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COLLOQUIAL KANSAI JAPANESE Maco, mato an wear ote Kanal ragen of western Japan. Whethor ‘Speoch of Kola, Osa an Kobe Hundtds of sample pass, stoncos She conversations ahow how the lot works my everyday atuaton. Fang. Ingttom shopin te doolng wih to boss, And whi ou faring ebot So. your mouth when you speak, all you's an ty out is color ‘date WiD your copy of Coleg Kana pareve, you wl soon be ‘trong Homann Kana Amar esiing for many year in Kobe ana ok, and werng a8 fon ‘stor tor the Abiko Geary, OC Pata ow bres nbs Arges, where faerie aban oxocutve nto cerputernetworing ndut Kaoru Herieh! Stave nae ved in Keres mot char fo, She suo a Stphia Jone Cologe in Karagans porte meng ote Untod Staten ‘Sho is cure woring on het mesos cog education the University of yoming ‘THE DIALECTS AND CULTURE OF THE KANSAI REGION language guide to the earthy, coll llets spoken inthe Kans region DC Pater | Kaoru Slotsve ‘Sean Leto Meco by He Sach dey Te Rain an npn ep Ey HU wih or (uno Sako oa AE no Spel 060105, Raped [BBN£053 ME ov aia enc = Contents = esi oli in 202 Kal pn BN 8683017 Ako Weds 1 soe : i Fiteen Words Needed o Survive in Kana Example Conversations Kink Varitions: Kansi-on Actos Kalo Fineen More Words Needed 0 Survive Example Conversations sn “Tora Kiet - Fiteen More Kinki Wands. vample Conversations Kink Cuisine _ ial Figen Words Master Kink Speech Flineleatepleoe at iL A pe ig Tbr 73 9 somendotlen Haehi 7 oe ramp Comers Seana ‘eye Pe onary oem pring ing Index nat nerecong ae TUTTE PUBLISHING? gin amo ale hig Bm AceNoMEDOMENIS Matsuyama, Masaki Nakajima, David Sandrich, Kayo Sinn, Yuko Taisaks, Yano Yarmsmoto, and Mepun Yosoka “To these andl the cher people who have Hepes, aig “Oki” De Paker ‘kaon Hove = Introduction = “Maid, maid and welcome to Kans aan, the land of hii tle, eat get, matic mountains, and + ian, groing econo Kindly eave your shoes and Tokyo dict by the dor. Remember to ‘fen your mouth when yu speak be yo ie, ye stn ll your F's all he way down Mt. Rolko, The ore expression in yoor voc, the ‘ever Tel jhe. Go aca dont be aad. You' tong nds TE you've een hee lang, sou Bave aeady nied tha bony is ‘peaking se Japanese you se dligenly suid in clases an tentooks Bur you're oig Yo have 1 ear he large ofthe see. Of coun, You ean contin speaking the socalled Adige, standard Japanese te language of poker zed bureaucrats up in ToXy0, exact) i it ‘anpht on NHK, tu you'll bee everbody and you tre wont ase 4 luc aw nt people a apne 300 We have writen thi bok fr people who ke us, despite yeas of sodyingSapanese. even being 2 Ines ative, el cheese wm they moved the Kasai repon an wore ot hel corres yagi ‘in find the mesing of word ie oar akon, shimole, a cha 9 10. = wsreopucTION Desi being the language spoken hy eveyone of your Honore reign, neling your teachers, st tng cls and ee ae a textbooks, pes, eevison stows to belp master it Yes nt ey oc lesming th langge make oa to unerseeveryone el bat Kaiser i ls ware exprenive language «mae ejyible let to speak than Tekyo-sem, Ad lho may nem sane fo foreigner speak Kans on (ie Japanese person afecing Cocky accent of a9 Alan dw, t WoAs woader i venta uP co Tt yu'e ving in the Kysto-Oatk-Kobe ares, we hope yo wl ind the book an ndspeneal oa po he language surrounding you. I youtive ewer othe Kani ein, yu shoal id th ery al of ‘our explnations ar pli, bt ht each regions ct ass O8 ronunsiton, special word, se ter pecullaries you wil eed to ‘ick a by paying los tension to your neighbors epesch pes. I You lve elewhere inthe southern fa f Hows, such as Nagoya shina, oF Okay, we expect you wil also find his book sf, Kenan than with hyoung, But you sould Dien cael for ferences and ay want a cnsier writing Bock sar 1 is one Soul yo ve anywhere ein Japan of Gd fet ae stl stack Jn Tyo, you cn east pretend ve Kans a iphten up tose ‘So pour yours a lof oor or cup of hot Nada sab, pt on your ansin Tigers bel ep an lear 9 peak I a aie guage goken thoughout the ae hs more in commen wih ittooucnoy = 11 What Is Kink!? ‘The Kinki egion of Japn, called Kishi Chino ARAL in Janes, «ones a wie region inthe southe hal of the main Hons sand Although the ae conse pat ofthe Kin epon has vase tough istry, itis now legally defined asthe wo cites (9) of Osaka a Kyoto andthe fv prefectures (en a Hyogo, Mie, Nar, Shi and ‘Wakayama in ess egal tems, the lin south of Nagoya and sont of ‘Otayua, This region includes Osaka, Kyoto, Kobe Naa, Aki the Ise Pensa, nd Awa land, OF cure, thee ae llerences in the rage actos sich a age aea conning such dase camtsts in living spe and history, bat es lea variations ace al onside b> alec of Kanter What hen Kansai? Alhough he word “Kara wed mick mere regan han “Kinki unfortitely the meaning of Kans isonet de Oily Kans synonymous with Kink Dain tual usage icusualy applies cnly othe Kyo OnkarKobe ae. Tas thy egion Is usualyabreistein Japanese as Ket Hat-Shin HE king one aac rom the name ofeach ity. Kea: Shi ak acide he surburban cites in beeen, such Rs kaa, rd Nisiooiya ‘Tomake mates even more confasing, the vecton of Kanisen sobken in Osaka fen refered was Osaa-ben, bu mos odes antl the ieeace, and Because Osa is by fre lags it in the region, quite often anyone who ust words seh tahun lon Isconidered oe speaking Oskar Forth purpose of hs bok, we conser al he vacations pense spoken throughout the Kink region be par of Kans ben, ahd have ed inccate he word prsses tht ae used cryin Ost ay inthe Kos Hun Shin area, We would ao ike to ae ta altough many other ares of Cnt Southern, and Western Hossho, such is Nagoya, Okayams, and 12. # mntsooucHON Hiroshima te ot considered a be art of he Kink region, he ngunge in these aes has toe common with Kansa-ben ua withstand Japanese. We have these ied to make tis book useful for people ing these repos as well ‘The Dialect ‘Why does the anguge spoken in Kans ifer fom that in Tokyo and ‘even vary fom plac o place within Kans, even within he cy of ‘Osaka? The eat isin the fot that hefore dhe advent of modern trasporation and commriction residents ofeach tea had ite con- tae wih people rom more than afew mes avay. AS the language grew ard changed dd wii te confines es cay With he ret ‘of modern commonicatons as well s the cenraizatcn of power in Tokyo. nearly everyone in Japan becime ale to under ana spe the offically sanctioned version of apanese the Tokyo version, of ourse Regional dats, ever, thogh dishing in sage, are sil fat fife in Japan. Coen sil master the lca alec spoken by parents an fiends long before they ae tat to speak standard Jaanere Bot why ar some words we in Kans while words wih reatly identical mesrings ae used in Tokyo, and why ar cen pronunciations of he same word favordin Kansai ovr the tandard runs? Essel, is bcause thats the way Dt hee te ‘few suiting tues for econo Kansan + Many words in stan pense are conaced. Noe be flowing examples yor? ote £6 very ell saopucnon = 13 more $56 26° emoshino EN eres che be} higan 39 ‘arose tora 2 dorewa Chit tis sora 25, sorewo tit thai + Fornoreason other than istry cetin words are wed in Kana hile ote ae wid Toby. ras 461 taka arm ono = 6208 nual oF C28 lish tokens 2198 orate fal down kane 29 sacra CR throw avay + °S" sound in standard Japanese a fen reac by "sounds an =the tan EA My Mi Mes Mit smahen 24 mason — £34 (oeative conjugation) smalyo ~ E03 omasho U4 (es do" conjugation) + Desw © and its varios re replaced by 9 me det 4 dare 9% taro 134 ont you ink? Satara 4 kara £49 sherfore + Long vowel especialy tthe ed of words, are on shone, to te 29 ets g0 sho La sho > e's soye 29,200 4 s5da 2918 ve + Shor vowels atthe end of words te smetines lengthened, BR pes aed he G2 ket tae 14m inreooueTION ta 8d, fast oso wi be vee coh es oft ood wre wr ooe + Double consonans (ented by 182 Jae often sfened or replaced ih ong vow faukoe 929°C, thane oe we tiadote 32 foe 33 12 fata Rote bought morta 6 mora 6 recived moa 43 2 ite 03 ne #0 sy + Tefal wowelof wos ending with wo vowels. especialy actives {hat nd nae dropped in informal conveniations andthe ial Soune lengthened fr empha. imager emphasis indie longer aun Shinde U&2~ —shindel LAE. tng moro BUA~ —omoroi 84 teresting fain 92~ go 990 very ain 2~ na) BU ot in tm sat paint asa 8 agi RO sally + Alough the level of formality depends onthe peron, place, and ‘tain n genera the Language in Kus iss oral han in Tokyo. “Typical convertion among Kink people sound a noch ess forma ‘an those among Tokyo, who conse iis tobe mare an expression monucTON #15, ‘of ba manners han renin. Of cure the ae lage saan in Formalin Kander aswel an sand Jane, anti importat vo speak wit he correct eel af formalin each sition, Women tendo speak mor politely and use mote sun Japanese men ‘+ Kansa-ben speakers often repeat the sme ord rice. Tis specially commen when showing sympathy or ricvng someone's Jamaken,Aamahen Eu. 84 Ao mind al: ha che Be Bed Io, ats ot ig + Accentation of words ao ifs but fc to give any rales cote thant recommend liseing to your seighbrs instead flnguage ‘apes. especially as thee ae large vraons even within Kans, Hete ue seme examples of how ronunition in Kan lifes from Tokyo, The movt often cited example isthe ornonyin ame, which an ein citer an orcandy In Kana, tbe wor fr rain i stented on the second syllable ME: andthe word orcad is unaecented are a Tokyo, the secentuation ton the fit syllable me fo ein ad on he second sable «ME for candy. Here ate afew more examples: CBS ul 16 = wsraooucron ome oME Ushi ashi hash Ashi ene iw Dé-wska densa oho¥Ou — oHA-YOU Feta Bok KU wuts best BU chet CHU aka tamDE? — NAmde? snd ‘idee hops oo 00d moming cetes shoes nly Chinese food Accrtaton sn genera, ich srorger in Kans han in Tokyo, where pronunciations basically at. Fr example, kas bsely peveptable accent onthe seond syllable in Tokyo, s0 ts Hed as FirKU, bt he acetone fis slable Kasai aie tong “This pves the speech in Kana ts more melodie, emotional tone a8 ‘posed oft, montero Tokyo speech «f1]= Fifteen Words Needed to Survive in Kansai ‘Thisintstof tae ams es words ad ive gamer exeesson, we believe ar he most ris fr understanding the language acu You. I yu ean maser the cage ofthese words, yoa wil be recognized byeveryone asa Kans resident 1, ah abe BR, Bid i 2 atn >A n 3 chew B03 1 wena 14. shimota mata Ls ft 5. honma i22 Is ye 6 aide $80. 1 mutcha mutche 8250, bot Bao 124 9. obit 4 10. or 8 v we ahd ho BL, 7% fool ooh sap ‘Albu considerca part of standard Japanese, ahd or ah, i sed fen only i Kans. While itis sometimes writen in kanji as 2, Pronounce a, the fal woul scant often hie of ands mally ‘wen in aakana soho 774. Depending on ie one and pail we it ao, the word ean range meaning fom a lyf way oy “90” 10. fly suorg expletive, Women at well as men ute hit word, bt ‘women eed oF special terion o usage as toe in ede eid sounding unlalike. Women usually avoid saying aho dee to the person they ae ening [Nandekono how no ichban sash Rome oko na Krab ton? Omaer, cho yuna PATCORO-BRMC, TAL TLARAR EA? Ban, TRE, ‘Why di you pat such stupid word at the begining of is book? ‘You guys are pet stp ‘Omceras the pial of omae (ce word etry 3) and is used by en to mean “you” Yo replces do (Se 15) ‘We age is somewhat ekls fu to begin your new vocabuiry witha, bat of he fifteen mast mp worn Ks bn, this one ee wp first in alphabetical order ana second only to akan in ALU tee. We ate 109 aho to come up with a beer system, please dot stop adag now. suzve: Konda ant toh no yome-han to deo sas ee Non ho a at aon non” Wk: FM. BARE ORUAL TH bEeTRe, HH: WT RECERA TAMAT rENSURWALWORDS 19) A ues oho 1 Samerpt yore Peal Nag ke nt "0 “ = Bye sie: Doyoumblit ne our leon aae! vemos Davey ch tp ap Toya ~"C 2 is sed when aking request in very casa stone ans canjvgtesi thee form ofthe ver. Tena "2 haste same meaning. Toko © othe Kans version of okra. See 53) anata! Kondo mo bonacnxanuppasont kat ate! taaeact, Senna aho na, Kaisha ran kangacen nen? Yo: AMON PRIOR HY HC! RAL FARTING, SHEA ThA hunaratat_ We'e geting 830% cut in oar next bonus! reasact, How canthey be 50 tpi? What ths company inking? -Kangacten renin equivalent obongocte ru #2 C8, Ten nos the Kans version of ing he orev ve (gf) cojuation (See45) 28 2ekan hid td uses, impossible, no Aan is very disintv and eal recognizable feature of the language Spoken in Kansai. Although ot vu, tis Woes considered to Be semewhat pote. Akan is probbly a mediied version of on, whic ‘athe clipped form often, meaning “mt ot” or "anno" Aa is ‘many use, bh by ise and as a pat of grammatical expressions. Ks ‘arious meanings somewhat sins dame SE i seal pane, ‘sp explained tow, (2) no impossible: sumo fsen mann, hshite archon? ee FI, RUC CAAA? #H: | BwAL Swans: Can youloan se IO lion yen? erpleine versie Anta no kab hanbin ni sag de now tan Br BAR OR RAEI Pm: be. seawie. The vale of your sok el by ball ror RRS! Te this case, although akan is used as an expletive, as more of tone egret ha ager. sta 7: an informal word or "908" ‘ comrace form of anata 7°, bos ch mere informa. 16 388 bbyboih men and women, a oposed im omae 2H, which is rougher ‘word for "you" used oly by men FIFTEEN SURVVAL WORDS a2 swouneen: Hania murs warmest PHO E IM, RI PATINE Lites FOke: mbh. owes: A homerun ws it off of Hanshin, remawent M&S! (©) goo. bad a: Shien dona yaa? i: RAE cU ore KF: hhADORE, xa: ww the st? rowono: Miserable, ‘Toaroko obviously should have studies harer. Dona yana + ‘©07: means “how was it?” Ankara is the past ese of chan, ox 2 +n! ae ne (a) dot do hat! bavcrmen; Homa te uma wa woe Akan yo a aa. HORE, 8 hd. sauces: Tim goog out 20 ‘This wage is ead quite often when parents ae teling tein ‘what they aro alowed to do. esoxs: Kono butane? yore Alan de Mey: SOME, otk RD We: BoAT, sunt: Cn Let this pork rol? wrdne Nel Not that his example is typical of mle spesh only. Women use tabere $2 instead of as $9 forthe verbo eat” Aan, especialy followed by the parle de, sounds ough and in female speech would probably be fllowe by yo instead. ‘Te same conserstion Between to women might be flows ca; Sono tama abete mo 2? rowwxe: Alan yo. RED ZOMTURTELE? KE: bade Aan ne so ohande a soften oe to meas as" o*You cas” HUN SUEWAL WORDS m2 (e) mut (ond an dole native) ‘Atarahi tra, kveana aan, Flim, RoeaDA, ye gor buy anew cu, Shimbun yomana chan fimke oa. Im ahs usage, he vr i conjugated as th standard negative form (este with th fal sound clipped of flowed by at. This strstr is ec in meaning othe -nakereb nara form, bts onjugated a sna akon £2 Shigoto wna oko UBLEHI A. Pee sotto work Me Schau 5° (ano. ciferent. wrong: (tha igh? (@) Chavis the clipped form of chiga >. This contraction is widely ted thoughout Kana in plac of eho hau de beac youre wrong hecho 5 msvxt: Dena! maken 0a yor: Cha, cha Nika gj yd sp: RARER He: bed, bed, SHEET, une: The inf i 200 yon, rt? Because chau verb ning in -mton be onjgated 1 chaima 5 0-6 forsigndy more fora situations. anicio: Omae no happy desi yaton cha? mastansZannen negara. chainave wa. BE: MORK. ABBE ORAL CAT FEN: REUNS. BendTD. vess: You preseauton was a big iri? omovee: No, uforunately ot Yara the Kans version of data 129%: (@) In te fist ofthe above dalogue ain he elowing examples, ‘hai sed ina maoner sna o sentence eeig parce meaing “ent tht ight?” The slandardeguvaler angi? 38>? or 36 nai? 29 Cen? FTED SURVIVALWORDS M25 ‘Ave, Nozomi chan? BH, E09? Ian tihat Nozomi? Moéohaw? 9225097 ‘Thats enough lead, dont you think? ‘Sore de abun yan chau? BHEEDO AES? “That was good enaoah ah? 46 AA ood, thas enough replaces 4», wach aully means “poo” but an mean “nor “at's eoough” or jus about anything else depending on te context {Atioogh wally writen as ¢ 2 2th promusiaton s actualy between ‘and et Ecan be sed anytine is used in standard pane Wi sed ‘onesie iaKansalanddaepoutucel teeter lof Hoa, But on coafuse this with th eta meas “yes” which wed roost Japan Ano karma, kath #n HOw, LALO, ‘That's prety et Kokko #2 is a contraction of kalke HF, which means ‘sppearance” or shape and soften used wit to denote women tha ook pod, or with war or mfr srething uly, By changing the cade, however, we get the won aldoohil 3.2084 Lis, which ‘cas preteatous, somthing very much ited in Kana 260 Like i preceding sno i very common pater, Eten ye ma BARRE OD, Nice weather, tit fdr yaro RABE, Nice lathes, uh ‘The following erences have the sume meating of "ve ha enough slr” or stop already” but the lat ofthe thre example i he strenget Eager nl shitobia? 2AMMIELE ES! E agen aii yo! BRIM: Let Ekagen ise? RAMI | st Ke ie especially when following mo means "96" or thanks” (Moe (93.2 means I've had enough” (when turning down an tle of fod, ete.) oF" give up" (especialy when talking. ones. “Tis is often followed by wa xan: faba yn seam: Kore? vacant wa Total kaa % BABEL, a canoe % Rab. Rob. TEEN SURMWAL WORDS 27 vomant: Thove ae lc lates, ah? emo: Why doot yeu Buy te viksot) Nau Theyre oo expensive S howma \2% realy Horas equivalrt to hos 4 ening rely.” ts often wed to ingiate that the person i sil itening io what he speaker saying Honma ni? ater Really? Honma, hora AE, BAA, Rely, aly. Honma yo! wake! Really Homa kins AEDOGa. Youre joking {he word flloning it sls fen asd as an adver 0 tegen ys hoe tn BU, CATCHES, Hes ally ho td, Sono nica, hora Kir a em BOWL eh, GAT EANTEA That gi realy eas (ESR) Herma. np Ge Kn 28 Honma hava i wl be esr test en times per mit a ‘ypiel conversation as fr south Okayama, but his won very sinctive and, bess ofthe frquencyof we, it mong he 0s recognizable features of Kink Japaess, Gmaido I bello “Moido tals erally 8 “everytime” bat, 8 with the all-purpose dary 23 made can represent maid arigato gocsiman, messing “tank you fr your patronage” or other sock phrases of gretng In cua usage, mado is probaly best wanted as “ello” huis fen sed as pat of expressions of thanks. Although itis argubly the elimate Kasih worn actus enc ed muck by young People, especialy outside of Osea, Mold often combined ith i Maid, sin wm, KRG “Thanks for your patronage A, nid maid fa ee eee, eto Thanks for caingy Thanks foe coming. “Tis at example is aly wed bythe person receiving» pone cll ‘ne otfie atte the clle as dete’ hms. However, a Kans bens looked down wp by eller from Tokyo nla the compre oud-ffice personel, the more acceptable domo, domo is often sobs when te calle sneer close fen or note ative of Ona Tmetcho,muicha 82%9. obey TEEN SURWAL WORDS 29 Bod meta sn mucha ae avers messing “ry.” I usage they ae imi t toremo ET, aihen 3, or ugoku =<, Metcha und ‘marcha completely inerchangade canbe taupht Of ions in ronuciaton of the sane word. Meta mor DobeBeaty, Very eresing totes te, Very delicous Mero hal ‘ey iiig. nando 1/218 how much ‘Nanbo i stinetive Kash word used nthe entre southern al of| osha. inloiag Hiroshima and Okayams, in lise of tare nto by itself meses "bow mach when iging about pie, The Sanda ra. tome expression, meaning "ko ater ow mach. ca ao be replaced by nando. temo. sinasos: Sore nano? sacar Semen fa: en, ate ”* +R suowmesus How mc ithe? see yen 308 Tayo no honsha ni nanbo setae site me, wakate archer. NBORECEAIBBL TS. BOT CRAK, 'Nomaterow much ry expianing 1 the Tokyo hea offi, they tounderstand 9okint ACAI= thank you Like aio, ole oer typical Kans word hat ised tat fen tn Kansai anymare ts se ses cemered in Kyoto, where its always ‘edn plate of moo aga by aay everyne Ir Ona, th ws of this words ied most older pope and domo or aria aren jst soften asain tn Kobe, Hs se ined 0 od men and women ‘shopkeepers. However becase an is ndestod and ecogized by ‘everyones proper Kansti-ben, even hough th Tokyo meatal has teen paral suesesfl in converting most people t using mo, we recomend ou say Oki test easily, othe Bus oe ai diver ‘she he drops you of oto the clr ho gives you chang. I you live Jnkoto eet abut asng dn aria csi of apes ase. Note that he pronunciation of din differs somewhat for men and women. Women if their voice lightly om the mide liable KE wie men accent the st lade (Osi) Wore 283 _issexsts (for humans and animals) ‘The use of orn plice of ris widespread 01 oly throughout all f Kans bt every ia the cuter bal of Japon. Becane om isu ‘the humble version of iui standard Japanese, however, an Ironly wed refer oneself th use ort in tering 1 tes people soos rude to tenes of Kans Yonastanss Ashita oraremane ha? Kahascnd: Sian edo, aia orchen wa are SuRMWAL WORDS 31 Bafite Omremacy Mit: mBBoRETe? He TRAE, MOKED, ‘wooves: — Willyoubeintomonow? oss: Sony, 'm going tobe out tomer, Asin anda Sapanese, the passive -rarera fom of the en ison ‘na tomae the enkence more forma espeily when aking something shout your conversation pares. heer, rare ki hese tenn place of iusainany ka? expecially in business elehone conversations ann theif. Ash is an bonnie fr, cant be sed When refering to ones Suman ¥ $4 ison of te Kans versions of sunimasen $7 2-¢4, “Tis isthe mes clipped frm and the leas! polite Sinmen FA 3A. isalighy moe polite ands considered "aet” Karis (nse pars of Kani itis considered ride ani hus wed me by mon ad ‘er people, Two veson tat ae ako used widely ar simaen FA 2 A wd sulnasen FEA, Note that the employee speaks more formally to he hos han the Re os es when he answers the employee The emnayee wes nara ile te bows uses orc. In ado owe a stand-alone ver, orvcan alo replace 8 salary verb fo rele he progressive frm ofthe yb. Te om is sly comeacted oto an shiora? meesr What are you doing? ML hare 122 honoie verb conjugation) “This weed conjugation foems unreal part of Kinks eign RB the cara polite language wet sow respect to people of higher rank cco strangers, However, a Kantai:ben generally aso reputation of being es ora an ana apes, when uly formal lnguae seu suchas tng jb iteriews or etreom wnounceeets, Sanda feral Japanese is sly wed. Tatfoe the har form i os ofen heard situations ha somewhere between feral nino used ‘pecially by women, sinc thy oe expecta to pak somevhat foal to male acquaintances but don wish 1 sound cold by speaking too formally ts aso crwenient fr ora company's younger employees when speaking 0 about senior memes, since itshoms respect witht Sounding like ecetsive botisking. This frm s used often in Kyo, ‘wher ts considered par of andar spec rather than Hie. “Tisconugaion is bier to bane Ben dived by honening nar to hare However, like asara, shor ca be used with nears any ‘verb tomate t more fom nanos paces in Kans the -Aara forms conjugated othe ibs the verb, However, in Kyoto aed surouncing areas, sbch as Nar conjugation wih thea base ofthe ver more ormmnon LnrreNsuRVWVAL WORDS 33 Where ate you going? ota ekharun dese ba? ota ektharinaa te? Dolo eikaharn desk? (Kyo) koananacerm? oananntre? AFDIRE ATT? Git, Asin standard Japanese asenenc in the polit fo cn enn eter the mas conjugation of the verb (harinasu) by affixing nde ‘hare desu) The meaning o al hee sentences shove i essentially the same, Noi tabeharimase ka? seeiwo rte? What would you tke 1 a? ‘The -hara frm canals be atached thee ~~ foro he verb 10 rete the ing form. oko iteharan devs ka? vontoteacte? Where ise going? Senet. nant vtehaton? eA, MOI io? Wat was he etcheraying? ashen 4 (negative vt conjugtion) “The vet conjugation hens ilar in usage tn -Hen is atached © ‘iter the -a base or base of verbs inorder o form the negative of verbs Itcam also be attached to thee bate to produce the negative ean” form of vers. Fr example, the vert ome iC (ea) in a star opanese conjugated yomanat HE 20 rmeanng “nt ea ‘or yomenai #0 21», meaning “can't ead Im Kans, yom is eujuzate yomalen 3 ~ i, meaning “ot ea," or yomeen 80-~ ‘meaning tern eae "can tread” Whi evo mein ‘is itended ca oly be determined fom the coment. However, when ‘tending to sy unesucclly "ened," onucan aso be ean yomarehen ERK “Tomake the negative pst tense, conjugate the ver wth hentai the sume manner as -hen. For example, te pas tense of dahon 1 ‘he og” ahaa HA PB go" yam ite voreal demnahen tank Aone omehen Henk ant read, oa Somarchen REET cant iead mnakenkuta RELA ts ited Somehenkae SRO Avo f= gol read det ead Jomarcheniana HE RAAd of: could tread a He com daten titnK wot = itehen FUAK cat 90,900" itarohen HNN caa'tg0 fahentons —FibNAshot: —eidat go ehenkare ——FBIEA Asaf couldnt go diet go arehentara —YiidR AAO te oould'c go Here ae afew mare examples. Because the «base conjugation is mere como tha th - se fom oly th forms sown, but os ‘ests can be conjupsed tithe base, ‘ArTENSURAL WORDS 3S tobere <% eben RAK don't deka HRS detehen CHA ett do sams leumcken 299-~f,—dow't ind vara 8 wolorchen SHA doa vader Kure 32 and sure + have two fers, oe wher chen hanged ‘0-4 sure Re come shen WAR encom sin ava oncom orarchen Sotwn, can't come san +8 tod ‘shen ease doo'tdo ai toes on'tdo Hime tah (veal sentence ening) Senlene-ening partes, ogo iG, re panee pric form wit o real equivalent in English bu, as only one saute listening to ny Japanese conversation wil rove ter use mesthe mastered incre vospeak ike anatve. The pape atthe nerds, bi ven inne meuing to ent he mos tone of he sence smeting English speakers generally acompishby charging ih, pod and cc enation Some examples include the pervasive ne a abd yo, ut as you might expect. these sentence endings differ by dalek. You may have already orice that the sentence endings nthe examples up until now differ From those used in Tokyo. AS they are one ofthe malin poinis “iferetaing Kansu-ber fom oter dialects, «number of emmen semenee endings wl be intoduced ia the following aes 368 Nes on ofthe st ple and rected sentence ening in ne Kanai gion, Nen is evsntaly noua intone andi sed when ‘listing response trom the conversation parr Iaso has the eet of fending the sentence ina saath manne. When used by ise it as Somewhat so tone bis semaines olowedhy steage ening, sich de foremphsis. Sabi ya nen ween, ike Soyanen eenh. steve Malu thunen, <7 48S lah, —— TmgsingtoMsDonalds, Baio yomennen de! 264 H#BGAIA°C 1 mguiting my parse ie 14 shimotg moto 402. G72 completely Shimota ste local version of shina, which roughly tists as completely” but with a varity of urages dependent on context. When used as a standalone ver, the fin « is sometnes lengthened (0 shimota- Lf: ~ for extn emphasis In conjugstd ae, simon is en lipped 0 ma (a) Used usally under ones beth as am expletive indiaing content forone's wn misake. Shino! Mo ose Litt bab, 485! P mine (by Following tee fom of ve shoot nscates ation completely fished or sregtens the preceding ve, Fri suRWAL WORDS a 37 Mo densa, te shits ORM. HoTL Or, The in already gone, Sacen en mo, tute sino, FG, D2 nis contest. shimow soften contacted te mola 67, especially in less formal sation. This isi to the Tokyo contson of shat to chat, Since en mo tone ona 89mM, roche SFAGOS Cor Bye eis Yarepaces da (th infor version of denn C> Smal, ot the folowing yr replaces dar AD ya replaces jon bene junta At apace anata Cn ate yators Pots replesdanare thats Ya and its variations are arguably the most rte difference in srwmmar between sanded Japanese and Karsa-bee Is usage sso Pervasive and noticeable that Tokyobased novelists, when trying to poreayacharscer fom Kan haractes dalgue merely change every doin he ae “The sage of sis var aa can only be explained ffsney hrogh xargs oye ya popere £05 soe anda 9P a(2]= Example Conversations | ‘Conversation 1: Bewecn wo feral college Mules RE me Ke an Nani shite non? Shukudi sien nen ona amban no pai keen an? ‘tl nen hed Akan nen Byrn to, MLTAOAD WEL TARA, We, ARTs —AIAR DA? ARORA EE... bouh he RAR HE. What are you doing? Fro doing my homework. ‘The guess you wat becoming tthe party tone 9 8 4 sca; Ianto go bat. No cae 5: roono: Forget aboot he homework Les got Line 1: The ial non sft the sentence and ks for aesponse. No 7 isthe standart panes equivale. (See $9) Line 3 Hoe is equivalent t sore ja £4. ©, meaning “tha is tre" (See 18) Te oti of ia #7 to iscolagted sitchen {2 1A meaning "won't go" "eat go." Nowisofen wed he nd of ‘sentence, especialy when aking a questicn Tissier than ka ands sed paral by women Line Na 4 bused when asking nese a quesion or expressing a wish: (See 28) Akan in hs case has te same meanings dame, oe Wat icisimposuile for bet ge ine 5: yan would be equivalent to i janai ss 40°. Tis impossible to ans this expression diel nto English but inthis cae it means "tats already good enon” oF “n't wary about The sundard ik FF= 9 ie shorncd ike #72 in Kani Conversation 2: Rereeen a mae evstomer a ashopkeepec at 2 rutin Nas. 1 sus Ca are mesh 2 Osan. bore norbo? 3 sawas Seren yao 4 snivom Ache! Shino? 5 Kyat en sik aren 6 saeas Henao en shit wn 7 svar Honma? Obi 8 sacar Obi ‘i te PANMECONVERSATIONSI 41 o Shimeta Db, chbobera th Bobed, NEAT Fimeu Boted—!LORA! AH LSB eK, 2, ABIMIELE Cb, Bas TkSE, wa Wow hiss rely ie. How much isi That's 1.000 yen ve only go. 900 yen, Inhat oo, ive you fr 90 yen, Really? Than, ‘Thank you ae Lie |: Mec nanny" ents ening “po” ‘Sumi ends entences witha when be ws tims ine 2: Otc short froin 2 ($4. mearing "nel." is sed o areas idle-aged nan ads nfral but flea rater than ae. Osun 4 8 lo ws sa comraction fr ose, bus considered nae an would nee wed when adresing Someone, xcept {san insult o joke, Nonbo ie wed to 388 he peice. {ine Shima — i ah expesion of annoyance at his own mistake ‘of having cough money with hi wo buy it Tine :Arahin is th ep fae Tokyotes woul say na instead Wis wed soflen the sentence ening. Although a saad Jponese ‘wei ned alist exclusively by women, in Kas itis used just as ‘much by me when adding sgh touch of politeness the venence. (ee) Lie 6; Here hon eas “in tt ae Shik, a conraction ofthe sel fem of suns fe usd in Kans tino doing a far forthe ober pss, Line : Oki ied ie fen by edly shopkeepers Conversation 3: Bewween «department chief and oe of his employees. vumasiane Back, esi orarema a? 2 uence Om omow do, cot shirabee mir wa 3 Ak aton wa, aha rahen wa. None? 4 mastans A, Tags asia kth i are tohan des edo mcnce ER? Ashita, Tag mo onl Kal ni deran yu de ‘Ketch nna horrehen de, uNRuEcONvRSATIONS #43 iA: HR, MBAR? 2K: BaMIOY, Be oEMKcAab, 3 bo, bth, HERALD, CAE? SFMA: 0, RASAWD OSERETOS CEBATT pe. SR: 25TH, AAMC AMINE LOC, 6 EOBICURERAS, 1 tsmovee: — Willyeue in tmoro, si? 2 ewe Itiak so but let ne check, fl No Tbe oa toro Why do you a8k? 44 eumovee: Well Mr, Takagi ay he's coming hte tomorow. S$ cus: Huh? He's going othe same meeting a 8 6 He wor't be here Lin 1: Aselseber in Japus. managers nd oter people with ies areofen ele by hero ie iesead of hel ame fo hv ease, te section chief is mot clled by hisowo name bt bucho TEE. The passive form of 7 sed toma he gestion more polite sine the speakers ‘onvesaton purer is fa higher rath Line :Yuteharn 2 3-C14& ised to make the ver a (a F199 ‘ore frma In staat Jpanese e wold have ai oss i 3 Leo €10d. From the employe suse fe rma fm when refering to Takaghsan, we ca assume at Takagi ber a castor, bigher level emplye,o snp someone he mp ni ith Line $:Thetoss does ot speak polity hisemployes Hisenences nd wih de, which fail rough see 25, Deru #3 in tiscase, means 'oten” Ween aso assume that Taal of roughly the same rae ‘orlower than the section chief by the ack of honoifi lnguage used when efeting to Taka. “ae Conversation 4: Two cologe boys onthe lephone 1 wasn: Shgeson? 2 soe: A. hah yma 4 rams: Int mat sien nen? Fatton? 4 sm: Chancho fa ideo ten ar 5S rapa Subabe na yt 070 6 som: Ako Pata oy de le Linea? 2a: Bb, ALAN EE 3 MTA? 7778 4% bed, beds SEPEN TARA. si Fo SOBESAMRUHTDOT, Ch, Osala: Kind na, uch no obatan Kawaramachi ten. 3050, SOMES ARNT 2h Toby: Kind ne uch no okt Kawcramach tan da 805 h, SOMOS MMMM OB AT Probably the mox iin aspect of Kyot-ber or fregners to pick up especially those familiar with Osa ben is the dale’ lack of Sresoess nhe olowing example Ma bubwcute demo oagrivas Id, RRO E BIND OT ‘This erally ans s “How boot eating accu (ce sop tut satay ap indict way of telling guess they bive overstayed ther welcome. Kyoto residents, hering this, wou explain hey were runing uch fo ate partie of the Hosts hospitality and, fe, ‘old unfortunately have be leaving immedi “There are also many grammatical expressions an sentence enings tha, wile nooner se ote by youn people semis defn tons Kyctoen, (oyyouk 2 ad beter pease ty This ie conjugated oho same veh stem a masa vets in standard English: You should eat is Kyoto: Koretabeorhi =e L Oaks: Koreans =I Tokyo: Koretbee, SHR. st Enghens You shou ty ating hs Kyou Koresabete maski R&-, IAL 9 Osaka: Ima Bonk ster nen. 4 RRL TAL ee Tokyo: Ia enlydshitera , MARL ‘There is abo ess use of na und na in Kobe tha it Oka, Women in Kote so use ne more often. Characteristics of Other Areas of Kansai ‘The lnguspe in ares outside the Ket Ha-Shin ingle lo becoming mint ofthe old ways of speaking. the ste of there ites, ed, ‘some exter standard Japanese Teele eration f ous, isks othe local datect while younger people, nflbenced by television, duction, ad avs, are adoring mor stand Japanese into tet soe speck. Irs nly imposible to generalize how paople speak in each lace, bu there afew pater that ae common in cei eis of ans that ae ot part of regular Kansan In Wakayar andor par of Nara Prefecture: ound replaced by dsounds. For example, nseat of ying 2e-zen 8 people nis area say denen 727°, the Shiga ate, yoru O18 2 places lana, Pople i Himeji sy tteya $49" neat of tear UTIL, Thre ave, ofcourse, many’ such valans ars the Kinki ‘exon, andits imposible to describe thea ee, bat weave sted a fewef the mow teresting words you might ea you teal across the (denn i 8 Wika em dete © Wayans sence 2 nat febuea CO+%— Wlgena rue 836 ame fee bi Wain aren 8 . «[4]= Fifteen More Words Needed To Survive Now dat you have mastered the it fen absolutely crac won sd realized how weil speaking Kass-ben so wurvval her, move one the net fifen is eel impossible to construc sample convertion witout saga at ew of thet words 16, bochbook te i2 26. de® 1. goth 22208 2 chan ~ ith 1% fons, honnara,sonnara 2K nana te. 2b WR HAS. #405 Bsn 2h, 19. métarinaile 630454 30. wa 20. omoroi BU BL 2 sind LA 2 2. ella F884 2. unas 4 Les Mowe 25, ya 3 (83 55 1 568 U6 bochisochi denna) ELE CCAM) so-so, ot ba no problems fae Bochishohi has 4 wide variety of vague meanings, sch 8 "80:50" 0 “slowly improving.” hs west sect] sage he proper response 10 maharimalta? (See 19) Usual, dema ©A%,aconiacted form of desu ne" is ataced tthe end, Ma £6 i fen ised atthe bepinning. saat Mas Boi bochi denna fee: Laan Eom? a ER, PBIB TAL sunisase: Hows busses? sacat Soo However, unlike makarimatha, bochi-boch is sill ured quite frequently im Kansai I cah be an effective neural response to any emtarassng question yor donot wish to anew. onawaras man shit, susunden no? faasaci’ Ma, Boi och na wa: fat, MATA? REL Bh, UIE: anaganas How th projet pogresing? faanacr” Moving alone tomy omvcit: Kanaan, arta? pair: Ma bochicboct ya ma fA: Comee? Fooo Bh, IeRaEeE, MORE SURVAL WORDS 57 erwucmt Have you gouen wed tthe Kans let yer? raster: Geting there. Boch-boh is als sed sa synonym forthe standard Japanese sor soro 4 2%, meaning "tis time” ochi-bo it a elton Bochiboch is always a good espoase whenever someone aks you ‘te invible “Can you speak paneer (even after you have ved in Jaan forty years) "Car you us chops?” Tis esponse wil show that you not ony speak Japenese bu Kasa-hns wll No mater ‘tere you live in Sapa (or even overseas), this response is certain to ‘provoke a laugh and starts conserston about Kans ot the Hanshin Tigers soe axes: Kya yoypie Japan? bauran: Ma, boeboch yma ‘anesss FA? Kena magi ya na Met ez aD REND Te wr LOE MOD ds ‘anes Can you speak apanese? acme: Sur! reser: Huh? What tage foreigner. Ketrai 14-2120 in oguivalent 19 hen Bor myo 9. Like these synonyms, et cates negative connotations meaning “strange” pervere.” The meaning depends on te context, ae can also have prkveconmoations sich as “meeting” aierent™ his ial to determine which meanings imide, bt we hoe he foreigner ‘sho can speak Kansan i consdered o be more iteretingthun evened Wegeteni 038 very big Gotu sly nan er” andi similar in usage to matcha #50 and mito > #, Whe gua th edional ska word mete andmuche now sero be prefered by young people espacial tose living outside the ty, although got sil sed to describe extreme cones, With is very couse ound, waren we foul ony wees ‘ey atong eh peering meta or mucha for nora stabs. ‘As with other Kansan sjetives ts common forte ia son 10 te dropped sn the a scund extended, in thi case producing gers TotbAA hy Realy god. MORESURYVALWORDS #59) ons shigoto ar wa. coors Pe got alto work to do, Alt, gots na e's relly big. onc ht, eens hue wee hone, honnara commare GEAGH.EA2G inthaene, iso then Ave ofthese words have the same meaning of if that i toe then.” Allare contacted forms of tre nara 4.6 n genera tuna is used more often by women and homara by wen, Hona and ornare ca also mean "se you let” (Se 61) soon Sore, nab? saat: yal rotyien ya sexo? Honora, ka far: th, Bate? ” wate. te BABB HI, svsvoose Mow mach is that? iwcate Nanna ster no? vou Gomer. na, iogari nn wate Mona wa Mata kare wa oe * bh. bh MLCAOT # he Lb he x Ite, 2b. BPR D, fuvans: ‘Hey, what yeu pt? sczomt: Seng, mind of busy now. saxaas; Well no roblem. Il come bck lites. 18.miterinathe 65.40 X01 How ae you? How's business! _Mokarinata is anoter typi! Kansai won! hat everyone rss pn ‘inks Kensa-ites use egual bu, infact, is rely used nowadays. ‘When used it a6 a geting, especially toa shopkeeper whose tre yu epulaly patronize. The eonancaion mkatemata 9 9-C dhe als sometimes head, Mtarmatha's eve tom mékar 1% , which meas 0 make 1 pot. The fac that this was cece typical eestig, even 0 tose ‘sell unconcerned with money sas Americans might sy "ow basinss” evento students other nonbsiness-elated peopl) s sed 5 ammunition by outsiders who 190k dow cn Osaka a a ety of| “Tobe one we have never herd marina wed in convertion eacep as a joke. However, because itis always mentioned as well nown example of Osaks for, a foegner peaking Kans-ber, you wil beexpete tok ad to be shee this word. Se wo enty {6 fori proper response if anyone eer wks you motrinatta? omar 6A imersting ‘nor is. contaton oe sad Japanese word omoshiro! HE Ioan be conjitd in the see anne ae ther adjectives, soap he ‘yale is sully dropped ine negve conjegation. omoretona hbawor as imeresing | MORESURVIVALWOROS = 6T eomornat bene bunthon cmeronatate ase'timeresing hed 0 nou, ‘As wither aleve, omorai canbe domorol yc Beebe lneestng person mmoronalbangun BUA LOB ML ——_aretereting show some: Kon eps omorkara Twos Homme? Zensen omoranakat om edo na, * LOmM, BEATS a f AL? ERB LAL H EEO EGI, ‘ncn: This movie was inerestng dont you tak? though it was completely urimeresting. (Ome #6 isthe shortened orm of oma >. Mehindod LAL tied ing, dil Shingo isan alpupose word used exes bn that something i tring o difical I is probably the most oem used word in the ofice anda the hath clu, and ca alto mean being somewhat under the weather. [18 conjugated the sme way a6 het ei Kass, sido Ait, Lae, This ope of work is eugh 0, shindokata wa FA, Umea fob. "hod rough dy today ae rai 2.54 (ce wot eau 46 also means tring, but sno wed ely 8 widely hind aasukiyend HEED The “This is deren fromthe tnd subi 8, but we ince there ease ofthe frequency wih Which its beard in his form and teem ‘ofthe difference in pronunciation, Ia standard Japanese, ul 33 is pronounced with nearly ser at in “ski” I Kans, he is ull pronounced and the fis syllable is aecesed, SUA, This i sully folloned by une £28 oryane #2 ‘Suh yana can fro things and people ie by cer people a wll 10 your own personal preferences Aan de tan son Kanto-dai hora nis a a wonox: So pane Matcha su ya nen. Tou kono ise no go We: RR RRL R Ot, HU: FERAL b AES CAME CORDMHOAE, sezue: You eal ike Kertrdal, don't you owos: Yup {ove And this tand i especially good. Karol FMM isthe Kansai word for whats called aden 23°C inToryo. ‘Ata tara bos: Kono asl ym resto; sume hore yonen RE: LORE Sd, & vonsnens. MORESURIVAL WORDS = 63 cx: You eal ke his song ai? ronoxo: Lalas sig this one Dunoshe HLL gloomy, rary (especily in reference tothe weuher) Atcugh par of tna Japanese, shi hea mach moron in Kane, ot eease he weater is worse in Kans is cual sgh beter tan Tokyo, alhough i stl esis ul share of ut weathe) Datsinply as amater of word shoe, Tokyotes usually 5 ema end 0% ined. In Kans, tos i ao sada deteibe persistent, slimy people yt ab na. FH PR LOG a, espe uly out ey Losi yeko aa ALP ob ete That gy seal stn Yara © « iva conraction of yu a QL, mexnng 3 person ting. oe 243029 very, mch often, wel Yoisaconrction of yok 2 & the adver form of yo, meaning ood” Yoaa LoKot Tae so Yowatators LA SHol Be Toompleily understand Tear ths wel 2yh 29.99) ospak The verb in Kans is wully pronounced i? While nis tory form ts dial ober he ference in promuelation.the conjugated fom are etsy dinguisbale ita nse fit) B11 (43) said en (ita) BitKiot) sad BITE WTS) saying Breath MTL) wating iter (iter) o> TAK? ‘Whar he hell are you saying? MORESUEWAL WORDS. M65 Sone hte, ane iyi ED, AOFCOSEUT, Pls el ato es Mo pene kara? 5 HOS CCHS? ‘ould you say that asin? Bhde © (exclammery seence-endng price) e-anlke na (262), usedenly at he end of sence. ts meanings ‘somenhar lke an exclamation point, swengtheaing the effect of the rence, Kis uly uid when informing sontcone of someting but has ough oe. n hese ees iis smiarto 2 in tnd panes, bats used Fequeay by women as wells men meade fore We vearived! avai de eer Wht! le RAT This fine! ade nee roteaving! Let's! Thon 124 Mra Mri Me Miss ‘Sn the standard Ronee suffi ached o pope's nares is herd In pronunciation in Kans sn becomes han. This practic est Be recommen inside Oraka and aon older peop ot eas tht ‘fen ouside f Osaka Miacomarhan RIL Me Miyazwe senteten ae wile ‘hee paste ld ady ‘neban Datibh you — 668 Bn nd “2160 Getence-ending pices don't you thnk? yinow? ‘His neatly impossible translate these sentence endings ino English, “The closest equivalent ona and na the mai of soe youn people 9 ‘ay "yon oF “ch?” a the eof Setences,Japaneve wil incase some sot of word wit no messing athe ed of every seece fen a the middle of sentences, sometimes afer nearly every word, and ‘occasionally replacing theese semence. Soepetimes these pate dings seem to hae ile meaning excepto ae te fat that the “Speakers pausing foran instant, la Tokyo, he ewo main pass ae fd sa In Kansai ais the prefered word. Nei sometimes sed 9 Kansai especially by women, but sa it never sed. In Tokyo, ma Is ‘cessed, ut thas ough sound thee wich sano reason th Kensiben sounds roe to uted eas Tustas ne is often Intend oe, ne is very often lenge 0 naespecily when wed the endo setences when asking for se tor eons from he conversation poner. assets Koresng waren, na ‘toon: Nal a SH, by SRN, tee a: bol ‘oss This. y"know, completely incomprehensible, sau: Conley! Like ne aca be wey sew indicate complet green with the spikes opinion. Iris mat soft na ba spoken witha short sng capabon ofa, Aden cat na can ao be silly used in Kars Be careful ot 0 conse this setence-eading wa with he starr Japenese pace may which is sed with verbs create the “must sus Fors sac pases 8 Beno urna BS 2 (do MORESURVALWORDS = 67 yor Bey seman REA 44 tha to ty) In ene ‘he gremmticalpantcal na has a short sound and is used oa in “onjnction with rs but cam cometines be iit oll which Intended except a the context the conversation, Basan — 54 Gretngs afin) Sn sade othe eno gretngs sch as “good morning.” This ‘veal the same som chat is sed ass wo peoples” name, a ‘acon of he more formal ona Te pesto of ataching fan ‘o greings isa wellnown aspect ofthe Kasai let, but is heard ‘more often in Ona Because its much es formal than standard rings. ts wed mos with fends coowerkers ofthe sate ae ot lower. This sufi cannot be applied to all getings and, sare of| ‘thumb, can only be used with geting that would sormlly end ia owns gocnbnasa ose, ohaysan BRD EA 008 momiag ret DOSES EA congratulations rasan Buea Ek thanks ota 8A, hanks for your Belp Ww (untill eu stems ending) We inyetanaderKarsader sentence ening. (has ret conotions nis for adding sgh amount of enphasst the sete. Unlike {n Tokyo, where waa very sft semence ening wed exclosvely by ‘women, n Kans se andi used equ by mens well Issometimes writen ane bw dierent eewsen he we wed by everyone Kant ad he Tokyo P sed ony by wore. Sil nord avoid ily comments about ating Japanese fom gents isprobebly bes for mate foreigners to avid wing wut everyone has sia ee speaking Kansisben, oe Wiaib, Ws ood noegh. 1 pe UR ‘Shivam. aonb. ont know, me, Phe a[5]= Example Conversations Il Was almost always used ater tancma RL when saying "please ot 1m counting om you,” (See 38) Because wa isa polite way co 26d Conversation 1: Two old merchants cinphasistoasentene, ts flea ead wth somewhat ermal language Desa + ad-aware very conn sertece pte in Kans soak: Ohayo-oR Oishan karada n cosh dat?” reweané: Ma, buch och yma deve ako: ‘Somarg iso i YosRoto min den? “ cman; Omron ha? {dat ming, No thanks. (frm) ee ‘Mina ena choo sind a Ton’ mind / No thanks (gh less formal) be fo BEWEL, MOMNE AM: 2h IEbIRERE, Orimasa wa Ee! RADG, MWR OR? Bitth, AM: Boake? Pmbere ee SoOUARER, Ath: Zhteamaceem, IP UEC Obs se LA EID, o 70 = ‘Tssho ni Noshimet mi ws ikahen 1 nasasor Good mening. How are you feting? 2 roma; Notb, 3 vanante Int co, lets go we Vorimoto, 4 iewrsgo: —Iieimeresting? S ananc: —U'sealy popula 6 verano: ‘Thatenay be ue bat 7 isi ofa pain o goal he way to Nanba Line 1: Oi han ane Mr Old Manor Gran, bt does aac cury the nepntveconotton it would have Eglsh and ison prefered. over the wi fatal names. Doman euivaleat todo 2. jnthisease meaning “How ii Line : Osa very fous frit enc of une and one pope form of comedy is mance of sand up comedy tans. Yoshimoto is shor for Yoshimoto Kogyo # 84% a vaudeville and comedy ‘tern agency hse in Nanda tas pwned abot eneraon ‘of comedians who have become famous doughout Japan, even in tuamoress Toyo! They operate two thas i Nanka, Nanba Kagetsu AMPLE CONVERSATIONS 71 and Nichome Gok. Watching sive perfonraneof young Yoshimoto tae nay help you eam Kanss-hen and ners Kans un, at ive aces vel al the way to Nanba to ee them, They also ect popular television how called "Yoshima Shitige,” Each ‘or has asec of um phrases which he wes each Weck, nd ese soon ke thie way into he spac of young people Kasi. Tanks {0 Yoshimoto, he vast msn of omens in Japan a frome Kans snl have beled popularize Karsten thoughout Japan. Becase of ‘hisagency Feopl ving ous of Kans end to lieve tat everyone Jn Kursal sa comedlan. Due tothe use of Kansison in comedy even wen Kans peopl ae discussing serous mates souk comedy toevenone els. Actual the percentage of ele who think ta making ers lugh isthe e's work maybe very igh in Kans ‘One ofthe base pater of mona comets ker nado 795 Boke ete tho peion paying the ot while suldom i the sraght man inv woman comedy tear. Te al ofthe ke to sy something stage or stupid When he doe, the te isto how inthe proper straight into make people laugh This ptr is to common in everyday conversations in Osaka. When someone say something strange tpi, o sil, reminiscent of the bate role, ther people ar exacted wad the tuk fine. ‘The eases a mes common ofthese io ae ae ollows ‘Tras aly tpi Nance en? ween? ‘ee, | wonder Why? ne Arar ma yostoren wa AREER OERAD. 1 Should quitbeing Your pasos EXAMPECONVERSATIONSH = 73, BHORER EDA, aug? BABAR CA A? 2 THEE] D3 CEE Ae Hona, snare THEE a, B6e8 fe mnenae, BAS ORHE, WRAL The Chancho {aly he yo. Beanek You yg Iesalt ove. ‘eu'te stoking igh? ‘You alvays say youl me, Line 7: The Nenkn are, on he southe end of downtown Osaka eee: Done stip called Minani 4 by Oskaceidens and Kita 9 refers 10 Ue, Pasty 0, snc often isis of Osa onthe orem end f the opine wuld ever say bat ely et foc he main rin sitions fo JR (Osaka Stato) and Hanky and ‘Maria (meds Staton) a wll 8 a orge basins and exerainnent Line AntaOmae no ot ga su he wal way i el crore [Guie.Altoogh these anes obvious} refer othe ol oth nd su yu like demi the romani sess, lis mesning is omer bebacen hus of Osaka, Mina and Ki arabs writen in atatan an never ‘Conversation 2: Beoween wo high shoo! dens 1 weve: Ore ome no ko suki ne ws: Honma? Sonnan joder, chun? Isa“ ya" ye yan (ve, rey yara 3 4 5 tanie — Aozen 6 1 emma no ioc, wareheraten me ike you" and“ Nove you” Oma #3 means he same ak aa, at Is ugh sounding sn ase excusvely by males. Lie 6: Trea isa penton who tends tbe err BH, which means tobe sy oreuly embarassed ine 7: Kimchi 248% mens feelings Conversation 3: Two male cee ston 1 saci: Higa mini kehen? 2 ranasnt Oma, ego lym, 4 Tina sot cmorel ig yaten nen de SS tamise: EA? Hone kana 6 ‘Mae mo 20 yet edo, 7 ses omoronakta yon ka seco arisen nem ome. ° Sore omae 4 eranda yar yor a. Toranast: Moyo aborehen na i sicrme: Honan wove erabu wma 2 Ashita sri to ba? a UMLISHIOSA? 2E 2, RMA ECHL. 38 en, 4 pro DUNE DURE TABLS SE Lareabauesy ‘ Weermaceee 1 BRU REO RE IN. if WRI TABA, til . ee [AMPLE CONVERSATIONS 75 we br ryeecane, WR aAtD, Flee, 2 MA, sinchoo? 1 secs: Do you wanna go see a movie? 2 ranasnt You relly ike movies, don't you? 3 seca: You'd beter believe it 4 There's ely goed mee payin now, 5 tapas Hu? Don’t be sup 5 Las time you sad tat, 7 the movie was awful 1 noon: What the ll ae you saying? ° ‘You picked that one! YoramnsHe Maye, [dont remember well, scene: Well I'm picking ths oe Line 3: Sea Kanal vesionef 9&4 1s almost slays foowed by 90 oryaro 2 Line 4: De-~ is used ater nen in his ase to strengthen te serene: unas highly og one thts a be expectdinaconversation twee close tents, Line $: Homma hana 1/2104 is avery acto way say relly (See) Line 6: Tuva 9 9-C2: eeplacesizea 32°C. meaning “was saying” Onoro ts conjugated in the gave pst tenet moron a tieeting.| Line : Nani + Le ne oof ver, mae very common ale spesch pater in Kamal wh skng astral question, ANeLE CONVERSATIONS H 77 \uy boring Becki toch dean, Ly Mts? 0 Nant ion nen omge? Hoshi. HO? ‘oat are you saying? Mecha, BA? ‘What are you doing? Line: Ya inthis means thing” instead sal meaing of penn line 10: Yooboetehen 2 922A the corre fom of ola oboe ina CHE2-CO0, “dont remember wel,” Yo before a egtive verb es very como pater. 2 suuae Ma, haba denna 4 9. tin Yo sehen 4 soavess: Soe ma a nimo fd yan Masha si Boas 5 Nana shindot wa, Shigta shite na wa, ost do wel 6 saat Ma, soma et wai 7 chock sarin, Yomichen ARENA. BREA, MIke WAN Lom? Gusev 2 DB. EDIEE Chi : AU, RBs, Ya wakaron AH: Ph, FORMER. RUMEL, ENN A, 5 AMOI LALO, EHLERS. ont kao. om Bh, EAE BOAE ? aeisenge. Conversation 4: Retwoon Saks, shopkeeper and Sumiyosi an scquinanee sos Good mowing, Me. Sakai Howe things? 2 saa‘ ba ot ba, 1 sanmoant: hays, Sakatham, Motarinata? Ws prey ugly ot today, i? a 4 soni: Yeah looks ike going (oan. An W's bot and bi s Tn aleady ed of working. 1 don"t want 0 keep working 6 sana: Dow's ta 1 1a jut work a our om pace Lie 1 Ohayé-sanreplcesohayo gozainasu when saying “B00d morning” to tendo eighbors Sata-hon ewe in place of Saka son, bats es formal. Arion mes, eve good friend call ech cer boy las res, but inthis cathe ro are not clas enough to dispense with he nerfs. They ar obey to old to se kur and ot ‘ose enough owe or. Lie: In his case, And 3 Le probably mans not tat e's te from working but hat Re doesn't feel like working in the ot and humid weather, Shana wu Lf nein o shauna [LPS 2 meaning "dont want” in his cse efesng 9 wok. The sound safe et out Line 7: As oppose 1 ine 2 hime bo boch! 21 means wks our tie’” Faria 21) 0 i opulent sarimasho 9 FL 29.°5" sounds recten changed 0°" soundsin Kn especialy by older people in Osaka. Siiatly, -maren ver endings wre fen hanged 1 ran, nd -mesho 9 mah. =[6]= Tora-Kichi Living in Kansai ynonyenous with ooing forthe Hanshin Tigers Dasebal em. ven people who hate stall wily they hope Harshin Wins. There are wo ee tears in Kus tbe Oc Blue Wave Kei nthe KitesuButaloes of Osa Prefect, at they dono conse realy as much suppoet er ateton at Hanhi, Thi no sy that shin is god eam fat, since hey were frmed in 193. hey have only nce won the Nikos Series, apa’ ational championship. Mos ears fn ther angushing i the cla ofthe Cente! Leagae, nich ony seems inereise tee lovaility asthe under. So dt be supeised when, ever atthe end fa formal company benoit, the oyporte vice present asks everyone ost up an sing the Hain ‘Tigers Fig Song, Roto Ore. “Memorizing the weeds to Rotts Oru, assure aed Mans algun Cha AS 1°—A00%, vase way to become poplar a Kanna and hated in Tokyo), Most atsoke clus i the aea have the ‘song on heir menu andeverjcoe in the lace wil srl jinn singing iespecaly ear the ent of he sane ” Roktos, ofcourse, te RokRO Mounains, and Roh Orosh isthe wind tht Bows down fom Mt, Rokkd.The Tges's home stadium it Kosbion a Nishinomiy, beeen Osa and Kobe and ner the bas Mi Rakko, Rokka Oroshi 7 "Pi ators ni sa paca San haters rin em 310 ‘Sei ot rah WaoMAL< Kagnotn woginto Hahn Telgae WC RATERM? 4% 0.56. Maoh Tolga POTD PORT CIR Purses fare peesyae eles de ie tt snouncacen $e arta BrORKK De Mae near e Hanshi Taghcn MRORWERN 1A (6. Mase Tigase pereeeeer ar Par ref fue rere Tena ta ac at sme sn aac ot i Kshien macicen em Shin oyun 8 Bricmouis ogayt vara nHaashi Tagg MCR ERET 1% (00.0. Mann Tig poveeeeern ryan Ferre pusuayay Ly: So Soshe fa eomzn May: Kot YR naa rownum = 61 Rokko Wind Ith Roto wind, alan ‘Ot galloping sero tebe ky ‘A young, beat pct We are the puking Hanshin Tigers, (O— Hanstin Tigers erry, uray, hay, bury! ‘A fighing spc awake, Alea beat bck he enemy ‘Wit the pride of be king of animals ‘Weare the ovncbe Hanshin Tigers See arms and powering, howd fies ‘We ae tuning herein Kosten Burning forthe cro of ity Wear the sparking Hansa Tigers Some usfl words and praes elated othe Tiger ised belo. dometore 8 ‘When the Tigers ae plying por and lng hind nthe standings they acai dametore, bt only by nos-Kans resins, Hanshi rater ow ba he season might see, never give upon heir Tigers den noisen 8849-8 “hiss the name forthe games betncen the Tigers an Kyojin EA (Yomiu Gia) The iva betwoon he vo ters los a ite the rvayterween he ces. The Gites ae ofcourse, Tokyo's ae rin eam, When be gan betwcen he two teams is played at Kosien its called he Harshie-Kyojin gro. Thome tans ame comes fist to when the pares played atthe Big Egg (Tokyo Dome) the cers revere Hanshin 18 (a) Hanshin Tigers baseball am (0) HanshinRallway (6) Companies owned by Hanshin Ray ich as Hanshin Depsrnet Sore (The Osaka Kobe epon (e) Hanshi hose racing tack in Takarazuka ‘eis iemponant to realize that baseball cams in Japan are pared afer ‘he company ha omnes, nthe Hanshin Rally. The churcers for Hanshin ate an abrevation of Osaka Kobo 187, and tne used when referring othe tock egton. The riload company haba ne connect Kobe and Osaka was therefore named Hanstin Denes CK ag, ike most other major ail companies in Japan, as some ansporttion and resing conglomerate I Harshin was romncn = 63 ‘he pennant. ook fr bari ses a HansinHyakksten BEE, hee department sors, eto fen 97 6B ‘These are the loa balloons that Tier fas especie those in the beaches, release athe star of the Room ofthe sventh nnn They are sho refered 0 a rokeno fen 7 Fi The balloons make a isting reise as they ly and reat sn amaing racket when everyone Keoshien 7081 (a) Baseball adam in Nisbinomsia where the Tigers lay. (by Twice annus high schoo! baseball ourment Bel at Koshien (6) Sloponthe Hanshi Railay line where Koshi tim ioe miko ki Fece Tigers. Tiss what they ae called when hey re playing wel Rokk 28 Mi Rokk oe peak ofthe Rokko moun range, which les wp bein Koshi. Rokko Orasht 0% ‘The Harshin Tigers team anthem, named afer the fst ie of he sng sescribing he wind Bowing down Me Rokk abi sebun 99 %=7 ‘Let 7. me seventh ening. Tradition sys this th songs tbl or the Tises, when they offen score run 0 come from behind. When abe “anshin plays a ome, he sti mates am announcement over he Towispekers nthe mide of the ining to remind everyone to choer ven harder during Lachy 7. sino ride FeDO-¥ Thee ae the so-called “deal oad games. Fortwo weeks in Aus, hie the big school bate oumamen occupies Kosien Sadi, the Tier play ony rod pames, This cal juncture inthe season, andthe earn yplly does’ do well in hs pera Taig fon A Tigers fa, font tt (a) Tae Japanese word forge (b) The Hashin Tigers loretich 4 Someone crazy abot the Tigers oa Tigers fan. The word is eved from tora, meaing tiger, sd Kici, which is short for something we ent allowed ont, meaning crazy or insane Tomaxich a 85, tonakht +99 wakarora Fe ‘A promising young Tigers player ‘Ati to Kosten to see a game wal worth the eff i cht re ‘vallable Pla aeat—when the er is plying wel, Hansin kes am bes dificult o come by as sumo weeling tickets. But stay far sv rom the Beacer unless you’ crying somthing far songs than spin. Aough iy throughout he sadn. be Beaches beyond the oti ar the epicenter ofthe nonstop ashestaed cheering. The Hanshi clos, yellow and black, white and Bac, ae essentially aso there isso a smart ides 0 watch few games om television pick ott a few avert players an Aeep ek of he team record and tings the nevspuprin order tohave an easy topic of convertion with which otra tee at parties and compa functors, ‘Oe imteresing plese of Tier hry involves a foreigae,Coloel a6 = Sanders of Kentucky Fried Chicken fame, There sem 0 Be sever ‘verso ofthis story ot here the one we Net ‘When Hansin won the Japan Series fr the fs ime i 1985, the fans went crazy. One group tered at Nang Hass over the Doro River anda peopl calle tthe names fear players serene ‘wel jump ito the iver, However when thy called atthe American player, Randy Base, who beped let the teas succes, there were no foreigners inthe rowd to repent im, The closes hing to freignee they could find ws the Colonel Sanders ate n font ofthe nearby KC restaang,which they tei the wate The restaurant ever replaced the sate, and soon aerwards Hansin went into a deep slump, Some people claimed dis was due to ajax ‘rough by the Colonel hinelt Whe, in 1992, looked ike Hanstie ‘wuld win the Cena! League pena sp ally elas the stave However, nowingthe character of Harn ashe sagen’ hined the wate toe on ofthe etn. Unfors he eam Hew the last few rt pares and fade win the ensue. Maybe they soul have Kotte Colonel chained down =(7]= Fifteen More Kinki Words Bynow youbave cern tice how ofthe grammar an voce sescribed tus far ar used in veya speech Hope you hve tried ou sene ofthe expressions youself and hae oud people's responses swamer and mre ope, ess si al ora you haven sbi ‘heist tity wads, why m0” Dot be yo yo nl te fan in conversing. Try tout in your Japanese class. Your teacher wil 1endoubedly ty io cone you. AS er how be speaks wit he fends ‘outside of hss and wate her gets. Yes, guage 4d, 00,5 an nepal pr of the Tokyo conspiracy. Sioaly, we recommend you became comfonabl withthe firth ‘woe snce they costte the backbone of Kas-ben and are useful “nals every sat, From hs poi we concentrate more on specie words and speech patterns tht, lough importa understand ad se, ar somewhat mere linited in application 3. donna $8 38 bolas t8°4 52. haga 3 kanawan 2204, o 3S. tonnin #2 Silane #00 .materu RH. aon nk shina Lode Bre 5) 38. anim #2 4am =he 39. yoke vison, onan E314, 48. ten — CH Wl, £9 8% $0. abtar F950 SMadonknsah 56848" dim-wited, spd ena ansateseall as "the sel of tpi" Taneans person, tor ation ofa person, that is di-wived or stupid, bute usualy used ‘or inst between fends han 2 a acta inst Similar words a ‘aad Japanese are norma 7 $l 3, and gue ‘noes: AN Dense n kaa wasurete ma, ons: — Domb atcha n. & BoM MENT Or z Maree beth secon; eft my mbrelis on he tn ‘aos: You dont have your head screwed on sah. “Tedashi is tesing his endfor forgoing his umbola. Tora {another Kanst wont meaning a pervon who rics slowly. moves Slowly, or thks slowly, Donksa would bused between ends when {easing each othe, hilt can be used san isl, in some comix. ‘As wth many adjectives te final-lctn be diopped andthe ast sound lengtene. Dono the bocomesdonbuse—. ii tod 35s ‘often changed to atta ~~ and shindo! LA» to shindo— Lake. MOREKIN WORDS = 89 SD haga 296000. ing Hoga is aconaction of haga! 260 whic telly means “tehy oot” Youn you could gti ofthe ch by pling he toot, bt yous knw i would only make ates wore, you do nothiag bit ‘ce fastated. A situation x pers isha wea you know you have the mens o solve problem bat eae se it Te most common usage it in efeence ta person wh, because of neptde or oer reser, unable odo something you now yo could do easily if allowed eS00Ke 1 Maoh mt ante hur nan, mae no ahogare chow no? oe katate mia! PNA, un, teyaked, an, sono ‘ast mova yam. Nan son nen? Haga ytchan hoa. Ry: BL, PaR CHT CAA, BHOMRE CIO? marca WR: ATTA FAL ERIE, BO, £0 Mh: Ba, Hobe, MLTAMA? xoUes Beeb, HAR. ‘asus Hey, n't that the git you ike walking toward 8? You ough sty someting oer! vous Mak? Wel unm suis: Shes gone already. Wht re you dong! ‘You're lly fstng! ‘As you can se hi extmple, Kensuke geting rasta with Kyou becase he's too shy tok Kensuke’ advice and tak thei of his dreams. Kensuke fees he would have doe smash bette ob hat had Been he gi hehe An alegar ite someone you hve acrush oe Mii ltched 08 tothe form os vr mans "you should ry." (See 58) te moras equivalent to ie shineta {72° 8 2f in standard Japanese, See 14) Shite ems the ing form of sre (Se 8) Teisalue posible to be fuses wth yours. For example, if you arethe best seb player onthe teu ad your tea is ing, bat You ‘do anything about it because you injured. you might sy the following: an jin ga sai siesta, Pau fiustated with mye Rihokasn 27 throw away ek ans he sare stern 872. Unlike many Kans br words that ae contractions oF vanations om the pronunciation of standard Japanese words, hoka is unique to Kus People ving ouside of Kans who a unfair with his Word might assume isa contraction of han sure HAE aang to s¥e" the opposite of has THs ‘can sometimes lado misunderstanding betwee the Kens fice and ranch ffs of company Kono gomt eka de LOSI, FC rm abrowing aay tls arage era: Mo kono ate ra ara, hola ha? favonneR; Hotael,hokh & 03, SOME EADS, DEH? a Bel, Bete ore: Wedoa' need these mains anymore so why dort swe tow them aay? MoREANKIWORDS 91 wucameR; Go abe and et if them, Kono sho holst na COMM, UHL EOC. Throw these documents avy foe me, wll you? ‘In his example, the er sa the te ou ~-C25 ought alot ota 2: ote pst terse of hau > i Kalbe marae Ashita, aide happy sero akan ne. Kony wa be ra akan kaw anew ramaxata: Ma, bach bock gambar! ED , RMCRRE CHICA, TLE RD HABE, ro Seer MOY | hnwevst 1 have 1 makes presentation ats meting tomorow ‘ego otto toi. vansesta? Well hangin thee! ‘osono: Hanshi yakaten de koa yoru kia sien westo: Aka! Manin ash sha yhbe woREKN WORDS 99 AG: RHETT. CAmIED SAMUEL TA KE 8. 2941 HEBEL GOI. Yyasekor Lok how moc I ought at Hanshin Depanmeat Str wo Oh thar ght Hanshi jst won rt hey. Ir the Honshia Tigers win he Conta Lesgue pennant or the Nibon Series, Hansa Deparent Store old. pei sle io celebrate te esasion. Att inent oly Tig pspheaia bua ypes of goods acon st ‘Kaimono 3 soften shonened a hainen 0% (and semen 30 ie shorened to seman 217 6 nese spesch, Meuwktol #20 cuning, esky “Zutko means the same 36 tau 7.5 oF wanngashibe EME This refers ta peson, sation, ormethod tae ney or nti, The fn ‘vowels fen lengthened o male it sound ike zuko 1 > vow, Muon. wat et bucho monies sion ote wean Soman? Zt na SEA BOS EAI Ao CHILE & ZIGK Toswta, aed Mr Misi gor himself ing with he bos and 801 promoson vane Noway! Hes petty sneaky, Ye means so heard” (See 60) Trina HL) A means cut favor o brown-nose:" Mitsu seems 1 have sasceeded a pling & emotion by curing v0 with he bs, ‘Ueto i equivalent 0 wma 9 2 <, meaning “doe wel” In ‘Kens bo some adverb are eet from the frm of adjectives by 1008 ding Kota = =. Commonly used examples are wnat hey Es hed hoto = Land magal to ASS ©, which in andar Japanese would bs expesied a mot E- haat an naga KC Sony 1 hep yu wating 0 lng .daina 99% setene ending expesing sarcasm, sions Aout, ora demand ‘This is another semence ending wage othe Kas dale. Kats eauvalent 04a 2, inicatng& question. Na often enthened 0 na, is asl the same sentence ending the na of word enry 28: These ar equ combined to become kn. hs ough sous ans herefore wo print stong ends Fy (o)expessing steam Keina is used mort often to express sarcasm, However, this form it MORE OMT WORDS a 101 sometimes edo expres anger ts fresuemty hea afer honma 2 4, but cn follow aver in ditions fr, ‘Kona yoan na shigoto deka tina SABES SLOMBRE HOE, How ca posi 6 all is woot are game bisa i ain Be AE RUT Coe ‘Who would want work for sich a company? some: Kino sik, oe marten de ‘anos Honma bind? sane: Honmaade Hor, mie mi! M2 8OS OM, Bh MIREML t=, a anseuaae Bi KEES, H5, RTA romcce 1 got 1005 on sented’ exar, noses Yeah ight! tame: Really. Look! sores: acho gai gee rer rash de Taossit Howat dain? Shah ete ech ya no ® MRS, MBLIFE CRBS LOT, r WAR OGa RE 2207 20K, stucer: hearth boss is going ore ourhoury wages. ‘aoxsae Yeah gh That igy pensn? In these Inst examples, homme bain is ed a8 avery sarcastic ‘ayo question he person's statemet. ime expressing very song cue Tn this case dina alo follows the dcionary form of «ve with -n ache. ‘Ana tyra ke i mise make dob hina? BGM EO RCRIEL TEN? ‘Are yo suet fe oleae he sir in ht i's and? Dakin ina? Uke Att? ‘re you ell abet oie? Keisha ita ina? RIT CAoU EY Are you really gong ino he office? (6 expressing a demand Keina, whe used 1 expres strong demand, follows & verb the ogave-al 2 orm withthe -ai ~ 35. removed Haya saben hana! EB mecA DE Rat faser! Seesat ram kaa! Deiteow! Sitar se kana Lomneagune t (Geta hoof youre ogc ana WoRDS 103 tn —Kcaegaine veconjopsion) ‘The negative verb coajusation en SA of onal ~ >i often corte tin ~ 4. Tis sey lipped for of rpeech is wed egal ‘hymen at wrmen bt ly ony very formal stastons, sch x ‘etnen ends. The wal ules of negate ver onion apply, bt aie fer the aba, Some verb, such a shire 3, primarily ets epave nfomsal ening. shir 8. ter ver, sh san 2, use ony the hen ending, at in aren 3, wie die freon we eer nding an waka ‘ht or waharahen 396A. Thee Is bo rule for making his ‘hice, s0 you will ave to pick pth crea ste rn liseng to onversatns you use the wrong contin, ust jt kel to ear so wa inahon de #58 HD~A< as you would 10 wa an de EHEADAT. ian mon I aa'choow waka Smo ave'ckoow isn oA on neem hanks - 1088 wan aon oat ey vakawan fps onto naw ebh cat beat dein wae canto _Atising intonation athe end uns his form to a. gust. vaca: Shan? xem: Shine wR: MOAT fF: HA suvazawa: Do you know? rawistra: {don't kno. Bore = (1) (luntfeem “aoe ta noun nts the pla asin gros of people Although this common in writen Japanese sed much more freuen in spoken Kat dalet, wil tachi iB is more common in standard Tapanese sec sacha bees vs (womes) chine aon o« ove ee stem) nokora nor, hove Kg rch Bobens the old men None ofthese enanples woul be ued standard Japanese, alough shee words using, suchas lara, ae nt waco. The word cht 5% ison wen Kansai indicate "ne" Therefore, chi 1 mean i” and uohira no 3% 50 means our” MORE MMI WORDS = 105 ites — 12 ride forhimteryou ‘The ve conjosation tru a contacon afte aru ~"C43, meaning Lil dit For you" or wil doit fo hirer" Thisconjeation formed ty aracing vo he-2a osm fe veh Fado HS 8. iy toe lates fr you, ‘Ashita wn i tara wa mnndieaeae. ilcome pick you up tomonow. Mesh ruta aifrots, "i mth you someting a io, dette eo, Bowe | "rm oing to punch ta gy out w5 ne, ipo et tem forgo. (ne que wed vation ofthis formistaro — 2, aeration of -shite yaa ~ L'C40 3, which has a slighely ster seund but scaly th sane meaning a tar. The only ference in these 90 xpesion is ht ar canbe used ie Bah nergy and lave 1068 ane, kashtero ba a LEA Do you want met end you sore money? Htenaha noosa, HEMEL TIL te biel for you ‘Aiton, nahchtara ka? De EMEA? ach him lew? Kans people fen use the phrase bove which ely means" ing to make hi ream" whe they pe sngry Wit someone ‘Because ara sounds somewhat rude, many wormen prefer 1 use agers 12172 a conection of shite agera ~ LCV, which is moe polite han he yor ‘end yu sme money Kane toshitanewae@, SELEEB. ale) ‘OkaneRasiagere we, 8%, MLM Bt emale) Gohan atuagera ve Seo HS [Uma you vertigo ea Ohare, hashioge sa, RUZ Please loan him some moey. Morena WORDS = 107 Aner ver coupon iret by contacting Ye yank C1) vo-tari = and te yare ~"C'PA.to-tre ~ 24, Boh fms have the sare meaning o “please do this foe hen” or you shoe ois,” bat sare sounds rougher than tar an ie wed primarily by men Let him borrow tt, Koshtare, ELISA. (aly Keshia. $8230, female) oojo dena stan. mesic ABcten CA (gut teme ver contin) ‘This vt conapaion, reed by aig tthe form of the er, fon pat eve eguivalnt tnd 124 n sander apne, "Wis wed when the speaker wan toad sme ema ce elng to he sentence. Te plain ta: past ease orm uke oa fi ing ob en 809, Win The | went to schoo yesterday, Kelton she, HLTA, T gota Ano fl, nso geen HOR. BITC A 1 eve those lathes tomy Younger sists, ‘MORE KI WORDS. #109 Moku de bat sien nen PRON KUTA. ‘While-ten by elf i past terse verb conjugation, somes the "rm working part tie at MeDonal's, roprssive ing) fom when combined Wilh ne, asin ten nen =A {as This form icequvalen t-te ru —-’ a Sandard Jpanese “These past ene and -ing Fens are esl conf by no aies. Note the deren inthe folowing examples Bai i for abate 7196 a pai jb, ALTAT ‘What id you do? Nan sien nen? MLTABA? ‘What are you cing? ere are some more example of teen nen frm: Monga sonden nen amit CALA, Tm eaing the comes. Repo tater nen HH RUCK IA, rm wing a epor, ma, Mateshnun to tutaen ne F BPBLESGOTK AL. mcarenly dating Matsushita «[8]= Example Conversations III Conversa 191: Atte office the bos asthe ofc ade to do alte droge. aru hed, kone tana no shor nb holst xan: Tanomi wa (Aya oder) esas Ma! Ano hte an na zon: Honma, hora, Kon yan mo sora tai dae de habebora ana sat: Rey zmtyo thar ahi nl shire Fibs ww ih shit bar ten nen ae ‘Ait bo wa cao: — Honma, Hara ta wa we: ow Wer SRIEAL Boe CNR? ee fe: With (omen no AME conveESATONS I TTT % BILBDA. De bA te 2 GAR UAE CAGES SLONMREL OHS BRaHo, % LAOH HIE HDL ELM LAHAT, Bite Lutter neo cCAbKh, 809, Forub. = Bax, MIO, oss: now te pin, bat woud you mind geting rida ‘he dovamens in tis ok sel? xan, 20M O— Kay, joss: Thanks. I'm counting on you, (He eaves the room.) axant: ——Tearteliewe it cn sand nt guy! avons Really! Does he ely belive we en cary al) those dacumenis? ant: He shay poste the drudgery off onus and keep al he imeresting work for hie Tha guy's sneaky dog. zone: Yea he gets 50 any 128 Line 1: As elsewhere in Japan, requests often tart off with war edo, which ean is ado et ask, Bt." o€“Tkow is ain, but. even when the person does'¢ aly blieve he is asking or uch, nih case, ae ook filed wih company separ, hola probably cas at smply throwing hem sway but shredding ll he ftecurents a wel Tine 2: The women’s response hai withthe dawn ou sound, Indicates they arent ely Bape about carrying ou the request but, realizing they bave no choice nthe ate, gre fluc. Lie 3: Tana ough means "tanks in his ition, In standard panes, the boss would have sai nega BR. Line Once te Ros i gone the women ae eto ent hei anger vweach ober, Line: Aas 2 ve amine contraction of waar. The ra attached othe end changes the meaning fom "me" t0 "os" Kana is ted 0 expres sarcasm owarhe bos, who believes the two Wornen sl bebe to move al the dvamens by themselves Line 6: Zatsuy 48M Is routine work, inthis ese lth boring rue, Oskicukera 9 {f19& ita apes wor that means to force something onto anther person Line 7 tsi usally fers to gondsating fod, bts lo wed 0 ectibe work thas favorable or profitable toons Conversation 2: Hesween wo sweeten. ‘Nowa as been waiting a log tine for Matsushita, her boyfriend 0 meet erat Nant Staion, Healy aes and rns tar her. Game nz Naga kto matasie snot. Mo! Shira 2 amuse: Machawate no jitankanchipa siteten aT [RAMPLE CONVERSATIONS HH 113 Gomen na! Dontasa— ‘Obie egcare har hai shit Shana na Seyanara,suraitar a Rib. ROMMEL TLE G3 iMbAt HoabeonM, MALTA, PACE BELT ORoHORBLT. Lehmun, tears, ALA, Pm sry made you wat fora Log te. Yr isen up lea. mide amis nour meeting tne hat was prety spi ilbuy eh, Pes forgive me ges there's no choi In hat as, oie yo Line 2: Mot Shan means hee that e's no worth te rouble of sing anymore. 48 Line 3 Shen 2°C 4b the pas tense of shtons 2 &, the progressive ng form of sur 2. This equivalent the standard apne hte ta LUM, Sal. sabetaen eI 9h means ets cag” and monen 32°C pens" was watching.” Line 5: Ohi #54, wbic only means afternoon," is wed her shor fr obi gohan B48 oF asc. Ogoru 8.4 means “Wo wat someone to someting” nis used mch exe olen a ghia ME “tonite buying meal forsomtone. Oper isa used when weating someone oa move o event fae, Gochsora desta ERIC ‘Ll si fer areal othe person who prepared it or pid for itis sometime replaced with gotiotan =>782 4 by in in Kast “This icotenshonend to orton <9 £8, on even fuer 6 gon zoek Line 6 Seyaar is guia to atara meaning in hat case ‘Se or so replaces the standard 39 #9 and yatora replaces daar, Yarwshiare 2 isthe shortened frm of rush agera BFL CH we, Conversation howe retro the masks carying 80 bag of rice Shes preted by her reed, Takako. 1 racako: hua soma esc mete ite dona shana? 2 vasuno: Ya olaaan, aso no mie de, hdr sn en no tome, 3 “fuapdar how bra tara 4 ‘yyoku on oer ni matte heer yo. SS taeskor Auth tld enn de ate shiva a. 6 ‘Otis nna hananon wa Kondo, ctshimo yt ra XAMPLE CONVERSATIONS 115, VRE! MEA SAORI SAMRCIT AC EoULaS BAY 2 OF: eh. MEA, bECOB, ~BFHONE, [gas 66) a2 RAB POERUNT Cth be SHE: BRL, BORFMESIC LORD. ° BEKEROEDAD, 4, BELUP >THE. 1 aoc: Yousure bought lt fice, What up? 2 vasona: Oh, hi. wat this shop where hay ha ic or 1.000 venpertos, 3 ‘so sid "how about f bey two bas.” 4 and she gave them ome oF 900 yen per bg. 5 taeana: just paid 1,00 yen, 6 eat best ou, Nex time yh mye Line 1: Housewives often adres eachother a8 okusan, meaning “wife” Donat sv E20 & isha o translate but roughly means ‘what wil you do” In this eas, the pas ent ofthe respect har fonm is atached along witha final -n shor for a, which us chi into a question. Tus, don shatan 205 Lt8> £24 means something 1k “wha you do? or"what up” Thee woe raking pil) 1 ach other, nes formal consesations, dona shin Et LP commonly beard Line 2: Yas used to ay bello ft expes mild suprise at meeting Line The hasewifehargune fo dsont by buying wo bag of ‘ice achesper rite than fra singe ba. Ualke Toye, she rod other ability to fad bargin Line : Kanan means Tam unable to win gat you” Tak 1168 showing her reget for Yasuo'sinigence ad goed ens in Being reduced pie fr the ie altough he may say this sats. Conversation 4: Yssuko wi her ring i, Mako, ni ber ahbor,Takab, anc: Biemat 2 raenior Olu, dona shion? 3 vaso: Ya kono, oer natant oka shimano 4 Honan dona ko yan ar, Dare ian yaro 5 racssor Tama tar, shitate 6 ‘Mato-chon mo mur ni nausbtar caw nen kar. 7 [Nios ni ona ni yvon mami naga yawns Shana ma Lame: eanyt DBE MEAL EUNLEA? SBF) th, LOR AWERMROLTL ORAL 4 BALMAIN EAH HEMEKOA, [xaMue CONVERSATIONS 8117 SRF: RUmD, HELROT. ‘ EIS CKERMCIC LEK bea BAI, 2 Bh RUC TABIES BAIR, HLT ser Lomein, 2 raxano: Whats wrong, Yasho? 5 yasone: This eid ew avy an important eter of ine, 4 ‘Shes relly stp Wonder wh se takes afer? 5 rawato: Pease forge her. 6 She lost by acide, didnt she? ‘Shes lea cri so much el looks 50s, vasune: Ohl guess i spilled milk now. Line 2: As inthe previous example, dona shiton means “what's happened” oe “wha wrong?” Lie: Dar ni iton yr BERL: Melly trae 8 Wwho esse semble” The mothers inva techie ces lake afte be. Line: Her anon means" asking you." Kan ho for sarin, meaning “have paence.” Sane (12-2 ie contetion foe shiv agete LAF, meaning “plese do something fr somecve,” Pt togetor. this settee means pleas be pin wth et” "plete forgive ee Line this situation, shana inde tht Yasuko has no chice aro forgive ner dl, but bef dong it only 8 avr to Takako. «[9]= Kinki Cuisine ‘The Kans resis wall known forces foods. Osaka famous for otonomeki Kyoto eke or defiant shin sou (aces with eng) Kobe fr Kobe bee, Nada fo sean Akash for Abad ya. ‘Een fods found tveughout Japan ce papared iferey here and have ames aitferent fom the oes used in Tokyo. So while you ae here, sure you ry Kans cuisine and remember to use the comet Okonomi 238% Okonomiyaki 3478, usually refered 10 a5 ust okonomi is ‘onsered the “ines” of Kens Cisne Japanese ike 1 cll it Japanese pz,” but this is misleading since, beyond is ound shape and varied toppings, sitet do with plzz, Is texture is ich ‘ose otha of pancakes. bonomiyal restaurants are numerous throught Kans elaively inexpensive, nd have casual strospbere that makes them an deal place wo dine with fiends Some restarans cook he fod on a plats in tbe mide of your ble or tthe count, ‘Be iz. oppings ch id sep ik, eet, and cheese an be 118 rons Cusine #119 ordered t tase. The most popular an aon toppings ae pork and ‘quid refered a5 Batata BE and haan °9°E, especialy Mary restaurant serve vration ile minanali => 908, which isokonomiakt with ylsba nods. Otonom ia ey an un to make tome, ands especialy ube for sl parties Heres howto ne i Ingredients: Cabbage ens our oboramat sauce, tororimo (& 2529 yams), karsuobusi (ERE vod bonito Makes, anor AE 72m or Makes). tekane (ed dough), ab toppings sah svi, Seni hacen, chess, ptt, com, moc, beef c Preperation: Cat the atbage into sal stripe, Min the cobb, ee, Nour, grated troroimo, teas. an water Heat theo plate and spread 1 small moun! of i the pa, Pour the mixture in ace, ke & pancake an about wo centimeters igh, Wak aout 3 mines and ad "eppines. When te bots ight row, ip ove. When that ides brown, ip over again and apply sauce, Rarsuobushi, aonort and mayonnaise, if ou ike. Tam down the het onthe hot plate Cueto smal paces a eat Takoyaki 9 2 & and Akashisyaki EH & Tako means “otops” an takayahis spol ina pon ball shaped 1208 sack made fom egg, Nou, ase tock, with chunk of cepa ia ‘he mie an coated with sae sad conor. To ake i at ome, x special aly pn is require. his meh esr wo buy tore ite ars that dt the ets near tain ab subway stations, especially at ght Akay ie simi ba iis mote egg aor, and is ipped ino ain up before eating. I you's angry ter eating Akash du yo can dik the soup. The mae comes fom tect of Akash ‘which on he Sea cost st wes Kae and fous fer is cto. Udon 4&4 ‘dons popula tughoot apa, bat the won a Kast ates sigh +2 (ot coer) bs ik mirskkohit 27 ~~ (a a at : ett D4 remonis V7 (= (lemon ea) 2 rmatade 2 ——makudonarido 77 ¥+4 ¥ (MeDonale's) = su ss ‘Whiethisis ue at st of ieen words and granitic expressions i ‘eyo means exhausts he range of pec in Kas. We hope provides ‘4 p00ditedstion othe lagsape and makes it possible to understand ‘most ofthe langue spoken inthe Kink region Japan ml 26 So doe lehbid 8 57 hse eee ih 88 mi = fron 96) 58. no i ang 8K 60. ate °C sare CES) shamonal (23 tee» toko yan 2% yaaa 29 13 1260 46, ori 250 very. ting. mapaitoest rai has many torent usages, making dieu o grasps ext mening ine context ofa convertion Is mos base messing ss an neni, sar to he stanard Japanese got ME temo = Injen sorter KA Assuc, Woes negative connaatics, By lh, iusally ine ie” ong," ands async or snd LAE. However is also used in tds panei as 2 synonym (or rippa i meaning a superio esc, ox something re ral otal Ashita shite ya no i bekyoschen wa Rosa h el WARP OAL TAD | (Ohno ve gota et amor an Rave tstadid at all! Yanaxars: Ashi dona shan? Iearacst Sub de eg stn Yanaksta: Sora eral otha a WH: AERO LEA? BRI ARO TRRL EL WH! BB RBM beh, WORDS TO MASTERKINK SPEC = 125, ueanara: What happened 0 you? taxsacr—Tjed mye sing. eaxarat Thats hol, rai toa is probably the most pil usage. Kec is short for oy =: euialento the sandal kr da = 7 meson ng” cr"even” Tope e expession means “homie” oF "that ad” ‘The closest equivalent in standard Japanese is then de 28 Sore 2 i contraction of sore na 241 ra ame yn REMMI. Wsealy pouring, rai tei a na, Opi ya 2EVMRCED KHED, This is vealy awl weatet soning hard In hese to examples above the meaning of eri lye othe standard Japanese hi 01, andinclads an awareness the argeress Era asa hay kar sit rn en DULLES, BAT AOA, ‘ye gota meeting very exif he morning. In this example, ea is the same a oto LC oh nS ‘meaning “vey.” bat includes the conottion ta ts early etn is unusual and urea, 1268 1, mutch eras we. 4H, Gated ohothy “Today was realy rough. ese eis synonymous wth shin (See 21) Foran even stronger ‘expression, te two words can be combine, sin eral shindkara 2 VALI 7 lhe 0°) dot owe, ely exctable person Teh derogatory te uscd describe someane who i 0 easy Ine, ipa tpi. The best English arson might be "slow, “spn” or “ol” The closest expression in standard Japanese Is ochashinone 3H DALUBOU MEET AL, ust gnore that chown, Seana isa shorened form of rune 82, meaning “n't otha "The ver fom of ichbir so suing chr 0° which ‘neat clown wound or cup eh at weoee! (Qui elowning oan! “Tis can be shone ihibinnal 9B OA | SBiteca 01297 ean, nasty WORDS TOMASTER IMAL SPLICHH 127 ‘Mears an sei we desrie a mean or sy person, its sed ‘6 oun to dese vomething asty san ene is neve sd loud tthe person being serie except joke, Ale, hoe ihe yma deo. BARON Fer, ‘Tat uy'seally mean, Sora kee, aot. FART, BDKEWT, Doe't say sh mes igs, 48, rw 55 toach meddle with This word mens oth either physically Or in a abt sens, in to "mess with” something, The closest equivalent words i standard Saganese ae rw 2 and sara ME, on, WAT UAR? Do you mind 1 oeh is? Sore rotaraoban de ER Wao BAS, Don't mess with tat. In this example iti iat ef the pyc or asc meine iran intended. The speaker oul be tling the othe person nt 10 put theichans on Something ut he could aloe ling he petson at ‘oruin tite. Te past tern of a 99 a 87, a ita U6 of fe simplified to rota 0 125, 1288 Kiana nde rower BUErHAbAZUT, Don’t toh hat with your ity Hands A sisters teling her ber not to toach be ter ut he clea his ands, Here Yowe ~ £19" mean “plese” oro it” ands used ina cs ay. tcf sed among fends siblings, and ean be further conned 19 -one 29 ‘S0.nengt MR fica annoying Nani is the Kans version of muakash EL or mendbknal 1. an is sal followed by yaa. Is accompanied by plenty of ar sicng tough te teeth, andcan he mide a some at polite ‘nay to sy “nooo ely imposing on me” Ri ted mos by nen anode people amass Ashita mig suse shiarimac ka? esc: Sora ania na Asha md suman ner FUR: ROSIN, heuer? MA: £5, MPSA, WGI OK TABK, fomavee Ate yu gong atend meron’ meng? oss: Tras. problem, My sche tomorow sale fl nts iusto. the boss i ely ying Ho-* angina yatcha Rae obo. erally picky Here, nang can men “iil,” sn “he sa iia person: ‘WORDS TO MASTER NAT SFEECN 129 ra nai keto ni nat simora 25 VMMEMIEE TLE “Thc situation na Become extremly dtl Si sere FE) new People toughout Kans era sy cara sted of arash Fe "ne* ‘Thinis eecialyprevalemt when talking about ood, ‘Kono taba, sara yn, OR Soe, “This is anew bite, The most common usage of sara probably when itis combined with i to make sorapin 3 > 84. (dh) which meses “new ocd" Ls also sometimes pronounced sarapin 2 5 4. Ow, B6UK I, This bs new been Fo aed emphasis, mais often aed io sara to reste massara £555, Thien be tala at “andrew.” Kono abun massa ya ner OH, BOSH “This fea i beand-e. S2.shmonal (2 94/20 onimeresting Doing, fing Shamanalbas two elued meng he mot cron of which "ue teresa of Boing” simarto amos! EEN 28 ersamaron 1308 586.215 in standard Japanese. The other messing “uninertaat” oF sing” suivant ladarona Fo tht oto nal [W250 instandar pene tis eometimes pronounced shomonai 2 20>, shomona— Lz 62 oFshamunal L230. ‘Shomonaibangun’ yan Lest nwmmend, “Tat shows bong, ‘Shomonai sven Les bauer, A suid joke In the stove wo examples shimonal means something boxing oF uniresting. tn abe flowing examples it describes something thats trifling eventhough it may not be boriag or unieteresting. Not that ayo he Kana pronnciaton for haat # ‘Ama somone aisha ayo samete shinai! AuLED RNAI HIBOTL ED! (Quit that usces company as soon as you can! Sona shomona kode nya hoo aren wa EAL EDGE BCU CEDIAR DS ‘There no need to worry out uch fing mate Shue £2 place Toko a conracson of tokora Mr, While this erly means “pet is used frequently in expressions indicating posession. While his WORDS to MASTERKIG SreEcH = 131 conrston i wed tvoughoet Japan, te high fequeny with which Kans residents use it even when it sems toad ao era mening 12 ‘esomenc, makes his apt of Kans en Kana peopl also shorten the no © hat grammatically shoalé precede tka tom. A oF dep i amply nino pases euro ayer ice ‘A oo uhh 9442S 19 4%6AES maybe fyi fee hinlononina 2EAEZOR ——oatguden Kobe, hora ne oko ya. WF UAE aa Ee, Kobe isa aly ice place ‘Mina, yoe asobu tbo are de IPE, EUR CHET, "Terra of places to have fn in Nanba ‘Aa hit yosan oa tho, 90 snarchen a DAUAMED EANSED, EAEENAKD, Tea five somewhere wher there re tht way peopl, Soya 65 ave While yar, meaning “Wo give” (oot confuse this with the homonyy that means "od" js actully pat of tad Joana it bas a broder| ‘age. standard apanes, hs wort only ated in reference ong Something 19 plano ain or maybe ach, Forexampl, inte open RCH 2 means “Teed the dog.” However, in Kae hi ‘worl cn be used instead of ager 72 when ging something 03 ime person of gual or lower stats. However, toes sound rade ad is ed almostexusvely by me, while most women sk with he ee polite ager Its reuenl followed by the endiag wa. (re, mi eno war uaa Lara yar wa fe, IZOy-FaMEcHersn, Foot sng his word processor anymore, sol give it you. OK, GEDA TE in inihed with tis ook oye can have it, xa: Hosur yro ha? RH: Late, eam? ME By BOL, wwe! Doyou wan tis? SS.youha E> Le yesoky. erent! Yowhaisa very cmon way of expresing anything fom simple sent tw ereme plese, lunaarss — Omge a dono shige malas we veamac’—Yottha maha oH: BRKCORMETD, we: Bole, LER. Yamaxary: —mentusing you with his job vengwc: Olay. Leave tome WORDS 10 MASTER KIMMISPEICH 133 season: Hanshin, mana Kimara! ronson: Yorha! Yana? pele era) boat: dole trot! ‘onouscot! Hani jot hi grand slam home un! onan: Yes! They id it Yona is. very common expression of pleasure at suse Ite form of yaa #2 tthe past ese of yarn meaning ah” itera tnanlation might be "They dd it” or" i it Sédoo (greta Forempasis) ‘hiss apreficwedbfore nouns an eesti te meaning eis usualy used with words at ae derisive o show tom, and make thiscffect even stronger. docto ere stmt doinaka ewe pare course dosutede Ete sea paver 1348 ‘no to no Kesh te dei DOFOIL, WILL ONES, ‘That i alnays wears too mach make-up, In some ease, do- merely intesifes the meaning without ing any epiveconneatons oman Ema the exact center STekate 7h-C (ame astm, demo, mo, ode sae) ‘aves a grammaiea! pace thd to translate into Engi, uth sss mening sila oven if.” Ris edi place of the standard Japanese pales demo ©, mo 6. de sae C2 2, andthe ‘ve conjugation temo =. Sonn or ita ae deen mon wa deiben nen ZENE II CHR IEDR Kas [Nomar what you uy wha’ impossible spose Ia ara yaa, mari cha? Dieta MI)? Even if usta ow its aeay hopeless init? Inthe above to examples. ate used = 4 in standaed Japanese. Tis parle i placed ater the no >? form ofthe verb. tothe following two examples, Aare i sedate noun and haste sume meming wma & de sae C2 2, demo Soman £4.24 iseguivalen 0 sonae boo 2 WORDS TO MASTER INKT SPEC = 135, Sanam shpat hate shitera wa, thihWbenema cep, Even lemenary schoo is how that. ‘Arashi hate ya ya wa, oman, HELATIBED, EKbhy 1 ont wan that, eter. 58 emis 0 uy Mis an airy ver conjogte othe te form of ether vet and ‘means “ought oy i.” Depending onthe tone, ca alo e aca ay of sing "oi" Is drive from mir Hi and is ese sue she standard Japanese hie mie LA Hosokawarhon, kon ita hte mi, Una de aA, cot ako cae, Hue You cup wy this squid H's ely pod! ‘Kono banal. te il. moro de LOmM. ATAU, BEAU, ‘You ought see hs program, 1s ely intrsing! Jesh sdan shite mi LacHaL Cau, ‘What if yu ed aking tis over wih your boss? nthe hee examples the speaker recommending that the person 4 something, andthe sentence end with ft cesing tone. However, 1368 ‘mica ako be wsed express a demand, especialy in he retcea (Ome, tot rae nara, ye mi! BM, AORULERSLES, OITA Hey buy yuve poe something tay ome, say i ‘As you might expect y this point ican be hatned even ter by leaving ofthe ia LOK, RAL “Take ook t his book Sina oter nd Japanese verbs in thee frm. when asking foe someting, ar often expedite frm in Kass WER come hah = comet iia ear re Stu sive shi Us da demu RL yo hula Yom. mod yous oni RAIRAY read your euook $9.non_ OA (a) posesiveconivction.() pile indiing recuring event (2) smience ending for questions (a) Non suse indicate the posesive form of «nous when the tem ist specified, This is equivalent ton cr no mano 62> standard Dapanese. chim a bon ie ‘WORDS TO MASTERRINKISHEEGH 137 i non buna, atgyy's ‘Nagata ron knox Nagas ch nom tuburctn nen FS BDAIRUT ARK, Mine's broken swans: Kore, dare non? ozoms: Jiu non cha? £ Sh, MOA? Ba: WbnAbea? vnxaat: Whois his? amos: We your, ite? I Kanai jr (1 oflen meas "you" instead of“ {by Anetherasige of nan 8 particle hat nds recetng even and icgivlen to mono 2 orkto Galo anon, Yameoko kana PRICK LBOGH. PHL LH I Ve gotto goose Whats hassle, Maye I wont go Nove that eral #2 4° meas the sane at mendoia BIS, "a in nthe neck” ofa hale" Toko —2 = sx comtaton of oke eRe}, Sora htt de suru nn, yaya wa RAELEF MEO, ORI. ‘her's no nay T would data that guy! 1388 (o) No is lo ase as asemence ening wo indie question. In his ea tis ovale to no in tnd apes Keka een non? BNGAROA? ‘You're ot going 1 work? Mo tabehon non? BRAAOA? You're at etng? ‘Ronn soma en mo sno? CALETAGTADA? “They cary 30,00 yen or is GO.yate 6 sothend Yates equivalent ote stn apanese dae 29°C. which as any sages but esentialy mean wa ad, or“ heard that. indian beara information, Hoptally, a ew example wil cary i osge Ashi ane ye mH, Wes, es sppoted oi omeeo. Fay tame nl karo ato ate. ROSH HOT, ‘heard urs e going (oe cx du to he eesson, WORDS TOMASTERKINA SEEN 139 ‘Nowoicham,keklon stan sete Bah, HELA, "herd that Nozomi pot ead Sha yr ison one fare shite, Therefore the news shout Nozoen's mariage can bei, fllows: Noxomchamkehon shen eh, HILTAT. ‘We were planning io iis on that final good news about Nozomi but hen eid thee is one ore imprint word 9 sve fr ast Giehonia BLL ste youlner Honjo is sed inthe sume nanver as bona, honrara, abd ornare, pluie in word eny 18. But ai lio the mos common way 10 sy tarevelto eds Kaa searing is much elbier xe you arth "goo" Were often say hun (3 instead, bts howe, swell The snd sayonara 2 2445 susulypoeounced salar ‘30026 in Kani tras ee wher itean havethe meaning of goad forever" Spine, we would rather leave you with this rune: nia mata no wosten Hone ate Moe ahem, Hh, mn: ae, Heb, rr: Unt nexttime, soe you lute. esncw: See you, ellis Example Conversations IV Conversation 1: Tw office ldeshavng a convertion oer danet starcbaaet soaouz Sein dai? aw: Sore ganar chit mo kn bia ie, bec de no ito no somone mia, itsatte wo erah sozome Naga bite ya ma tam: Kind hte, hit no short rte, ‘chau shite ureen Mano eral men ta wa zone Ona da no senpa ni pute mitar, dy nom? vas: Un Ye mite ed, ada “no cot gaan shite iy a mg. eo? * FRED, HLS DBE ORCHEA, Loree ae 140 CUMPLECONVERSKTIONSIV 141 3 AOL EE RUER, MOIR HD merce, se mike Kea. sa Habe, KORRES <, * ChaCha LeCnth, 7 BC RBUMIER by 1 HERDER) CARS, LIRDLD om Bln OY CREATE, ry BITES DR URBL TAN) Ot. 1 eco: How have you bea? 2 wxsst’ Well, we've got his new guy ia my departman and e's relly mean, 3 emake big fas out of even he smalls sakes people mae, 44 soca: —Thivguy’s rel pin hah? S mnaas —Yestrdey, he messed withthe papers on my des 6 a got the all mined up. 7 ad areal bad ay. 8 nazar: Have youtied tiga your seni the department? 9 woxan: ——Yeth ed saying something Bt 0 lsh answered was "tr 0 be patent fora Tongs” Line 2: Uchitoko noha 36088, mean “my depart” Toto eesn't aly have ny meaning ere excep 0 help the ow ofthe ne 3: Sawatiotery Mi 27% wean “0 ke a8” ra 2 \ iste san oti ere, Line 7: Midoi me naw 82001224 isan expression that ans hada bd day" ty Kana this expesion i hanged 0 erate 2.519089. The pas tens ofan Kana ict 29 2 ie Line 10; Ch 4 equivalent to choi 2-9. Yate 2 at the end indicates thatthe previous sesence isa qute. A 30% means “ey to" ain“ty toe patent” Conversation 2: Tomoko aad Mika at Mika's apartment, 1 somone: 2 mas 3 5 ron: 1 os 7 1 romoxo 9 as lke 2m: sae: ee: esa oe rs 2 Konan yosan no feb, dona than? Tate ni hid shits omodachi ni mote hed, ‘Ok toko komiton nen Sara no fla made ar yor Heosikenara yro ha. emo sai eka do ka pen Kite i ‘Anta hihin non? Kite min kate, awahen nn walattn nen Sono ko, mechakucha hore ko ya nem SAREE) SAOR, KeUL IAT SORA MLL ERIBICG 3 CANE, Soe rRUA, CES, Mo thtrs Jhb, ZEOWETH ERA, BLnoneene. CUPRA HEAD, RETA, DAmBAVDLOAT CAAT, BDAADAS Ha Thlaks EDF, Oba bem FRDA, ‘ars with al hese ches? 1 got them fom a end wh just moved o Tokyo, bt ny rooms prety smal, eAMPULCONMERSATONS IV = T43 4 de’ know whersto pt the al 5 romoxo; Wow. There ar even some new clothes i ere © waxes Hfyou wantay of thm, 1 give theo you. 1 Wy dot you ty ene oman sei fs you? 8 romoxo: You're nt pong to wear then? 9 sox: ven without tying them op Tknow ta they won’ i, 0 Shes really tin, Line 2: Moten 6A isthe pas tense of moran & 63, which Line 3: Inthis ease. uehiolo 95 © means “myhome” Line 4: Ola Bis for oto HT, which ens “aplace to pr mings” Line 6: Yara 7 savory info way say“ give you In mere polite spec she would have said agers wa BAPE, Line Ke mit °C .° means "yn" Line: Non 2. a th end of this sentence inicates that his i sueton ine 9: The noe athe mie ofthe sentence works ike that” in English Here, it asthe meaning that” co" know “tha ey wont fi." Kite in APCs the Kans version of ite minal TAL, which means nota themon” Kate °C sath cse means “een ot een hough" Together ey mean “even witha tying tem on” The ‘auivalentprae in anda Japanese would be Kite minaloee mo 8 AEST Conversation ater nd auger sessing omit 58.0%, {A onmallyaranged te. 1 women: Ama mane anes ito htowaton? e: = Tooh moter sl kalsha ni tater hi, se at tte, abd yen yeni? och mater yea hte, do inka yan Sore nano hito met ibaten nen. “Bolu mawarl kara erite inate dest yt. ‘Ake chau ka? Shimon otko ye wa ete, Sonnan raat cava jbun no rst Kangate mi, osu se ometen on? (vas at, “Ant 6 yome mi yar made shinarche’ ona tan ctl shinarohen Nengina masine yond At, BATHLERAMM OAD WHHe> CEL, ARRHCHOTS L WTSI, Ho ckmoee en? LANTOS AC, HAREM, BRIBOM 4 OMB Tatas Im, RoHLI~ haTHDRTEKCH) eC BUS edo Led Ot UMeb, Mth ZAGADA LDC. BAM MPDUHA TID, WRB TAO AE BREAN [BAERS ECERNAL DARA, BRELMEERALO, aan wen >, ‘Why di you tum down such great gy? He om is wat is 8 pod jo, he’s evo ll and god looking sat he? DAMME CONvRSATIONSIY = 145 4 waren: Maybe be owns and bis way fine cus 5 ‘And bes real sick p. 6 "The people around me say Im ete,” he say 7 Prey stupid huh? He's a complete aoting. 8 somes: ‘Think abou your age before you tal ike da ° How od do you think you ae? 0 ‘Your father si, can't de util you'r mate.” 1 owucinee: Wel nh case, there's no chance that el ever die. 12 worn: What pain othe neck daughter Ihave Line 5: Here kote asthe same meaning as date 12°C or me ‘rumely hates even Tae: the Kans pronation for teak 85, mean “igh” ofa inthis tse, all" Kath %o< equivalent to aldo HF, meaning appearance” Vani 2 \isequvaento jan Ue 0 Line 4: The do- © added to aka Br can mea iter hat the lund he suite nse way tin the booties orth shes showing et som fray plce ober ha the by Line 8 Jur 15 is sed bythe moter mean “yu” Mi J sed as ter way fo demand someting, somewhat sina tata 220i standard Japanese Conversation 4: two axthors the en of th ay. We hope to heat fiom you aan so wel eave you wit is am cxampie. | paren: Kono hon hala non, vata? 2 women No shindosa Ado, ror tonohikata wo. 3 ram: Hortchan yo gamba a 4 nomvem: Poa ate, Demo mo owt ya nn nd 68 5 6 maura: 7 wean 8 earn 10 ax Lae 2am: aa aan: eae 7 ae oan ws 1 pare 2 emt 3 rare 5 6 our Same 9 wonncn 10 a Kore kare, donal sua? ‘eye Do yal? Thug no hon demo tak ka? Ena sore osha, ashi kare meta gonbaro! Un ena asia ne Homa. ORWCOA, KIRK Ane LAR ORE, BAR LOT, Boek s5amonth. He WdAwTe THESE ICRA, rhs, erat Med. BAIT ROC OMA ALG, Eh, Hobe, Mu no 2 aR 1 3h Het, Mtg gate, ‘Wat did you tink of wing this tock? Wel, a8 tof work, bt enoyed 00 ‘You really worked had Sodld you. Bu sow we'e done, ‘What wil we do ater his? ima ve got it How abou witng anther book? ‘Thar’ a good idea Dictionary Not: Sample sentences apese whe the entry word is at dealt with extensively ia the mai ex Standard Japanese equivalents pea in purses ith ech ety ‘hokusa 76 & sap hing Gohorashl 88% LO») ‘Aokusa! Ashi asa shh Lara hai ote RCE ISH, OTRNO RRC, ‘That's o stupid! Helding 2 meeting a7 in he moming exnonow! ‘ho, aho BUR, 7 (Se) foo. stupid foolish (ata 5M) ‘tan 64. (See 2) 0,0 od, bch sees impossible, expletive (dame Bi) alka >= over thr (auoko BES) ‘Uchiha ya ne JEEZ, boot hhy My place is over tee var ania anon anthan y.2!, hy IyAt A you: conaction Rueda aia 29 of enata 2: kimi 8) Kono hs, doi? Aan kant na, Som, eee? AARNE. How do ok ia these shoes? enone of your sine That's ne of you onal shan 220° 1k what's wrong? wha upper (dosha no rohan 5A does exit not here (ai #8") 29 LAO) ‘Gohan mo aren wa Kind dona shin? RUS AENA. fe, CouLiae ‘There sn more i et What happened to you yesterday? enkyo suru 38 t dicoune a pice makery RUNS ) dona sho &25°L 4 what should Une do? (shiva #3 L239 ‘Shimek made mia shite archon, Dona sh? och 16 (See 16) so, nt bd, nt eee ps WOH ETIBLOARAK, EoOLE ‘chau 209 (See 3 orang feet chigau 8?) sentence ening ve only got thee day util the deadline, What an going vo do? eaing stat ght” Gj al? rt? ee 2 onal suru & what ce youwe ing 0 do? suru chal chi cho 26%, 5482, be (chow &2->%) ¥8) ‘hei mae Kare no ko, dnt surun? S2vttoc, Bork, Leute? Hol on second ‘Wat are you ging to do aout your oye dao assole (ighing word); contaction of do-aho 27 dona yatta 215% bow wast? igo dont ya? “© (80026) 0x sentence eadag J 202) de © (See 26) ecluraory ng > aes dette “0% contation of desu ha Ct How waste movie? deme Tht contraction of desuna 24 (desu ne C4) dons (See 31) dm wived, stupa (bu $+) er segeen Pot cotrtin of dish no dedi #9 barreieter tyre sein 6, cnt ds ea 9 2) eis aly htc td, nna sugo aria, dosha LAbh eng PLEAD do. © (S00 $6 etn wade emphasis nouns ad adjectives How dd you get such nie car? 150m picronay dette 9 tape, obit ragure ‘Aleta, doer ka! do sho mo nak 2 £3 espe, impossible give uP ho 2 nai L235) ‘ine yhara db sh3 on Wea, LI LED baOy [es ning, so here's moshing we can do ya what do you tink? how is that? contstion of diya ©) ‘Omit mate, 3500 en de dese? Bod OMIT, SFANBICES? How abot if give you my be fer of 3.800 yea? #4 (See 4) god hat's enough G14, yo RO) akhoshit 229985. perion who pats. on ais, pretentious put 2.6% dagusting, maveaing ‘Kon ae arin no iro, eu EOTLAIY LOB, BOOED. ‘The coor ofthis oe cea ie asetng era 3.5 (So 46) 09 (jon JER totem 20 ng aon 8 shndot LA. 2 Yemagaticentippa 8) sametsut 290-23 reeds olubar BBO ) gene i: sereace ening used es intensifier ‘Galo tan oan pei. Bosh ERD AM ‘Youaboltely have ogo school picnoway 9 151 geiko 27 exclusive Kyoto gia, or geisha in gene) ‘elnin 34. protessorlenersine ot pein wth let for king ole laugh sera 9°71 person who laughs hard ware jogo 868 ion waiona sit net Kavaramach in Kyoto famous for ‘ko sgonera =i2% 10 whine, to complsin ‘Nanbogonete mo ame agehen de BARBED DIIANLT, [No mater how much you complain, I'm not going give you any cay, gossan £0 2“ gotsuoran nssosan 22454 + gosuosan otsuosan, gosonan, gotten 29954, Sot, So Bk thanks fr the ood (eohisasoma dshita MEAS 3) oto) 220 ($017) very big sptsan $s (See 39) ae, many (akon) Inagait (29%. (S00 32) raseating shan “12K (Seo) Mel. (san 84) Hanshin 2 Hoshi Tigers baseball ea: Has allay Hatin Deparnet Stor Orso repon: Hashinhase ig tack in Talavera “fara ~ (2% (Soe 11) honoitic ve conjugation rasa 225 ) 152 = pcnonasy hay 18 only, quickly (heat 8. 86) ‘Kono shigto ayo sea akan ne. OHM, ERE Rb AAS We hve to do this job ky. chen —\4 (Soe 12) negative ver conjugation (nal —26") oka |22°F (Sc 33) 10 throw anay (urd HC) hon, homara (212, (216 (Se 18) nha case, if. then se you ater Ihande 124% then, er tha, and (rede £40, sorekara £15) (vate, Kyo ite, Shiga ite, honde kate ten. ABET, UHH. NIT, UAH CRT LS 1 went to Osa, Kyot, Shiga then came back, Ihondeme 1844 ta, neverteles (sore demo 282 6) onde saya nn HATER RIA, Dat ke Ionia 2K Ue (See 61 ee you later goodbye, ence) at case (sree ona 24 § (See 8) ely (homo 44) Ihonnera 21 nat cae 0, then (sore nara 22.45 ) hora (28 (S20 38 hoe aay (sera C8 ) “Ano pltcha got haya aa hora de. Pepereeeee ner cen ‘That pitcher tows really fs. fehamon 5 4,4 complain. whine onda 35) DicnONaRY #153 Iehiie,ehamon there, LENE, Whe BAKE oe Stop being 0 contrary. Lehi 09 (See 47) dol, clown (ochishi mono #8) Iehibie 5082 (See 47) tclownerond, oat suid Hear HEY (See $8) mea, nasty (jaan BALE) ‘home 12 = 6 aot even site it at tal: prseding negative verb or active carmen #2) Kono mange, dome emaroni Sn AM Dor bsease, ‘This comic a even the asi interes ho Fi t's yo(ko fF 9) ‘Asia Nona ito, Mower. Lats gow Nanbs tomorow. frau 1°59 (See 49) weouch to mele wth ew 1% sare ma Irwehi 5 table person itehan ¥°2% 6 suber 1 ment (chia ~ 8) ‘chan ao ohare stupidest ltchomee 03> 5 2.2 seltinpontsnt chiniomoe XA) “Aroko ichomae ni sebiro Mier wa DOF 2 AREA Eb, ‘That kid ook al hima 156 « ctonany bicrionaay 155 ium 9% you anata 222) ongeton no seta hatha yo. ‘Hn, kant-dot si? SHOEI, some. Bo, RASTA? Tve barely enough money to survive his nth, Do yu ike oden? Kewaranacht 08 main sopping and crtertinment sie fee hing 290% (See 4) seat sentence ending: sentence ending Kyoto expressing dob demand resins KeiHtan-Shin 8% ty region of Kyoto, Oss, and Kobe ako 2% appearance, shape hake 867) ‘ire ala shir ya A, AMORA L TERA. “You ook nie tay. thon hho, ihn 22.54. 9.0% bo, 80D dotcom lon een) Konkan kotchbehen ka? GR Saban See ee Sona, kn na kteha ma Bde. Howe Hera That's aly seange. [Kinki £18 soubern half of Honsho inluding Osaka, Kyoto, Mie-ken, Shign-en, Hyogo-ke, Nartken, and Wakayama ken aycaamen? 1 you ming i bow tis? Kamat, tamahen DENK. BEN don't nie ‘Kim 9 Oss region acund Umeda and Osaka Stations anawan $94 (Se 4) woud sock; can win aint someone ‘or omen tanawanal B=) oeru 22% gain weigh tons 8) ‘Satin, nats koe anni suru kant sur EY 8, soit (See 35) excwse me, have pence with me amber ura IPF) Kans sro Kin Ke Hn hn oe ‘koctera REX-C& fat, overweight (futoite fru TUS) ate 4°¢ (See SI) (ma b,-tem —" ts dma onde s96 22) ‘A hetero ge ch no uch 9 SOMATEHN, 5 BORE, Aatsahatre 12° bay surviving, barely in time gir gt 89 Ree ee: #0) 156 = bicnoNany aera 519% fll doe fll ove tp (ore BE, hvobn Ucn ho, tbat beg son yo. 320%, SOTRERLEA ES My dager el down sed hurt heel prety buy ora erga P. Kora bande 5, bike, “Tie good £0 eth pul CF C920) ‘6 canton of hore wa = tt atcha © thing or even: contraction of koro ya E(t da anno hatch. Hos 2%, Whatthe 85 is that? eshien "°F boscbll acum where he Tiger ply ional high ‘shoo abl fovmamet town in Nehinomiya where Koshi stadium is octed axe &3-¢ buy: ve frm ane R9C) {Gyo tore shimota Bra EKCITLE ought more han planed. ota 4 mile-aged man (lisa 3% 4) ‘An eu, opparaters wo bobo eK, Polke cab, ‘That guy's dk. dtchan 232% -¢k middle-aged man oan 188A) Yaoya no oxhan. sumo mats karen nen AERO be hy WO URINE Hea tRA, “The guy athe it stand alway gives me discount tia BH (ana ots, BP) ‘kot no nak de yj on MYIROWS, HEACHS TA, met famous pron om the plane. echirypokura 26 8 (5 & to soa (nse it) sma ~'% (5) (Seed) sfx tomake pronoun plural (ach —38) Robie 2 Mi Rokko Robt Oroshi £8 Hanshie Tigers Fgh ong wind that blows down fiom Mi, Rokko sinara 86°45 goodbye uayonara 826) saint 2.12 beems, for that eso (ra 2% ade >) ona, mata hare sali 162 vIcmoNany Ge, TERE EMS ‘Well ten, ibe back stan — 4. (See 29) sufi wid in grectngs (sama ~ 2 4, gorimany exueny Sannomipa = refers tothe dostown re of Kobe; ain ain station in Kobe sara (85) (See51) new (arash LS) sarappi,srapin Fill new gods or protuct uri make demo, yoke sarappn ater de Dn THT Nhs ESERIES TOT ‘They even sll alot of new tf atthe flea make. sthen 22% dont do uhinal L) ‘Kno nanmo shen kat, PROM bea At te 1 aia’ do anything yesterday. sen 4 don't (shinal L 2) Shinya sen tat, dab ya GREAGT, KERG, oot woary wi be ie sesahona 24 doo ill me have mercy co me ‘Kino kasha snman on. ashi baie yo. ARLES EM, MAZL Ce. Tomorrow py me ick the 30.00 yen ta ent you yesterday. Sonne sesshona! eather! avemercy en me! DICTIONARY 163 sea €8 (W049) ‘Sepa sya ees That's gt sephora L024 (90 dakar 23 126) ‘Seythara yea yaya nana BEHOLDER, DIRE, That's why 1sid you should’ otha. seyahede 80 2 (0 dahedo #3 172) seyatara 24°10 same wvoytara shanai L720 (Soe 37) icant be helped, hopeless (oir gana er) shibis L126 pach napus do (urn T8 ) sh Ls oi (shinasal L286) ‘ayo shake sie a2mmLH, 1 your homework nox, shithin 00 don't do hina Le): same shen shimota 4 (See) himata 3-272) shined.» (Se 21) ing, hard shitente LA" heat. prone cone Lisa tahion dane Liz Ati 9) Yoshibarashan,tensotu chen IRE, RILTA Te "heard Me, Yoakiara found ne jo. on of shan yare 164 bicronaay state (129° plese dot orb (teagte LEIPC) Dena shat ALE. Plas al in, sho shigo Lt. LE ho L29) ‘so sha Bun Lets do that shimonalshomonal \.2 5 20, Lx 600 (See 52) eineresings infing Sonat £120" so much 90 much somne ni 12 na manner (oon yoni £02342) BRUNE BORDA LEAL, ‘You den’ ned crcine me ie thx much, Sona shiek BRVLER sonmara © (Sc 8) ina ese, fs, then sore mara £46) sonman 2.4 thats Jonna no © 420 sonna kono BA) Sonnan uo’ wa hth, Tore, That's prety sneaky, sora, sorya 25>. £1) © contraction of sore wa #8 ‘Sor, ak we Eh, Babs “Than good Dicrionaer = 165 yn soya £3. £8 (000 £9) ‘Soraya BEN ‘That's soyatar, separa £3 8126. R01 iat case dtr E30 sore datara B40 fob) Sayonara yaner Bipot, HOB, I hates, ve up ‘sub ya nd subd a, suk ya men, sublya nen S826 N28 Dh IES OA, tho 8A (See 2) hike sunmaken,omahen, smaten, han ¥ 434, EAA FAECA, TEA excane me (mime FE) Kono ada ws nna surat desta SOME, BARETARAATLIS ‘Ym celly soy about what hapened Taigaen 8% Hania Tiers (akive 22% tl igh expensive alu &¢ ‘uot wa tbe, meta ni taberarchen, APMED IC NOEERRD NAS ‘Steak iexpesive so can't it very on, ston ~ 724 -mséeto sana a form of pastes (a —f:) Noni sion? LEA? What id you do? {tanomu Wit (See 38) pease, 'm courting on yu oneplshinasa me LET) 166 8 oIcnioNay slo tare —1:9). —24 (See plese da thie or imier (conten of hte ar) stan tre fo, 1° (See 44) 1 doit forming eneaton ‘lsh yar) lee ~ 10°C please dit for ime (4 agee~ CITC) ‘Shokig subutate SOF teas Plate make him someting ot, in, tnd, eya "CR, CREE, TA casa egues ache 0 form of ve (1 —€) Mise tude B.Feothe. ‘auld you give me ahaa te shop? ten —i (Soe 48) pst tase verb conjugston (and #24 8) CA aA See 48 progres (ng) ver conjugstion (te i C8 ten TB) tereho “CP. mixed vp, inthe wrong onder tae cig AI86) ‘Shor go ero ni naer wa amiencctoce, You pute paps inthe weoag ode tokt ~ £3 doit conastion oft oft — HS Casal —f 805) (Otizen i cyanate! peagcaaeat Apologize vo your athe! soko & (Se 83) place wotor BF) taka — 25 contationof te old C2529 (4e ola —TBE) 98mm no yometok, BAL MALH CODED ' Lats forge abou acing ut king tonight. tom — A progressive form of verb conjugted ot form witht sngedo-fon Cae ina CL ) RAE? ‘Wha ae you eating? Torakichs 8% devoted Hanshin Tigers an ora ~£.2 progressive ve conjugation ti ="C80 tert <8) an store? Leen? ‘What ae you dig? stone — 2° contraction of ote sete ~C 80S) Bide ott, erate t ot. Peas set the VCR forme tenburera RAE break kowarera Hi) Kono shaper tuburtea we Loy YAP ORT abe “This peneis busts. tanket tukote 929°, 92°C wo we; form of au 9 bane #2°C) Moshi yolatara kore ule blitenh, shoct ee Fee fee to we tii you lke. 168 = DICTIONARY ahd 3% was) Uhm ara 608. My a eh rote My noneiaticefpouse, china 5% we, our varashiach ES Uchira no purojetat, Soanyad a? he ur projet, tema 67 delicious oish RLY Kv retaren, wt de. SOUR Ray RU, This estar cealy god. ais B74 (S082) gloomy, dreary a (Sce 30) neutral sentence ending (Yo) aye 4 serup.runed (mecha kucha 5.645) Kona ame a nk. Kimono kara way nna wa TARWOR, MOMS De ED, TE Ler my Kimono out in hea wl be vie, ye 2 (Se 15) (aa) yokedo ‘8 & (datedo 12) Jan 4. (an U0, fai no C00) dna bit, alto e yan BOA, Bock L he DicTIONARY = 169 ‘Tha guy's handsome. yam 204 suffix anached names between fends (un He) yonat @8%9 Yanat 2) ‘Ano mite shimattera yal? DOM. WED TELE? That shop's dosed, sank °° anal ka 0) “Ate wenden yok, DA LHWT NAA You cn’ dive, can you? yanke 414 (anal ka bos) Karten yank! ment Tes easy, een yo! orm 4 Lv len, ro © (dard 139) A, marae? We'e paying baseball tomorow ght? ngusing (arash MS 2») ar 10 (S00 St) give (ager BIT ) ate °C (S08 6) ear that. ate 262° ‘mse at pateha £6 pesonthing (stars 7) yaa 2%: (dana tf) Kins no shit, do yt? 170 o1cnonaey BORE, Che oRT How was yesterday's gue? para 05 (daara 225°) ‘Ame yaaa, yang chao yan Were, kro Tees, trains, camping is cancelled gh? ‘yousha 2 L (See) 965, okay, peat 8 35 (See 24) yerymuch often, well (yobn 8 <) ye £304 (39) alo,many_ oso) sem 2 & (See 39) aot many (akasan FR) yt #9 03 (S025) to speak a 3) ite Bf sid ina B94) Kataricho gas yton? HAE IIIA? ‘i the manager say so? ye 9 (See 28) 1s: Lform te >) ‘bhai > (See 40) cunning, sacaky (und 21>, waagasibo RD) = Index = ‘The fis pearance of min wrt ens wn tele don appeanace ae Shokaea 0 wate ha 2021-23.46 147 hm 22 ‘au 1 1 20 ase hove eed a2 1 wren ak Colon Snes 46 Sienosan 6 ‘en 1 soa 3h 4825, 18 Siti 104172 eke dhiin 35,50 tenet 122 fo 18838 wt 1720 mow Son gaa 21149 Soe a8 18 ‘nin 19 owe 32 813434180 hoi 25, Po fe Ei st Eco st omit 16.58.51 Son ok IS a 99.181 fats 32-88, 49,118,181 om 83-34, 38,103,182 roma 12.29 ‘on, banars 40, 42.89, 19, 183 Ses, 158 152 ities 120 ion 19 io 13 Ho an 96.159 iain jetatuen Sis MS, 153 ‘a ai 75,1002, 112 154 in ie 18185 Kinin Kin T2138 Mace (22 Korsown 122 onkien 0,4 156 soe 9173 ne 156 ete 16 9,156 teu 2 raise. 167 own 28-29,30.42,158 “im 9.13896 162, 4,186 Sota 260,188 rks 1st “nce 47.188 Meth 0.85, sata 19 174m Noe oh 2-299 os 159 a 0,82 5,66 188 ‘athe 48 Nabe 70-71,72 ab 29, 304219 fan 128-295 189 rant. 12 arn (32 54 ren 35 36,100 fey on 136 49,160 ee quetoes) ‘ihm 8 scmte SI heyosin 67.78 ‘jeten 70 tayama 11.29 in 430,42, 164 ame 2,756 oa 1, 14,6061, 161 ‘ka ak pactns 16 sure 16 104.16 foite m8, 161 an 0,67 16 Stoceiye162 on 1 ar) ‘I s2.66 8159 Se 94,16 165 Sane 16 Shaken 98,168 to 98-96, 117 18 sta 163 Shiga 158 sis 138 163 shin 33,165, stunt 36.57.2160 ‘hin 17 38168 ‘hots ‘Soma shonenl 129-90 164 sopsiya 13.165 ‘ops sate38 165 sige 6,168 hija en 3.165 suki 168 Sakis ey 6s ‘senate 31 165 Tuas 9,84, 165 se 15,165 | ‘akon 12 ten 1078, 11615 tence 19.78.1081 ‘e Toretch 79.86 107 Ton #5, stare 167 teteron 9 (Skee ohne 14,37, 167 ti 106121168 Sento 11 14h eh 10, Other language books from Tuttle Publishing 1768 woe Toned ie Ferd i i i i ere i FUL! 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