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C4303 Structural Theory 1

Superposition Method
En Hamizi Yahya & Pn Nasirah Siron
Reference: Tn Hj Ahmad Shufni

Analyzing can be done at cantilever beam that is at support at free end section

The beam above is carrying uniformly distributed load (UDL) that may caused reaction acting up at free
end, B

B
yB

By removing the support at B, deflection yB is occurred at end B

P
By placing support at end B equivalent to reaction force P acting up. (equivalent to reaction due to
support B)

By equating the deflection acting down yw due to loading and up due to reaction forced P (yp) the reaction
force P can be determined
OR to prevent deflection, deflection at end B MUST in zero deflection
So yB + yP = 0
Problem 1
By superposition method, determine the reaction at support B,
a) The reaction at support A and sketch Shear Force Diagram (SFD)
b) Bending moment at A and B
c) Sketch the Bending Moment Diagram (BMD)
10 kN

B
2m

2m

Solution
Separate beam into 2 condition:
Case 1 : Take away support at B in order to transform simply supported into cantilever beam
Case 2 : Move all the loading at beam and place the reaction for P at B
Support at B is moved away so it will be cantilever beam. Due to loading (Point load P and UDL),
deflection occurred at free end at B yw.
Derive moment equation, at section z-z where as near to fixed end A. Moment distance (x) is taken from
free end.
Case 1
10 kN
z

B
Mx
z

yw
x

Moment equation
Mx + 10 (x-2) = 0
d2 y
Mx = EI 2
dx
EI

d2y
dx 2

= 10(x 2)---------------------------- eq. 1

Integrate moment equation 1 toward x, to obtain slope deflection equation.


= EI

dy
dx

10(x2)2
2

+ A -----------------------eq. 2

Integrate slope deflection equation 2 toward x, to obtain deflection equation.


= EIyw =

10(x2)3
6

+ Ax + B--------------------eq. 3

To state the boundary condition :


At A when x = 4 m, slope = 0 from equation 2
10(4 2)2
0=
+ A
2
A = 20
At A when x = 4 m, deflection = 0
From equation 3
10(42)3

0=

+ 20(4) + B

B = -66.67
At B when x = 0, deflection yw = ??
From equation 3
EIyw =
yw =

10(02)3
6

+ 20 0 66.67

66.67

Case 2
Move all the loading at cantilever beam, and at free end B, put the reaction at free end B, P

z
yP

Mx
z

P
B

Derive moment equation toward section z-z where as near to fixed-end, A. Moment distance, x is taken
from free end
Mx Px = 0
d2 y
Mx = EI 2
dx
EI

d2y
dx 2

= Px-----------------------eq. 1

Integrate moment equation 1 toward x, to obtain slope deflection equation.

= EI

dy
dx

Px 2

+ A -----------------------eq. 2

Integrate slope deflection equation 2 toward x, to obtain deflection equation.


= EIyw =

Px
6

+ Ax + B--------------------eq. 3

To state the boundary condition :


At A when x = 4 m, slope = 0 from equation 2
P(4)2
0=
+ A
2
A = 8P
At A when x = 4 m, deflection = 0
From equation 3
P(4)3

EI(0) =

+ 8P(4) + B

B=21.33P
At B when x = 0, deflection yp = ??
From equation 3
EIyp =
yp =

P(0)3

6
21.33P

+ 8P(0) + 21.33P

EI

Super imposed case 1 and case 2, to obtain deflection = 0 (stability)


yw + yp = 0
66.67 21.33P
+
=0
EI
EI
P = 3.13 kN

10 kN
MA = -7.48 kNm

2m

2m

RA= 6.87 kN

6.87kN

RB = P = 3.13 kN

6.87kN

Fy = 0
Fy = Fy
RA + 3.13 = 10
RA = 6.87 kN

SFD

-7.48kNm

-3.13kN

BMD

-3.13kN
M@A = 0
MA + 10(2) 3.13(4) = 0
MA = -7.48 kNm

0kNm

6.26kNm

Problem 2
By superposition method, determine the reaction at support B,
a) The reaction at support A and sketch Shear Force Diagram (SFD)
b) Bending moment at A and B
c) Sketch the Bending Moment Diagram (BMD)

5 kN/m

B
4m

Solution
Case1
Z

5 kN/m

B
Mx

yw

Moment equation
Mx +

5 ( )

Mx = EI
EI

d2y
dx 2

=0

d2 y
dx 2

5
2

-------------------------- eq. 1

Integrate moment equation 1 toward x, to obtain slope deflection equation.


= EI

dy
dx

5(x)3
6

+ A -----------------------eq. 2

Integrate slope deflection equation 2 toward x, to obtain deflection equation.


= EIyw =

5(x)4
24

+ Ax + B--------------------eq. 3

To state the boundary condition :


At A when x = 4 m, slope = 0 from equation 2
dy
5(4)3
=
+ A
dx
6
A = 53.33
EI

At A when x = 4 m, deflection = 0 from equation 3


EI(0) =

5(4)4
24

+ 53.33(4) + B

B = -159.99
At B when x = 0, deflection yw = ??
From equation 3
EIyw =
yw =

5(0)4
24

+ 53.33 0 159.99

159.99

Case 2
Move all the loading at cantilever beam, and at free end B, put the reaction at free end B, P

z
yP

Mx
z

Derive moment equation toward section z-z where as near to fixed-end, A. Moment distance, x is taken
from free end
Mx Px = 0
d2 y
Mx = EI 2
dx
EI

d2y
dx 2

= Px-----------------------eq. 1

Integrate moment equation 1 toward x, to obtain slope deflection equation.


= EI

dy
dx

Px 2

+ A -----------------------eq. 2

Integrate slope deflection equation 2 toward x, to obtain deflection equation.


= EIyw =

Px3
6

+ Ax + B--------------------eq. 3

To state the boundary condition :


At A when x = 4 m, slope = 0 from equation 2
P(4)2
0=
+ A
2
A = 8P
At A when x = 4 m, deflection = 0
From equation 3
P(4)3

EI(0) =

+ 8P(4) + B

B=21.33P
At B when x = 0, deflection yp = ??
From equation 3
EIyp =
yp =

P(0)3

6
21.33P

+ 8P(0) + 21.33P

EI

Super imposed case 1 and case 2, to obtain deflection = 0 (stability)


yw + yp = 0
159.99 21.33P
+
=0
EI
EI
P = 7.5 kN

MA = -10 kNm
5 kN/m

B
4m

RA= 12.5 kN

RB = P = 7.5 kN

12.5kN
Fy = 0
Fy = Fy
RA + 7.5 = 5(4)
RA = 12.5 kN

SFD
2.5m

1.5m
-7.5kN

-10kNm

BMD

M@A = 0
MA + 5(4)(4/2) 7.5(4) = 0
MA = -10 kNm

0kNm

5.63kNm