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ISBN4-7700-2774-5 iM 0081 ¥18008 <0) I) HM 9784: 770027741 neers 192008101800 though th H Kakuko Shoji sy pear Coe Mek and eae Tig ou Con ‘lina Bsa Kom eats or pace Sling Yr lpne Hoey Raabe Sa et ingom ad conan Eup by Rodaonba Eeope Us ‘rt Rope sot Lndne eee Faby Eada otal i, 71 Ot ome nip Tig 1 a anc Koa fins ‘opi 19 by a eget Prone wernstgjpenpegecon CONTENTS Preface § ERE 8 part 1: Za WORDS B Words 14 bh bRoan mtu IS BREN / AATEC 1S BO/MO 15 BROCNG/BRRRELIBIT/HEOE 16 BOK B73 EDK/ 3 EO TT DAE 1S Z Words 1s SOW (YR) / CORA) 21 comics) /comica) 2 2B LOLA Th chhe & LOR TS LOBEL / LORE / LOATH 16 enee rnge/cnoay Shenk w EWords 30 Ehie/eha 31 FhEsesE/Anehene Wo HIE Foodie PIER M ERLTABE KOU) 6 EREESE ST EAE) 37 fhe/e BK EHHBENI LOLI) 39 EOE TN ROR EL nw Words 41 eRomeuaie 4 2 ECR 8 LoORoR Exobus 4 Eomeebae 6 EDDC EEE EH M6 este ececy a ELEC B3LEsban Babee 5 Words 53 REMEATE SS BEmEREES 54 BELA HARE CME 5 HED 6 Me ST HIE D oo LER ERENE GEOR 6! TEO)TEE @ BOTH ~T SB 50} SB HRC CE ORL EL EVEV/ERER 6 Wi ba mba c Nh ame oe 68 ERARUCLERY/ Lad encE ben @ Ht OR been 7 evsceae 7 FLSA Bom SIAC BOs 70 ® Xkd=< 0 PERO /~ObLBoR 81 TEBORS/~HL Boke Bl ~ ORI 8 HKB/~RE TES WED S27 aD moe BEBE) AR BK(E) 89 Rei 1 GEO BRE B mI / GLY ~ CAL 96 XKGW NEAR % BT er bL 96 DB8M % tom6 IM bebe ior RUE / EOE ID HLT 10 ASEWBUTE7ANC 104 EUS U5 SEA/FTA BOT 18 bo) 10 veb+ Lig 0 236 UD BREOZEREG ID ~ By COU C50 Ie ~a8 15 SEL THR /ckiwotHs 17 Al BRLOCERaY 1s ~hns U8 EH~eVETE US OF EcERN Ig oun +228 BO AANITE 120 ELC AR(ELT I SER Ie ALOBEN DS Eboke 14 AbsSckeaon ly wir) 4M) 15 Indes of Japanese Words and Phrases 127 Preface Stade of Jepnee of ht apn ito am cause of kan snd ts ceil that pen: ‘ate osteo began stent But eves ave ie oe fy wat enue nese dt an te fe he ony problem. A there siuned Te ‘hat recede ens of epresion that ae etry to {ured and cone interwoven, hich Enape Ue of zy foes lng. A thr tog, nt only sant Sree thet eeerd obey anova te ee ‘obit sli that peo ened wendy an seve tr be ante en Ln a esp ad fed Imatns noone th verbena many ‘Tavoe nan dla tohelp set dopey tat Ie ny pevous tok nth Rove oan sis, Ba Comers Making Yu fipenee Pow, tok up teahely te role tht my ets fen ad be ihn the lonom. nh ok hve chon to et wt tat en ‘pea textbooks al other pean inert ‘rane sens uh semen heomatic ge, tn conurcon. In pia, Ihave wed on epee, ‘ches tosoeds words hse meting changes diay aco ine te conta. Parte, hove made tn eat te nl pb. ies that ape the second nd tht lec fe epee [gn Prficen Tee Tn como adpblthing thi bok Ihave esd the cocneston of may pele Among the I vols pay Se to hank the gud tone in Chines pico nd ‘tory athe Univer Hawa oy alas ad ‘amy fo th ortitig suport woul eo Te to hak Mra read Sherovs Sra fKoansia Inteonta forte ete Katto St or bAMO?2ARES, EC IARUMTED SOM LVLE VIPEMAORT, RLACHPUMEREEOTKEEN= SLID. LiL oH AIBA Be ot rrsner tree wee crwers HGERLR, 043 99RD AREF AORHELAT. 2X. DREMORR, MUTE ERE NUTS AOLE LRP NSE OREN, SAO, HEAT KOT RO MRE CTEM, RMSE REE REEOIS! eMMLanaanten. HUNEAWL ELA T Bane Connection] it. ROA Marre Ant SMM CRM RAH EMME Lod TH ACIS LROMDL RTT SEAMEN MRC OMS OZ, RHA. RANTEOIS. TEAW ERAT E60 MAEM AMBIT TAME ERORIET S [o-€:8-E/RDRA-BE ERD LITCARLE, EROK MRNRROM, =MORMLEACRILCSE HARE Belenat, AWEMITSEA INS OACBNEORMABLE, FRR CARERUMBAERRL RENT AP ONES BR RLPORAR ID ROD ARR CR EMELT CE SORHRORELARR, ELCCOR EMMY SRE E KER ORMMEL IPO TL OMRAT ITA TLEK Bh. WERHSA, ALSREBLEML EATOEBOET 1908 RMBAE PART oO THE WORDS [is partf the book des wit ocaed = #9 & words, which are words that indicate ether phys cal or psychologial distance. Some are pronouns some saietves, some adverbs, and some change functions sccording to context. The easiest to understand ae the emonstative pronouns. A pronoun of course, isa word that stands in plce of a noun or 2 noun phrase. For ‘example, in “The man is mad, but he i happy.” “he” stands for“man” A demonstrative pronoun isa pronoun ‘that points to something in terms of distance from the speaker. "This" and “that” ae demonstrative pronouns in the sentence "This my chai; that yours” Japanese has three types of demonstrative pronouns: 2, which indicates something close tothe speaker or close to both the speaker and the other party to the conversation; £2, whic indicates something at a dix {ance from the speaker but close to the ather party and 3512, which indicates something distant from both pa. ties. You wil have noticed that the frst syllable in these words comespoads tothe fist thee sllables in the term "= &4 2 words” The lst syllable, &, would bbe represented by £4. in the ist given here. ©, how: ever, isnot used to indicate distance but refers to some ‘thing indefinite or indicates a question; in that sense, Ef.and theother ¥ words are somewhat different from the fist three types of 22 2 words ‘Aide fom the fact that = £3 © words indicate tice types of distance compaied tothe two indicated by “this” and “that” in English, one of the major prob- Jems represented by = £4) words that they indicate sychelogical as well a physical ditance. Thi will be ‘the principal focus of the entries in this part of the ‘book. Anather dificuly i that =-€ © words are ured sn idiomatic ways that are not easly understood from ther surface meaning alone. For these reasons, we have choten to take up a number of the more difcul, But slko common, usages and show how they should be roperly understood ‘S-2HE words have fou main categories, and each category is comprised of six words, That to say, the initial syllables re followed by suffixes that indicate what the word has reference to—whether a thing, © person, a direction, or something else. Below sa isting ofall © £4 ¥ words, wth sufied examples ited under ‘the main divisions = cloe to the speaker or clone to both peaker and the ctbercontenent 2A. = ts Ching person or even) = ti place ote Ebb orE oF « thsiduecton,dtematve or penon) EO = th thing penon.crever) SA = theif 5 = is(nayormanner © ~ distant from the speaker and close to the other conversant Et. = tat thing pos orev) 12 cenewoms EE = tnt pce ortine) EBB or Bb = tat ection, sheratie ore) £00 = that ting. person, orev) EAI = that nd of 23 = tatu oc manner of) 2B « distant fom both the speaker and the ather com Bh ~ tar over thre hing, pesca, event BES = thot overther pie oie) BES 01 ohm that verter estn sera, orpenca) BO = that over there Chin pesca, event BA = tha over thee lindo) 5s hat over ey or anne) & = indefinite or interrogative Et = what (hin. penn, or event at pice, etn a poston Eb or Lob = what detonate or penn) 20> = what ting, ern, or eent EAE m wat hind of) Inthe folowing discussion = £4 ¥ words are taken ‘up not in the order given above but rather im an order thot facitaes their discussion, eteevores 12 B Word: {words are commonly employed when something has slipped one's mind and cannet be recalled no matter how hard one tries. In such caes, the speaker uses an 3 word to get the other partys help. The other perion may ao respond wilh an & word fhe/she cannot remember eer an ‘4s typically used when tying recall name, place, corthe ie, AS, any Hor, ar Liste. That (What was the name ofthe soa? Ob L Torgot) Don’ you remember 2 Bhi? Al, Eb xat, AREA mH BARONE? ‘Ave? Ave, Bitorazu yo ne. Eaton oe ra de Bee ‘That? Thats 2 Reels! song, isnt it? Well. that ‘What was the name? (Feat remember) ARE, TIE OBDLURRMEAORTL ES. Bh Foon? Kyonen,AOhi no oii isaten mi ita desk Av, doko ‘iathe? We wont to 2 coffee shop list year that had good cof- ge, Whee was that? (Do you remember) Blick Ech di REROM ER, A BOWL! ak. mionERE TE, Eetio, avo wa ne <. ae, Shibuya dtie yo ne. A, ‘roidashitat Are chimae no hseten de yo. ‘Let me see. That was. That was in Shibuya, right? ‘Oh, Feesrnber! Tat was the coffee shop tn font tthe station R80 / SK BR BD and HALA (50), both of which ean be teansted as “since then” refer toa time tat Is known oom context but not specified NIEFSA, FERLTED, MOTOR? Masahosan ma di shit Yuk, shite i? Do you know how Malo’ doing now? BREROROE, hhokN AUR Bice 00, E5LTBHL Be Komen ata kd, are Barina otenata gna no D6 shite hehe [met er last year, but | haven't heard a word from her ‘ince ten. ovonder how she's doing BRED HABE Both ofthese mean “Yo that extent” or “Yo that degree” and refer to something that is known from context but not specified. AREF LOMA LOOT, WH, MitboRA Tr. Dena suru no ge oxokatia mono de, Kipp, hamakata des Because I called ate, couldn’ gota Heke Bkt6, BRM / RARER LetvotBon Oi. Dia nde /onna ni hau shina ite 0 ‘Tha’ why Ftd you so many times odo ener, 30/80 45 0 may be wed in much the same sense, ABOMBR, E9tlok? FRGvot? Rei no mys shiken, do deta? Urmaku ita? How was that company’ hiting examination (the one ‘You were talking about? Did yoda wll Bah? KRM. ROM, DEC heBLhot oF ‘Ae? Foss. Ano sien, mschahusha musubasikts no ‘That did't get the job. The examination was afl “ial SNECNE/HHARUDIAIT/ HBS | word ae sometimes used with © wend to refer toa random thing, ples, mater, end #000. DRESHOL, Fore CHRS, ‘Ave ya ove a1 sur hoo go okut eure. ‘What wit this and that, there are so many things todo UT gettied out BOM. AADAECIBIT, MEY HOT Br @pnens. Ao ito wa ks hd, kus bor un dene He salva etna and has reson for every thing. That's why no one ies him, DRSERLTARM, OK crores Achiboch sagshite ita, kare nok i iu yoni we hakanahe mitaarono ye looked here and there, but shard to find the Kind of house that might be tofu hiking s2o eRe BOK/BL9/FBOK/ 5 BOM Tn refering toa person who je within sight but at some ‘stance fom the speaker and tence, B2A(O-2) “that person” cam be use eg, 0 ALLIES.) CF 2 [Who s the person over there?) However, 4.7 can also be used to fer o someone close t,o ntmate wth, the speaker, such a a mpoue or fiend Th thi sence, men speaking Casually are more ely toute 42 than 3X. When ‘oferingspecfiealy toa spouse, womencan aio we 35 A instead OA when tefering to their husbands, and men 3% 98 (9) instead of 3° when refering to the wives, AED LX, SOMBETIARGABEH CO? Deahit, kono mafyu ni Aranute naam itu no? ‘Why are you going toa pce ike Alisha right inthe ‘idle of the winters” a B: BDAHED LE 6—-WKfIDI CHI HO ‘Ana it dite reso ik a har Because he (my husband, boyfriend, ete) insists that 1 oth him, AKO CONE AUD, REET HOOMEAN LS Want rake, ats news toto i atu na do. eats tough, bt he’ realy good at hear. Beth, VEDSRT LHD ASH, Ho, Dene, ara na kt koi ar Sil dont iim because he's sayy saying mean thine. AfHOm, RECA pan? Kons no shimat, Nagao ni ik ni hs de ed ‘akon ana ‘We're song to Nagano to ki this weekend, Want to come ang? AES AMEE, WCE BAaKz. Th RES EOMMM TALE. {ita ne. Demo, sain whi no yun ite na a realy like to go. But have to ask my wife ist toa) BAAR. Cb REARDALMUTARHE, ite. Dero, stm win ito ite min to want ogo But Ihave task my husband fst ema) BAD 3542 (that kind oP sometimes shows negative feeling cr the speaker’ part BALMER LEK TEL SEV. ‘Anna tog suki danante shinjrerenc Teannot belive that rou Hke that bind of (tersible, ‘cheap, no good) pera BARD, RECHEMDL, ‘Anna no, tea de mo okotower yo. Td refuse that kindof thing evn fit were fee. = Words ‘words unsally refer ta something or someone spataly loser to the speaker than tothe lstener or spatially close to both the speaker and the listener, a5 inthe folowing ddalogue, Achumety ‘Korea nen de Whats thisclore to me/in front of ws? Beni, KOT, /oHi, ACT. Sore ws, hon des. / Kore wa, ho desu ‘That (close to you) ita book. / This (in rot of us) is 2 "hoa. ta cemewones However, © words a ao used in eto ote, degre, Th sand the lie, s perceived by the speaker. = b= % 42's used 0 sum up, estimate, or compromise Eheow? Kore desi? Is this limit, amount, price, eto) OK? SHETKMCOMPER COSTA, ‘Kore made nuts kano natatte imu How many kan have you leamed up tonow? = words can ee to someting that has us been mentioned (ee fist example blow) or something that wil be mentioned immediatly after the = woed second example belo) i. Mik orabe Ronee CB maA BuNAF SOULE eas CaRMeD Sain, macht io sits shabin oot bake ge mah sr abe wr ant sh on ‘These days, you often come acrost merchandise with ‘taken English anit Thiers sons problem that ‘annot be ignored Saluja, konna foo 2a arimashite.Shirena ito kart enw tome des, sono tow, ose wears ‘note tle hoki tone det. You cant gues: what happened yesterday (Yesterday is lind of thing happened). I gota telephone eal ma slesnger, and out of te Behe say he wants inetosell hin ny house, SAG LES / oho GO, terlly meaning thiskind of place” and "this kind of thing” might be paraphrased as “thsi about where we stand and thi about i” They ore used to sum up 2 deusson oan obieration, to fer worms 19 4 compromise position, or to make an offer that the Speaker eels isthe best that can be made under the eit= cumstances. 2d, SAmb Dar, ‘Mas, tonne tok dane Well, thie about i (ie, 1 think I've covered ever: ‘hing think that’s aT have to ay atthe moment ‘think hiss aout the best fer can mabe} 2d, ETE EOE, SABbOrD I E, Mae, kare i detiruno wa ona mono dard ne dent think we can expect him to doany betes than this FARESD and £460 can be used in much the same way. However, whereas with ©A‘%E CA and 246 the speaker presenting hit own summation or opinion, With £AGLE% and £44 62 the spesker i aecing ‘with the summation or opinion presented by the other arty tothe conversation or summing up his or her ove, View of the matter tht the other party bas spparently agreed with A FMOZY/ORME IKE COUECTL 2 Fh Kondo no honbano kh wider gua made dish re. aya the party fe shoul be overt dolar: What BES, ZARESAtASD. Mas son oko darn. Yeah, that's abou it, guess. /You'e probably ight AMEGAT, SOEMBIEIEMORAU BAMA Bot. Mob abonb. Fins nants, nakenaks omou y5 ni we thanai mon nen ‘due, yatio wakatte na Life doesn’ go as ealy a expected. Lhave finaly real ‘aed tht. 7 Bt), ARLDBAME, 5, sonna mono nan day. Yes, that’sabout the size oft BUA) /LOM GA) Although these two lookalike Because ofthe Ban used, they hae diferent meanings. £47! means “the other ayy" refering to a time in the past but within the speiker’s recent experience. £44, an the oer hand, ‘ean “the tine between the two event in quedo.” Its ‘often allowed by b¥# or #2 f= Conly/as ite as/n0 ‘ore than indicating thatthe interval in question was of ‘hort duration, A SOMUIOR, BARTER DEES, Kono aida we, omivageo args gozainashita ‘Thank yo for the gift you pave me the oer day. Bivuds KAS TORR IALUCTS Iie Kin stestadhet rei do ‘Ye welcome. Tm lad yout eee ABDERELT RRELT, RERUMILT HAL RotON, HS 19 LOMA), bE BlibohOtEe. FoUTLE. Me osamashite, shia o shite, 10 tubidsie, bass ni tena hoch chdo = homo Ray matt to fof Suga deo. 1 woke up, got ready, rushed out ofthe house, and ‘onthe bas st exoty Socack Alimony 13min ‘tes Brety amazing, Mh Bou? BLoKENb. ‘Hon? Shnjrorenat ws Realy? can't beer it. worms 21 row (=%) /LOBL(ES) EOH(ES) and £94) are often confused, espe Gly when they are wnten with Kanji They sound lke, bat they ae not interchangeable, £:D% simply means Srcenly” while £2 % means at about this time” It refers toa specie point in tme ina specific context and iSoften used in tris, novels, or nanations. For instance, Something happened sta certain place, and at sbout the Sime time something ele happened a another place. ALDER, BLEAK, RUAN AINE, Mo no? Kono gor, oan, ken a war nde hed ani ba “The dps Diver ey al mod Wt hap pened? BespRORUINe, SoREWSMCLCCMNTSATL ES Watarana hed, ht shigoto ga logeshibete tsukarete “runt deo. 1 don't know. He's probably tied because he's busy at AAOwMrA, PAPBED >E5 Looe BEALS, —FLWANR LO RORMEDL BDb, ERLDLEAOTHE. Rokugstsu no chijun go, Niko we thi soy no Rca ri ga, ipo Hoth auth Mma no hers 0 makacns nome ata Kon Kot ode an. ou hemo ung hdean iy sen ay Ue tt Holladeekond he bean Sexe BME RN AMBRE NTT REL AM, MAE SDE. TUBERCLE ‘Tet ouhete eb tach gy ites hea act we Ro ede Rage ed he Dg the le oon thy civ the formation, but byt ine the specs ‘had already fled abroad. eT when it followed by atime word such as— “one year'or LUZ "Tora whi," refers nt toa place but to 2 current point in time. For instance, ~4F canbe any one Yeu, while = © —'F means this past (one yean" = 25 P may replace 2 LIES (see = EEA, below) SELIG. ROBERTO, BABII FoI) Koko shibraku, atta hi gs outa ga, mata byt nt "on ze sagt abe kara yim eta We've ad warm weather now fora while, bt the tem shire rtddenly went down and st evening we SSaR HUG CECE GH Em RIL, RES RUAME Lo CRALEM EB CHET. Koko chines, ingaute dobo ni mo ikenaato ede, rain os wa yuhe oto yak sha fo orate mas T coulda’ go anywhere this past year because Iwas 50 Bash, but nest year I'm Gefintey goin to take 3 action and tavel rouse EOLA ienot interchangeable wth 2 O=%, which means recently” ©OL= refers toa time period shorty before the present time ins particular statin, while = = refers tos more general time period and situation. Forinstance, 2D 220% (bi) 8 (GO) young people these day’ is 2 phrase often heard when older people ericze the behavior of the younger generation, 50 tay sound awkward fed in this phate. (See 225) LDLES, MOBEHDRLOT, ILEVLCOET. Kono tokow, ame no i Bakr turubu no de, nz shite Lately, we've had nothing but rainy days I's so de preg SOLES, AMRbEMORIE, LEME OTLOS “Kono tla zerzen evanaatakedo, doko kita no. havent seen you around a all ately. Were you off Semeplace? Paani SOLSABBSLORG NEL CE BEOMeeERIT, WHEL, Chat wa, kono too okt no gua a cha shite rato no shiteseoukete, oka shimeshita (Charly went back to his home county, having learned at ermother+ codon had ecenhy goes woe She ALie& (from here” reer to two different time points: “tight now” and“from now on.” i, cApeRREROIT. Deon Kore hare sik o afimras [Now we ill tr the examination, ATAEC A. SHR L Beothrt, Summon. Oka shite hain, tka otshitewatchatts Pde ‘Ym sony. learesly dropped the vase Tborrowed fom, ou ard broke f EB. FomNRLLTHS 26 cane vores BRU bOL SRDS, HUE, SABE bo Reo Thy Tal ono nat har hd, wa, moto Jest expensive, sis light but be moe crea rom (sa) £05 may place < A125 when t means hom now on” or‘in the ute” CARCAEM RS, SA e COE, MAE ota eREKEHS. Konng 1 enyas ga wuzutara, tow baa/kono ski, unhuruny ni eet ruhigyo watathen dar Ashe yen conser weak a i compies depen: it’sn frag Sade eng ohne oad ne ‘ammo om 4: sometimes confuses stadents, because while it ean mean “efor in time” before imple itean alo veer toa Doin in time or space, which somes later. Here ae xa les of both usages, BECRMLEN. (ecw ite shims). (Excuse me, but) [must go/do it naw (ahead of you). BBLS KH DREITEVELAD ‘Sit we dime aia goesimashit “Thank you fos the other day. EOE, RERESEELOED ID. Koo soi aera we doko ni sum no de ka [wonder where they are ging to ive for now on wows 2 afi. 7 hoReT. Cink wa, depto no sei de ‘The bani beyond the departnent store, COmkE /2O%R6/coneR Al uce msn “IF this station/conditon goes om ke this” However the implications ae different. 09765 is used to imply that the outcome of the existing sate, ‘condition, or action wil be good and favorable, = 052 £. on the other hand, commonly introduces an under able or unfavorable result. =25-T18 may be used inter ‘hangeably with £052, but here the outcome irather Uncertain. It commonly takes sentence endings sac a8 3° SLRBO and Cireu, AUDLRORE, LAO, ToRORAMHEATTE. “Ashita not, ana Tenino shag ru da hed. T wonder what the weather willbe like tommorow We fave a tennis mates, BLORkS. ALR. MNTETEHS. Kono bur nara, dab yo. Hrete hit ru hara At tistat, shod be allright eb tard ta lar p, ABUUZA, EABRETTO iis, donna gu des ks. How is your gandlathe:? B: BER AAA DOE OIMBHE LAGU, Cishason gs, hone bun de toms dame hao shire te. His doctor said if the unstable condition continues, he might not make i A BOR, WOLTRLODLS, ‘Ame shan, su made tues na hai. Twender how lag tht trial wil go on? BiLOBEH, LieSoHS OVE, =, SHUT BROR Om Uni, Kono bar de wa, dé nara ka wakaranal yo. Ni, samen ‘we dada tras no harmo shiena he. it goes ike this, you just can't tll. It may dag on for ‘a eouple mote yes cace = fT 6 isoften used when the speaker wishes to protest ‘gaint what romeone has eid but tie not to sud too harsh. Literally the meaning “even being this” but the connotation is “eventhough things may appeat tls way [which to you seems somehow insufficient or substan ‘hacd)” The speaker hen goes onto lodges protest or state AG, ROMERATE, MFEGORARSD? ‘Kyo, imino toni da yo ne. Yoni ni nata nda he? ‘Today is your birthday, ent #7 Are you 40 now? BRK! FMOHRAdO THEA. SRE b. SH0TF. _Shttret net Mada yoni i naka nett imeen. Kore de mo, sanfig de How rade! I haven't reached anything like 40 yet ‘Despite appearances, Fm only 33 AMATHDDORET 6522 LOEBRLESOS Atonde baka na de, motto mjime ni benky shina Dont keep fooling around al the time. You've got 9 “ad herder BihTh, -AMOE STRATES, HAMATD Boek, Ko gk ate de ae, Inspite of what you may think, 'm doing ny level best, stop nana wore 2 4-06 may abobe wed in coking accusing of eral ating something or Someone negatively. According tothe ‘Shustion £20 and ff may replace =f. ArbhaRolrBt. Nanke yruppo hai ne. 1 n't know why, but it ooks cheap BEARIE, BbeOT, SHEL HAMULRK Hine Sona koto, arate, Kore de ma mane ati ‘dr tors ‘Oh, dont say that. tay not look like much, but Id Bay 100,00 for 2ATLKDTRO? KOFES. boLDOREH Raone EC, ‘Sore de mo ann mo ko na no? Orns no ko ners, motto Techno kta Wo tutes ‘Agi behaving ke that? Ifyou ace in fact gl watch Fw you speak AOR LURE, MDEAEICMAATER RM. ‘Ano ctarasi sense, ayo nasasé mt mers hed dab ona. “That ew tacher docstoc very eae, [wonder i ewok out 7 BARRTL2, ARCL-RAPMAEAL ED, Datobu dsho. Ave de mo chy daguk shuts nan “ds har. | suppose so, He may not Ieok ike much, but he dd ‘aduate from one ofthe bert colenes engc/cnosy Both £4 3-C and £ #12 3 mean ‘this i or “thisis the end" Howeves the stuaons to which the expres sions refer ae diferent. In cise of © #12 ©, the phase refers to an ending point thatthe speaker cannot change, Ike the outcome of one's fite or hick. © #t> 8 9. on the ‘other ban, refers to an end that was intentionally made bythe speaker, who may sil cancel it In other words, the speaker may voluntary change the tine of ending ARORE MELE OT Kare no hich, isan sta da ter ‘These that his company went barkmupt. Is that right? BAR, (ASEHS, MORREL LORS Zor ocHo TEL RE. Ex, “Zonnen,negora, boku no itupy.ke tshite no seimel koe mod tte matt a ‘Yes, it’s tra, He seid, “To my regret, my ie 282 bus ‘esuman has come toan end” QROMREZAETE LET, SRMARB ETD E Late 5 no ig hoe made ni shiraeu, Mae eshita tu ui primate end todays lecture here, Let's continue tomorow. A V9DHARUE, EARICRRREBMSDLETE. 1G tore yo. Sone ni tahetar naka kowashim yo. [No more for you If yo eat too much, you get a tom ‘chuche, Beams, $3992 nega Mo ito date Please Just one mere A LEDGER, Lem 69-20, CORE Epos ners. Ships anata ne. J, md tots dake, Demo ont nh Tori deny. (swell 1 give you one more, but that al. shtvok This ersn, which might he Mery ranted a “ik hs folwedy a negative verb and indicts that thee nothing sei or pata bathe nun ht ‘hepa moe Digi, Shemanmmsten, aoc PetommecaLe D5 Kor weft sho ama bite aba sito ‘ga are no shumi da to ier Seeietes He doesnt have any paticular hobby F had to name “one, would probably say as his work Vig sibuaamy nose kowevinr, BEDAARIE DRO, imi wa hore ot toe no ato de we nl ered, inthe mina aut i Jimmy does have any particular strong points to "peak: batfor some reason everybody thes, bv T inusedin place of SHE Ba ‘To modiy aver, vor Aboot. LESH. FHI, ZARTRRT Irs. Siboraks ne. Ky8 wa, dour goyohen? Hil havent seen you for & long time. What cen Ido for you today? BShbust, HEARGUARTE, brobae RERURC BOERS, Kore to te, bets i 96 wa nal nd ed, hot ont ‘take ata ara 1 do have any speci busines to sped of Ist ‘wanted to see you, % Words {words often refer to an aforementioned statement (ce Shei pp. 4-36), eanene Asseen in the folowing examples, £2 can also refer toa later statement, This often used in the beginning ofa documentary, ecllection, ota detecive tory ERG. 92 DE ERROMRMI oH, WE PHA DE THOR EO LAE TC REL i HIER TBA REDS ni mo totsuzen no dkigoto dats, ten ‘no tava ga fiburtacht ne ue Mt cele Ira note ta dag yoo delta dro. ‘The accident happened all too suddenly. Who would ‘have imagined that the ties fom the coicing race cars would come fling down upon them BRIE FRLUZaO RHR, AURUEE TH PEASTITC RTS EOI OF Sere we pti yu dat. Ait to omote ta in go ‘pk dejaovur toa no de was happy news. fiend Thad wanted to see would ‘becoming Toige on vacation ALALEO? 2a MOREE EetO, DD shits mo? Sukit ga dro darake a a ‘What happened? Your sit iscovered with mud. Bidhith, MLN OHMS eb, om emA see Sere gene. Ameago no mich o tte ar, uso hars Trauma ga te Well, you see was walking down this street after the "aim had stopped and scar eame vp from behind eneoepeengoene ‘These expresions might be itrllytransated a “if that, even 0" and paraphrased at “evens, still” indisating that ven given certain diadvantageous circumstances, some wows 31 thing cou sil have been done to alleviate the sinuation. ‘They are commonly used when a speaker wants to com plain or to show frustration issppointment, of anger about Something that another party dhl carelesy, impropery, or inconsidentely. The sentence containing the phrase fen endein D2, 27, orthelike. SAES*3 LEK, 5 -ER are cologual equivalents ERRAERT, bol RC FONE ED MAORI TT. Soe ara srede, mot haya tene ui at hace Even so (even if that is true) there must have been Something you could have dave ea. Ehbotab, RRAUODE, EFLTSET Sbaboto? Sonne hayek ibs i no ni. Désite ima made ‘mamas a? tha’ the way i i, you should have tld me eal ‘Why did you keep ito yoursel til now? ZEEE, LILACS ORACTES Sonnerasore de, 2 tote bdaarhs yoketten des 0, thas the ease, you should have told me 0 ence is particle used to intensify the preceding word or Seren, which inthis case is 22. Here, €2 reer toa preceding statement. The whale phase is used to point tut the degre or extent of the effector result of, what ‘mentioned in the preceding statement. The statement fl Towing the phrase spells out the degree or result. MERAGCL EoD, SUSEKBOCLC EAL. Kare ni sonna boo ita, sore Koo tan na koto na 0. 2 cenewonos If you sid something ke that to him, there would be trouble for sre LOWS oth, ERCLARCERORERY Chains Sono itase tar, sore koso htobs 3 we iarowssonat ‘The pin of itu can't be expresed in words MONDE, EREAEMEDS LI LWEROt. Okinewa no um no rows, sore koso me ga sameru yore ‘ose dat “The color ofthe ta of Okinawa war a try brillant “oo dzaling blue (ita lu that opens the eve) eoeRr ‘This phrase might be Merally tandated as iF you (or omeame) says that” of if that isi” But in act stg the iteral meaning of say" has been almost entirely lost ‘The connotation is that something (ai, heard, fel) has lead by assoition to another thought, which leads the speaker to recall some matter from his or her memory AOR, RHO? IAM oto BEN Bacio et, ‘Ana Koro, igo hur ink ga ata har yds ‘we timo ip data o ne. The English css then was popu, so the casroom, eas aways fall wasnt BEIO2E. AOPZALHPSLOTOSAL UF SLad. FESLTEML ES 6 eb, ano eras nt Junko son te fu ito, ita desho Ima dst oka ‘That reminds me. There was agi named Junko in he ‘las rghit? wonder what she s dong now wos 98 APRODS, MEBERIL ECL CT AIAOR ARO TeRn Kodomo no kor, chisana sitour-teabi de you Ame: Tikano hamurdoramao rita ne. ‘When we were kids, we uted to watch drums centered ‘round American family ie on small back and ‘white televisions. BEAR Soc, ARE. ‘Séieba, ao or ws hater naka naktta da yon ‘Now that you mention it there wasnt any color TV in Thane dae AIP Eteh ae t: £98d 2) literally means “tis ike that" and £3-£2 i asim ple repetition for emphasis. Both are commonly used to agree with wbat someone has sid, poeubly translated, respectively 35 “Ys, ti ike that” and “Yes, es itis ke that" 25 £9 in particular, however, has another fune ion, which is to indicate thatthe speaker as audlenly recalled something —a fegoten ernd task, or incdent ftom the past. The phrase is used both when talking to others and when talking to oneself illustrated below. BAER, YEbEDA 7 R-UBROCEE. REL Tote Sx, in here no messi ga hate "ta yo, Dew shite te Ojos You gat voce menage fom in. He ido WUMMET Stott hy LAE, MARIS fimbacunauat. Asia wa nant o sure date kama A, yi ‘Ryoku ni ikanahya tkenai nda. 7 Now, what was I supposed to do tomorow? Ob, Tow: Tim supposed to go the pet ofc. EDUTABE Lael the phrae means “when looked atin that way" and refers back to previ statement that causes the speaker tosee things a ew light or which lads to another thougt A AOIOPAN, MALTA EH ORATH OT © ‘King no teuto, inns deknekte nde te. Dae mo "Aa toronchate wo. T heard that no one di well on yesterday's test. They ‘Sy nobody got an B £9m, SILTASE, ROBIE RCERDATED, ‘Sé ka. Sé shite mira to, boku no B wa, waruky wai n? dso na eth ght In that case, my Bisa mo adit AAD CRPRIMIT LI o thio, HORM EMEAHTEREOLEDOLER, (Oyu de Shinkansen go ukSseishi ms mats wd te, ‘Mutashi no Bisa a jul make de tomate sh. nakats yo ne heard that the bullet trains were held up due to 4 Theary snowfal. tn the ol days tains werent held ‘up by alte som, wee they, Breet, SALTABL. HOMMOTALE Shot ‘Sé da yo ne, Séchito mira, muha no bisa no hi eb data no bana ‘You're right. Thinking about it wonder if tains in the old days were moe solid bul, MBE IG DSM“ ADRK, RELITC 03 bite Kye no mucuto 3a m8 snjigosal. 6 shite mint, Tare mo ren Ror teak ka His soni aes thietyive. In that ease inself mut be nearing sy eta) {48 GE) always implies an emotional rsction of feding of sesentment aginst the subject on the pat ofthe speaker. When £0 precedes the phrase, it refers to a previously sentioned or undersioed mate, statement, o bt of for ‘maton. Compare the flowing examples, What the speaker mean isthe me Mi, VOLMEiAOLOEMD CRE, BADE BH ERLT CREATE, Kore waits hate n ito no muon o tuk hue ni, ‘bon no momo ett hace laren des, thie, wokmeiAouoeMract. 26d ARO LOBNCRLT REDACTION. ‘Kare wa, tum kate ito no ono o suka de. Sono fuse, jibun no mono wa eta i Rehite urent desk He alma wes other peopl’ things without pei an ba bc himelfnce ends uae os (01: may be wed in pce of A, but CAE ie stronger tnd harsher. When 015 direct follows 2 noun, itbecomes BK, while CPI becomes 2 SckmeRO, BAe Koko wa shizuke nao mi, nemuens que here, bu sil Lean sleep. BFUNTROCOL ERR S, MEMES ie Hinoko wa shigakuse no kuse ni numa da kara issho i deahetau na For an elementary schoo kid, Hiroko is such smart, ‘eck to dont watt tke er out wth me enaege This expression (with hat being lie tat is used when the speaker tris to change the ope of conversation. While similar in meaning to ® = 5 (by the way" or “incder tay] ts more commonly used when the topic relates to something shated bythe speaker and the listener. SRRELL, MEP ERARILO, Sere ware te, skin Keno mikakenat edo By the way, haven't seen Ken around recent APMREIE, RBC ORDVSEROEATH, Sore wee, Kyo dt Jon mi ta das By the way, ran nto John in Kyoto Bille, ROtTL 3? ig me, Odorita des? What a coincidencel A big surprise for you, Ibe ABD) EAC literally means that kind f and is commonly used in that sense, However, ti sso used—probebly more ‘omumonly by wemen—to soy protest or complin about Something shocking fo the speaker that has suddenly su faced in the course of conversation. General it stands on its own as an independent expression, but a fllblown seatence would read something ike one ofthe fallowin, withthe elipses being replaced by sich words a O > (anfu), ROBIE (Cat Sve; mean IN (KE 29 Sjcoldhearted, of (20249; col) ARRO/ CEERI, eh Sonna no/koto of now, das We of yout say something lik thet. Shp SEEMDEVTC HEM, Sonne. ato fwanet de kudes Please dont say such a. thing. Here are some samples in fllsentence form. Ac BRMBRM LHS AIO Mata usr go age nde "heard that they are going tore the tition again, Bear Sonnatt ‘Thats tebe AKADSSMROEMSLETHDE, BFF Raigesu ka ohacuha 0 heahinass aan, Coenen ne You'l have les spending money from next man, ‘Bown to ¥5,00 BEAaI EhLerotuites, Sonn Sor j yt kena ye You're Kidding) eant get by on tht. ene £12 might be literlytranlated as “with that” and 7 Understood ais tneated form, and they eal be pas ‘hated at "and then? and “and” They serve a shor, con ‘enient ways of encouraging the pester continie wth his ore story ADUARERORMSLIES CHS BOTRARN MRL CRMC CLE OT, 1 hito da to ometta hare shibarau toute "ts 9° dt edo, shishoku she Tyg ite shinatte. 1 thought he was ance person, so I was dating for + ‘wile bute found jab and moved o Fekyo, 0, panes yes Sere de2/De? ‘And then? Athan. Sore Bi "Thats the lst head from him, Asa conjunctive, £1-C may ao be used ina statement topives reser, meaning that's why” or "therefore" ACBOBIR, LED OAEIAEATHN, Kind wa, ne kur ynuria de a ‘Why cit you come to eas yesterday? BF AR LA: MUNAHALTED LOOMS SLE Moth Chs ZNUHEL. TARY ERAT MCORATH. Sumimasin. Atgms et gangan shite dihite mo ob: Tarenahtta n° der Sone de shat na, urn 9 rnondenete an des. I'm sory, I had thie pounding headache and simply Touldrt get up- So had no choice butte ake some ‘epi and sty in bed SNIGEvI OCR) “This phase it, the thing after that) is simian meaning to the everday conjunction £43 & afer at, but wiheteas £28465 focuses ona simple sequence of events, Eheiee E19 40 iE) inciates that some substantive change ha taken pice since the point of ime in question UK, MERCER SADE MABEL, SA PERG MEER Kse.wa, Tabseki de machicwstte iho ni shokui shite: Sore kor Shibuya igs oa al te ‘Today we met at Tokyo Station and went to eat together. “And then we went 0 Shibuya to see a move nome 99 AMMOEVILD. BUVEAIL BE, MOK EHOUSE Dot, ‘Sore hare fo iu mona, oisgn we, malik, hogan no Tata tae matron Sint [Everyday since that day (when he found iny princess Inside a shiny bamboo tee the od mun began to Finda bum te filed with gold SBE hVg bO, TORCH Tle Sore Boe to iu mae, hare we mataku kuru ni non Toto yamete shite Since that day he completely quit diving. BLEERD ERD may eplce FAN EW} HOE) ZRULE REE CRASS EE ROLE OK. Soe oe matty rue non tt o yam ‘Since then, he ha even up driving altogether. EOREM Gm TOE / LORI GT a5 2A (nearby side" generaly shows location, but when its followed by indicates that two actions have ‘occurred one aftr another. The verb preceding & i sm the ditonary form. PEM CUSLART, 26 2RHDE, RS xLaa. YYohodo oncke as suite ir to miete, tuluru soba hers, abet shat He must have been awfully hungry, He ae it up fs “sould make = eo When thre i some break between the two activities, the ~75 form ofa ver is used instead ofthe dictionary fem. When this happens, ~/2& of: (just as I thought") precedes the phrase and £12 replaced by IL. ok TBNPARER ob, BAMBLEE LED HLTH, ott Ai ga unde to omotan sunde hash hora mate rine ir Just as [was thinking that they had finaly Finished the ‘consniction woth, now theyre starting all ver gan J yeKsnmoReR nthe Bon6, Habit PEPER EAMA TH o CL Bot ‘Tenpopo ga tava haa 9 skate to omotaa, sdkneta "hh Knees act 9 timande esate Just ms thinking the dandetions had produced auch “cf ite Homo some den eat ight along Shu picked thea ‘When the vet ic understod fram conte rom a im mediately preceding statement, £ replaces the ve ‘The phrase E81 often flows ayer ending in ~< & (even P)and precedes sich vero endings st CL 29 ‘completely/unfortnately} or ~-c¥>< Cheep dora Bom EMA TE, LOLEDERIRTR IAL Lia Seba nae o ete mo, sono soba kara ina ga ite hor ‘aeshie shir en though goto lt of exible to plan the seedlings, ‘dog comer around nat afer ha and digs Hem up & Words. EeemeeRe ‘The phase tery means if ay whic ofthe to)" and ‘used when the speaker has to make a choice between ‘vo thing. In casual conversation, 2-2 SAH 1 can tho be used. wows 41 AwkCH LA LEeTD, ‘Shimatsu demo yoshi dev ha. Isthe weekend convenient for you? Bidde TARGPLUAI, ARBOR IOOCTH, Ee, Demo dochis ha to ick, gotny6bi no 6 ga ino ‘dense Ye, it Buti thete sa choice inthe mater, I would Soy that Monday would be bites for me ATISERNMTEDE, ROTA TALE CAote Max get eon uno Kat ce hon ‘Mariwal getmaried nest month, He not handiome ata ear Bitte, Kobmen Remi eDIch, kore ERNARTEDHoROMLS. Kencjo we, dtchi heb menk emo nt Yop ‘ol Klick ken de yatta no kai Ara fanthing, good locks are wat ean mast to ie monde wast franca tus orsome- thing that was paral good AIRE DRE Lo bAQES 2 Washoku to che to dtc gx suki? Which do you ike beter, panes food or Chines food? Rep, Kos OMAPE, Kobbengs aK. ' de ne, Dotchi mo suki de hed, dtc ka 0 ieb, wes kana. Wel, yeah like both, but if had to choose, Fa proba by Sy lapanese foe ese ESEE (it, wherethere) refers toan unspecified cation We csc vons or place and might be trandated as “soandso" or “uch andsuch” [exec07 97 animus LoIeotEceco TEEN] Lm. WROR MICKA THS. “Dhesko no ferns nwa oh” tok “dotroko no ‘ino yk, a on ema ama ‘They are engaged in sch, mal tlk ar “The French ‘Sidre Wstchandsch a ramuant @ poor Things cheaper such and chs ove HMBORLELGHULURIATTOL, LIK OMUMRTREVATT Sy Seta no doko tet wan desu kd, iu no kawe orice Kuen nde yo. He says to goto suchandach apace in Setagaya, but ‘he wont tellme how to get thee Eom 2. Mli, where does the wind blow) is used in refer ‘nee to someone who cold cate les about a certin mst ters not interested in hearing about it, and is unaffected by what others say in relation to that mater. Mich. BIC eo CALLER 1 Ker. Kanojo we, nani ite mo “doko fuku kare” da haa, Thenshte mo moda de Ws.no use talking to her, No matter what you sy, i's lke water off dock back, 5 mL DRFI, MOMS CE RADLORCMC, BORO cus, Kanato ws ya no fu kow nanka dato fubu have de, a0- ‘nite Kanai i lvays out having fu, turing a deaf ear to ‘what her parents a. enone econo 5 DRO (i, bones of hone from whoknows where) refers to someane whose fanly Packed i not cles ot ‘who is considered af lower social standing. Needless t=, itis used ina highly derogatory sense, It often appear in the phrase 22 OROR IHL b UltHe, hid, POOR OR Hp b sind moMioMBume Btikevot, HOROH OTHE, “Keres dato no uma no hone dh mo waar oho ‘wat musume oor to ite, butubuta ie. He Leeps grumbling that he les is dear daughter 9 sont Joe Blo from who know where AMIS CARA, BARDOLE. RESRM LI Fane, “Toparn oute Rg hte, na nano Ria Eran "Ronohikata su eda, ‘Who does the man who moved in nett dor think ef ‘wonder He alse Re was Go's gi to humankind Bi BA%O, LEONORA Emu, wm maBe. ‘Anna no, doke no ums no hone de ks sitet keds ne nis Oh, that creep deat know what woodwork he crawled Sutof but he sure pus you at ero toe haat amt lz eroxvo 2009 isthe vulgar equivalent of £4, or “who,” and is mainly used by men. Mest often this derogtory core: tations ABEL CUPMERot) Lronkeokwor |? Daiji ni shite ite tubo 0 watt shite no wa doko no ‘ds dat? Who nthe dickens broke my precios vase? 6 cemewone ELOEUOMAORORLERUITL, REEARS ERDUF UIA oko no doit ga ita no a shite! bdo, or orn ovo har nt dr lot know who on earth tl you, ut you should "iow beter tanto nk say ayaa a Feo exh oh vont RrmBL ERE 158 66 (lt, fom nowhere al) els tat some thing or someone suddenly appets oF comes ot of m0 tthe The opposite 2 6 2 Cain which the Subiet gore ay to an eran pce. Th ater wor the former sugges that flom whe is uncertain, whe the ae gett wher ib une. boat, SRoReMOSE Kober OR fon Ano neko wa, yUshoku no shiahu 0 hlimens to, doko ‘ana to mo'nak ore ‘Whenever [start preparing supper, that et appears out rere ‘fn dace, acer BEL aR’ HTRDH OED METS TC. oko kre to mo mai, fnchige no emai Koon ga ade. ete har, (Out ofnowhere, the sweet fragrance of daphne flowers ‘comes ding nthe ai. Bid, Keak ba Roth rote wa, doo to mo nak sat itt ‘The man went away to who knows where. KENLI ME, LEAL AREMATIOL Hanaseeta ura a, doko eo mo naku tonde it ‘The crane that war st fee flew away to who knows ‘where wows EFDS FED / ESRI RD © means “which way" and © 9 “This way." Thy com bine at shown above into et phrases meaning “somehow or other” They are interchangeable and indiat thatthe subjects somehow handling a knotty problem or suri ing +c situation AR LotR, £97 ‘Atarashi shige, 5? How's your new jb? BRAERS RE be OCR T. MARAE EEL te Dé ni ka ko nik ate "masu DandonnaveteKimasit. {im managing somehow or other. Ym mal e'ting ‘ued to ACARD CALS aM LIFE, BR HED bRoTH ERE ip ad i hk ih hig hed, mac ken go its mo nokta Somehow {managed to ish my paper, but Isl have ‘Duke teeesams ARAG ERY, EROS Oo MRR A BABREDE, Pu-keiki na ihinen data hed, ark yore bi shi ‘ne ga aera da. eenomic conditions were bad, but somehow or oer seems wellbe able to greet the new year EASOS ASS NMM ATA MOAIICM, 65K Bathe 5 re Kb Yara mokutcichi ni hitite tobi nwa, ‘roku nate ta. When somchow or other we managed to reach our des- ination, was seady dark 46 cenenonos eree 25 2°70 appears in question withthe meaning “bow fr” It canbe used both Mealy and figuratively. AccOmMHM, KozoRUTOED? Kono hosckudr wa, doo made suze iu no? How far does this ighsay go? BIKE] 2TH Ate SHEE CTL ED. “Tame te uw da kara Nagoya made deh. think it goes a far as Nagoya sine t's called the “To the (Pekye-Nagoyeh Haga” OW) Eke EEL Cone RELAT. EDZTUME UALS): Kono mae karts oka 0 made kaesite mo ine no ni, ats ko ni ku nant, doo ade size dard ven though he hasn't paid back the money he bor Toved the oer diy, e's come oak for mee! How here can you ge? eee AaomER 5e ACTHIACTE Ano gakuse wa, roku ni BenhyS mo shinai kus ni, Ao ore monte devo. Even though that student doesnt study worth darn, She snaking foram 8 BUObtI G0, Foh{ ROEM HELIO, eso # nana Mata dato mde atukornshi no ba She's nay like that Really how pushy can you gel? a Le ca Attn HERETO 2S C6 (lit, a8 fara you can) may be used in eer ence to actual distance or, iguatively, to mean “al the woes 0 SOWELS ECAC, RENN DIAM DE Fe SEP OE IEE CT. Kone mich doko made ro ike to, tuk ni hanya "pe arimara Soko ane mig youkun ne dst you goal the way down this stret, there is a book- ‘Nove the end ste fourth bung on the ight Sb ORIL, MAMIE LL EOROUTREDE Fant ‘Uchi no ina, wath ge dakar to doko made mo tet oy to suru da. Whenever fo ots my dog ties to follow me far os fe pouty can. eum, KopCERRERASOMMS LO. “Kenic gowa wa dato made mo yy haena ih shi Weems the prosecution ha no intention whatsoever ‘changing their demands Moms, REMEARSK ER, REESE EMD EMTS, Kunis wa, yy a ubieraenakerbs, watewre Tia nates otf ‘incase their demands are not me, the union says they sri iit tothe very end erect tot 317 san interogative ering that ints the speakers lost his orher tain of thought, The question s addressed cither tothe speaker him or herself orto anche pat By saving, EEE -C~ i917, the spear isin effect say- sng," Whete was I” RARE, Eegsvoholl? Eo, doto made tebe? Now, where was 48 cemewones BMEOLA LS ricfroRE CAT YYoohams no esutoan ita too made ‘You were talling cbout the restaurant in Yokohama you weatto, Eegepohou? & BOWL. TO THEA REVEL TRAM. oko mde ytts Hie? A, omoidehite, Wapure mi ites ‘shite ton da Now, what wae Going? A now U semember was ing to put isnt the word proce Other examples of 4B, tan, Wate, sna he ita he? Did sey that? WLicaationt ? [Nani shi mi ita de Be? ‘What ddI come todo? / What di come here for? fh, Baton? ‘Ave dave da te? Now, who was that? / Now, what was er name? eseee EEE te mightbe more or les tery translated 2 “not anyshere specifically” and has the meaning of“ some ‘ague way" Is very similar to 4 E% ret anything specifically, but the former generally indicates thatthe spesker cannot pinpoint “what or wher," wheres the at ter doesnot specify ‘why orhow” Both ate used to expres impressions concerning feelings or appearances, NAOF, EOLBCMSKEMTEER DEN? ‘Ano ho, doko to nak Shima ni nite to omawonai? Does that young man over there remind ye some. Tow of hr Shia? BOLD ELL. HOF, RELOBFLLELO. Atarimae yo. Ao ho, Shimon ro mukosa dt on (Ofcourse he does. After al he's Mr, Shima's son. Eepa can Yoocures Doo to naka sabia kaj no kono machi ga, ketrute ‘sHakube oie gina eto Wa To think that this desolteloohing place was once 3 Prosperous and ively pos own mae, ocwHE LIS BOR MALAI L, BAER RINE oH BVOTLKHES, Ano, bin aa ads, an o nak ay gate haath mode mink ga ar Se isnot, beatiful but she's popular because she's ‘ule and there's meth charming about her OHI, BALBLERS pots EDL THE. ‘Kyo we, nan to nak tsukarehats, Dive kane 1 dot know wy, bu fel ie today, eoLEd ORD 3.48410 Ienlly mean “there i no way butas set hnase it means “canna be helped” or “thet is no ther ‘choice Itoften indeats a feling of regret, appoint: ment, or frustration. When £9 precedes the phrase, the particle # changes to, and the phrae becomes a mote phat representation ofthe speaker flings To ada fesingofbeing to lat cr everdue ad 3 tothe beginning 0 cenenons ofthe phrste. £3 LE 3 6 200 may be replaced by 2) [2622620 with ite change in mesning ALERTEDREHORE, 999 Hawi aaae Mukse nite moranaatae,tahushi de hu yoshi fata ga nav/sio ga Ino one comes to pick me up, Ihave no choice but totake st oi kode Lasiee ABA. ‘Shaya gu nat ito nee Yate ahopeless case / Whatam Ign odo with you? ACEATO EN, BIC REE Bo cue (C nant ide 8a hurr to omote ta ACI How av. I thought’ gta B BiLeiaew/Latatwel a, Apa oT RAR. ‘Ship ga nai/shikte gna sh. Jbun ga abt an? ‘deka Tcan’t be hep. You were the one who was woefing off COLGMN MLL AI URUE. FHRE COR BEd. ‘Kone doshabust ja dé shiye mo nl 0. Kyo we su no amend les hopeles in this kind of heavy ran, Le’ give up ‘going tay. Seber, Seat pabau vecinon Bd, OOHRS SOE Tina to nate wa, me do shiyo mo nai/d i mo neenat "0 lkagen airameys 1s to late to do anything about it now. Le’ just for ‘et about it eos When 29 (6 b used with negative ending, tinictes that nothing canbe éoe to resolve a situation, When precedes 2 dscrptive word, th ending ver it not neg five but the overall connotation i ee the lst example below PAbbpegucbi, noeee(2caiene ee ELE SE. ism marane oon made mo huyohuyo site ‘nade Conk dasha 9. tbe comin reting ver things you cnt do “nvting about Cheer ne De Abn, Lo EoRBaNO: ‘Ave dike natant no Rati (Cant they do someting about that? 2, Bicbpepuatocny, Lar BRocatAte OE. ie mata nda do, ds mo noranat nd te sn 90. | mentioned i, but they sid nothing could be done. CONOR RLU LB ORE, KA LROT Sour Kono hen oie go hos oomota keds, i mo taka, no de coma 1 wanted to buy 2 house in this are, but they're so “fully expensive gave up Emesk E95 SE refers toboth possibilities and tendencies. In the fist sense, itis often fellowed by ~ STHRIEA & and ‘mista inthe second sense ~265 25. OUTS 2 oF ‘#2006 FA canbe used inthe same way, bul ony when indicating a tendency, nota posit. COLI RMB, KA DT REAS EAMES RELeboL Kono 6 na fans wa, dha suru to Skins shabat mondal ri made ten sikamona A dispute of this Lind could possibly develop into a ver ‘ous socal poten. AMi:Aiho cuUaH Lint LEnBReRR Fenbhisag >. RACRORA. Kasi ni mubate wer 6 kart mada sen hd rs hn go ch et ‘Th doctoral tht altho she wa geting betes Thats wa he poy develo noc agreed, fei, RE. Kaptan at Bees. Kens we sii, be to ach ra Recent sb eno Become deprose. SOMMI, SORE MNELGATY. Kono we doe’ wa, jm sur to okuegschi nan des ‘Tris wate tends tobe slow 1% Words While & words donot belong the © E group, there area numberof interesting pases that shoal be noted “& words unually appear 4 interogatves, uch as Zi CCwhat) and 4" Cwhy") Among the % words, the most ‘commonly sed in wet phrases BIMBATH ZEIEAUEAT& is used to intersfy the following state ‘ment, sch a strong intention or an expression of dete: frnotion I inay be wid interchangeably with 21c08% A, 3e swore 88 WORM, BEMELCLE DUTT, Iitanhajimetora nani ga nan demo Yate bok den. ‘Once started, you should eany though at any cost RUG oeowgaEA TE BCANSLOD OW NDERS LETT. Hoshi to ometta mono wa neni au nan de mo tem ters “ou no ga Mika no thug! a desu. seems that Mika's philosophy of ie to get what (rer she wants, no matter what Bio Ik BFE RAIRET. "Nant as ado, Raneasu mate an ima, [Nomatter what happens, I defintely come to see you ‘once aa. akeoeee ‘This phrase means “from A to Z," covering everthing. It ‘soften ued in regard to gratitude or appreciation PORK. BEPSRE SCRIBED, KBE Leeper ‘Ano Kota mi wo, nani ara nani made oem ka he kona shite ima She tsk care of everthing forme, L appreciate it very BEPSELZTACPHETEUT LbabEN. "Nani kare nomi made hit ni yas eit, re mo wan He has me/you do everything for him but never 33 ‘word of thanks akome 212 6256 also means “everything” bu it often has nee tive connotations. The difernce between f= #6 27 (disussed immediztly above) and 21 6a isthat the former loks at the whole in terms of individual units heres the ater refers to the ene ent SRERELDLRDDTH, ELHSEDEEH Hr. ‘Kore de nanimo karo owari dens. Mat cht kaa yr ocronakere Wes all over now [ve got to start allover again fom ‘arte. VORB Mkt THT ORMCTE. Ippen ni moni hemo yore itt mo muri deo. Ws impossible ro do everthing once, no mater what yous Abbbboeitot. CAPER, LIABROL, [Nimo komo yun nat, Konna sit, ml yam o. Tm sick and ted of everything. Pve had more than “enough ofthis Kind of work Hae Mee MRCEEN ES / HRV (i, nointention whatsoever) inccates that something was done in 2 very casual man- nevor unistentionall, Sometimes teers toa pretense Wi, ROOMS [HHL ZI) 2ROt. ‘Kara ma, naige na uch’ de “hoon sito ta. Ina casual tong, he sid “Let's got marred” BAL. BACB ELURSY CHER LOT TARE. Haynin we, rin. yoroo nage nai ob de higsisha ni hanashitate Rita fo “Thy sy thatthe eximinal pretended tobe a neighbor ‘and analy came upto speak tothe victim. BRRMEASE, HoomcAmeo Te [Neng nc ot oir sno ma i kyu When I happened to look outside, I saw it had stated sat ‘1 a9HI 2, wha what) sages thatthe speakers puzzled orconfased It always has «negative connotation. BRL TROT. MAMET INT EERE OT te Diten site ito no de, ant ge nan daha adam sara harass kina Upset and confused, I did't know which end was up ad cul rake a Secon Dik IMSS, Misi eC Ro CL ote Ava ropa fake not nan aka has ia The problem was so complicated that I coun tell eos what anyon wry (102) indicates hat something a superlative exam Ble ofits kind eis aso used in greetings to show thatthe speakers pleased about some news or itation, SEEDY BORO, FET IEF. Watashi ga mayors) ia nao ws, gob des What Thate most are cochrschs. Amba n2eA56 Nani mo armen ga {rm sony that I don't have anything special to offer, Bik, REEMA LOSEAI CT. a, wath iw htt ganar yori no ech desu. Don't concern yourself about that, [love homemade ‘ooking mote than anything. ARCHER OTH LABLOLE, MEDCT. Gen de hateoku nawstte rasa to holo, nant or desu. am pp teh you have been in gpd heath andre ae active at eee 4) erally meaning "whatever degre "is sed In two ways, One isto eplce © in areques. In this ae, the equally formal 1 (i= & B) may replace Inthe second usage of 94, it may be used in explanation corexcise, meaning “after al” on "many ease” BIE may bo be used inthis sense. PALO ECS LIRA REAM, BREE L CMOBLEGES. Diseguhittokoro méshineke orimasn 4, naibun/ nifco yoo one moshagemat [reali that yu ate tery bus but I would relly ‘spprecat you help. e HARDEE CA baor RECREOPLOT. 41 ‘Yodan tooo mo ata hy to omnim gn inun/nanse mada minarachi ma mono de tel MO Foto wa, urshi hud His service may bave been unsatisfactory, bt in any case The hs tance, so plese bear with us ts once we Fes Bt Ski, BILGE BRM /BECNERL 2E-AM2O1 (i, conceming something or ether) and i €424€ (without this ort) ate use i silt ways, both meaning “various” or sundry.” However, whereas the former has both postive and negative usages, the lt- ter seems to be used met ina postive sense it, gimconmmeRs lah vara a i tukezuci ou [My mother complains about al ns of thing DOK, FC RHINE EET. ‘Amo hte wa, ia de mao nan kei uke tye hue Even now hestil writs on various occasions. AMOR, BECHER LTC EOC Lerect: ‘Seni ya dry go, nai kare to naku tasuktekuers no geo ga sijrut ds People senior to me and my other clleagues help me varus wavs making ey werkmuch sae BiemH(E) ‘ics () i sed to lt indefinite this, ike Enh “thisand that” of ne thing and another” REEPELEACHDATORLOT, RBENT Tawath, [Naniya hay to zatuyé ni omerete ite mona de hen 2 ‘hurts Simaimashia Unfortunately, wit al kinds of busy work coming wp, Twas unabl 0 respond (to you letter) unmedatly ERROR NS THB IEE. z RAF abRocle, oie 8 cenewonee Nay katate rue ni yards okie ‘What with tuving this and that, I ended up spend Hot $500. canal PART e IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS art 2 deals with idiomatic expressions tha, on the ‘whole, ae not properly explained in textocks and Aitionarics, oF ate presented in such simple forms that the student remains unprepared for more complicated Instances. By definition, idiomatic expressions cannot be Understood btealy or a grammatically orthodox man net. Overtime they have acquired particular characteris ‘ss that mast be studied om ther own. Hee, we disse and exemplify idiomatic expressions that are commonly found in intermediate textbooks and Japanese language proficiency ests aie 5 Rony Uhl wre ing oomice 7 This expression (i, at whatever time) indicates that something ba ected witout the see roting ot tealzng Is often ued na statement tout haba or gener phenomena, ss sen nthe fst roe blow She = fr of te ver dean pt pret terejmay ore with 2528 SLU or FARE Ce meme the when the semen iconic oft, 9 x8 haere An et hoki nau t,o mak “olotoutecenara dye seme £, woomcn ec me Rag Witt your rein itthect appears ct of nose Wi, poomich, Mice oh LE Soto we sumo rm a, yuki ata ds. Te Seemed to have stated snowing outside without my sie Sanne ~SEERRC Bok ~ Zeit ( indeates the sole reson fran advere ren. Iti often used in combination with verb endings ike ~~ LE fe, which expres the speakers raze, othe set phrase ~ 28 £826 Ceannot help but do.) EMEC OMREEDE, MERREHOEELRER RS Tashi ttteitabakar ni, hoe ws biha o years ‘atu nate For the simple razon that he stood upto his boss he ‘inal hat no choice bt ut he company, 2.20 (carly? Thoughtlenly,” or alfway?) may be {ded as an interne. 2 E> clloquil vation, RELGHbY RIN, Ys yO ERIE WoL boclsak. [Nami lanemooht ni nata bahar wi Jon no js a ‘oda na mon nate shia For the simple reason that John became wealthy, his lie tumed ou tbe lonely one. steopcowtuton 6 Bi LoeSNNORE MRA TOK LicoMiee Bebhbeot/ brs shheak. Namaiita kyé wa hy de nate, kuch mi shite Takur mi ogoravererecheta/ogorasrehatta Jost because I carelessly mentioned tht toy was ‘ay Thad to treat everyone, veep FR) TE FEE) TBE dit ifyou doit unsilful suggests 2 wot case senavo, The statement that follows shows the poss be undesirable outcome Eaten naeae RacRne, Feta 6 sr to, fu sara made ni kates we he tos lovin ore Taso by ny doctor tht if ware comes to worst ‘ould aes nether 1 Rly ese. a Fibmnette de, A commORM, B<. Kono shite no eel, mite. Lookat thee test rails BRBOCThe. FEEL WREEDEORGLE rent Wat dud, Hata srt, Ake ort ward Ramo shiremasen yo. : i ‘has bac at Is so bad tat even ahh schol Student mp do beer RIE), EEPEL SRM BONE LA ZL (ono yuki deo), eta sures to koma wa kaerenai humo ‘neat (this snow my ote able to etme oh wore comes (0 worst. 2 wounneoonessors wT 295 (at eet expres the speaker's minimal o: leat expectation. ~ P24» (want ‘oy (~-C) 2 Li» (wat some: ‘hing from Someone els), or ~ R725 WDE (why don't you. /you shoul.) may follow, ABEHbORS, WRRETE ALE, Chane 2 attra, shiek urn de hed me Trdimake a tip around the world fT had the mone, BURT Sim, WHC CAR, Watashi wa sme ish mi ichido, hig mite ita Felike to go abvaad erst once in my if Sh EM@RRL CHEATS, BocBID HSILWA TH Evo, Kore dee ih-hrme ben hie iru! hr, ‘ete Bw hee hos de ed, Since Im studying this hard, Tope the teacher wil at Teast pve mes B BO. ME COVES ceREEhoROL, Semet, ir wali yreba yokats no "You should ave at eset od er the reason, ~ce ‘The basic funcion of ~ i o connect verb hates (ee also Shot, p. 44-66). When ~ "Ci followed by 1 i has te fllowing functions. First, may be translated a" Hoxituitan, Iie wa kena ‘You shout go. (Lit, I you go, things won't umm out nos go 0, things won't Sebtanckenotit, BVT. Ima srs soma kotooitte we, omarimas, Weal ite to be syng someting ie that (Li fo Sy such thing a hs ime, may este» problem In deserves repeated occurrence: DDT, UIT SELIRREERGECHS, ‘Ano ko we itacuro shite ws seseoahorte ‘That child keeps geting into mischief and making the teacher angi. WORM MODEL Eto ehiba a, haem Fimo we meg Fallen Iaves kept dancing inthe wind. (Lit, Everytime the wind blew, allen leas flew up inthe ain) Compare: ORM, Rima cMOhstot, Ochiba gs, hae ni fakersemaigate ‘The wind blew, an fallen leaves ew up into the at ‘These two sentences look aie, but they ae not neces ly the same. ~“Ud in the fst sentence describes epet ite occurrence, wile ~ Tin the second sentence is 4 onetime cccurence. Thus, ~ Tl has two functions one, to show cause and two, through the adition of 12, to show repetition THis important to note that because ~ has other connective functions, is use to indicate cause i some what limited Jee Shoji pp. 46-48). The relationship of ‘auseand effect has tobe fly clear from context for ~"< to fanction inthis capacity, For example, lock at these WRcMEeoe, BBM CATT. Kenojo ga Byki mi ate, orm ha dese She gt sch, and Lam going to ist het. Biot, GemoRATT. Ameo fits, senate desu Da tothe min, Teal’ go. ‘The it sentence sounds awkward because the relation Ship between the tv events isnot clest enough (ough Clear enough from a set logical point of view) Inthe Second sentence, even though it has the same grammat= Cal srvture asthe fet, the relationship of cause and fect perfectly clear. The fist sentence can be made ‘cceptale by changing iin either ofthe following ways: Wek MERICoT, BRMVI CS EEE DSLR RAISE ROROT, BMV CATT. ‘The point here is that ~°C should net be use to indiate ause unless itis absolutely clear oot justin the speaker's ‘mind that the relationship between the two clases is one ‘ofeaur and eet 409 ‘420 islet wid when the proper word refuses to cme tomind, the speaker i hestant or the speaker attemp ing to draw someons's attention, Bd SARTRE, REMADE: SEAM, And. gomiival de makes, watashi mo issho i Thai tadaberaven ka Excuse me . if i's nota other, would you mind if ‘went slong with ou? BDL. TRECAB, BPE LONTAAEEBST Lz a ‘And, suimase ga, Tanahasan no oft wa dochia de ‘ho ke ‘qc tcl yout me where Mi Tas a4, 22, BeTVETD, Ani oko ate mask Excuse me. this seat taken? toe tuts (at most) indicates the speaker's maximum expec lations or the limit or range of something, suck 25 price, amount or abilty. tis commonly used with endings such SX ECE Kir thelimi, “L/S OIE (ts impossible to expect any more than X) and X € Bf (C5 xc 6.00 what can be expected is jst about X). This expression often falows the aerial phase ~ 4 (even if MVE sob, LRU HM SMURTET, Taito ine ma, ste sarjuppur mo erebashemas You may tak if, ut you cam et there in tity RCCL, oMERFACOHeL EI Tabahte mo, ses: gorenen gdh Even expensive, be about ¥5,000 at most sete —maa nt, Unies AKT Seize chine ni ichido area, han de IF we can see eachother even once a year, We are not ding be ROPER BOL, BeBErACoUAEM, ‘Ano gakusei i der no wa, seize! hore gra dst mou [think this feabout the bet that stdet can do, “2021 sometimes ued in expressions of goodwill mean- ing"as much as possble"or “if nothing ese" AULURIE BELA HED, Seize yaks o otanoshio Rude Enioy your tip as muchas posible DECTE/DRLEE Both 2 . Mickisna omory ye 7 Iechigtsu mi kil saver, honk no orinlthu thes coming Olympics hat sto be heldin August ° ldentisng the grammatical res of sof vital impor tance. doer not says men “though this couse ‘one of more common meanings Here a sme tips aout tae usage of (Se Sho pp. 1924 for more on ths tope) 1.Common noun Proper name/pronoun ao 2 and Bae in sporti (.e, explrtory equivalents) or Ab modifying B. ai ' Bmore ss - 8 ‘sh ofan Jim, dato. rf who i doctor. 2, Dictionary form of verb +0 [se alo #4, below) Here, © is a nominalizer In other words, makes the verb into noun ike an English gerund. ing) or ifii- tive(to ELoUvet, Tino a ta ds te to go. 3. Noun Verb + Noun 2 immedi flowsdby a vero marks the subject In other sword it as the same function asthe subset marker [Note that adjectives and adjectival nouns eg, 24 Loss ‘S410 fancion nese manne as ver in ths espe. Bo Rok Ao VON swath no Rta kare the cr that bought PA Dain N® Ad N ‘ahi no ksi na arabe {beach where the rans i enutfl NO At N hin cic mise ‘coflee shop where the coffees gpad Axo. aot. a8 Inan AieB type sentence, when Bisa noun, functions 48 2 pronominal, nd 9 is defined by B. When B is a ‘descriptive word, © Functions at 4 nominalize of the pre coding verb, Bait (ouvert. promis BC. ‘Niko no wa on der ‘The one going to Japan i John. John isthe one going to lapan) BACH CDE. BRET. [ion itu ma ws nih desu The time when [got lapan sex week. (gto Japan ‘ext week) atch connect, No ne wa de. 1 dg want toa 0 Jpan (it, Going to Japan snot Seaabie) 1 SAMOMEL HRI ZDL. BACT. Kore dake no kant chinichi de oer no we, mri desu. Tes impossible to memorize this many kan in one da. Inthe Bist sentence above, Bis 7 = > 10 0 ina pronom ital and replaces A. person), wile in the second sentence, © replaces 9 (ime) because B, 6, is atime wor. s.~ott The usage of OC (ort vatations, AT, BA, A or simply) as discussed here changes the tone of » sen tence from a direct statement to an explanation ot an attemp to pers. All ofthese fonns occur atthe end ‘of min or abordinate sentence VAEEA, REVI ORDTIINE, MBEO UTRBATLE SREOTIDS. 74 oeaune rssioNs Sumimen. Kuru tuner dats no des kere, haze 0 Tie ntonde simatta mono desu Kara ‘Pm so sony, Iwas planning to come, but I cauaht Told and had ta sayin (0, ess formal Clk, REDE N ORAM ACUERDO. CGomen. Kun tumor: data n° de kedo, haze 0 ite ‘nko shirt, rm sony. I was expecting to come, but Taught a cold ‘nd ended up Sod = 8° inthe frm of °C, can aso he used atthe end of ‘claus to offer an explanation fr what ist followin the teat of the sentence. Be caefl to note the difference between 25, which ofesa direc reson, and 2°, which offers an explanation. In situations ke those represented. by the two examples below, either word cou be used, lhough °C would be sofier and more indirect GRAAL SADEOT. ECMO BOE OIE he Kenko wy haku tau ano hea ae {have alot of homework tonight 50 T have to go ome eat mmeoucas FALL, MPLAB LOS, MOTEL PUREEATLE ‘Sumimasen Bench mi teiden ni nate no de, suk (hts aban shik dekimason desi Ym sony, ut sight inthe middle of my homework we hed power fale, sof could only get al oft done. ‘Wen making requests however, and offering a reason for the equedt, 3% isnot ily tobe wed because ys sess ‘on one's own, egocenri needs ad reasons. Thus the fo lowing example woul! not be acceptable, eventhough it contains an explanatory ©. RREPETOT I ACH LBARDOL ATT DS, RRREROTOREVECAD, Kalan yigakuse pucauramu ni, méhikonitat n/a ‘desu har, sien Rate tadakemeren ke Sine alike to spl for the student eachange progam, “ould you possibly write me. ltter of recommen Non? Tn the above sentence, 0 would be much better than # 8, but gen the fact that sil pointing fo one’s own reason itis not perect. 2 /A°C4 9 or KEEFE wold ‘be the best solution since dey contain the explanatory © as wellas 2 and i, which smply connect the two cases without pointing overt to personal reason forthe r= ‘ues. The following two examples show this in practic, the fist being rewording of the example above RMARET OID LIWLBARVOLATTE, MREMO CURT ERAD Kalan yigshurl puoguremu ni mshikoniah n/a! dou pa sunen jo 0 bate aichoasen he [woul ie to apy forthe student exchange progam, se wan wade Jou col we wer of BMNICHIAVALIE, RECHOT RED? Yabin-yoku mae ita n' da hed, nosete ite rena? Tike to go the pot office. Could you give me ride? pare ‘2b indicates the posit of something happening. Wispreceded bya pre form eg, Libiatevn, Jai). Isnegaive i connotation, sopgesting that some: ‘hing undesrable may happen inte future In ether werd, 76 woomnc pressions this expression indicates flings of mist, wony, concern en the pt ofthe speaker. See LON, REOREE Ima nan ob shinee, son i mo are Unless we do something now the ston may deter ‘ote deasterousy. AOR LCAPETTFERCTE, ‘Ano ase w,yoku harming suru n desu yo. ‘That scent often cheats on his test BARE PELEAUNS, KLOT ‘Kondo mo mata shikanenai hr, ko tevkete “He ght doi agin this ime, so hep an eye on bi. PrhbUs and BEAMS (it, there ea far that) may be ‘sod interchangeably, though the laters more formal. *£4.289,3 is precede by the dictionary form instead of a pret form, RBORMCRABTNAGE, Sosa not mina toe ae sepenensas, Meta sur omega. ewpceca 2005 EE flit, which isto say is sed atthe end of en tenes in two ways! one, oindcate hearsay, meaning st the speaker is passing on information learned from a third party; and two, n explanation, canting or restating What hasbeen stated carer Ses, BEM MAMA LVI SECT, ‘Ye, Fuso ni hats sft to oto desu Zz au eae & say thatthe ft ow (0 the yen fl on TRB ATALEA MALOMICATRERDDATHN, Sumimaion. Ast ws iia dite oravnain’ deo ga ‘Tm sory, but some urgent busines has come up, #0 1 "ea beable to come tomorrow BaLitmetitonenzorcborn, Ashita shen ukraena toa oto de a Does that mean you won't be able to take the tet to Ins explanatory or dunfyng sense, £193 5 & may sppese at the begining ofa sentence. The following may be used instead of B in the sample dialogue immediately above EMILE BLARBERUSKEDA TTA, ois hto we, skit shiken oukeraveat desu ne, ‘Which it 3, you won't be abet take the test emo "ow that ght eve ae some other examples ofthis phrase: ADLLOU, SEP CRBERDCHACHRIEN Wentor. Ashita no asa we, KORG made tomodachi 0 okt nt ‘andere teal momo de Tomorrow morning {have to go tothe sport to see a "end of 90 7 BEWSSER. ALROM deberh. To hko we,enhte no juz i wa, dren eto dene Mon BEIS “That means, then, tht you cannot attend tomorrow's hss Aki. BAIT 1 FORMED E, Watashi we, dtu taipe no dae vs Bitt 4a00 90 {really hate that type of man BEOSS Ei HEMEL EVOE, To iu oto wa, kare oa kako shina no ne. Which mens, Lap that you aren ging to may HSIN Bem ATE ITS BOONE $55 IFC £004 (i whether to go ornet) and FF 9 28H C £008 fit, whether [understood subject] ger oF ot) are exactly the sme in structure excep forthe use of and 2 The fit ncieateshestation between two choices the Second suggests that na matter whish choice made, the result wll be the same, RALRON—T 1, HC? Ashita no pliku? ‘Ae you going othe party tomorrow? Bi HEI ctu, io TEES, Tima, i tu ma a, eet ns tahoe Tam debating with myself whether I shoul go o net AMREGT CO? Kenejo mo itu ne? Tsshe going, oo? BibAtA, HAM Fst, MomoRCe ee mobe ‘Anne hie, 6 hu mag wats no site hot fa alway. (Oh, her. Whether she goes or not has noth ‘ith todo Both patterns can take verbs other than #7 ¢ , and both an take subjects other than“, although in the pattern vith using a subject other than“ might be considered to bean example of inditectdacourse, where the speaker is poring the thoughts, feelings, or speech of another MARA RBI NED SupitoTHs. Kojo kre a a tb ryote ‘She can't make up her mind whether to mect him ot ‘oe XEAST/AKBOT When Xisa time priod, E809) 0° and Ste are interchangeable, asin + HIEA2 © and +A 2. Both sugget that some kindof change occured after ot since the tie perio in question began, FARot, PoLRLONIRC BIER: gts hat, yto suzuki hi go tuck yo not Enuing October, ne ia brzn to are some coo DEAE, Miao, 25° CITE OHNE Rronmesaone, Nihon wa Mew nate, yp ok nash deo sli a With the coming ofthe Mes peri the Jaranese ie wer tah by gen ie Meclon tone {he county wiht spec pete, weiddle of CKtime) XkaoT td spy mens “rit nthe ide for "se ing the time period of X" No change om a previous ine pid gp, asit wtb eA and eC ORROMR AAT. HRM ORMEDT ONE BUD EE MCRBE EL Koro fy ia ate, dake no vet ae acral, or Bl fla ‘Toads ein the mi of hs epson ‘Ply asoandng MHLROT, EMGURRETSCE SLE COS REhOROT, ‘Shokuba nite wa, shin kuchigota suru eto ned ‘otemodotinahaita no da To tak bck o one's superna place of wok wat vomling ply coat da ~iBok/~2 Mok /~OmE BOR Allof these phrases mean “I thought (mistakenly) that with only Sight diflerence in ses (the stronger on the Fight, They canbe used interchangeably. The phrase i re ‘ceded by adetonar form or 3 ~7: form, HELENS, MPRLABOLARIE, MYloh. naga at, dae ao ort he, se "dg neo though someone had cme, bt i ‘was the wind, - eto? ~MeHiopegocnb, ‘kant no? Ish shu no keto omette awa. You're not ering? I thought you'd be going with us BOBEEL, NYG FEDSUSReTHELO CH HSC oC ObE BS Ano olyatuson, handobaae oir mist hoshi te a ‘er tot gure! we ke no kato ome. ‘That customer asked to see varaas handbags, #9 1 ‘hought she was ping to buy at least one ~EMoR6 /~mE Mohs ‘These two phases, which csentialy mean “ust as 1 thought fa certain thing had happened)” indicate that at the moment the speaker became aware of something, it cence /pemons 8 ‘na already ceased to exit o had changed into something else. The fst part of the sentence, ending in €-972%, refers to what the speaker perceived the second part refers to what happened net or what resid, In contrat to the phrase #2 Bo fz disused immediatly above, 2 cannot precede HEB 25, REALBORE, LIBOTLESRO? vor 1, ILERAOSL. a kita ka fo omettara, meets shimatts no? It, ‘nosh rt tao ath. T thought he had jyst come. You mean be's left a ready? I wonder wy he came al MNTOSLART, GREDUAEBORD, 430 Eeverecey ‘Toukarete i to miele, fa toko ni suit to omota mi bk at a Looking tied he had jst gotten into bed thought ‘shen here he already shoring ~ HR ~ 2.663 (roughly, “which is quicker” oan be wed in place of ~7=(20 E824, butthe focushete son what actualy happened rather than on what the speaker pet ‘ceived PRO MELD, HUE EURO THd oko nits gs hoya, bio ate mera [No sooner ihe is bed than hei snoring WU, BRERKEMBLD. RERUL THD? Kae wa ohishokuo tabra ge ha he tide ta No sooner had he finshed eating breakfast than he ‘ruched out of the house, HHH TE Both of thee phrases ate that one thing flows uly ‘pon another. ~20 (which belly means“erde”oF"pro- cece" is preceded bya pre-£ ¥ form, ssn HEE nd ischaacerti of formal or writen wage rather than asia conversation tt might be tanlted st mmedaty ‘pon to bring ut formal nuance, In casual conversa tin, 726. -F © Cas soon a th hat) is more common ANF LOBRONERS, 805%? Her no hea no denvadng), wakes be Do ou know the telephone number of your rom at *Rehotee 7 BERPRORUATTURY, BaD RHE bE aRLEtoe. Ma waka de hd, wake wh ‘prema sharma de. 1 don't know et, but oon as do, et you know. At EomobITOO? Ia, doo ar hatte no? Where are you alg fom? BRRRO, KRM RR ET CRETE HOMR, ERT. Shinkargen no make. TokySel mi iter gu deve ‘oreo mari hie a From the Shinkansen bull wan) cll you 000 fargo Tokyo Satin, so come and pick me up. In the above examples, which inohe request, & + & cannot be used (ce Sho, pp. 98-114, £F © i pone ‘nly with habitual occurrences or routines. woeBant cy en emEt. Iu hae to mugs 0 abimet Assoonas! get back, alway tae a shower. Ob, MRR CEDS, MENUETZEEEL cst, Iinumo, Tayi ni tuk to eugu, dene dake we sent ec se net {always call (ny Fay) 2s oon a Tarive a Talyo Sta ~ed ~ f 9_has the same etymological roots as the vet & (@ & 70 become" and originally refered toa shape or ‘condition, This orignal meaning gradually took on many forms a5 we will se here nthe fist two senses below, ~ 1510 ispreceded by nouns oratectives the following three senses are preceded by verbs L.Nounte DEVAN DON Here 19 has the meaning of condition stable o appro. Pre to the noun tht precedes :t and can be roughly famlsied tothe bet of N's abity” on keeping with N'scharacer” It's often used to justify behavir oF ward eff ot care) RERerERALcHEAct tased’me, wats wa wats nar ni dork shite ru ‘en le may not seem ke but in my own way Tam doing rmvb RELRADORLBRAONDS or. Kare ni wa kre nar no kangokata pa ru no ds hare Hehas his own way of thinking, 50. 2 Adjective + IE “This phase similar to the above in hat means “given 4 omauncersessons the characte ofthe adjective" or as one might expect fom the character ofthe apc.” What fellows arte phase indieates what is expected. 114 & can be abstitte for 22°01, though there woud be an obvious change infocus. SOe- 7-1. Maen eosen, Kono st we, thal nar i mono a Tog ua of ths sweat god sou ih expe EhRVOMLOELET. ‘Sore nat no oe wa itashimse, Tl compensate you accordingly (Vl express my thanks [ezatude isan approprte mainerh LAEO~E + semeneendng ve Thapar sagt teats tobe ated on ~2 9 ay bepecred by nounr ory ern nay fom, Ti scdovebcan heme lom the a Pct ft 5 aan fl ve Bish. mera ouenisRan, Teal der arya ebm hits muha ea Ing ao hl eth now gh vay, er ‘by calling or by sending a fax. i BIRNSbHO~D, oaDLEEH. Au nari awanai na, bli shines Whether yout gusto meether orl makeup your SERDMBORRY, CHRO EMB CEE. Kenya nar asi no oe nari, got no tobi oder Tudo ain Pease call me tonight o tomorow momming, whichever 4. Verb 204 sentenceending verb “This patter inchstes that two actions happen almost s+ smultzneousy FIL PRMOMS TCR DWAMLT Toko wa, okt kara hate kara nar nokidaita Janko stared cry the manent dhe got hae rm eho Fee, ML Aa TED RE HIT, Sense, ys ait turn shen ohajimet “The teacher had no sooner entered the classroom than Shebegan the test 5.) Inthis potter, 9 i preceded by a verb inthe 7: form. ‘The vet indicates that a change has taken place, and 29 states tht the condition brougt about bythe verbs til in effect that no further change has occurred, Mid, SMCADABD-EPMTI EON, Kere ws, heya ait richie dete kona He went inte his room and did come out ll day long. SOFROREM. WREoRE BoC aNo HEM. ‘An kadome wo chchiona wa, dane nite nar kate oma moda me ‘They say that the chil’ father has gone to Tokyo a Seasonal worker and never come bade Here, ~1 9 may beepaed bythe mare collouil~ 3 9, ‘again inicting thatthe condition brought about by the ‘verb remains unchanged Mit, TAY A foR aN, Hote. Tek wa, Amrik nite Hr, ete hoa Tehiro went to America and has never come back ~ODER/~ IED /~9HRL ‘These three phases are eauly confued in that they all refertoan ongoing sate r condition 1 ~o yaa 22 indicates « condition that remains unchanged and ‘night be tuarsated 25 s"The preceding 1: verb defines the condition. £0 et. can come before # & ifits mean ings understood from context. Year pnchty bn chttmamsopenbn ETEOMOMRES, Rope SMELER2ORC BREhIS Cone rae no sasha ga, bi no nah here ‘Basha maa wo sats de hen sara a ha hd met wl lait some fe sro) ance eet odeainin be snow, aaa6 Tb, AOERTHOCI TH ‘Teutsumanakute mo, sono mama de ket desu ‘You don’t have towrap it Its ine ai i 2-28 30) may be used in much the sameway as ~8 2, but the focus spaced an the discontinuation of the action indicated by the verb ($9. meaning “cutofP) In other words, something was done, but nothing occurred after ‘ward, and the orginal condition continues momen /—cmen/—saee 07 Aik, BRENLA DH TI BH oKOTH. Chichi we, choke aot i, act honhata no desu, (My father was drafted and never came back doroth, seMcHaRAVeOL ‘Ano ho tara, tsuki nit rina no yo. ‘That lite rascal She went out on a rand and hasn't ‘ome Back HkEMMRAOKOL, HROBRCLE. Bhok LEAEOATT. Kano t aio ni atta no w,suren no kre dest. "Sore i ota gna dv twas atthe end of lst year when T met her ast. FRiven' hear word rom her since B.~oteL ‘Thi phrae seo refers to an ongoing condition butt gener ally diate an ste ongoing state rather than atte one It often conpotes etic, unplyng that the condition in ‘question ithe result oflazines, sloppiness, or carelessness MLSE LC LENT, RARDOLOAMERLT Bazens, Dashippanashi ni shinai de, yomiowttar hondane ‘modeshieatnasl yo. Don't leave them hing argu lke that. When you're ‘dane reading pur thers back onthe tookshelt, PROBA URLELT. WroeERTOR, ‘Tagantobatippanashi shite dass noo wasuree ta eft the letter wrote lying there and forgot to send it RxeaitoteLc Levee. Dario tubeppanas ni shina deme Don't forget to tun the Uights off. Lit, Dont leave the Tight tuned on} ~RERME toh: canbe paraphrased a “exactly that moment” and thus the whole phase (preceded by 2 verb) is sim to 2:0 and 9¢8U-, Homever in the case of A—T2E TEAK Bthe subject of A and B cannot be the sae, whereas the sibjctafA 20 Bis wsaly the sme OPN, MURMURS R ARAL / RUBE ab, BALE. Hikar sanjchigs wa, kare getobinots toto nob orgs hay ba, hei ta, As soon a8 be jumped aboard, Hiaxi No, 31 (bullet tin) depart this, MEM CNBR ED. SEH Wotlzor, Kare wt ea ni moti 0 ok hay ha/oku nat, ata dt te shit As soon ashe had put his hipgage in hs room, he went out again BPN CL) BEBE) OE OE(E) though these three onomatopocie words are character ined by hesitation, nervousness or timidity, there are ce ‘ain differences Lever) ‘This describes an action that ie cried out with hesitation due to wony or lak of confidence. The action described ‘snot expansive, but sinking ond withdewn. AIBN LEI, BEIT OAR OME THU EEL ‘Sensei ni namae 0 yoburetashinaydsel wa, oxvoxu to Than zenn no mae mite ena shia a ‘The new student whose name was called out bythe Teacher fmily ood in font ofthe sls and int (duced imele, DEMBERELMOTRALEOD EE, —300. Baan Shinen gs ocwozw to insite mises te no hia ni way ‘shiva ra hivadr pt Inside the bund thatthe boy imily opened to show, ‘here wars baby aes” SY Reese) BEBE deserber an ation characterized by nervousness crreslessnes due to tension or apprelension. MoMA, BEBE LABOR CRN EREL TOS, Homers okusal ni edsoret tiny ws dood shia ‘mutt de ata mimawasie fu ‘The puppy, taken outside fr the fs time i loki round him ners : Ayay FELTRUM SREP, BEREERR BEATE: Kanningy,o shite ybidarete gest we, odoodo to ‘imitate Ria ‘ving been summoned afer cheating on test, the lent nervously entered the teacher oon Bocaciey ‘The primary meaning of 0 < isto tremble physically, bout here we are concemed with the peychologisl aspect ofthe word, which might be parephrased as "an inner ‘tembing"Inthis case, the feat comes from the expectation that something bad i aoing to happenin. Thi feat may not be apparent to clher,dstinguching tht word From pons youre i NmH FHS she ou BELLY Sinier 22 which nde an dees arent onthe rein eit ne SEE Shah laine anita wb apices AML CRRREME, ECO LHe B ETS EK HLbAz GomDtaot. Tish shite Kita eb6 han ws, bikubi shinagar hur eto tatrrenc mata nod it Shaking in is shoes, the fugitive tured himself over tarhe police, saying that he could no longet bear the Ife he wa ean WME LTIAHOROT. REC AMEMERE SE SURI bE. BLL Eun ‘Shukudal o shite bonahate no de, nema namee obo ‘eur di ship kat, Bub siete Because | cidn't do my homework, Twas woried to death thatthe teach mig cal ny name oh i Akhough these two compounds are often translated 3s “halfway,” they ave not necessarily interchangeable, 35 simply means on ones Way to" or “inthe mde of while "implies that something is “half done” that it has been lefruncompleted or unfinished. Ithas a negative tone HMOMETAREATLE SOOT, FRBDE rae evens Shigoto no loch de hitomi Roar shimate mono do, ern sages hot pa debate Hecaute someone came to see me in the middle of my "won, {as unable to fini 3 planed AARC GRECO FEAR ROR LRU E, MH B5CLE Shibuya oi i sk toch (de) Takeshtesan ni cimasita edo penkios deskit wee ot ‘On any ay to Shibuya Staton, aw Mb, Takeshita, ‘She loked fine REMEDY, CMIMADE Teo THR. ‘hiking tara, ii ga chit no mam wi nate ir Dua toa lek of funds, the construction remains unin ‘ed. esc ORT, IRS LEsActs. Kojo hig chit dem, ken ok to se ‘oka shina done o. When office hours ae over, she just ups and goes Toane-evcad herwor weapnatiaone sO oR kiot "952488 sao commonly used in vaous situations with its negative implications even eater than 28 kid, SoORLOMeAotOT, BRL EEH PUREMMEE THRE SHAELIN, Kagawa fet no Bunk none de ada no de ire toboro ga ar me Because she was rated in two cultures, with each half Tearned in some ways i seems she knows nether completly. SOBABIMRERLER LOL Eun TORU BAO, RELRDNA, Ano shigiten ws chdtohanpa na shigoto shike vinat “ara kana ho gto, tmedachi ni trea. ‘My frien told me, "You'd beter not goto that repair "hop, because they do nothing but ous jobs” AMEE WoCMMPFceSe, Bocu cel Es Ae 4, AWsuhRENeE, REZSZUELUTTH. arya hun ao yojchanni nar to ate ie ‘hima dene Shigoto a ehitohanpa de mo, int faunal bi donne 7 ‘Yamada always goes on ome at 436 It seems that he ‘docs mind the werk sony half done Bose nepEtmeos, ObNDL ET. Kerenokoasohte chido hanna nano de, ia hima His thinking eso half Baked that I get Fusrte. Jookis- Geo maw 47 LCE pw that I think about ts foloned by & Aeserition of fomething that happened or existed inthe past and shows 1's eration inveverset and Jubective interpretation of te mate. AMough the speaker {id not ake te matter serious a the time, he or she now becomes aware ofits value or significance. This statement may imply regret compassion of some other such emotion. SELCMAE, RAGADDELROR ARETE Lhe Yao tale th ( Imai shite omotha anna hito no kuchiguno ms nota, Vibum as hers Now tha I think about, Pm ashamed of being taken in ‘By the smooth tlk of someone ike that TWAS ERSEDD CRM SEP EMEOVED ARMCEORITE, MELTRRIE ZODLY. Aube toBeukys Baka de dito o sury ims mona 6 gage deta edna sit roe, -My college das where nothing but study and parttime "ons wih no time fo dxing, ut diokng back ow have nome pod meron. ~oe ole ~~ 2181 isattached to aroun and indestes that I some. ‘hing i singed with a particular clo, or 2) someone oF semathing hae unique trait, manner, or character, owt wd veete) AL(HW) EOKI, EAGMRE LTE Lite (Kei Sono jose w, donna fuk o site imashita ka (Detective) What was the woman wearing? B: (BRM RBaLVBOTF9 AOL, Hoe F-RHTOREBOET. (Mokugeksha) Kitoppt io no burauru no we ni, sho! sido kite to oman, Witres) She was wearing yellowish blouse with 2 Rit enc ocn a DORKS BA aIRUDTMER > TENDER. Anggun, ito n de nano ate me dome nan Because that student easy loses interest, he cannot ‘achieve anything. J5ObMI, Ru ovowsicmet, chino jai ws, okorppo no ga tama i cu den ‘The only drawback of my boss is that he easly loss his Temper aM, WeI DAI 2) Chikagre,kanojo ws higeppoku nat. Thee dase ett ink the whole wo gst teicds, LOUIE 6G LOOK, Bolts HEFEOTU DCD Lise Kanojo gmake we anim onne ati non, ookap- ot hematite o suru no deb sia ‘She looks so feminine on the surface, I was surprised That ae tals ikea an, LOW, AFUKASMUS LEAD EIEGOR, Kano 20, Abiko wa otonappoi to ou i nat, Recently, Akiko has trted to tak ke an adult 94 omsnecemessone Incases where a qulty or manne is seen as typical, ideal or as expected by society at large, LW fs tied. in the opposite case, CK sed Bit, BOLUAMER, Watashi we, oak rath ito suk, [ike the manly type BAS LOA ‘Nihon in rach hargaoket ne. Ws typically Japanese way of thinking bokkozaL(Lahsimbh. [Motto nna no ko ashiky shir to haha ior Twat tld by my mother to behave more like age is Supposed to behave BOF ROFOLBES CECE. ‘oo, oaks no kono hus i sugu na no yo, He cries easly not lik a bey a all Other examples of ~ 91 woien a shimeppe’kiki/hanashi damp air/a depressing story Shou sechippt hit 2 complaner fac p oem hokage heya dusty room Aoi rmizupoiosake vetery ake one, >asuped yuku cheaplooking thes AMOR LA zappat henasikta pretentious or acted way of talking ~tar ~ UAsts is derived fiom the verb RIB (UA), which ‘asthe primary meaningof"to dj and secondary meanings Of to stain” Yo smack of “to Jock ike” and "to act ike” tis the seconary meanings tht are caried ovr int the suffix~ EA, which usually bas a negative connctation. FKCEEDLAREOR Love. ‘Sonna tshirt iat, sine de, ‘Don't ike an old an in that way. VUELTA RERLARCLETED, MOBEUE. Ii tah shite somnahodemoimita hot 0 suru ne, yame- aslo. ‘Think of your age and sop acting ike child, BRO, Aba THAME OLE otun Heys no nake ni wa, chats shat dake ge oipbs ash nate ite. ‘Only thy shit wa eft ving the room, NBM /NR AM 2561) indeates I that there i Dt of Xo 2) that Xs scattered completely over a surface. The connotations are ogativ. #4 indcates that Xs smeated overa sures, 96 wouanecwnEssoNs raking it filthy. Ths meaning overlaps with the second meaning of #3'f, though they ech, ofcourse, retain their town nuances, Another difference between the two is that the Xin XP 17 may refer to ether countable o uncount sleitems, while the Xin X10 refer: generally ony to ‘uncountable items. Inthe fit two examples below, the ‘wo ae basicaly interchangeable FORMANCE TBAT, dora gs oro amie inate sonde iu. ‘The children ae playing, al covered with med, Rou, BRARKAonT OMBER LOTR mtevmeneen Kaen chain tr isha no kn nn no ae Mary stray ofthe Body vty of torn Str posed on thew DOME, RRMEELTT OT. BLSNE? ‘Ano hai, shabkindarate nan desu te Shinjnaers? [heard that the actor is loaded with debts. Can you believe? BERUORTREABEUT. Sunaderake no ahi dei ni hire! de. Dan ome it the oie with eur et covered with CARIMMOERONL, EIR OTHTO? Kenna ni machin! darbe no sckubun i yette nau no? How can I corect a composition ofl of mistakes ike ths HAR SAME B IC eo CHR TOA CBI Murabit tach ga kizu-darake mi nate tort ita tabibito ‘tauheta The villagers came tothe rescue ofa traveler who had ‘ollapsed will his body covered with woud MidysoLo ‘Rl Liv, which might be tranated a “troublesome “rk some, or "vexing describes the speaker's feelings in rgard toa certain matter, stall one thats complicated and dit ficult to deal wth, suchas human reations in the wrkolace. ROSBRNL, BpLuasoeaner. Kai no ke ga nagi to, wacurawasi bara i nn dese | don't ike lng bair because its 50 troublesome. DOM BL, Midas DOE, MOLVA. Avo og rt nae waka hed, wave To know why bt el expert when he i BHOMDLEAMR EAR Rohm, BOA oe Kaisha no wazwowashi ningershankl ga fe nt tia eva, yametan di Because 1 hated the troublesome human relations in the ofice quit FCLOT, EAbMbL Us bedi oc amhA cheers laogahitts, sorna wasurawatit Koto ni wa Kokawette "fu hima rant nt dest yo. | am too busy to get involved in a troublesome matter Tike that 3580 9% 5» maybe tasted as noi, bu the cause of annoy ances not aways sound, When it sound, 3 2 810 inde ‘ites tht the sound is itating Secondary, the word indicates that somebody or something i bothering the spealer by being pesstent, unrelenting. o fs) Ia, RORMOBUMHI RACER EH OT. Yabe ws, ona’ no heye no hanatnge we urusckate, nernrenaata { was’ able to sep ast ight because te people next oor were aking soul — Wit, FORRBMORNIEECT, bH5TRE BotheT, Korea hits no hankisieh no oto ge uruslute, ia “rue ire He says that the noise ffom the downstairs! ventilator inate hi ABEVL, tbo TH RotDRD. Uns nd. Dame te tars dame ao, Stop nagging Tsay “," [mean “no.” RD IERCHEL, BNTUDEHE, Amar wash suo, sete kana o. Ifyou keep bothering me, I won't ake you along. DOL, DERUS LiceY EI OTRDN CHS, ‘Amo hi we, ura oto akar ino de Rvawaete i ‘That bos ion’ Hked because he's aways fussing over something, ‘When the cause of annoyanceisa nose or vice, 442 L (may be more cormosly use ROK-F/—SEPSLCT, RB. Tonari no pti gs yahameshikte,nerurend Tea seep bea ofthe ras om the party net TRORMEALLUA TINE, BEMBTOSAE BAe Kino vbenah dene ed, mad shine “The noite from the consruction work swing on sy retves, Would you mind closing the window? tome 2° isusd, rs, to expres appreciation fr someone's Jandness or goodwill Secord, it may indicate disappoint ment that one's goodwil was not appreciated by the party fn the receiving end. Thine, may simply indicate disap ointment that one's effets in some endeavor did ot re- salt in success AoRLOCMR, BOSE CERULET, ‘Seba no rok, aigatoku ouke shimacu, Tam very gatefl for sur soktade on my bebal SOPCHRLTC REALS, HoREs aOR, Soba eit shite kurta” deka ita ho gai yo. Since they 0 kindly invited you, I think you should go. RORMREATINS, BREESE ‘Seba bat nda kre, sanpo mide mo kyo. Since the weather has cleared up, le’ take advan ‘olitand goforawale 7 BORURT HE OROE, MEELTET EAT Soba Kite hudsstta nom, rari o sitet omennae av sory that I wantin when you vo Kindly called, 100 owancoonEsseNS Rito TOMO Raw Mo TR THIED KM TALI ELLEDAIERS, oahgete ta bara sbaky hatte bite agts nomi, te ‘niyo tomo shina da hrs Since you wanted it, 1 wont cut of my way to get you ‘one, and now jou won't even triton Eamonar noc, MEEteNCLtor. Sebkaky no ops dats noni, shigcoo aerate hi mata Ahead oe my eo, I ced Rae Contimamene Liste, €BKH OD Une Sebkohu no nok oa taf de dana ni nat, hot isla site ‘The typhoon completly wrecked the trp Thad planed Wis deappaitment bebe {BS be may be used in sustons similar to that of > 2, but they are not always interchangable. Even if they fe Uae i the sme station, the speakers focus willbe “iferent 2° refers toa physical act or the tie spent forthatact, while >< many eles tthe doe nd nes oF good. bEbsMREMUEHoKo reat Ut Waawaze pp oka its no ni, uit shia its ode gobh shite “Though I went all the wa there to buy # Beka, Twas "Sisppoinied to ind them ll sold out AVON EST DEDERU AWN EO TASK ROB eof Wezewa toa Gry 0 hart Bit noni, Yonkine ‘omaha Hite [paid a mint to buy these expensive tickets, but the Yankee ls. eaeate Although #2 #¢ could be subitituted for &° £ in the sentences abore (with the aforementioned change in focus itcoud notin the flowing dalogue becuse appre ccaton x being shown special for the time and trouble ittook te bring over the mal, not fra general act of god wil A BORMAN CRESRE LOT (Otaku me yin ga machigts hans sareta mono de ‘Your mai got deleted tous by mistake, 39 Bib, Lo obEberagen, A, dime wezancza sumimssen ‘Thank you for aking the trouble, REY / Roky 2122 and 2-007 basicaly mean “by fa” and are used for comparison. They ae interchangeable, but the Lier ‘more emphatic and typical ofthe spoken language. ApH B97 Are it How about tat one? Bib? fb cADUIHRaRENS. ‘Ave? Dame. Kore 0 bo ga yoppod 90. ‘That ane? No way. This is much better Either word may indicate dificult in making a decision orchoice. AhOROE, Rok? ‘Ano asi kuruma, hts no? ‘Ded you buy that eed ca? Bike Kichofihb, ERE MBI Eo fA 2b, Roo, SoD Ero LETM ESE, 1N-Ki nt kara, yohodo had ka to omotta nda kedo ne, ha no hy, yaar chat ade mga ye Yeah, [liked i a le, 20 [wat relly thinking of buying ‘but red aie too Hashy aera EIRY and £12 can indicate specclation based on observation or secondhand igormtion. AR GOBRIL TEL. ‘Kare, mo ier ste yo. He's akeady dozing oft Bgsitken ces Attia, YYoppod tukacte iu n'da ne. He mut be relly tie Inthisexample, B offering an opinion base on A's bse: vation, but inthe follwing example, the observation is sade by the speaker b9BIRY FMOEECAERSE, BUREN TOS Lo MG inane toro o minute, yohodo tukerte ‘nara ‘He must be really ied, He's already stare to doze of. BRoT 2.2 soften anda as tatheo“all:he more but “nse” o "contrary to expectation” would be more acu ratein A-4-> CB patterns in which B indicates a result ‘outcome tha i cpposed too diferent from, the speaker's ‘rcommon expectation ease 10 ARRAY ‘Kuru onda? ‘You tike the medicine? BRERAND, mhacRIOR Gober. ‘Kuru ononda, hati hibun ga weruku natch took i but fee wore insted, ‘shi.oC isoften used in combination with £52 (1 lam the one who .") i polite expressions suchas the fol. lowing: APO TURHUT, SUMESZ SORT. Tewudate tate, eng grcaimasu, ‘Thank you very much forhelping out Brnvae Moc ESLER ESTES lie, Kate hora oso gchi ni nate shirt. (Oh, dont mention it Rather [should thankyou for the Tovey meal. ASEBBUE/A0C In ths pattern, A and B ate the same word: fr example, WCE Ettt0C 9 E-A rough English equivalent might be, “Ast the mater of going. wel, Lam going, bu” or, more simply, “Tam going, but" This partialy acknowledges the ‘ality of what the other party has said, but then goes on to point out that there are others factors to consider. AEDLAO? Rowivoracetinan Déshita no? Kaimono nite ng nakate ro? ‘What happened? I thought you went shopping BifokDkittionaslte, bARDBATISH bBo ta beak, It hota ita da ede, nna honda haa hacte ‘nth 1 6d go, bt it was o crowded that I came back. ABILOUANSY, ESR? BeLiot ‘Atrahi restora, d6 dt? Oishikata? “How was the new restaurant? Was it good? BBOLESEBRDLoUe, MER roEMTES, (ish ot wa isi Redo, tas nw chat ahanpi ‘Te was good allright, buta tte loo expensive for me, ees E153 is used invasions ways 1. Avan abbreviated form of £40 © L-C to indieate x hearsay statement FIV I~ SUE, COREMRL TORE, (Orentan ws, kowo mor i seisok shite tt ‘They say that orangutan inhabit this forest. 2, To introduce something new or unfair. SOM, Hw ALLS MOREA D ETD, [Kono hen ni, Koran ot kisaten go enmasu a. sthere acoffe shop called Karune around here? UPSALDAROKMH, BRLESTHBoL oY ra Yernanaka son tou loko mo hate g, ome mi nate a. ‘hai ‘Amanby the name of Yamanaa is here tase you. 3. To connect a medifer to 2 noun or noun phrase, espe: cial when the modifiers heanay ora question. Bb, SEEN, HORE ORO, (tour kaa, ksa edt toy hinsen rays tad. “The neighbors gave us some fresh vegetables they sty rived the moming DKADA—9 HEC EASOMEUZOECMLT He Ma emeH COS, Nihon jn no rtsu ga doko ara no bat koto kan: ‘hte asamesama na ete ga dasa i Conceming the matter of where the Japanese ori mated, various theories have been suggested ‘Thephrase £9°9 is notalwaystansted, hough itis com ‘monly used when the preceding modifiers lengthy. 4. Tosetoffa general concept ofa word for definition RLOZLOW, LILGALAROD MADOM, DERLER Ete ‘Shi tou mono wa, tose bki nano he, Wath wa ono ttm ktaraensht How ae wet rp the concept of dst? Twas nae “answer thi quertin BLUQLOU, KEMZLOTT. ‘Ato mono wa, fushigi na mono desu Love isamysterous thing. 5. When £199 isfllowed by 2 , the flowing question becomes uncertain or vague. fb, HLERRLOS LIBS LEROTHELE, Kore mo, shia hur to 6 mato ote matt, He said something about coming tommorow, to. BoMMMRE THZLOS EERE LEMOS JURE, £hoURLRCTH, Wana ken au hevatte i ou yg Koto hts no “eu ero vochve ws dit dee he 106 vownceonesens 1 heard something about a bed flu going around. Are you domgall int? 6. idiomatic wes, Kid, SLAETIL AOU EMIT CT De RIS, Me RRB Bea: ELIbUEEOGARS, $8 BRERALET. iss we, esta meade ni shiagnai to kena shit. fa de yo Sre spr pa, dln ‘Kenatya neon ah. iu make deo sks de, joe, est shits shimase ‘Totelthe truth, {have some work hat Tha ofiish iy tomorow In aston tot have fo go 10+ weding reception fmt So, wth at bene he ‘tution, youl uncetand ave eal ta i Eegobc, EAMRLET, Dew, tu Koo de Meta renrake shimaru. Well hen, we'Tleve ita that. contact you again ate. thi, B2eLoka gD bLAMORETT. ‘Kacjo w forah tor , mshio hua ka deste Rather than being qu, she impresses me 25 being ‘gloomy. 207.20 isoften ued with OLS or LESH LORE for ‘ompariton or selection. Ate? ena? Sochia wa? Bin? How about you? Rees? Bi bod ni E bombs ZsimolsFHOL RHE, Toi yori we... doch at ies nahe no i gai ds edo Noster an ber Lata refers hve evs 107 FCB/FEHRBOT 42 Ashares with =O the meaning these days but it has another meaning that it doesnot share, which i “about now” orig now." Ie isften elated to the speaker's ‘oughts about what is happening a this moment some where ebe, 42% 220°C caries thisa step further, us aly ina eical fashion, as we willsee below IezAOR ULMER COZOmE oD aHS bo) ky LeIM UU ET, “ima pore waht 00 we a o Rng ru noha appr wakreat fg bet a ‘My ganditheroten compli, saying don't under ‘Ed mit young peop these dayne ing AOA, BEB. MLE, ‘Ano bio, ra gor, nan shite "kana T wonder what he s doing right) nom, BS, WEF EMOTRE AS. BHR Cen? Img, uk weno ii pore da hrs ms shia site ‘Now it about 10.00 inthe morning ovr thee, so he's “heady woking gue Aah + aR CRCU write ‘Appa haat Re aa, 00 v4 0 Tyo {youd come ten minutes et ‘aon now BBAGSH. EBLE eoROL, omens, Nb shichata no 0 Sony! Lovee. b. BERI 6 NRC we'd beat Tokyo AREDSIAU, MMIC TEAR EI. Komen no iu gor wa, Hakone ite aw’ da yo ne. About thi time lt year, re were in Hakone, weren't BRATS. BARRO Rb (Obata Sakura gs ie data wa ne. remember. The chery bosoms were lovely, weren't ‘he 591220 is unl followed by an ending that expreses the speaker’ frstraion, regret, ofa complaint, implying “es too ate now. ABO7 5G, LOL AL OERMOMML THTEL Bots Wake whi i, motto majime ni Eigo no benkys shite ‘oeba yakatia T should have studied English more seriously when T was young BACK CBATEARI LOO Th, LIFE. {ina goo wi nate on Kot te ms, a teokure ya Waite lt tobe saying that now. ADR ADDRHOT, BORA. Bt oD iu, ure date, Amo shi, mitakata no mi aakton ‘dena All tickets sold out, se that game. BRA ROTEALIEB HOT, EDGES Bor, Ima goo wi nate son at ita te, di i mo nana ye sali late to be complning now. There's nothing youn do about ft pohora hear, What letdown! wanted to BibT B.C >) i choracteritic ofthe writen language or of formal o official usage In ss formal situations, © may replace 1. Toendorclosean event FH, She GocmeLeLet. Hoje, oreo mote ha o ashen, Tovay we hereby bring these proceeding (this confer: ‘mveete} oa dose. 2. Total “with what” oe by means of what” WeLoc. RALLET, Shomen o met hitsurel cima ‘apologize for communicating by lte. (I know I should ersnally come to see you, but cannot) Hon ekocy his, RABRTE TERN, Mina no chikarzo te suck, urn na ato de ws ns We can doit if everybody cooperates fit, puts their “Arength into To spall out the subject. ROMMEL STPRORRE LTH. Kae noheskyio mote aol no ties to shite His research has become the establch theory inthe ‘caderie wot. Verb + Langue When Ltr follows a noun, asin (124) Liv inicates that there is nothing but a %. When it flows a ‘vet, itingieates that there only one choice, that repre sented by the verb, ‘No womareexmessons AHIR, HULASOTHIEL (Cie ‘Watashi wo, ahite ro ante mo scgarikut dae Both tomorrow and the day after ate no good for me. Ti to bay. B29, Enos ATIECLeROL, ‘6, Soe i yi hit nal ne. AI ght In that cae, we have no other choice but 0 toa. Avaake 5 to crota bdo, yh ga toes nt na ‘ar, tos wa aitmer hike na yo da | was thinking of going to Alas, butt seems I won't be eto get off, Soil guess nave to pve up this eat. ee £9 & is commonly sed within expressions of appresi: tion or apology, sich 88 29 BAINES EUTT and £3. GT AEA, butt isa used witha neaatve eid ending to indicate thatthe speaker ix having cally in sing problem or in undertanding or doing something, hough an effort is being made to dose EAL. HOAOMD CLARE AHOTT. ‘Demo, ao tomo koto ga sows dena no dew. Really, just can believe what that guy says COMM, EREADEREA TUL, E5eOTM POUR TT Kong monde, domo waka n' dese hedo, dé ytte “oko die fa Realy, can't understand this problem, How shoo T ie abostoking tt oem £9 LT b~ BU indeates that smething is impossible cen the speaker hs tied hard The speaker ay, in fat ‘ave already given up. COMM, ESL AMYRDATE, EF-ERIIW mere’ Kono mond, shite mo tokens n' desu. DB yea ii Techie Rada. ‘ean solve this problem, no matter how hard It. Pease tllme bow to EEE ERED 22426 and 25 £ 6 look similar, ut the former takes a negative verb ending to indicate that thet ino possi ify tall while the laters wed with «potential ending to ince that here a more than one possiblity. 43, RARER ORE, Mo, dni mo naronat Weea't do anything about it now. Vi bRoth, aga ytte mo, dni me deknei nas, meta hi i you justcan* do tno mater how hard yo ty, youd ‘etter ve up. WRB, MbRIEDA SOM, LIEOMMSAREE). Kono Bunsho ws, dB to mo kasha dens to omou, Hpk yu ca terete thisetece in any wa you EARL epotecLean, 1D ea mo jbun no suk ni shins Do whatever ou ike ae 895 sosed with dictionary form of verb, and itabays cexpremer a negative ies 1. When the subject i the first penton, it indicates a strong intention nt todo something BAtMeRob, LITMEOEL CEO, Aruna ma yatsu 1 a, nido to Ruch o Kika ma Iwill acer talk otha reep ever again, DEL, OI=ME MERI Ene OAR: Wotahi gm nid ohare iam to ako ita [made up my mind never tose him again, Wher the wbiect is other than the fist person, — 24 expresses a negative opinion about future matter. REGUS, COMMPIRUMCBENZSEAERY ‘annen nagar, kono urn g futatabi mdr mi svt mans foto waar ma. ‘To our rere, this rain forest will never be covered ‘eth green gain BES EARBURARLEBS ROE. ‘Kare nora sonnakoo we mato ome no {Incver thought he would say anything ike that NE eh AME Ls By NE AB LOL, the speakers” implying that while the subject i not N he or she is acting lke N, whic is not proper. The expression is commonly used in coding. ERLORSIVL RAOMECEVAR THAIS. Kodome fu rat oh un no he aa bun de You are nota child any more, you know. You should ete baste ‘ean righten wp your room by yours hehe Aap ah Yasui hima mn ai Korat ngs soit ycek bietdaalcan Maa iaeeaee asst oe CR meg be — Ke! ey rae bavi wy oo a pas Sonvep et taste okuremasu yo. sugested or offered for consideration, Tech TAB rhe Cam me tat SemnraELAuLe. BERESIOSE, Soe rans mae cance mice loo ecenaa wasn pe fbn fow the company. oe, cov el or ee ad ana Fe iehgasnec tana {-Tosewtte sir eto feo BAER (CoLOnMORERL TS 1 teow prion tuner % ee bin iia tb in pee Se dene evan "lo et om tno mci sg cnman ch, wakenys 2 aise aeepe SIS onto snipe cer ard orienta raed = bight tinct eh clos Sout mech ~xe 2Toshoraneetor dee “po etait wee ey. nnon emt fact sncautest, Se 1 Toate pene por ‘Rei hte te at Roeat ater itor de motry nant tuyogate Ya edo, dsb km ‘oenane tmessons m8 He acted ike it was nothing, saying he coul cyt Vise but worden Tee BALRREBIINE, AOA, RUD ERT EEO zB. Das dato om edo, eno hit, tuys ours "ro ne 1 tink he can manage bute does put up a bold front too easy, ya know Pre 2. To show the subject’ felings or deste based on obser. ‘ation or an impression To decribe whats happening ‘ow the verb ening should be the statve/resutatine Cis form 2 the lst example. PEBoTEOI, UORDRE DUET agate ‘run ri, murine shikomu mente dbus 1s haves da We eruel to free animale to do tricks when they don't eeaceitia Bwsa-a? aka. int ga Nyy ni haste shimatta no de, Fim ‘sabshigatte uo. Jim misses you since you went back to New Yor. ot L ERO, Yamba 3. Toshow atendency or natural inclination. EARLE K ERIE LOATH OT [Nelo hon okinimizuoKowagars mono nan dos ‘Thea that eats are instintvely aad of water Owe Bi, FOEMRNEC ETH. Kare no i tore a, hodomookwaga ete de is good pont is that he is Fond af children. BPI, vouitLatoTos Keo wo sumo sogashigatie iu Keiko is always running around (sng seis busy) BARA, RAM EEACT ON Marien wa, samugarye nan desu a “Marni ate you sense to eld weather? Compare the felling sentences: ARCTCRMRBIOTAABINIERMONCES, Chick we eu monku oa no de) minna i usgcaete (Cons CRN EEO AKRH Basta c (Chih gana sob oi mod) mia go arse in. Because my fther is quick to find faut, everybody Tindeitannoying SELES /ERBOTHS = ELEL efersto the speaker's decision, while © E42 [fs refers to someone elt's cision Spin, dow CEL EL Kotothi wa, Hokid6 ub ku oto ni shasta ‘This year Fe decided to go to Holkaido to sk. RA, KBUCRET ESRB N ELI aigetas, sok funn sur oto i narimathite ave been asgned to workin Osaka fom next month. When the ending is ~ waarkanemasu no 'B, Eato na mono nots Iam sorry, but Im fai realy dox'know. Pease ask he clerk in charge tu-avect, th~teve4-C6 soften eed witha expen ie 2 goed £0) Cat los tepeake i inal iy dese, o equ. The noun reeling this Phase epee ie sek iam re eee Gidateict BARTER EOSTL, BOCA RM CS DeLAnbor pa Seach tos hs made ma, seme ion ih Selb st mone de Wit even tikingo wor our I would test ‘Hew talon pound nan ALU DoROS eg, EACRCSOEMMZ TIE SuLE Se Ato wa kena made mo, semet 8 gure we fre yn Deny shins Without even mentioning an A, atleast study hard ‘enough toaet 3B. vpecese This phrase indicates that some action is be taken for ranted and i often ranted“ goes without saying” ot Fredles to yt is aso used as an adverbial phrase: Le, nazebe’ SHUR OIOM SB CE epewaacaan ge, Kove ni shohize ga kava sae koto wa, fu made mo Tai Rete dest made mo aimase 1 goes without saying that consumption tax wil be Stcedtoth, : LARTER. CHENNAI ERET, Tamale mo ick, hve w shia gan ema, Needless to say, consumption tx willbe added to this Noun + 723, ‘This phrase is usally used 2 pat of a moifir of «fol Towing noun It tends ta be used in more elevated speech owning. menakLeual, rey viionh, ‘iyi tar ( shite ry, Amazon gawe no agate ‘the vast and leisurely flowing Amazon River BERSAL) KOREAMED MnEHoTOE 3 ‘Oy ru (6 a mano no ein g nn heh "eal 9 moo 1tsees that he dos realize wha parent’ respon Sbitisare Pere wiatnibromss foe = Akos ACCU used tinted the mbt pci a notable characters ong pit, 0 ons the topic in question. RAOA Save, waKR, Kiokuryok ro you ake wa, ae a ata de Whe tomes to gr eon, he stands vee MROVS RCM, Hh KOBEBaRROR de ‘Gametsui koto i hakete wa, Tanaka bun mo mig ides As for being greedy, Tanaka beats ther al BAAN con soe-BCTHE, 2550 EDT LAUATH Higahiey nf Rakete ws, kono hemes gs ichiban desu Fed, Rehr no yor rf tokal des. A for quality, his camera isthe Best, but it much more expensive tan thisother oe EUTR) /E(G)ELT ELT (with © as optional means “much more ina pos tive sentence and “much less in a negative one. It ir # conjunction and indicates that fis 5, then B, a5 2 mat terof couse, must be mere or les) so REMMLERE LIED TOATT. ELC ROO DE_IEETLE I. Mada kentan na ani mo yorenain’ desu. Mashite fh “hinbum ga womers wake gona des. ‘They cnt sen ea simple ani ets rata hey Wyomees, MEMITTETENI. ALIA MOREL I HEALER OLR Ee Dib mao tah o hake bo aay ‘Mathie ningen vo aya va 9 aru bet da fo oma nodthele ‘They say animal protet their youngat the rskof thee ies i goes without saying hat human ‘bins Should doe same, bat = (6) 4 Lis sia in meaning, but flows a noun and rears “ever more than” sUCi@ cee 12 OP La 7 7H, MOTZFELELTRLY, Ima no Jena, ane no Ara iro mahi tush ‘The younger sister, Jenifer ix even more best “ham her older ster, Anna TREE LC. fu bonis IEWIOM, 4D KOwy PET, “Kind i mae, ond) mo mon dasa ‘They sy that his moto is “Even mre than Soday, omorrow to lets doe Be” ELC~E CHS ase pete meaning" that, then ven moreso this" It ison eed in combination vith #2 Feven QURRLHMZAHASKCORY, ZLCRBEE fa mo 38, 0 ito Kare manco na shits alae na Maite Thathinoyadean He not even aged a dcet ob so promotion i ‘nur ou aque yr gen cet Efi iz commonly sed in conversation, to give advice or anonder. ABLE phons, 62 LRMIMETES Eh, Roku hits nak, to sink i enya don't want to flunk the course, you should study der hat you haveto dot stay mere serous) yokt shitahereb, ima archi sur toto dss, Ifyou want travel, you shoul tr saving now, 122 womancomessens ve way (3 —* ARSBRL 073 ‘sth form of sth (og, #2 3, BE 3, oF UES) ind bina potest formas vee, B10, Becohinsyor 8 20) The pends an inp ‘Siccndent odes tat hasbeen trared by Gm. sarc CAGKRD Ce, thous Ceiba engi, Konne bur i, dekakys ni mo dakakearensi wa yo. With it sng this hard, there ie no way we can go out he REBELS MIMAERCLE EAT MILACemtangmonArs, Gomer. Denwarbang o doko hen okivasueteshimata "monde kabeyé mmo kekeenahtta WY. Sony. TeR my addess book someubee, and so there tris na way Toul ell you SUSAR CLE 2%, MACHA EbEEboR Ath, PARE. Kururiags hash she shimate, mae nit i mo ke ‘hata den. Surioasen Since my ca broke down, it proved impossible to pick ouUup im sor. = A6-C6~ 10 may replace this mAnganecaguabon, Mukae ni itakute mo kenakate Tugs unable 200 pik yo even though wanted BOLE SoD ORAZ I EMOTE, BL WORT. Sen CCORCEbbo his dat kare abst mote nda hd, onak, ‘ippai de, tabetakute mo taberarenakatta. ial Te looked So delicious that wanted to eat some, but I ould’t because I was il aceon a J Pinwe avons wt! Evvofth inuse to intensify the previous word, which es nominalzed frm ofan adetival word wit the & ending UMAR oTARLEh, SPDVOHROBY UBbESceoat5, FORPEER OH WRB, Sch te dad a ta mo chara eae tr snag se choco tare Mowe | wens to the Sain region along the Japan Se coms, taitie lth hae “k pesbout ine e ‘Sous bam sins is out of wor Inplace of & AOMMETEMEREeoRAOE, £omz ot be MERCEDES Hobbs ‘ing ery 0 mukereshtt da ed, somo a tage sre dts, ‘Yeserday hada wisn tot pulled. My, it hut Though Tas pongo fant” Sore (10) — bot ale — Absaceeaon AGES 22A6 Bisa wetphrmemeaning“Ais tress copected ut Bis abo te” Tt wed to bing tent tothe B statement whee the parte Uw way wed, cower res Weeeet tee et ts Techs. a i th tn mo a ho nao Tenth san of no meguaree te ot to mention is arse talents, he is ao Bese nth sca aby Sosy rary hi, MUNG ESE EwE. BR ORT, Bele ce ‘te ontetnt ma ains mo srs ob napa ote’, off may be sed ‘The contestant was not only beaut, but she was Thead and shoulders above the others im scholar schievement. arn) ROD) FR) (JE) Kand BHT CTC) (As) X focus onan cutcene or result In the cae of (=) X,X san outcome or the result of continuous tra effort, lengthy waiting, forthe Be, Tis often used with expresins such 25 29 (HE and AE (A) 4% the outcome, ay nat be desirable or favorable, Its not then 8174) (52) X may replace a ter words, (2) may indicate either desirable or undesirable results, but 7 (1) always int fates a outcome or cel thal i negative or undesirable An adver suchas & 44 isoften usd to eiaferce this connotation. #7] CIEX ie alo ued in the sme st tation for more emphasis SALBALE. POUDMSIEELR. ‘Kangae ni kongsete sue, appar Rtowara hot i sits Hi ng though over and over, {decided to decline ‘feral fit, RERBL IR, OMIMRIBR LI. ‘Keres, naganen Bars shite ue i, ou ay mses hla After yess of hardihip, he finaly achieved succes in ho bones ARG SRERYALEMEMALEEL, CEA MowEeeass sey elt. [Nando mo shigpal o kurkashinagare doo shia sue "ptt ichimmae no shigte ga dei 36m ar mathite In tho ond aftr sticking it out through repested fail tae, have finally reached the pont where Ten doa competent ob wee a0) SARAERERIC/ BTS, SERECAL DE fe Scan mat isk, soi made it i erawaseta ee Alter Keeping me wating Forever head me pay for the meal an tp of al pe Kis, SA SAMIR HOLL, AC VoTL Eon. ‘Kanojo wa, sara yar o ita age, dete ite shimatta Alter making ll kinds of sarcastie remark, she ust ‘adlete a HR WRB RE UL aro ERCORBTONTLED, MEM ZOTOS. Kare way shia si, zai tukhatait age hate Razak mimo mibteaete shim tae tek ni nate ire He isin the depts of despat de to the fact that after ialingn bine and echeuring beats, even his fem let hi. Index of Japanese Words and Phrases (given inorder ofthe heagana sllbary) 2s SRLS BET Brant rst ies Bache Bena 8.7 Bou Benes. 303.68 Baie box Bons Brat BoRBaLaLs Brite. fre, Bross = Bese mn baecie. ie SEO ren sec Baainns 3.5. rea 7 aeeasee.8 Shawne woEeeen ‘ee W32eeeC Is Ri a Nene oe eos Reomeewoc Bhi Nieanton. 8. adem Ree nese auns voomene 8 2.108 =m PETERS 3 BoA 330m jean @ Eeeaon Eetesceain Seite Eomiseey 2. Somat soacanz oe5a, ie omics).2 oR desea Ege a Eoaeis ss Sages, a Eruigie Seis as Enoabs each Saber. newex Saece Eeeess.iy Eaeto. 5 ~FeeWEO B men Upeeiie 89 tae cepegecan CE gang Eapeaws + ron boccue pestis * BoC ito Bs aus eee sree Bookie S5ucaze.s Bae 2062. % osama Poets em ck foetal Ee Erie Pre. pretence arse bree pverera Eneeene prea pan Suse) en Peein 128 NoExoFnAsEst WoRDS Ano PASS sac. Saaae den sazoenei ~R@Eao Rs Sees eee Sao ae Tree Ne BOER Shigeo et tone sapt te cee Fee fea tio & rea, ae oe SieLs = ~nae Be BOSE e077 eres ester eaxmeue ean Eaagecewnne ERnavseenue eto Ejagers. e3 Urb Boa areeres 238 een pisos it Bhekaaeus ese Bpab 346. Seema a Feoe se DOELEC AS BEnEbnG 6 eae Beebo bree os Eaten a ames 8 eoeaewigal Egcauree tp Ate e guEeeis bes aa eoeeets cLtose 404 Bhai, 58 TT. ORE S55 2 Ty 08ST - eiceoeced, nae. b eiComer Tr) weve BARGAT OT A ARSE 76 : Sm oie ELT 2 ° On * oeran £ (ol dalelllalltellaldalal see ansumnnasonnsi