of Is sA2e Ise Daiingh ate called BH5% sanke-sha in Sino Japanese. The native word for such pilgrimages i i mode, ef. {nih hacsusmade “fst (New Years) shrine visi.” Mode to hasan extended, secolrized use SN RIL EBS HEIRD ORC BRET Sumac na hatentoyol ga keen 0 motomete rho ‘mide one Various developing countries make heir way to Japan in serch of ‘conor “Those who find themselves making repeated appeals for such help may be described as doing BHR obyakudo- Inaiigong bak and forth one hundred times to worship (and fray)" A similar expression, also used ina secularzed sense, eine Rite obytudo o fiona “ead one hundred tines, sed metaphorical to describe repeated request for favors. Finally nothing e more representative of atleast ope dom rant theme in tradtional Japanese eigon and philosophy than fe majo ito conan.” fefetng to the tansy nature (fall things The concepts suggested in some ofthe examples Shove, but the spetic tem is perhaps best know from the familiar words that begin 73904 Hetke monogaiari or The Tale of the Heke, the eal thinwonth-century war fomance, also cited in example 30: 2, FMM ROSOM, IMHO. | ‘Giemsa no kane m oe, hogy mug nab a “The sound of te Gion frp Bll echoes the impermanence of "arin “The ida ise hasan echo in sayings x many cultures and languages. at in the pre Socratic philosopher Heraclitus” Famous dct: ponta rei, widely Known in Japanese by its more or les literal translation, 89%: Banbutswraen “All things ow and tum, ‘cUrTeR Politics and Government “Anthropos physeipolitikon zoom. If Aristotle had been Japanese, he would have sade XMLLAEESRAT CS ingen wa nr sei tk-dobuon dear "Haman beings se by tue pil ates” Ts whl the spn fo cigner should be prudent (GE. yjin-bua) i expressing Tio er persona pola views (28 seen, 2 ma of a inligent cosmopolte (8 stax or BE Asan) isthe bly to nderaand and duns the workings of the teu poitie (8 atu), bah anally and intemal ‘This chapter hepine with Sasi pica concep, then moves cn to voraulry ued more pial odeserbe the apa ‘Se sytem of goverment We conclae wih tens tcl to teers wishing to know owt all abou he olla syste inter tore cunts Government 1 SEL "The old native Japanese tem for “government” is maturi-gto 2, which orginally refered to the "worship of the gods” ‘Sino-Japanese # se comes from Ancient Chinese chien. ‘which fst meant “make straight” a reminder of the spit of Confucianism tha entered Japan slong withthe new language, some 1.500 years ago. Inthe following are lstated some of the compounds using the Word, it epi 4 (ea) pean 4 itn) politcal power 3 (el) political party RR Grist policy 2 iso goverment [i ote) goverment. sect 198 (gee adminseaton ik (nate domestic oles Je gael frig iplamatic policy ‘ECE (ie-ha) ctntesan (i. ding pois person) L ROAR Rea ROMEO S Lote ppan-teki ni seii-ke wa, 101 mirai de wa naka txugi mo senkyo no "or hk kangaena CGenerily speaking, politicians think nt ofthe distant fue but ater of fe net clacton, Pint ree 2 FBOMET, AERTS MIME ABE nat ork no selyo de, hshut8 ga siken 0 wsina tand-sei we ‘ton ral mola : In the upening election, think theres very Title chance that he ‘Conservative Pary wi lene power 3 hy Fr WHE, 195 WOLF CRMEMS Cd Lifes ERM HCL FY ACRE MCR EMTT ‘Saichd'motoshash wa, sen-kyshyaku-nanajiynen kara Sen ‘puja jackin made sehen o mite masta Sere wa Enda iit de moto naga tut sete deste Foe Prime Miniter Thatcher was in owe rm 1979 wo 191. Taste ngsst government aver Bits istry. [Note that seen can refer both to politcal power in general and to individual governments in paral sels alo sed in he sense of “management 8 dae howschening 'RAMC= 4) las’ fa-aan) housekeeper, cleaning ly 62 (ane) postal sstem ae) pic) nace 4 FORECH, LOKKME LEON ZORARET. Tima mo man de wa, ot kaif 0 misukra no wa shen ‘dem {In comtemporary Japan. itis very hard o find goo domestic lp Sciam Rae aRO CE Lis Chien wa moreso sh tne mas, My fuer woke forthe Minsty of Agia, Forestry and Hee OMMERT RET ZOU, fen meLs 5. Yat ga somo aie hoa ni hans raruna wo, earimae ded esate ext hat he cpponton paris wil oppose the ‘An eater pronuelaion of ssh, but it is now confined exclusively to Nek sexshd "epency.” as in MELOE eesthd no Imiya "Pisce Regent” Forms of Government ef SEITAT Both # sei and EE siti fonction as suixes for terms de seeing “forms of government 28 (nice evan goverment "Regus lary government ‘RIOR yma) epi, SE (Bk eta) contains, 88 EEE(ibten shes) contistonl monarchy ‘Mere common, however is: sug ao iloseatedin the previous chapter, 1." whose use is ‘89 (mine shu emweracy people master in) SILER dolusshp) dexpoi,dctoesip 2216 eal shu walt AER Gin shag (lia ieralism MEER hat aha sialon AMER Uydnashg) commis (common prop 1EM (guntok sh miliaris Sil anther word-cum-sufix is BUM) se do) “system” BW dashes: monarhial system (prnce-master sy ‘i em-) Usga’s) Emperor system ‘HIBMIE (wersedo) feels, eal system (et-uit- ing system). SE: (erp seid) constnionais SAME (owe side) sepulianiso (ommon-harmony WAM patanentary sem ‘AFL renp-seido federalsm TERROR MA Ye, 6S eS CREF ng Ute Minaleshugh to hashi-ch no gisha wa, senha ro "Fnanasne Kare sen khekicnanaiyoen made unset ‘imac. CGrecce the bitplce of democracy ay under military rl from Toei wo 1978 ce ee mig tc ai ge axeeaR, TEENY, ‘idol hon was ritken-kunsha toa des Briain and Japan ate cositionl monarchies. SAE RUAS, SHORE ILC 2 LIER BRL “Minshu-setal wa, ybmavea oon de arto wa kgirimasen ‘The demecatic frm of government does not necessarily mea 3 epic form of govern WO RRRDURE, FEA FE YEAINWV VOTES AOD Se Taken) Cps~ doe) on, RRRRINER Aa cep CO anMeT " Senatch no min 0 nacht ya surin wo sabe no 9 "a temtashug- kata” to Nba bet a dD ha wo, reise ‘Jase ga mada rons shite ra monde dest \octher wartime Japan shoud be characteris “olin” in ‘hese sese a Naz! Germany ofthe Soviet Union under Sis san nates being debuted by historians and poltical ave, AME RONAN eeeualr ” Nagata sense as tens mihon no haken-seldo mi tite then “enn mane gio nasaimashia Last week Professor Nagata gave a mos informative lecture 00 pan’ fend stem ra Roman, migeyticay 2. Nikon no gia reido wa, Met jdt ni sakanoborimas CR SMARS AA apn patiamentary sy em goes ack othe Meer nea ES eB tht v ‘mikata wa kyokutan-sugiru to omoimasen ka. aaa Yount ie cocarcnes = Seton te ‘The Major Organs of Japan's Govering Body CPROREAR NIHOWNO SEULKETTAL Re lig smi of mst nga mu wl ‘elt wn dang he es ft be me ranches 0 Sap ong Buy, oe and judicial: Z . i Aneta "te Ch rn da Ce Oe SIRAR RM (olde ann hai) Nations Plc ‘Safety Commission " IBMT (boeteh) Detene Agcy {28 (omush) Min of Pole Managemen, Home ‘Mui, Poss and Tesonmniatons 284 home sho) Ministry of Basie {8 (game sh) Minty of Foreign Ata 8 ims) Minty of Finance GLH G (mond kapoteshd) Ministry of Edson, ‘Care Sport, Since an Technology PM (hosel rods) Ministry of Healt, Labour ‘nd Welse ” AR urns shy Mii of pce, er ‘estry, and Fisheries: - BORER deieatsangyosht) Ministry of Economy, ‘Tae and indy ° WL 250% (kod koe ha) Ministry of Land, Infrae race aT RINE (Lonyohd) Minisy ofthe Environment (URE ET (nlalarands cht Chet Cabinet Sertry (loa he Dit ‘BIRR sani) Howse of Comers ‘BIAPLINL (sonp'in-icko) President of the Hovse of ‘Coarior ‘PIRIERH angen) Member ofthe House of Coas- Rush House of Representatives RUREERE (shigingicho) House Speaker -RIARERH (ois Representative 1 (shih) the Ficiary RAR (lh-scbo sh) Supreme Cour {Base A aa bash -hiton Chet ioe ‘ofthe Soeme Cour KF ako har) Supreme Cour Jsice BADER, 77 nokta DIEM the Nihon mo sidan 2, amerika no dete hao komo 0 Japan's prime minster does no wield power tthe same extent 5 do US presidents. SESS eter oa penny es) 6 SR"CHEAMRORARCMEN SME, AMOR Eanar. Yo de ara jin no tiki de erabarer bua wo, jets ‘The preside’ ofthe ring Liberal Democratic Pry chose the Pry conven, stomatal) becomes pee mine Seater ay 16 PR REMRMIE LMM EME DoT EA. LU 20nR et CH20K, HADDT EAGER Sheusela, ‘Kanbo-chian 0 ftezenjnin shia ris wa mada akinaka ni ‘ate imaten shi sono iuchimak site tu now hon ‘wea na efi a kage iu det "The reason fr the sulen resignation of the Chie Cabinet Secre ay sl not clea, nd ose wh do ave te inside ry ae prabsbl its to andl of pois APOE OKI, AMIE 2A, Taéaisiushin no shiin-peimudain ws go pa hana ‘ese ine initio selec guar w aemomran one Ce oie ato Sn a vrakusen shite shimaishita, ‘one e vy ih tir fe Hate areata den ee Fe ty hi carcees vc ci, oe may sly Smee aos ne » ReRoREeANATeNNeRY mrss, m Lee eRea tment Image gn ie eg Taco Sec ct tg he end ama acho ee eat amet ai eecncaetra (RAEN. ou, a, aanengenicn PARTE ote hana nga neSe Ehigusei 008 tein ae tt oe opemhansioot aan Geter ore inane “ep uf re i pe er pecs neon SRE Sncmn ee PERI, REOMBCAB CLE RT AT ADMIRE. BOMBA. aie LeGhenMumeRnteRt Coat. HEORRR free niseMEne cod eh Ameria no sikO-sibansho we. kenpd mo ish dake de wa ‘ok pp ri kanshte mo ken etigolateti no yr Iwashiteimasu. Nihon no salkg-satbansho wa sore hed ——— eno o mart imasen, : src US Sopome Cot plays a rater activ oe, not ony in he US Soret tos Canstton but aso ih the making OF ie rerars Supers Court does nt Wild SK PONE. fn secordance with the Basic Law on the Administrative Refne ofthe Central Government, formulated in June 1998, we SP isis and agencies hat were headed by ministers of (Ree were reorganized into 13 new organizations. The, Prime Ministers Office (220M s6r-fu) was replaced the Cabinet Tinos (ME neikakuf, which is headed by the Prime ‘Minvter, The Limpril Housebold Agency (HY kunalch) Mander the Prime Minister's jurisdiction. Agencies (iF ¢hd) ey eommissions (24% Vika) belonging tothe Cabinet Office ae: (ae 9 (ke kanal) National Pb Safe smi eich Defense ASEDEY DmcAtnNNsey 92, MRR ML CORT Fama byo-Reiyi-sentd wo, amkyO3hO mole ‘hie ie “the National Ist for the Minamata Disease is part of he ‘vinsy ofthe Environment. aareanid, eC BH EOL CHET, Tench annem Rasa ia a sie a, “Thera Houncold Agency i in charge of mates reed 0 ‘he lmpral Housed Japanese Political Parties HoRDELSE NIHON NO SEITO Political panies in Japan are more murerous—and less Tong Feed than in any ofthe oher advanced industri demoers: Teh following Is alist of those which are likely to be eb to he great majority of Japanese—and tobe stil xi tence when this book 1s publishes. HAGLER Gipteminshet) Labeal Democratic Pay of Japan the (hin- shah) The New Soils Paty 2998 (ame New Koto i isa Literal Panty LES (mints) Democratic Pay of 0 Dagan BASRA hon yan 8 apts Comnis Pay "(0 payin power " 543 Gao epposon pay BS MRE WESSEL ERAS oct whismaec, tnumixosger Jiote-minshit® a, sn-lyhyaie gjugo ne n jy sh ew oshust de tre teh ‘he Liberal Democrat Pays conservative 'anulgamaten of the Liber Puy and he Bonet Bay a 1388 since em. apn ig pa. ° tense ene 26 RADON £99 rnc RENO. o> HMM AMR Bint Jiyii-t® wa kokuren no okonau heiwa-iji katsud mut a hoch sin,” "NO" be Literal Paty hs dere tha apa should actively pai inthe pencekerping grabs of i United Nong NEE OME RIL CCH, Kn goa mn oe dal cla te elatship ere e New Ke nd PRTEEmnon cmos ta 9 2 Lr i wa Merch sh ee ge arimasl. Tele ft Nw Cee Pace 0 2. DARMRIE ONT Xba? ERED wang RGR ON Be nen ihon-xesan-d dono ted maruhusu-rinin-sugio Nel shite ia wa dare mo watarimasn. Nope knows to what extent he Japenese avowed Mitosis Comment Pay bas —— ‘Local Japanese Administrative Bodies TED AE NIHON NO JICHL-TAL Jichi-ta erally means “sele-governing boy” # somewhat sie cin Japan's highly cenalzed ste, reetng ee rament Ate bao ievel thee are ory=¥e8 “Gna units comsting of fory-hee St ken pete. mens go sprvine” (Ley Hokhad), one 10 “me temic te, Tayo), and wo "municipal prefectures” pete lo and Ona) Below these a sh ets.” HT tech rom and marae ngs” races ae ao grouped int 2 gn “istics” o “sub-pe ies oc thse have no fc goverment functions) The Tete ae vided into wars” within which tee dane ae) Smnnsipal ists” an administrative i so hed inthe smalls SU he ch gover (nyo te Foye tes tense ket sa archi gover of Hkiao) ‘bu Goch goremor of TIO) Ib Ure gover oer Kye or Os) wee Fe musiek) Mayor of Mssino FBLC ina tuchd) Miao Wad Ciel ‘SAT tna mrh-hico) Hea of Mime Mii tet uRRH A omacat-mare-soncho) Yamacal Vilage cut ities, towns, wards, and villages al have tet sR ia casos and ginal Fepresetaives: Ici) gill cy sembly epee) TTA SURI (gen own sembly epee to MSR be gai-p a wad sembly epee HR SURE) iain lag sey prette) Adminsatieofies fr sich purposes ste naiiation cot dea manage, and vere ae eter 2 Gatusho) ot teste fay oe ting ose oe muniplties aid wards, their ors and ils. ‘2 ti stah) nip ce {EBM (heya wate 18 (mah oat) own office #108 (mur ya) lag oie So kotmocH Rca MRERBLARRN SACL SE0°SUEEAUR,theeuaamscc.e.« Sod Sn a na ae ‘When | first came to Japan, Mr. Minobe ws the ft ae oan, ib are vee of U-RNOMMA DAR CHHL MESA, 3 bor Sen EP BROBRRE TLE. SOF Ro ng shan ty Se hn sh rraa w ‘chibi ns Me Miaka who wei at on tan et mans aig ase len pp da A NABER CuRL CL ans = BM EpINeR Lt tos, caso Coke i ins mata nod "ek my le rept ein om aig vena sone te International Poli bsiea&i KOKUSAL-SEUE As nope ae afc wn decide te pc json ofthe nv cous, we conde wi 8 Scted ‘so ae pit! ato nd tse Some tne g {RR silat have general applicability, so that the 721) aR cnc oe Cong I at at sh Parmer, #47 dogo Bundestag, and 1 2. a i Sian, Bands. a In ower ga te Hal "86 renga the United Kin FPR (ka in) House of Commons ae ME Hoe of Lone ‘Aha Prime Miser 18:79 (hose) Comeratve Pay "52 (od) Labour Pay ee 1180 (ahaha minha) Soil Democratic any 17 68 hemos Rent (oi coun. e8. (his (ofy eg. (man) le of Man £149 kana rers be Doi of Canta in Svat erin He of Comma {28 aa) Gover Genes $i inky Pe Mier 7 SUB 6 tino hohe) rgesie Coser tie Go Len Pry 9 27748 omarioshn Oma 4 oh prvi. ath gunna eno e 227 Ga ash) "ice Tey 424917 Ft daroara rep be Common of Avs Lm Sense En ease f Reps 4 tnt) Govemor Gv fl uhaho ne er fit Gosh bert Pry I tn om rey SH do Lao . FEI nd) Demi Lstoe Pay Aiton pve eg. 7227 seman ‘ho Fama {99 mean ex iit alamo "eh ee ey 7414 8 emera-gassik te United Sates of "aver {TR gy chan ci exe = ‘to pes ea wef Repsen Ean Sena [RAs tome) Reson Pry SE (minute Democratic Party MN (oh) ate, eg, =~ 3— 2M myinctrshay New "York Sia B (gun couny.eg, £7 b= bY AR em ‘ens gar) 3 Lawrence Couty BARI bas ROO: La Sevsmemecugte GALS CUE ae Mss howaitabedi ga host mo day tsi kant ni ‘hsb surat vaso Kite ontop. hon di ke ve been hearing rumor hat Miss Whitehead is going vo stad as ‘Conservative candidate nthe paliamenta elecions ik Hepes oRMMER. ees ott5 cr, Rado i yor sayotactekrk3 we, Ren ont des ‘Leting influence emanating frm the Labour Pay al to have weakened in ecent Ye " SAFO F< HOME, HOLE OSL BETH, ADUNOT Lic 2 DEH ona no ket sh no mens wa. non mo iba a sanbai "oma jako wa nanaleha'ma-n mmo nase {Cat's Quebec Province is wo ote times Ire han apan inare, butts population dees each sven waa WI-ANIITO—9 HHL, ECT, satoraria no haku movo-shshd ret dese ka. saws’ fomer Prime Minister Hawke + member of be Latour WEAN TOMBE, MMBICb EEE Eph le) : [IR (soa) detetion (know > (0) BEDI (gochi-onsoma)epenbesi (eg, UE san + 3 aan) {HGF Go'on exrescent Sound (eg oat) ‘ina (gordon enka) pte (ation ofan initial ‘unde Latin sat "als > Spanish eu) AMER (on'imtentan) meabeis (Ii. sound position Swe oOo ra ve WL earache) 10 (ei gol) maboloy (he dy of word and pre Sacto PS Leta on) SQLS (dish azn) ve conjugation {381 dobr-hena ese ition |S ase gengo) nesting language (BABS chicka eng) apguinting Inewage ‘RIS ortgengo) sling language S21 (go-go) syta te study of pase and sentence sce ao BN torn) EG aha) subject 05 Gago predicate 2H (mish noun {C801 mesh pronoun 1 (dah ves 0H Goth airy ve BH Ueiest adjective BIR (dash) savers {8 Grnchi sh preposition ERD atlas) conjunction "9D anak iejction AIBA (ago-h) word formation RMU Ge-g0) rete BRE etd go) un tka goirom texicology AE (vamaelotba) ative Japanese NES lang) Sio-lapanese (Chinese loanword usually ‘writen an) ‘408 aia oon words in eferece to Japanese, ually aon Chinese FERED (how’ yok shabu) loan-transation (othe frond Kai aca, transated rom the Engin “lear fanly" S98 imvon semantics it meaning theory) 2 (hi sie, metaphor {08 (hota) simile i. ct gure speech) BW n'y) metapoe it biden Figur of speech) Ek (och hyperbole ‘18129 (eno hygen) euphemism 9°7~18 (aig) taboo word 2108 aaa go) Ssciminsory language “Traditional Japanese linguist terminology EPP tage gala atioal nguage saty 154 (nbn) eohony, concn, ee > Kite “ite. ne n> nde ving’: nemate> neat “eng” ‘9 Gos (psposceal paricle, eg. wa a.m 00, ‘(ao known at: fe oa fou repeseatave amples) {68 psd) nomial adjective (tases ve), fp, 8 Rev (ret nae) beat tue {8 Gat conjugation ves nd adjectives) ZEIMG (nore inp eg evan "oes teat") MME (en tet concn (f- Anat “wants eat) ‘aL shih) predieve (ek eat) AIG emake) atrive gua i eating person") ‘G°2H tet hypothetical (eg duebe "fs ‘99 mie te) pera (ede “eal” In classical Japanese, the form represented by Kei teat ed as CINE leone "perfective lueba, for example, means having ete.” SHURE DRIER CARRE CooL BAUR ARON E MLC RMODSRM TS (Chagos 1 mn g0 wa ovat gozok wi zak shite ina ‘oi ssh Yo Bp ae kare mie ma ics sa no fru geng dese Chinese and Japanese do not tlong to he same language fail, ‘sd ar als tkngly iferet mn regard to sound system 44 raat MAP RBHRDINOEICN 79 AINA 9 FORK CeO RSL MeO IKE, FCC RMIBEE COMO TO ELS sl eu wo eo bain safe Pathan Lr gach tne XY setae ales mss Wen $1 yak ose pene of San rape Ste Calg ge tne Sect ha ef She os 1 Btu keonnames, REELaIRE ARE cha ae oe tnne make leaeacel © face falta tams) tlessne cena To Seay Me Le ri el espe nants bal ge afin: Tock, pon-ac go ae oan se Rt Sana id i alert Inthe sr coos oO ns he penne md he See er cee te Sanctpetng Motes pee meant shee (Ss in es mo ag es engi onan 17 reloh-gatHiory Genel ‘HK oAnetenan sng BEER Chan arya ha avn sa ida aca THRE Up eliae peck ae (1 Ste ne OSI tonne seh gp lew Ss ne AI cite Bz Ae fi (da ancient (tines) "Pe (chet) medieval (es) BC (nda modem ime) RE (genda) comtemporary (ines) 2M burma civilization Zaft bunt) clare {FM Geol epee 1 (cho dynasty B—iBE (roma-ho's) Roman Poni, pope (also Ait ‘pata (EE (hota) "monarch. o's aucen IBN (hen sid) feadlion oud system) BE co) arsocrcy ‘30 lsat duke (8 Gashatn marques {08 (hala ea, count $8 (hshalu) viscount, JRE danshat rd, baron Japanese SHH Ganon jd mon prod (10,000 BC-300 B.C.) SLBA ay da Yayo prod (GOD BC-AD. 200) ‘SI (yamar-ida) Yano period (300-580) AIRE asda) Ansa ero (550-710) S148 (ar ida) Nar period (110-79) "PSE head) Hein period 794-1185) 8405 hamature ida) Kamas prod (1185-133) |RP0EE (maromach ha) Macrach erid (1333-1568) RAB aohiage ida Asbikag eid (ae 8 sore) ‘ELAR (asc momoyame- fide) Aza Momoyana period (1858-160) {LP (edo:ida) Ed period (1600-1868) ‘208 otugawe ida) Tokugawa pei (sme a above) Le (mei ie) Mei period (1868-1912) “ATES (tod da Tash prod (1912-26) MBE howe ida) Shows period (1926-9) FR hed) Hest perio (1989-pesent) 2th end apaes empere 28 (hope) sbogun £81 (date shopenate (i. tem government) {ERLIN (shi nd ho-sho) wari, fares, ns, tides men (the four beavis cater under the Tokwgawa Sogoate "iG (mech Me Reston KEE? 9 7 (ashe demotarash) Taiko Democracy 2#UL2& gntote sage AFR Gales) te ae Wat Sab enn ane Oeaon ‘ei eno ia pst pes So RLY MPI, 4x17 AERO MMEE ‘hin ler pla ily wa mad maa sgino “blunt ber no clo imate ae Hina seach Jaan el feng rom te dogma ‘cm of Ma tele pce ee Romie, ROO 9 bate 1 fe hn ll or mo ne cea Been Ap peas prs illerin, Meso | besha ame tee, HUB REE Sonepat tans ive teow sh in se, een 0 ‘Seer as nano non © oa a sau sey Dace ae eee) Eup sd nats wo, ent Teo 9 a sea Ta fesse heen ps ps wa AL shal-gaku Sociology 22/4 (hots sil ngaization 2ST kata chsyo) seal ont ‘2°84 (hatte condons 6 hoki sociale ‘NCE han seit) He 3 OND AEE (jn seas) Meas ainda ‘KILL (hidon shin group psychology 1S (hala wd) social oveent ‘Me eka) masses) SoRSERY ih anda) mss movement see hak ls soil agrees ‘2 Gin) patton i Ginsh race ‘INGORE (icon) ie group "EM ohaya) reson FH (unre a0 |F (sholagy) cecupation rt it) edseation {© (hing) income ay) soci clases EMRE Gora) upper class "930. (chart mo fsd-hatkya) upper mide hse "PRE hiya mide hss PO FRE (Chir no kasé-daky ‘se FARE (arta ower class, underclass iM (hishiitaly) te edad lasses ‘BIR kena) the privileged clases ‘$2088 tanto) propeny-owning lasses ‘RAE (mason) propenyes clases, plein ‘FIRE (ota) working cases RU (ays) cass consciousness RABI (aya) class ware Marsa) 08 ico) ets, people "ARIE (minal ih) ee ety RI Ohosminob enc mine {$5286 ( minenb-ott) muta ste B—RIRIOR (coemincoa-otda) ethically bom enous Sate inact chiataren shat) open sacety RHE (eis eh haa) eased society AM) Gina ei) sober ial arian 948) (Joga-don ens of allenation 0A (aka elt remta social sodaty 7 3 ~ WBE ark on sh) leholism WIEN (moyotejsha dg dion IK hala aca) extended fay 8 (a haokoucearfaily RABE (aio ant) common iw mariage 1816 (ilon diver 318 itor) rearige ‘cE ILAE (aie hasan iegiiat ih “448015 (lon no hah) ured moxher |RG EAL ola inanoflense agin pubic morals 2 (ran) promiscuous sea elation, ‘HR (sepokn sahara perversion SRM (ish shan incest. IG (die) bomexuaty {818988 Qoron chia) pbc pinion poll ‘ACER (ink dv) vital sates ‘ACE Ginga demography SIMRCHARORREEBL tx im tar —Lo~ Bekanacit, TAR GOR ce ET asset sak go no Baten 0s ha endure Pees no tbe Melt kn ewe,“ 9 To cise ase {nthe best Known wrk of Eile Dari, whofe he develop tet of sca enter cen th je See teted wo Fhe) © (RRR 2 Leong A 7ate RE eaken abt, aMiboig ioe teh. “Chiryshat” ya tannin ihn no indi te dor odo gone de rs hae, aca pron no beats 6 “Te debate contues on Row much he image of Japan as. "id lel etal bomogeacws societal. AN BRE C, ROA CRIT pace Ot ct, on no ht de hbk ech ni tn conta to European Americas only rece that theo ‘arfamy har come prominent napa OUR Science and Technology {in Westem European languages, words for “selene,” including the English tem, originally refered to knowledge in genera, ‘F Oerman Wissenschaft (< wissen “know"), When 3. Ge itis published his Wistenschaflehve in 1795, for example, his con em was the "theory (study) of Knowledge,” and his work Ts thus literally eanlated into Japanese as ME hshii-gal [evereless, when Meira Japanese scholars looked for 4 term to represent the more specific meaning the word Wissenschaft has in our own day, they Seed on #' hago, Ii “section stady." The sppropritenss ofthe choice may no be apparent unl we remember that acquiting knowledge ot ndrtaning sn para proces of diving nd sing. lected in the native Japinese word $42 wakarw. Though ‘eanlted as “now, understand it Hterally means “be divide (of. vanstive) 172 wakera "divide Not coincidently selena (c sire “know") itself drives from lndo- Europese “skei- “ca, divide, separate,” which yields schedule (ef, Japanese jan wari time-beakup) and schism, shed ‘sheath, a even the vulgar English word for excrement. In this chapter, we contin ofok atthe world of eaing, this time focusing on the eam of #7 kagaku, We begin with summary ofthe major feds inthe nar sciences some of ich a also found i he previous chapter. We then continue With examples and ilsrauons of terms which specialist ad layman alte can expect to encounter Science FRE KAGAKU “The APA rigalacbu “cul (clleg) of scene” ina Japanese tniverity incldes both he “hard sciences” and mathematics. At ‘ne insta, we ind the following department and sections ‘8°PH gabe) ntbematics department eR oie gat algebra RPV (aga) geometry [EF Css applied mahematics at et spat) sass HEN tr gtk phys department ‘ERI rust go) theoretic pies CFSE gensh-usurt- gob) atomic ysis ‘6 ae busr-gka) soi state pss ARES Gither-butur-gala) experimental physics (P8 kngatha chemisy department {WILE busue ago) physi chemistry UR mt aga inorganic chemistry ‘INET Guage) ganic chemistry "HU (cbkagatin bchemisty "2997 bua gabba biology deparment "B07 (ta: at) mxpogy (alsa em in ings) AIR (sit ake physiology P87 (atau) eoloy AARP (e-glay sstematics APH (chip) earth scenes deperment 8 (chit ala ge0lony 59 abu ga) mineralogy News to say, thelist is hardly exhaustive, Conspicuous missing. for exarpi, is the entire Field of 72 tenmon-gata “astronomy” OF eter subjects tha realy come to mind, we sight mention he Following te: AE (andi) wigonomeey P48? (un setioun ga) iferemal and integral ‘aco IEE? ema busar-gala asroptyses Sean so Teese) 7 IRR tba gaa mips ao 7 8 87 miaro-bt aa) st Cota gate Doany 1 (dobune gat) zeoogy {977 debug pkousogy AM chen jaa) ppl topology {82 Ghoti mceoongy ATP? da gat ocsanageny LARA, (ROR EM COLL LRH a, LONE AUC bese tie ey ao, 8 ha no wae de, a “kage edt mo demas. Ken got a sling slg eqns, ba Be canoe oe ie rim dost omen. LAY TAO RETR RERE MRL TOLD, BRL Roe DMB UE) POL Pe nba dag de kita 0 Bey shite itso, ‘hi kaart oe oh kel abe des ‘When [was studying business economies a the Univesity of ‘amur, the peat ordeal Was, el, Stasis. Even if quadratic equations (= fs mij att shi) are ‘ot your cup of tea, you will ned 10 know the baie erms for xia arthmetie (sans 2 asa a JEL asian “aion”) 51 hia) suc 8 Azan "subuacton") 181) 2 hake rail (BEY W aden mip”) We (war vide C8 warn “vison” NOES? S, M—INRUHIE ES, IXOKEIORKE ES, 22 aussiceae ita p9 wa go i mane Hachison ha janana wa rola. rola ni mant Sin ker ya Iyahach mt are. Nin trar'yon we go-eno [the vowel Of the ist go cing) mt os$=15,83-1 Two words for “ati.” one naive Japanese the other Sino- Sapanese, ae HG wari and Se iru LMT O9Y ROTOE RID MRE, AY 9 RIAD 66.12% 08.22 + 4255 Leamiome dem cr. Kita-cirurando no purotsauantshinja wa, kaorbishinja i taht nate no wana hrs des “The rato of Protestant Catholics in Nore Irelands two © 1 wari used by isl inthe sense of “sare, rte, rto.” (Sino-Japanese) # rs SHELA, ANSOAMOM CELE LORRE EMIS etetes Swoon, ssan gojt-mar-en no war de oan no san 0 “ea tate shimaimashi. ‘Suk squandered ll the money she ibered fom ber fer at the cof 00000 week Asa nit of measurement, wari means 10%, in contrast hui 6 MORIA ERHL CORBA, ELOMSHIE Oto cuaue seh, ‘She no ats o sist inion wa, mada son war 'g-bu mo mate a0 dese “Te numer of lapanese saporing the movement 1 abolish cp "al panshmeat epoca Sl sands at ss han 3% Fractions (FB dural) ae expressed in English as numers torfdenominator (3°F = 90 bunsht-burbo} in Japanese, he ‘onda is reversed, so that instead of “two-thirds” one says. 3 12 abun no ni, of tae pars, two." The word for “pe ents borrowed from English as" + pdsemo (eg 3 sense samp pasemto 325). TABOMMIEL EL. ALPE TIHRLD 350 Li, let mrKee ct. 8 no shinbun sora, boruchimgshimin no san-ban no ich Ye Knish sha do 0 desu According to todays newspaper, onethind of Bakimor'scizens ae fsa erste 8.741 9-17 HOR ORARARLADEREE EE Lt ‘Amerika ni okera sokyabyala-kyi-nen no shsei-risu wa rao pcan agarimasht, 1n 190 the ate of iene ith in America ro to 26% 9 FM OMNM:, CORE LARA HZ) LUI0 Pere Scene snd Teg 7 "Buta no und-r98 wa, somo shit to solade no ski de ara’ {9 Iu no wa, mon burglar no hasnt ma Senso "he ponent jt te ra os ma cc thee et i= bes WRFORPLANETE, Mom>cozousmom:ms Rimi twas) tet) oseeoee Gomi S's na fi on nol a a ant ‘koto dake desu. ven " yo enn ae pl A hy ae ben er pl tu te! NAO IBD LEAR, 350 1 itmeRter, oe eee ys, wd Waco fo ut npn om ‘i Soe " = BRMOEELeORMUMRER CHS CORE He Senoshoitewcncousaier cue na Kc mae taal dpe oe hoe ne evs ‘80 desu. La Mot ie gms cath pnd nye, its of sxncepre cms of eleva UME ComeMPR Ye, ecMNeDS Ke. mer tenn tae Wkmomwies HEM THSOHLE, malta Yon enh Bats ds tr, a Tow nr de tlle cn a Sone eso Kaas ses ae a = ‘aS "amy ed mista ye hc nk etin f y Se mod ae esa Soe ei meteors waMieR cao feces, were 2 stomata 3 15 1 Seine Techy AauMmice> Cosa eI MM RUE BO LT Seta de we arimasen ga, rot said n yor doo shin Sho mad Sit mondal ni nae iu ka dk ra 1 Eventhough I'm not an ecologi |shou ike to know wheter ol eonion cased by sapnuning sl aig pric, SsERERR OMe, RIND D7 RUC UME Go CORT, -Kabuturgakusha no heh sense wa, temen-sigen no haf na rosy eek ual yom 0 mote as Professor Hashimoto, a mierologs, his deep intrest inthe Rossan Repbie whe weal of naira ears Much ofthe task of scence, trv v0 tbe etymology of its name, coasisis of sorting and categorizing. Some imporant ‘word eements abe mentoned in that regard are: 4 da eal {enon yam clase Gok exer a) ly 1a Goto pets Bho species 8 (acer efor ls and oder MI shar “kn, varie) 1 Got fay, poup ALLE Gyord yeah nado no dobutsa wa tenon de ar china 0 ‘enya wa felon dba des. CCokslcodd animal inclu sh and reps; bids and mammals se warble 1 RORPRTIA TMC L COSC Lith CHR TH A Bonne Fea, chino neko go nelorka neho-zoku ni zokushite iu keto wa ites ga, harsh ta a warimasen | how that ou eat hstongs fo the eat gems er cata) of the "ede family, ba dt know i poe Semcon 19 Note that zoku “genus” shuld not be confused with “ibe, group." which s Used to refer to chemical group, eg £2 “20, halk cohu “patina group.” Knowing the preference among English-speaking scien- tists for the Latin names given to aries and genera, one might expect the Japanese names fo use Sino-Japanese term nology. In fact, as can be seen bere, ordinary native words predominate, though they are writen in hatakana, cf. 42% fucka "Canidae WANG. kM. MeL oesncost, Icke twa Shar Ks nado mo abumeret mata ‘The canine family [Canidae inclaes dogs, wolves, nd foes BE, HARE, Aa, RMA 3 BHC CE, 2G, Bote, MABE, Om eke) amaner, Gansea wa, hase! gan suet gam hens gan toa mit no sh ‘rain wake mask. Tod, arash we kate! pan nea ‘nme ne gam tongs (dann) me hee pon ln i cues ot no) ‘ech adore ope oem erent tad ace a eo seagate i ely ot pra gee ‘kingdom ard anial kingdom Sensor Se oa atts aa li tga ‘budan fo the ine she was 4 chil has Become 8210+ If we look beyond eanh and its esouces tothe volar system (SRR raiyo-Aet) and interstellar space (B18 seikon ‘eka, we Shall ned atleast a raimentary lexical knowledge ofthe heavenly bes, heginsing with the plants (3 wal ei lit fstuating sta), Teir Sino-Japanese names ae easy 10 femember. Those ofthe inner five, Mercury, Venus, Mar, Spiter, and Saturn, are based on East Asia's five traditional clemenis—wood, fire, earth (Si), gold, and water—and thus correspond 10 names of the days of the week. (Students of Romanee languages will kaow that Tuesday. Wednesday, ‘Thursday, and Friday comespond to “Mas-day." “Mercury” day.” "Sopter day.” and “Vendy” English Saturday ike wise orginally reered to "Sun's Da.") The Sino-Japanese ‘names for Neptune, Uranus, and Pluo reflect Greco-Roman mythology. Kaus) Mercury it water ar) ‘4 inset Vem gld a) eM ae) Mas (fe tt) “438 (mots ptr woo te) 1 dase Suu it ea star) $8 en's) Uranus (heavenly hig sta) ‘E1E daa set) Nee (ise ing sta) BER (mete) Pluto it Hades king star) “The Japanese erm for asteroids or planetoids simply shoal ct, i smal plants.” Earth's moon is, of couse H su, commonly refered to atfectionately as 37148 otsuki-sama "Mr. Moon,” but the ‘moons of other planes ae ealled tel “sete,” ef. Bide yinkooiset “artical satellite,” AGW soushin-eisel “elecommuniatons satelite” “There are thre words for “sun” of “Sola”: native Japanese 1 i (or 03th oh-sama "Mr. Sun"), asin HRA hake sunburn" and Sino-Japanese 8 1a and 1 rch The lat ter appears in such compounds as HEE nichyo-bi “Sunday,” Ti ichbots "sunset," and 1 misshol "solr elise" it sun eating” The word Tor Tuna eclipse” i, logically enough, Wi gesshol ‘ential in pronunciation tA suse “Venus is #3 su sei "comet." Meteooids, i. small pieces of mater in outer Space, ae called iC rise, It. “Noating star bodies.” ‘When these omer the earths atmosphere as meteors, of “shoo ing stars” they ae called U8 rset or KAU nagarebosht Sic snd Techy sould any part of them strike cath, they become IE ine “meters” 2 ROTROM, REMDRCHZRKEKAMMVEO TIED MMER CORD, REEOBRORMA THR 1 mvc eamoweg te, ola n hadomo no ot kina dvarte ir kine kimono ga Inno de na ao sata sae tags sain sono web: Sed no yamen jg” hado sea oo go alia nat When Twas a cl tere was speculation tha there might be fe "n lows enshoaded Venus, but seco it has become kat {hatte sae of he planet isa viral nero. hg; al tis he ena w RAR et, eb po a DB GBEN CHS OOM LO MARIA, EL LORE, omatom:n er. [Meimet sarete tru Sancer-o i no shi-wakusel wa, shu to sie asel to mokuse no Lids no cide marinas ‘The asteroids, more han 3.000 of wich ve been identified and ‘sumed, ate found mainly beowosn the orbits of Mars end Sum MDOT AY ONMM RHEL SL, Beton Ht BM! 01 ER GRUE HAIR LABREL DCF ‘Antameita no Kasebusupaasha mort t, A9orya ga yok olwen-man-nen mae n etsumet shit no wa, fea na Insel ga men n sho sh eb da ds ‘According t0 certain American paleontologists, the dinosaurs ‘ecame extinct a tbe esl ofa glean meteoric ashi Inthe cars ura . team pee 2 ASTRO ATI, WSFICY Wa ROUTE ites P27 Sher) Sot, Jinru sasha no fnkiveied wa, senkyhyah-gjashichi nen ni obtee ga chgeta"spiton” deka “Mankin’s first tial satelite was he Sputnik, launched by the ‘Soviet Union i 1937 For scientists interested in leaning Japanese for work in their specialized fields, recourse to technical dictionaries is. of ‘course, essential. Sil, tbe following epresenaive Ist of terms found in a widely used middle schol Science textbook should ‘oe of general use. A few have already appeared inthe ist tive sentences above 92 (otra gals) physics ‘(uaa physi ay object {9K (asi) mane 2 (stud) velosty ‘mst aslo) acceleration it (gemotdo deceleration 35 (hikan) power, fre (ad rot in Sino Japanese com pounds) 0 Gara) gay 1573 aay pressure {21 upon booyaney ‘EEL tans -yoka nein ER ase) emia esse 5849 (enh oka) ene fore 240) Goashinyola cenit force 2% ayo thermal power, calorie force |B) Ginoan magnet force 18 £9 genoa) naclear power 16M inet teresa beat eater (al ‘hie 52) (re) wind force {521 (hart) wave free (MB histo il ose "R) (dennola) lei power {HE (den a votage 1 (dent) eecrayis ‘RS dejoka electromagnet fore “Rt (donna hea caret (HVE den ial) (lcrmaget S30 (ene emery MC} Ghrenerng petal energy Bik 18 (andi ener iti ney tho = AP (dan mo one else {In ayto-enfezng point RE ten meting point Seine Techy #8 Bot (ono) temperature BE (hide) buniicy ROE (nde) concentration OE mid density 2 AMBRE SL. > Bins. ‘asa ga Ey momar tate ir kya wa Kase no cikara When 2 bus comes to a sudden stop, standing pasengers are thzowa forward by he fore of nea, 2 AAAS UNE, Shim wu mami yor gyn ga ia Sat vate has lover reevng point than fresh wate. BRRROMMEMRT SEC. MTHRRMEM ES 20K. ann O EN) RABE ED Ee van io afisna Rt aw ew psoas The view tht nuclear power ln shold no be neeasd il he Guest ofthe salay ened hasten sung pound atese meena {07 haga) cemisry tora sta Rf eta iui ‘xt a eas (6 (gens) atom IE Gemahat) stoic mceus 5 (nash molec Zo (geno) elements 4 (as) hydrogen i, water tat) 5 eas) ero it. st) RR (sans) oxygea it sous) |S (his) trogen i osing tut) 2 okt bromide (it snk tt) #4 reon nen 9194 thera elom +09) {WR (0) ron 18 (rin phospors HH (iodine VB RUMI INE Eo CIS 499 5 (nator sodium (++ ya) 1 ens) chlorine "BE en ine 7 £9 banana almioum(n +4 9) 799 4 harm) poaslam (+4 9) 2 429 (haruhi calamity ‘(hm god gin silver “ASE ign) meray 1 uzun 00 Be conus with sen “bl Ges on (a copper 1599 Barina basum (i +4-¥ 98) 74.094 (maaneshna) sages (hl + 4+ sh) 22 (mangan) manganese 7 o> (argon argon 1 We) sutur IER Get) silcon {&% gd- bun) chemical compound ica (pate) on sue He sonar on onde FIR Gels ar) potasiom cyanide em (asa sult seid FER (oman hydrochloric ai ARIE (sor k-ano) carbon monoxide SRE (nin io) cabo ie abo A= 115% (on 1 en acids and bes 71059 (aari aa "(hin reatraization [+ suru] PG agatha) cher reaction ‘CPE (golem) chemical change APSF (gat unscli)cemiea als 477 tonion 20, Abit, ARMOR EeGTE SS LOT. BRL, aa AS AMER RARE 8 2 2, Sanka wa, sanso pa hoka no busine to hago sua hwo dese Teva tabi wa mo ni sankatet fo anaes tohore nara Oxidation the combining of oxygen and another substance Rs. fer etampls cost many of ome nse ad fr yon ago: chemical combination MRM IGRREOT, RHGTAD BEL. Setan-hari wa motu nn de, asia tt harimasen [As potas cyanide deadly poison its ot easly alla, Ms ASLLE, ARTE BY ACD, OF DF RY OR EMRE Rawer, Stokien wa, ei natoryima (NoCD, mar maori 0 enso on hag-butsu desu Tl sau cli (NCD, i, a compound of sa 1 (ose gabe Boy HS 2 1D (deokishinbokakwsan deoxy onic teacid DNA) 22 U5 ¥ imareochide)mclestide ILE F iden gene (fen “i” ‘Rk (ensoluta chronic (i staining boy) a (ib cal ‘RR (eibomata) cell membrane RIG Cit cel wall 8152 (bs arts) co vision EM (genes prt £2 (hase development, generation, reding 1 aisha repredotion 48488 users sexual rprousion $511.8 (muse sesh) sex reprooction 89 shade pl ‘44 (ru lane 1 oder) cen "SB ahi Peridot. ems fe ina ag sai eh, baer (recoil 8 bi) WEY Cabuahishkaburvesed-eaig plants (ne) root at sem 4 (hae) ower, son IE (yore) coop 24s (ease phoosynesls 1 moda wes, atores 18 (shiv oak Med) ape 8 Gaba) amet (salar) cbeny 1 mats pine 18 (ou code 08 (asa ot) camphor 8 ganas willow Sa; Goh ingko ‘ir patlownia 7 hunaana t) owering ans 8 ci ceysnbermom 38 (ad) mallow, hllyhock A (hae) ous 18 (am orchid 1 (i wise (hag bas lover a hsb iis 2 (ash: yesh red, brash (a nao past ' (ade plygonum, snared 9 (douse nina A mses usu ives EUAN (pnt dob) Preto eRNDYD (Lach dus) Coelenterata (lit. holow in testi) IEA (ootubdoburw Eotinoderats (iL thorn in) (940% dame dbus Posies ht sea oto) AN (henteidbutra) Pathelminthes (it. at shape) (RAY ake dare) Anneli (e(b809 (nas abun) Motes (sot body) UMD Gert ddr Atop iit a) Sen and Teco RS oneher ascts tumor) Arachaide "BR abu) Crasacea FPG tan dbus) verebates {88 (por Paces (Ch) RIEHL ra) Amphibia eS (hack a Repula it scratching vein) [BRI china) Aves (i) 9.8 ony-ra) Mammalia DROME MBBS te EMO CRB EN SANCT. Kogone wa, shokubuts a tlyoenergi 0 mache denpun © ature att ds Photosynthesis she process whereby plants prodice strc, using “lar energy B.PRERG LOUD NTH LMM BED CTA—/CeT, Galuse ni mottomo ou shreete ru be-seibusu wa, soraku ‘omcba dese "anim mt fro eer pb te awe MMi, 7 PERLMAN 2807 SORRTERL CH eempaencLr. Watashi wa, Rumogahu sha 10 kekton suru made kumo ga Konoha ni soushie inal kt shirtmasen desi ‘Un masied an arachoogist Iwas unaware tha spiders o 9 ong othe nce fay MET, ten eeLAMCi te (MAmACT. ‘Sime 1 chigte, inka 0 lira wa gyora de wa make bony pa Unlike the shar, the dolphin andthe whale rent fish but mar male Gopi Vl Law and Justice Corrupissina republica plurimae legs, wrote the Roman bs {ofian Tacitus: DRIMBE ETA EL OLROD Cee ‘Kola ga daraku sureba suru hodo sono horasu ga du mare "The mere corp the tate, the more momerovs its laws.” To ‘Lao Tre, Tacit senpai by some seven cestures, i abated saying which, if tuned aoand, sounds somewhat sini ‘SRMS. Translated into Tapanese, this becomes i HeaWnc 0. BRS Horet masumasu akiraka mi shite Au chi spit the lasso mliply the ans” Wall this is tre, we modems certainly Ive in evil ines! As Chceo put it, 0 tempora. 0 mores! = DBHCE LOMNR! Kono Jidai to sono hans yo!°Oh these times and their manners!” ‘While this chapter will make of no one a lawyer, it should provide the basics for making one's ay (in Japanese) through fur legally complex worl, Once again, we begin with afew lexical building blocks. As in oter chapter, these are prego any of Sine Japanese origi, for much as the English have borrowed their legal vocabulary from Romance sources (French and Latin), so the Japanese have taken ters from Chi Laws, Ordinances, Orders, and Regulations HE HO+ tt RITSU +4 RELA) SOKU ‘The semantic range of 3 hd, whose meaning in Ancient Chinese piap) was eriginally "contain, confinement,” ex tends beyond the arm ofthe lw to include “method, Buddhist [docwine),” Examples more relevant to our immediate concems ‘ete are the following: 1:0 ort ew ‘The mile uses of i 1 (have eisai, avs 38 han) egihaive proposal 08) chr: gts) jsrednce ef EE New gal ER) (hn tai (he werd the legal profession "EM (hima st) te Ministry of Dasice 1 (hom consitonal government ho make for some wnpredicbitiy im the meaning of compounds. One ofthese is atthe Chinese ttaslaon of Sansrt dharma “cox law, principle” reer "ing vo Buddhism or Budahist teachings. Tis for example. 2 1 hai does not refer to legal affairs but rather to a Buddhist memorial service. Another problem i the difference between "aw" and "method," which, though seemingly minor, rusia i such terms as BEES hin "which pertains to birth contol TERE (hte) cou of ae methods, not to laws regarding contraception In the ase of ‘8 (abo) eaiy sh, context alone will determine wheter the meaning ik ‘iE (ho) Megaliy “commercial aw” of "way of ding business" TEE (ip) awaking egslaton Tn the following i “hd is used to designate categories of BL oh) adnan of sce 32 (eng) conten LOW CET ARTIST. Tino ma de a bain go by 86 des ‘Alla equl teeth I LERHERERML TS, ATER SMITE AEB Ys han o shy shite ma, ke aren ane ‘td crest ven ithe opantion pres srt eve propos te ‘Shao of Rpg vy SS Speen LBUeE Ai, RaMHe A ACT, ‘ees na aa eit ne nbd Mi Ate sa wes Known ers ans ea cick Iie, eiomibe PRIM Lenton es) AML eta, wie, RERAAMOMC TRIER CY Safe ingen ewe 0 "bet ehcrareta” to nan tia esha, epson mo mesh aS Seeder Gorter denounces pans poster Contos ings Tye Anam ba ny mor sos supper fe ovement ptt and prs slomyomma, mumeemm coe) ool Ey. Keno hs no etna mo chsh 0 moka Ser 0 a Tce npn th hepa pot tin ind exe ie ‘pura ean the law, along with statutes and legislative acs (efi ho) eimai oni pa ew 22 gupta aw lik hahah) corpionscompany law ‘ki: hore) case aw ‘SBI Uh 440) ot awe Hota) naiona ws) ME kash) nteretonl aw NER (ij-sodho- hi Criminal Procedure Act (GIRS (aka tat ivh-) the An-Subve sve Actes Act "8 (bish-bosh ae Ani Prostution Act URL (oshoku-bdohi-hd) the Cocapt Practices Pre {84 PA dokusen Anat A Monopoly Act ‘AME ON ILA (gna tavese-ob- gata oek-kanh) te Foreign Exchange snd Foe Tale Catt Act ain HEE Guremone-hogo-h) the Bling Preservation {89 (aadaci- the Land Lease Act SAE (chih-kimui-h) Local Officials Act GRIUBE (maya torhimard) the Narcotics Control OE FWA anata yob-se-d) the Conectne ‘and Refoenative Trestmen of Criminals Ae WABIERLA MICE IE shusunydtobe-hanri-oyobi— ‘nannies Insmigraion Cowl and Reger Res SMR (danjo-Aoy-tika-Kno-h) the Equa Epoymeot Oporunty Law (nen ahd wore) 6 TAY RORY HRPBEN IMEI, TIE ALOUMES *. Aerts no rit hig dete 0 we. aR no (My younger brother, a product of atop American aw school isa ‘Specialist in tt TL BAORMIEENREL RoW. ia OL ion mo bshan-bosh ge seri shit no tena ‘strlen desk Sapan's Ane Prosttton Law was passed in 1956. SRA RI RII ERR ih TO, ew) Bah) EF Koll ga denoceyikiktkint-hi i basso 0 kena "ode kau dao hen ge arma ‘As the Diet dd ot pu any teeth ino the Equal Employment Op- runt Law, sme a of he opinion hat tia mete sap oF er ei 9.72) 2 GRROMEEIEME 5 BE HEL RO=HD. oum, MIRORNERES ECF. Amarta-sssi-ko no hemp ga tolach 1 ar ripest hihs no wanker ar no mola! wa, olan oi 0 ‘os ura hoto dee ‘The purpose ofthe sepaton of powers—leislive, executive, tee Jodical—a characters of the Constotion of he United Scio ensure the tibeny of he people ‘ ritsw “law, discipline.” Ancient Chinese tue, became prominent in Japanese po ater han the beginning ofthe eighth entry, thereby predating by several hundred years the into octon ino English of Old Norse lagu [> law]. An example of historia significance is risurarisurel, te tem forthe Taws and ontinanees ofthe Nar and Heian periods ‘RF rn order, sciphine “RIP (grin maa, marl Scipie JS (cur i) state, sblished law PAP burrs) one aw ‘RA (ogo r) the Golden Re ‘AI airs) religious precepts (Basis) IR pp) = arn Bus); Tork is, Shah SRF (aeot rt) ral cove ARE Gan sha sainonanisn(< Gc + mamoean) Like Grek nom, rtsu extends beyond the social cr polit «al sense of law to nclode musical and poetical form, eg Bit senrt “melody” (et. Ch. 4), 28 oni “une.” ai HE ‘inritsu “vy, metee™ This belps to explain why 2 3788 ‘harsh is not an “investigative legals but rather 8 pa i fst, e—eominaner, Sia mic do ‘een Cm a nif Mai Lam eertremee sea w.Rogeomin, =r aeIImL cma to eae Se RS LR MME B ERR Cae ini ciatcen ot og ng ce 0 sh arto 0 te ale ra a et ae ‘eh oS one gery mle wo ie te cae i ete ne ‘and an aay fom home, he enced hes 2h imo a RA eonAtE a caUAcGeoce cee) Sas (age tonen te een hi hw adage ihn Son at "oA ins anew tat eo Jah revntoaen alte Se “onder, command" which as Ancient Chinese “eng ‘ean parity,” is used as apetix in sch polite expressions a ‘ri rej “your daughter. young lady” and reso “yout som” bat in ref he meaning i ot “ine condition” or ‘Slur eter” bat rater "wren asim SR tahoe “aes warant" Above we as aw the historical example of fhe taws and odinances” red a eer risury@ or sure Othe compounds nla Sen Sao Scan cence Renee ne eee ae ecaleeics eae aon Seo ereera ener mat fs) MacArthur, Supreme Commander of the United Nations cn er Se Co oe ee eg tee preteens sein ig sr sree aera eee en ap es es ed Goer ee ere a kot os ec sed geen = ee ree A ign i etn eens aoe ace 1S Somme, ReMER? = LimME LURLEA CHE Whee ac reatitr a Keer ee ono anc de wa Jo neko 0 ha koto wa pensok tse “ia srt mas ata hate hp salon Sa Keeping dogs or cts inthis apartment complex is, in pace, Prohibited, bu infact the somber of noch pot ovaes bas eet incre 16, Rie 9 roast cttw sancancahencs tr Jos gaa kan nate wa en ou io a hangae ta bet daokach en oi, "old the hb president ht in opinion the rl ating women ‘ss ener sould be reconnideed MBRORENL, AMIE: D> eM fn Shien no hisok wa, nnge no his yor cto seiny ni dee The laws of ature are vasly more sue and intricate than the Tavs of men, ee I ache cite ‘Two natve Japanese words that should be inched hee are ‘ori and okie. Te first derives fom HC nora “utr, declare (Fa god or empero)" cf 2 noton “follow ive up to, con {orm fo (a rule." The second isa nominalzed form of iu “set forth and build up. (Note the etymological resemblance beeen aw li] and oe [ok “lay"1) Nor parila asi appears in personal names, is writen with a varity of charac ten, including HV sok, ken, 3 hy and even Be tok v= ‘ue"), Even more than Sino-Japanese hi itis closely associated ‘with religious especially Buddhis, exhortations to good behav 1 [Row Ae CRE Oni é Diny Py FEBORTL IU Lie Amato sel no okdsan wa, ind no yoru opera bars kaze kuru toch de hikari nt onoboas 0 orree sonia, Professor Amato's mother hd her bandbag taken by 9 purse atcher on her nay home fom the opera ist sgh AR dyoy0-2 extonioa {VIO (hinolarhorn) xine of violence (1 ae Aano ex eine S67 (wast an) cvs bebo, indecent expos ‘AURA (yor woinetne dct assault 88 (gwar 2a cil molestation 80 stan cape Like English “assault” SAF ko (lt. vilen acto) is til used af a sligty lest stark term for rape. Recently, Anglo- Japanese 1 47 reipu as also become “fashionable” particu layin the mein. “Meanwhile, the lamenable catalog of human crime contin FAT (osu a omicide EA (sai) premedated murder {WRI (dsr) marr onic #2 (sinmi) aterped arder APE (assurchish) avolonarymansangher AM EARICEN (imu kashiow chia erlcion of dt resulting doth {2 -gorosh “king” comespondsto English cide: ‘1, ‘chichi-goroxhi “puri,” R58 yda-gorshi “acide. tnd BJGELL if gorash “infasicide” Note, however, that the suffix i sed only i ference tothe eniaton of human ie I you are looking for an insecticide or germicide, you must. ask for RSA sari zat or RRM skin. SLAB OLE LTE, ORO RACE mt EMME Fai, eit) —Wokae mae Bb ‘Shidal gi a shite mo, Yona no oon ga josie ‘osePhal osurea, yar no pokam de Shik nab mt Even fit consensual think hat when aforty-yearol adult hs Sexual clans wih igh school e's sothing ther tan ‘Tomer ape. MEAORARRCMME RAHM, HREM ED 5 Ai sats de ako sreta yoshi tej wa jase 0 “eta dee ‘Tesi Yoshida, rested forthe atemed murder of his lover has allegedly atompied uke Ss HIRE CR Ee LNRM, RM AR RBCERENE LE. Inshaanten de tao sarea ueda yh moto-densha-untensi wa, yma hashischshisa des areata, Former tain operator Yuji Ueda anes for operating 2 tin in it intcxiced conden, hasbeen incited for dteton Of Ayres in det, 9:8 i forgery, counting: P98 i he “or courte {8 ida kidnapping cf. yah “Aidnppe 1 (hot) arson, ef ha-ma“acetpyromanic” 14 Fr 99 (halla) jacking. 294 nto sane smeaing 70) erorcuna ei ROME (maya no ord) ea racking 256A mise umy sgsting SOE MAHER CHa at Bae Kanedshach opal shits hanna yb shite rw minoshiro- “in wa noon do de ‘The kidnappers of Company President Kaneda are said 10 be “demanding ¥20 malo transom. 1 200m SL CRURACOT CHSC) SRMRCT. ‘Rove wa shri de mo sug Rl ma globe desu ‘This seven asymm will medial rez. ise coum oe, SENET LY TORRE EMAL L9 ELEN, ENBERE4- 2490 7ERAMME NE EECT, Sanne mae mi maréhia de mayakao misu-yuny shy to shite “iekdmarl sie! o entots sarc Setoranjin a, rath ‘hotel saver yet desu ‘The Acsraian who was eat yng 0 arcs it Magi nes ‘Sida h halo be excued If you Iook up J5H68 chind-han in Kenkyusha's New Jpanese-Englih Dictionary, you may be perplexed o atleast amused to find it glossed as “intellectual (mental offense.” In fact, the tem refers neither 19 B33 shisd-han “thought offense” under Japanese miliaris nr to violations of plied ‘omernest on toay's American university campuses but rather ‘o what the Amencan criminologist Edwin H. Sutherland back in 1949 called "white collar crime” of which 9-4 621 7— ik ‘RIE howto kard-olw no hana i ato tera Dut ess common translation. Examples incloe (3% 925 and 28 agi (@bore) as well as the folowing: (881 (00) embezement 4794 YR isa insider ding “fe (hain) beac frase [BA (dai tax evasion MEH shiva ving and accepting bribes PR (2a eng bees {9 hima accepting bibes ‘RIERA Te serait) money nundesing ‘The general term for comupson inthe public sectors #8 ‘oshoku lit “sllying (one's) offic,” ef. "SBR EE oshok bash "Corup Practices Prevention Act” (above) DP BKORGALIIOA (, REM ERI LY EFI ABR CBARInevsmimicocne AAR EO, ‘Nihan mo kama wa hyaan a yok, mera ni war ulate ‘nado sur oshokujiken ml makiiomarenal g, sei nt ado suru oskoku-jken ni makikomarena go, siicka ni Sapanese civil servants have a good reputation and are seldom in Woived in bribe taking and other forms of coruption. The ‘me, however,canot be sai of pliciane “Are there no prisons?” asks Dickens’ Serooge of his poly ‘gentlemen vistors. In Japanese, with due consideration forthe Sting, this rendered as RRIA2¥sA-'F 19 Kongoka tet nal desu ka ne. Yer though the ter for “pion la" is SUIT known a8 ERR Aangolucho, of the actual Incarceration feces themscles, teat in offical sg, te called IM ein sho “penitentiary” and INBUY Koch-sho "detention cen- ter” The lockup for persons being hed in police custody for Fnterogiton i ealled» 100 rei. Tapanese law provides for three primary classes of punish rent! death GEM! shike), imprisonment (28 tOgoku), and fines (Fife hakkin). OF the second frm, two subcategories ace CHINE AAS he ORD euWeRDemonels 4. ‘Shogo shia dena taabeson ga kana ni rippa na Kigy= Tei nanctowa dare ma omorandt es ‘Who wld ave sought that Mr Tanbe, a mere primary schoo! ‘fade would win poh asap nda AAP 24 RN TKORMRORM OREO tiki, BKC ORERCueeS CH Odenhaidiygu ga nin mo teho-gy® no Hgen ya haten ni “eka hon wa hong n'mo Sekar So dese 1t seems that Profesor Ovebeimer’s bok onthe crgns and de "elopment of Japan's steel nity has even fee taal Jno Spans W797 brid, 7x) ROMER RENE COE, End DaBIWKE Fy EO CBIR EB Pe Karinon-seiken wa, amerita no siyaku-gyBkal 0 kigek shite ‘man gon an we 9 ero mo ‘The Clinton administration is Mastin the American pharmaceut al ndusys but think soc tas se based more oneal sy tan on fats | shail commerce sal), yet another word for “ade, Twsines,” contains two more important word elements. “The eaings of my rade were but drop of wate inthe comprehen sive ocean of my business” says Marley's ghost to Serge, The Japanese translation weeds: [UE LONGI PU. THE DOKKE GUF ChOFERSEERLELE. Senshi no encdone kawace rto a vokata Nara. ot ml yon Vvalacdorasokin sho to omoviaheredo, tes) tal A ga waka node, amerta no towyokin ofa hogie ‘oan kon hima Since Inst week's yen-ollar exchange rte ws favorable | wanted "oie S400 to my Younger bor, but when [elzed Row high the commission was, rdecided to send him a check Instead, using my American checking acount SERENE Labo, Mpa atIa SOLER D Bes. Fide-shibarit 0 rakaw ht ga 6 kara ido kos sur no "we shite arate. Since the atmate eller machines ae sed by so many pop, 1 Suppose if nly tobe expected that thy wil break down ‘once ma whe ‘What British English speakers call shares" and American English speakers “stocks” goes bythe name of Me kabu (it stump, roo). Those brave or shred enough to dabble inthe market (FES FH abu nt 0 dasu) will ned 1 know far ‘more than is provided here. The following are only a Few basic 2: (abana) saree CI bua sh) sock market 1213 (haber dealing i stock 98 (abut stock ces 5 (hat dividend ‘SERSERBCAIN lya-shiken tri) Tokyo Stock Ex [B48 779 (tht daw-iin) Nikkei Dow Jones avenge es kawaii sock markt situation LEI (bua gi) join stock empany 1856 (usb xin tock 189 Goya sted stock {MR (01-Aabwlined tock RSI ems Boba- kab) ove counter sock 9 (hate ecritin [Wt (ota govenmet bond £238 (ashi inentent urn) SOABEAI. ISmHRocRMAML LAD Lecomte eaceurr Moras wa, go-ten mae ni bata kab ne agar shite is ‘de rh te de tabete mas The stock tht Mr Moria bought ie years gs gone up so ‘much hat he now thes oft diene ee YP SORT Oe whus, AMOR CSM SCRLCHIE Lea xeuaEe Ls de Nibkeedn-helkn lara mire, sesh kara tite iru endokr ‘yr kaburasht tte hess pros dew a a To judge frm the Nikkei Dow Jones average, the tof the yen That has conned tne last week it bpm means go noes Toeshare hols. * an 56 CHR SIME GD aL. Een 2 ee somscison =tenr 19 STAIR G LNG nm mo ha to tare tabi ‘aus no sft wa ium hepa no porta to oat too ia "Kaye nim kat mmo nar na” Porn sy aman am sire awa kennel na ka Whenever my grntther was tked why he Boh nix com iy sas nor goverment fonds, be avays wd the word ‘1 Shakespeare's Polonts: "Netter a borbuer or cnet Taipei oon was ok bu ead ate INDEX team 16 ee eager = Sar SS. nei. ‘ein 3 ‘gn. a Spe sae Sct, | Seams, Siepehn ‘she ‘Sep we = = = =. Same Sate Toe ‘mem io. 17 Semen sane ‘Sen rai tgonamese? ‘aa ey a3 tpg | Safe omg ee, neo Sut eens tae an Freehepenticeriay eaten ryt ‘sae toe ine nic Sager orotate en Laan Boobie ‘ero ig Cr te ie Shima dete rg te 088 Shep cere Somme, sa Seats. ge re tn Se cp SE ior Sine ‘hg ny, 12 foe Nigra Cunt 1 fret ie see ech, i" ‘fasta aaa fave Fanon ee Ser. oes eae ae Eph ‘tino ere ro eran Sree pore Scmannig Sapte ‘ron i lr a1 uote 18 noe wan ‘cua ae Fadi ee tn es Sitane ‘a 90 Soin oo mace Prom 0 Lae Fee al ou apa mer eran tena: Ba Se aw Pointe cana. 97 ‘ee oncoen oe oe ow tpt as, SE tit, sae engcae™ bse Etec. 72 en ec Sam ok tsa aes 7 Cees cw fect Sey or nee gp omit. ‘sate in Met ‘ihe ate fee teeta eerie inion tT Eau Jini ame. om” pee Pt a ‘sc titan 0, 90 Bee Geeta Sant taceeee owes 7.18 ame. Soe tec 96 ‘ener 3 ict ent a Seca sane iat nine enn Fpniocees ice funtcar wea. ‘cee tna 2 etn Sih ke rz en Bat eset paren ‘Seduced gee bao ea ee Aaa eine. 8 ern ‘ei bine inAtresmenam, Landis a Pree nn ‘ote ncone ae. ‘nate 2 Santa an Boowas name st Medien Sar" sceateas os “Stn Re an an =a ‘spice eee eerie. Perec tpt sero 1884 sen Peri ec. Sacer oo eles, Senn Seer ine Sie Sets SEER 139 Samat, z Faint. 1 Facing. 1.81 a Esme Eee ie foc ts 23157 row fgtien. 77 oe Httem.6 ficpnt ‘oie Bae 3.97 oa Fees ooh. Fea tin 07 PeymanCmae see 7a ‘atid. a8 ‘Sigs Sr 9 ‘el i) ‘Socmone soaps Sect ieoSoea at ayo Ze, arse saccade ee eT “| ee faa. zome = =. Set = E=tee rane ec 2 sees Son satmenicnte 1.72 any Secrekvam.s Shon Soa TEs ‘ = ears ae tt eum. 2) eu WAR, ‘nitty a 26 ae Sec mo ‘mrtotes ‘ee 16 ease gina 36 wae ee? ee ‘ie pace ey Boiss, are set