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Material Properties
Material Properties
Lecture #2
Lecture #2

References:

1. W. MacGregor, “Reinforced Concrete Mechanics and Design”, 6 th Ed

Objectives

Lecture #2

Objectives

Concrete

Types

Definitions

3 Phases

Properties

Steel

To understand the properties of concrete and steel

Types of Concrete

Lecture #2

Objectives

Concrete

Types

Definitions

3 Phases

Properties

Steel

1.

Plain

concrete

2.

Reinforced

concrete

3.

Pre-stressed

concrete

Steel  ′   1. Plain concrete 2. Reinforced concrete 3. Pre-stressed concrete 3

Definitions

Lecture #2

Objectives

Concrete

Types

Definitions

3 Phases

Properties

Steel

ASTM C125 - a composite material that consists essentially of a binding medium within which is embedded particles or fragments of aggregates.

ACI 318 - mixture of portland cement or

any other hydraulic cement, fine aggregates, coarse aggregates and water, with or without admixtures.

cement or any other hydraulic cement , fine aggregates , coarse aggregates and water , with

3 Phases

Lecture #2

Objectives

Concrete

Types

Definitions

3 Phases

Properties

Steel

 Types  Definitions  3 Phases  Properties Steel  ′   Aggregates, Cement,Transition

Aggregates, Cement,Transition Zone

3 Phases

Lecture #2

Objectives

Concrete

Types

Definitions

3 Phases

Properties

Steel

Aggregates - comprise from 60% to 80% with an average of 75% of volume

Coarse aggregates (4.75 mm - 50 mm, Sieve No. 4 & up)

Fine aggregates (< 4.75 mm)

Predominantly responsible for the unit weight, elastic modulus and dimensional stability of concrete

(< 4.75 mm) Predominantly responsible for the unit weight, elastic modulus and dimensional stability of concrete

3 Phases

Lecture #2

Objectives

Concrete

Types

Definitions

3 Phases

Properties

Aggregates - comprise from 60% to 80% with an average of 75% of volume

light weight (1800 kg/m3)

natural or pyro-processed aggregates having lower bulk density

normal weight (2400 kg/m3)

having lower bulk density  normal weight (2400 kg/m3) containing natural sand, gravel or crushed rock

containing natural sand, gravel or crushed rock

heavy weight ( > 3200 kg/m3)

sand, gravel or crushed rock  heavy weight ( > 3200 kg/m3) high density aggregates for

high density aggregates for radiation shielding

3 Phases

Lecture #2

Objectives

Hydrated Cement Paste - usually 10% water and 15% ordinary Portland cement

Concrete

Types

Definitions

3 Phases

Properties

 3 Phases  Properties  ′   Portland Stone  Solids: Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate,

Portland Stone

Solids: Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate, Calcium Hydroxide, Calcium Sulfoluminates, Unhydrated Clinker

Liquid: Capillary water, adsorbed water, interlayer water, chemically combined water (suitable for drinking, do not use saltwater)

water (suitable for drinking, do not use saltwater)  Gas (Voids): Interlayer space in C-S-H, capillary

Gas (Voids): Interlayer space in C-S-H, capillary voids, air voids

3 Phases

Lecture #2

Objectives

Hydrated Cement Paste - usually 10% water and 15% ordinary Portland cement

TYPE I Ordinary TYPE II Moderate Sulfate Resistance and Heat of Hydration TYPE III High
TYPE I
Ordinary
TYPE II
Moderate Sulfate
Resistance and Heat of
Hydration
TYPE III
High Early Strength
TYPE IV
Low Heat of Hydration
TYPE V
High Sulfate Resistance

Concrete

Types

Definitions

3 Phases

Properties

Steel

V High Sulfate Resistance Concrete  Types  Definitions  3 Phases  Properties  ′

9

3 Phases

Lecture #2

Objectives

Concrete

Types

Definitions

3 Phases

Properties

Steel

Hydrated Cement Paste - usually 10% water and 15% ordinary Portland cement

Properties Steel  ′    Hydrated Cement Paste - usually 10% water and 15%

3 Phases

Lecture #2

Objectives

Concrete

Types

Definitions

3 Phases

Properties

Steel

Transition Zone

Thin shell, typically 10 to 50 μm thick

Typically weaker thus, it has considerable influence on the mechanical behavior of concrete

concrete has microcracks in the transition zone even before loading

The reason why concrete behaves non-linear

concrete has microcracks in the transition zone even before loading  The reason why concrete behaves

3 Phases

Lecture #2

Objectives

Concrete

Types

Definitions

3 Phases

Properties

Steel

Transition Zone

Non-linearity in the Stress-Strain relation of Concrete is due to the interfacial transition zone
Non-linearity in the Stress-Strain relation of
Concrete is due to the interfacial transition zone

Concrete Failure

Lecture #2

Objectives

Concrete

Types

Definitions

3 Phases

Properties

Steel

Lecture #2 Objectives Concrete  Types  Definitions  3 Phases  Properties Steel  ′

Properties > Concrete Strength

Lecture #2

Objectives

Concrete

Types

Definitions

3 Phases

Properties

Steel

Concrete Strength, 28th-day compressive strength of a standard

4” by 8” or 6” by 12” cylinder concrete

a standard 4” by 8” or 6” by 12” cylinder concrete I. ’ Minimum ’ 

I.

Minimum

by 8” or 6” by 12” cylinder concrete I. ’ Minimum ’  17 MPa (2500

17 MPa (2500 psi)

21 Mpa (3000 psi) – members subject to seismic forces (NSCP 2010 Section 421.3.4.2)

ACI 318 Chapter 4: Durability Requirement

 ′  
 ′
 ′   Lecture #2 Objectives Concrete  Types  Definitions  3 Phases 

Lecture #2

Objectives

Concrete

Types

Definitions

3 Phases

Properties

Steel

 ′   Lecture #2 Objectives Concrete  Types  Definitions  3 Phases 

Properties > Concrete Strength

Lecture #2

Objectives

Concrete

Types

Definitions

3 Phases

Properties

Steel

Determining

Specimen

Steel  ′   Determining  Specimen ’  Average of the strength of at

Average of the strength of at least

2 – 6” x 12” cylinders or

3 – 4” x 8” cylinders

Test Age

ACI gives designer freedom to specify age – usually taken as 28 days

For blended cement, due to slower strength gain, allowed to use more than 28 days

fc(t) = (t/(4+0.85t))f c28

Curing Conditions

Control of humidity and temperature.

Specimens should be placed in tanks to keep them fully saturated at the control temperature

Properties > Concrete Strength

Lecture #2

Objectives

Concrete

Types

Definitions

3 Phases

Properties

Steel

Determining

 Properties Steel  ′   Determining ’ Normal frequency curves for coefficients of variation

 Properties Steel  ′   Determining ’ Normal frequency curves for coefficients of variation

Normal frequency curves for coefficients of variation of 10, 15, and 20%

V = standard deviation over the mean value f cr' = required average compressive strength

Properties > Concrete Strength

Lecture #2

Objectives

Concrete

Types

Definitions

3 Phases

Properties

Steel

Determining

Concrete  Types  Definitions  3 Phases  Properties Steel  ′   Determining

Concrete  Types  Definitions  3 Phases  Properties Steel  ′   Determining

Properties > Stress-Strain Relationship

Lecture #2

Objectives

Concrete

Types

Definitions

3 Phases

Properties

Steel

Typical concrete stress-strain curves in compression.

 3 Phases  Properties Steel  ′   Typical concrete stress-strain curves in compression.

Properties > Stress-Strain Relationship

Lecture #2

Objectives

Concrete

Types

Definitions

3 Phases

Properties

Steel

Notes:

Max stress, fc, reached at a strain between 0.0015 to 0.003 followed descending branch

Initial slope, initial tangent modulus of

elasticity increases as

fcincreases –

Rising portion of σ-ε

resembles a parabola with its vertex at fc

Slope of descending branch tends to be less than ascending branch as fcbecomes smaller

Maximum strain ε CU , decreases as fcincreases

than ascending branch as fc ’ becomes smaller  Maximum strain ε C U , decreases

Properties > Modulus of Elasticity

Lecture #2

Objectives

Concrete

Types

Definitions

3 Phases

Properties

Steel

taken as secant modulus to a stress of 0.5 fc(0.45 from ACI)

Varies with age of loading, rate of loading, type and size of specimen

of ≈ 0.5 fc ’ (0.45 from ACI)  Varies with age of loading, rate of

Reinforcing Steel

Lecture #2

Objectives

Concrete

Types

Definitions

3 Phases

Properties

Steel

Reason for using steel as reinforcement:

Expansion properties for both steel and concrete are considered to be approximately the same (compatibility)

steel bonds well with concrete. bond

strength is proportional to the contact

surface of the steel with the concrete

Reinforcing Steel

Lecture #2

Objectives

Concrete

Types

Definitions

3 Phases

Properties

Steel

Types of Rebar

Plain Bars

Round in cross section

Used for special purposes such as dowels at expansion joints or construction joints in roads and runways.

Deformed bars

Differ from plain bars in that they have indentations or ridges in them, in a regular pattern

Deformed bars  Differ from plain bars in that they have indentations or ridges in them,

Reinforcing Steel

Lecture #2

Objectives

Concrete

Types

Definitions

3 Phases

Properties

Steel

Lecture #2 Objectives Concrete  Types  Definitions  3 Phases  Properties Steel  ′