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CHAPTER

3
BIOLOGY MODULE
CHAPTER 3
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION IN THE CELL

WATER

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3

..- polar
molecules attract
one another as
well as ions

.
- blood,
- lymphatic
- excretory
- digestive systems
- vascular tissues

Moisture
The importance of
WATER

Lubrication
..
-

Medium for biochemical


reactions
High cohesion

NUCLEIC ACID
Store genetic information the form of a code
basic units nucleotides

(1) P : .

(2) Q : .
Q

(3) R : .

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

Ribonucleic acid (RNA)

(4) polynucleotide strands


twisted around each

State P, Q and R :

(9) . strand polynucleotide .

other in the form of a

(5) . .

Can be found in (10).,

Can be found in (6) .. ,

(11) .... and (12)....

(7) ... and (8)...

LIPIDS

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3

Consists of (13) . , (14) .. and (15) . .

Types of lipids- (16) ., (17) ., (18) ., (19) .


and steroids.

Fats and oils are (20) .

Triglyceride is an (21) .that is formed through the (22) . of one


molecule of (23) .and three molecules of (24) .

(26)

3 H2O
(27)

Glycerol

(25)

Triglyceride (28)

Water

waxes on the (29) . of the epidermis of leaves, fruits and seeds


- (30) .. preventing the entry and evaporation of water

sebum- excreted from oil glands contains wax that soften the skin

Phospholipids- components in the formation of (31) .

Steroids- cholesterol

(32) . testosterone, oestrogen, progesterone

Fats and oils- consists of one molecule (33) .and three molecules of (34)
.

fatty acids- consists of long (35) . chain with a different number carbon
atoms different fatty acids

Saturated fats

Fats
Differences

Unsaturated fats

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The presence of double


bonds between carbon
atoms in fatty acids
Ability to react with an
additional hydrogen atom
Condition at room
temperature

37
38
39

40
41
42
43

Examples

CARBOHYDRATES

Fill in the blanks.


-

Source of (44) .

Consists of . (45), . (46) and . (47)

Ratio of hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms molecule is (48) .

Monosaccharides

Types of carbohydrates
Disaccharides

Polysaccharides

Glucose
G
Glucose
Examples:
(49) . ..
-in plants and fruits

. . (52)
- reducing sugar
- malt sugar
-combination of hundreds of

(50)
-in sweet fruits and honey
(51) ...
- in milk
- reducing sugar

Glucose
(53)

monosaccharides
- formed by the condensation of
(59)

(54)
- (55) .

- cane sugar

-do not taste sweet and do not


crystallised
- (60) ... in water

Examples :
Glucose

(61) ....

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(57) ..
- (58)
..
- milk sugar

in animals and yeast

(62) .....
-

in plants

(63) ..
-

cell walls of plants

Process of formation and breakdown


(65)

(64)

PROTEINS

Fill in the blanks.


- made up of the elements (66) ., (67) ., (68) . and (69)
., (70) . and (71) .
- made up of monomers called (72) .
- A dipeptide consists of (73) .molecules of (74) . that are linked
together by a (75) .. through (76) ..
- Conversely, a (77) .can be broken down into by means of (78) ..

Primary structures
(79)

(80)

Protein Structures
Secondary structures
-polypeptide coiled to form
an (81)

Tertiary structures
-the overall three-dimensional
shape of a polypeptide chain
(85)

- linear sequence of amino


acids in polypeptide chain

-helix(82)
-folded into (83)

Examples : enzymes, hormones,


antibodies, plasma protein
Quarternary structures

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- the combination of two or more


tertiary polypeptides that makes
up a protein
(86)

.. (84)

Types of amino acid (20


amino acid)
(87) ..
[9 amino acids]

non-essential amino acids


[(89) . amino acids]

-cannot be synthesised by the


body
- obtained from the diet

-(90) synthesised by the


body
- derived from other amino acids

- Why are animal proteins,


first class proteins?
(88) .

- Why are plant proteins,


second class proteins?
(91) .

.
.

.
.

ENZYMES
Fill in the blanks by using the words given.
biological
-

speed up

catalyst

Enzymes are (92) . .that (93) . biochemical


reactions in the cell.

General Characteristics of
Enzymes

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(96)
(94)
(97)
(95)
(98)
(99)

The sites of enzyme


synthesis
Substrate
Enzyme
Lipid
(101)
(102)
amylase
(103)
protease

(100)

The sites of protein synthesis


[ somiRboes ]
(104) ...
(104)
Intracellular enzymes

Extracellular enzymes

Definition (105)

Definition (107)

Examples :(106)

Examples :(108)

Production of extracellular enzymes

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(112)(a)
L:
(109)
O:
oolgy apparatus

(112)(b)
L: ...

(110)
N: ..................................
endoplasmic
reticulum

(113)
K: .

(111)
M: ...................

(114)
J: ...

Proteins/ enzymes are synthesized in


K : ..(115)
transported through the
spaces

N : . ..(116)
proteins wrapped in . (117) that bud
off from the sides of the
N: .(118)

L : . (119)
fuse with the membrane of the
O : . .(120).

Secretory vesicles
bud off from the . (121) membrane and
travel to the . (122) membrane

Releasing the proteins outside the cell as


[myzesne] . (123)

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Lock and key mechanism


caietv iets
Rearrange the jumbled up
words to the correct terms:
active site(124)

-a distinctive shape that


complements its substrate

Choose the suitable substrate for the enzyme and complete the schematic diagram
below to show the mechanism of enzyme action on a suitable substrate

Enzyme

Substrate
(125)

(126)

Substrate
Enzyme + Substrate

Enzyme-Substrate Complex

(127)

Product
Enzyme + Product

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Lock and Key Hypothesis
Conclusion :
128
129
130

FACTORS AFFECTING ENZYME ACTIVITY


Factors

Explanations

Complete the diagram


(135)

Temperature

reaction takes place slowly

(133) temperature
(37oC-40oC)

- reaction at maximum rate

the rate of enzyme activity

(132) temperature

(134) temperature

temperature (oC)

(above 40oC)
- enzymes are denatured
- denaturation is irreversible
(139)
optimum pH
reaction is at the maximum
pH
- example :
Pepsin (136) .
Trypsin (137).

the rate of enzyme activity

- pH at which the rate of

Amylase (138)..
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
pH

- reversible

10

Substrate
concentration

- the rate of reaction is directly

(143)

proportional to the substrate

the rate of enzyme activity

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concentration until the reaction


reaches a maximum rate
- an increase in substrate
concentration will speed up the
reaction until the reaction reaches
a (140) ..

Substrate concentration

- after the maximum rate the


enzyme is said to be
(141) ..
- limiting factors(142) .

- an increase in enzyme
concentration will
(144) .. the rate of
reaction until the reaction reaches

(146)
the rate of
enzyme activity

Enzyme
concentration

a maximum rate
- limiting factor(145) .

Enzyme concentration

11

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The uses of enzymes

Match the enzyme to its uses


Enzymes

Uses
-

In detergents
(147)

Lipase

tenderise meat
skinning of fish
used to remove hair from
hides
to convert starch to sugar
in the making of syrup

(148)
Amylase
(149)
Proteases
(150)
-

Cellulases
(151)

breaks down the cell wall


of the seaweeds
(extracting algae jelly from
seaweeds/
removal of seed coats
from cereal grain
is used in the ripening of
cheese
to produce flavour in
cheese
to break up fats in meat
effectively dissolve
proteins stains

The Importance of Chemical Composition in Cells


-

Complete the table below


Chemical
components

Function

Consequence of defiency

(152)

(157)

(153)

(158)

(154)

(159)

(155)

(160)

(156)

(161)

Water
Lipids
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Enzymes

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STRUCTURAL QUESTIONS:
1

(a)

Enzymes is widely used in our daily life and industries.


Explain how enzymes act in :
(i)
helping to cook meat.
...
...
...
[2 marks]
(ii)

extracting agar from seaweeds.


...
...
...
[3 marks]

Figure 1(a) shows a reaction catalysed by lipase.


R:

Q:

S:

P:
Figure 1(a)
(a)

(i)

Label P,Q, R and S in Figure 1(a).


[4 marks]

(ii)

State two characteristics of P.


...
...
...
[2 marks]

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(b)

(i)

14

State the principle of enzymic reaction as shown in Figure 1(a).


...
[1 mark]

(ii)

What can you deduce about the enzyme lipase based on Figure
1(a)?
...
...
[1 mark]

(c)

Enzymes are used widely in industries.


State the use of lipase in food industry.
....
[1 mark]

(d)

The temperature at which a lipase reaction takes place is increased to


more than 60OC.
State the effect on the quantity of the product. Explain your answer.
....
....
..
[2 marks]

(e)

Figure 1(b) shows a box of washing powder.

Figure 1(b)
A housewife uses cold water to wash her clothes with brand X washing
powder. The cleaning is less effective.
Using the above information, explain why.
....
....
....
[2 marks]

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(a)

15

Diagram 2.1 shows a mechanism of an enzyme reaction.


Draw the diagram in the spaces III and IV provided in Diagram 2.1
to complete the mechanism of the enzyme reaction.

Diagram 2.1
(b)

In a food preparation process, a housewife carries out the


following steps:
Step 1 : Marinate pieces of meat with strips of unripe papaya in a
basin.
Step 2: Immerse the basin in a container filled with water at 40oC
for 30 minutes as Diagram 2.2
.

Diagram 2.2
Explain why the housewife carries out Step 1 and Step 2.
...
...
...
...
...
...
[4 marks]

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ESSAY QUESTIONS
4. Diagram shows the effect of a rise in temperature on the reaction rate of an enzyme.

(a) Based on the above graph:


(i) Explain why a rise in temperature increases the rate of reaction until it reaches an
optimum.
[ 5 marks]
(ii) Explain what causes the decrease in the rate of reaction when the temperature
exceeds the optimum temperature.
[ 5 marks]

Enzymes are widely used in our daily life and industries.

(b) Enzymes are widely use in our homes and industries. Discuss how the enzymes are
used in industries.
[10 marks ]

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