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Diachronic Generative Syntax (DIGS) 13

University of Pennsylvania
June 3-5, 2011
The Syntactic Formation of the Chinese Anaphor ZIJI
Edith Aldridge, University of Washington
eca1@u.washington.edu
1. Introduction
Received wisdom on modern Mandarin ZIJI:
=> X0 ZIJI local or long distance anaphor: [DP [NP [N ZIJI ]]]
=> Phrasal TA-ZIJI 3s-self local only
[DP TA [NP [N ZIJI ]]]
(1) a. Zhangsani renwei
[Lisij hai-le
zijii/j].
Zhangsan think
Lisi hurt-ASP self
Zhangsani thought that Lisij hurt himselfi/j.
b. Zhangsank yiwei Lisij zhidao Wangwui bu xiangxin ta-zijii/*j/*k.
Zhangsan think Lisi know Wangwu not believe
3.SG-self
Zhangsank thought Lisij knew that Wangwui had no faith in selfi/*j/*k.
ZIJI emerges in Middle Chinese of Six Dynasties period (3rd-6th centuries CE).
Proposal: Middle Chinese ZIJI as phrasal: [DP [ZI [NP [N JI ]]]]1
=> Induced by prosodic pressure from bisyllabification of the lexicon.
=> Made possible when ZI able to select NP complement
Previous approaches:
Dong (2002)
ZI locally bound (anaphor subject to Condition A)
JI long distance (pronoun subject to Condition B)
ZIJI as compound < anaphor ZI + pronoun JI
=> ZIJI inherited combined features of anaphor and pronominal
Problem: Archaic JI can be locally bound. Middle Chinese ZI can be long distance.
=> ZI and JI share key features by Middle Chinese
Zhu (2007)
Middle Chinese ZI and JI both LD in Buddhist translations (influence from Sanskrit)
=> ZIJI as compound of like categories

cf. Reuland (2011), [SE [NP [N self ]]], where SE heads a functional category on the DP spine.

Problem: Long distance ZI in pre-Buddhist period and in non-Buddhist texts.


=> Long distance ZI as native development.
2. Properties of Archaic ZI and JI
ZI and JI distinct in late Archaic Chinese (Warring States period, 5th 3rd centuries BCE):
Functional difference
JI: Can be locally or long distance bound
ZI: Must be locally bound
Positional difference
(JI) = in argument position
(ZI) = immediately adjacent to V
2.1. Binding Properties of Archaic ZI and JI
Local JI

(Analects 14)
ei xiu
jii
yi
an
ren.
train self
to
protect person
Train yourself in order to protect other people.
b.

(Mencius 5)
Yao yi
bu
de
Shun
wei
[ji
you].
Yao take not
obtain Shun
be
self
concern
Yao took not obtaining Shun (as his successor) as his own concern.
c.

(Mencius 11)
ei yu
jii
qu
zhi
er
yi
yi.
P
self
seek 3.Obj Conj finish Asp
(One) seeks it in himself and thats all.

(2) a.

Long distance JI
(3) a.

Zhuhoui
wu
[qij
hai
jii].
feudal.lord
dislike they inconvenience self
The feudal lordsi dislike it that theyj inconvenience themi.
b.

huan
[renj zhi
bu
jii
zhi].
ei bu
not
worry
others Gen not
self
understand
Do not worry that others do not understand you.

(Mencius 10)

(Analects 1)

(4)

ZI in matrix clause
a.

Duo xing bu
yi,
ei bi
zi
bi.
much do
not
right
certain
self
kill
Having done much wrong, he will certainly kill himself.
b.

zii
dao
ye.
Fuzii
master
self
speak Decl
The master is speaking of himself.

(Zuozhuan, Yin 1)

(Analects 14)

Embedded in relative clause:


=> JI with matrix subject.
=> ZI with embedded subject.
(5)

ei kui
bu
ruo
Huangdi er
be.ashamed not
like
Huangdi Conj

(Zhuangzi 3.2)
ei ai
[ ej bu
jii
ruo
zhej].
feel.sympathy
not
self
like
Det
(He) is ashamed of not being as good as Huangdi and feels sympathy for those who
are not as good as he is.
b.

Wu i wei
jian [ ej neng
jian qi
guo
I
not.yet
see
can
see
3.Gen error

(Analects 5)
er
nei
zij
song
zhej]
ye.
Conj privately self
blame
Det
Decl
I have never seen someone who can can see his errors and privately blame himself

a.

In complement clause:
=> JI with matrix subject.
=> ZI with embedded subject.
(6)

(Zhuangzi 2.5)
ei wei
[jij
yuren],
ze ej furan
zuose.
say
self
flatterer then anger
flush
If someonei says hej is a flatterer, then hej flushes in anger.
b.

Yan
fei
Li
Yi,
ei wei
[zhii zii
bao ] ye.
speech
betray Rite Righteousness
say
3.Obj self
injure Decl
If his speech betrays the Rites and Righteousness, then (one) says of him that he
harms himself.
(Mencius 7)

a.

2.2. Archaic ZI adjoined to V


2 kinds of ZI: Argument and adverb
ZI as adverb (co-occurs with subject and object):
(7)

Lu
Lu

jun
zhi
shi
zhe
zhi,
lord Gen send Det
arrive

(Zhuangzi 3.6)
Yan He zi
dui
zhi
Yan He self
meet 3.Obj
The envoy of the lord of Lu arrived, and Yan He met with him himself.

ZI in immediate preverbal position


=> Follows embedded genitive subject:
(8)

a.

Junzi
shen zao
zhi
yi
dao
gentleman
deep study 3.Obj with way

(Mencius 8)
yu
[qi
zi
de
zhi] ye.
desire 3.Gen self
attain 3.Obj Decl
A gentleman studies deeply in the proper way, as he desires his attaining
enlightenment himself.
b.

[Qi
zi
ren
___ yi
tianxia
zhi
zhong]
ru
ci.
3.Gen self
burden
with world
Gen weight
like this
Thus was his burdening himself with the weight of the world.
(Mencius 9)

ZI follows (other) adverbs.


(9)

a.

(Guanzi 37)
Yiran zi
lai,
shen
mo
zhi
qi
ji.
flying self
come god
none know 3.Gen origin
(A bird) comes flying by itself; even the gods dont know where it comes from.
b.

(Analects 5)
Jian bu
xian
er
nei
zi
xing ___
ye.
see
not
superior Conj within self
examine
Decl
Upon seeing someone not of superior quality, (I) inwardly examine myself.

ZI follows object-oriented quantifier:


(10)

(Guanzi 52)
Jin
zi
zhi
qi
shi,
ze
shi
duo.
all
self
govern
3.Gen affair then affair many
If (the ruler) takes care of all matters himself, then there is too much for him to do.

Object quantifiers follow negation and subject:


(11)

a.

Bu
jin
[VP
shou pro] ze
bu
jin
[VP
yu pro]
not
all
harvest
then not
all
use
If (the grain) is not all harvested, then it cannot all be used. (Mozi, Qihuan)
b.

hao
yong bing
Zhu duo [VP nu ] er
lord much
anger Conj enjoy use
military
(Hanfeizi 15)
If the lord often becomes angry and enjoys using military might.

ZI follows negation (subject precedes negation):


(12)

a.

Xuzi xi
wei
bu
zi
zhi?
Xuzi what for
not
self
weave
Xuzi, why didnt you weave (it) yourself?
b.

fu
bu
zi
jian ___ er
jian
Nom not
self
see
Conj see
not seeing oneself but seeing others

(Mencius 5)

bi
other

(Zhuangzi 8)

Follows modals and embedding verb


=> Left-adjacent to embedded verb (subject in matrix clause)
(13)

a.

Guiren
huo
de
ji
er
ruler
sometimes
succeed plan Conj

(Hanfeizi 12)
yu
[zi
yi __ wei
gong].
want self
take be
meritorious
Sometimes the ruler succeeds in some endeavor and wants to take himself to be the
responsible party.
b.

(Sunzi Bingfa 4)
Neng [zi
bao __ ] er
quan
sheng ye.
win DECL
can
self
perserve CONJ completely
(One) can protect oneself while achieving total victory.

(14)

(15)

Not even shift to negation


a.

(Guanzi 51)
Wei gan
[zi
shi ___], zi
ming yue
su.
not.yet dare self
rely
self
call
say
insignificant
One does not dare to be overconfident in himself and refers to himself as
insignificant.
b.

Wan sheng
zhi
guo mo
gan
10,000 charriot Gen nation none dare

(Hanfeizi 49)
[zi
dun yu
jian cheng
zhi
xia].
self
secure in
strong wall
Gen beneath
None of the great nations would dare to just secure themselves at the base of their
castle walls.
Other object pronouns shift to negation
a.

(Mencius 14)
Hu
fu
yu,
mo
zhi
gan
[ying ___].
tiger back crevice
none 3.Obj dare approach
The tiger backed into a crevice and no one dared to approach it.
b.

(Xunzi 15)
Ru
huo
lielie
ze
mo
wo
gan
[e ___].
like
fire
fierce
then none 1
dare block
If (we) are fierce as fire, then no one will dare to stand in our way.

Sum: Archaic Chinese ZI immediately precedes the verb (as affix or clitic).
One caveat:
=> Adverb ZI can precede negation.
(16)

Bao
guo zhi
jun
an
violent
state Gen ruler observe

(Xunzi 9)
zi
bu
neng yong qi
bing.
self
not
able use
his
weapon
The ruler of a violent state will observe that he himself cannot use his weapons.

2.3. Section summary


Archaic Chinese (Wei 2004, Aldridge 2009)
JI: Can be local or long distance bound
ZI: Must be locally bound
Immediately precedes V; rarely can be higher

Problem for Dong (2002):

JI can be locally bound

3. Emergence of Long Distance ZI


3.1. Archaic Chinese ApplP
Archaic period:

ZI always bound by local subject.


But: Can skip intervening DP in [Spec, ApplP]

(17)

[TP DPi [ApplP DP [VP ZIi+V]]]

(18)

a.

jiachen
zii dai]
zhe
jihe
ren?
[Shen shi
ei yi
own job
Appl retainer ZI replace
Det
how.many
person
How many persons are there who replace themselves with retainers in their own
occupations?
(Guanzi 24)
b.

(Hanfeizi 33)
ei he
wei
yan
Xuzij yi ej zii
dai?
what for
speak Xuzi Appl ZI
replace
Why do you recommend Xuzi to replace yourself with?

(19)

Subject-oriented modern ZIJI


Wangwui shuo Zhangsanj zengsong gei
Lisik
Wangwu say
Zhangsan give
to
Lisi
yipian guanyu
zijii/j/*k de
wenzhang.
(Cole & Sung 1994:360)
one
about
self
REL
article
Wangwui says that Zhangsanj gave an article about himi/himselfj to Lisik.

=> Subject-orientedness of ZI is not surprising.


But there is something special about these yi applicative structures Archaic Chinese.
Wei (2004) treats them as pivotal, but does not say why.
My hunch: yi selects NP which can be construed as an embedded subject.
YI with transported theme:
(20)

a.

Tianzi
neng [jian
ren
yu
tian]
ruler
can
recommend person
to
heaven
The ruler can recommend someone to heaven.
b.

bu
neng shi
tian
[yu
zhi
tianxia]
not
can
make heaven
give 3.Obj world
(He) cannot make heaven give him the world.
7

(Mencius 9)

(Mencius 9)

c.

Tianzi
bu
neng yi
tianxia
[yu
ruler
not
can
Appl world
give
The ruler cannot give the world to someone.

ren].
person

(Mencius 9)

A type of causative with YI:


(21)

a.

Wengong zi
Tuo sha
taizi Tu er
dai
zhi.
CW
son
Tuo kill
heir Tu Conj replace
3.Obj
Chen Wens son Tuo killed the heir Tu and replaced him (on the throne).
(Zuozhuan, Huan 5)
b.


(Hanfeizi 31)
Yu
yi
qi
zi Xiqi dai
taizi Shensheng.
want Appl 3.Gen son Xiqi replace
heir Shensheng
(She) wanted to replace the heir Shensheng with her son Xiqi.

3.2. Middle Chinese LD ZI


From 1st Han Dynasty (1st & 2nd C. BCE):
(22)

(23)

True long distance ZI

[TP DPi [TP DP [VP ZIi+V]]]


Long distance ZI embedded under causative verb
a.

Wang you
yi
qi
li
zhi
suo
bu
neng gong
king also with 3.Gen force Gen Rel
not
can
conquer

yi
zi
zhi,
shi [ ei zhu
[Qin zii
gong]]
ye.
C
grant 3.Obj Dem
aid
Qin self
conquer Decl
If your majesty grants them what they were unable to conquer by force, then this is
aiding the Qin to conquer us.
(1st C. BCE: Zhanguoce, Zhao 3)
b.

Gaozu zhuii ji
laogongj zhi ej shi [ ej zii
xiang]
Gaozu chase reach old.man stop make self
tell.fortune
Gaozui chased after the old manj, stopped (himj) and made (himj) tell hisi fortune.
(1st C. CE: Lunheng 11)

Later (3rd C. CE): Long distance ZI more deeply embedded

(24)

LD ZI in finite or nominalized embedded clause


a.

(Sanguozhi, Shu 11)


Huo yi
Hongi zhi
[Yi
zii
xian].
some suspect
YH
know ZY
ZI
dislike
Some suspected that Yang Hong knew that Zhang Yi disliked him.

b.

Xiangi hen
[Jing zhi
bu
zii
na].
ZX
hate XJ
Gen not
ZI
join
Zhang Xiang resented Xu Jings not joining him.

(Sanguozhi, Shu 8)

Point: Middle Chinese ZI as potentially long distance anaphor (like JI)


Problem for Dong (2002):
Problem for Zhu (2007):

ZI as LD (no longer only local)


LD ZI in pre-Buddhist-influenced Chinese texts

Change: Possibility of skipping causee applied object > Can skip embedded causee subject
4. Emergence of ZIJI
4.1. Separability of ZI
Middle Chinese ZI can be separated from V.

(25)

(26)

(27)

ZI precedes adverb (1st C. BCE)

Zhang nan
ji
xing,
eldest son
Asp go

(Shiji 41)
yi
zi
si ___
ji
shu
bai
jin.
also self
privately carry many hundred gold
Having left, the eldest son also privately took with him several hundred gold pieces.
Precedes PP (3rd C. CE)

Ran you
bu
neng
yi,
nai
zuo
she
hu
che,
yet
still not
can
stop so
make shoot tiger charriot

wei
fang mu, xian bu
zhi
gai,
make square whole open not
put
top

yi
ren
wei
yu,
zi
[yu
zhong]
___
she
zhi.
one
person be
driver self
in
middle
shoot 3.Obj
Yet, (he) still could not stop, so he made a tiger-hunting chariot. (He) made square
holes but left it open and didnt put a top on. One person acted as driver, while (he)
himself shot from inside.
(Sanguozhi, Zhang Zhao)
ZI as possessor (3rd C. CE & 5th C. CE)
a.

(Sanguozhi, Zhang Liao)


Da
hu
[zi
ming] chong lei.
great call
self
name charge fort
He called out his own name and charged into the fort.
9

b.

Ru
zhi
[zi
fa]
po
ta
zhi,
2.SG take self
law
break other hold

(Bailun10)
gu
ru
shi
po
fa
ren.
so
2.SG COP break law
person
You take you own doctrine to argue against anothers, so you are arguing against
someone of this faith.

(28)

Precedes modal (5th C. CE)


a.

(Chang Ahan Jing 9)


Zi
de
jietuo __, neng jietuo
ren.
self
can
release
can
release
person
If one can release himself, then (he) can release others.
b.


Zi
de
miedu __, neng miedu ren
self
can
cross
can
cross person
If one can cross oneself over, then (he) can cross over others.

Point: Middle Chinese ZI could precede different categories (other than V).
4.2. Formation of the phrasal anaphor ZIJI
Morphological separability from V, occurrence with NP in DP:
(29)

[DP [ZI [NP [N JI ]]]]

Wei (2004):

(phrasal anaphor)

Early Middle Chinese ZIJI only local, not long distance.

Why? Phrasal anaphor must be locally bound.

(30)

Modern ZIJI (common analysis)


a. Zhangsan renwei
[IP Lisij [I zijij+I [VP hai-le
tziji ]]].
Zhangsan think
Lisi
self
hurt-ASP
Zhangsan thought that Lisij hurt himselfj.
b. [IP Zhangsani [I zijii+I [VP renwei
[IP Lisij [I tziji+I [VP hai-le
Zhangsan
self
think
Lisi
hurt-ASP
Zhangsani thought that Lisi hurt himi.

Trigger for replacement of monosyllabic X0 with bisyllabic phrase:


Bisyllabification of lexicon on Middle Chinese

10

tziji ]]].

Prosodic pressures and distribution of Middle Chinese anaphors:

(31)

Fobenxing Jijing (6th C. CE)


a.

[Zhi yu
ji jia]
bushi
wo
shi.
arrive at
JI home give.alms 1s
food
Having arrived at his home, (he) offered me food.
b.

[Dao zi jia
yi]
yu
yu
qi
qi.
arrive ZI home Asp tell
to
3.Gen wife
Having arrived at his home, (he) spoke to his wife.
c.

[Zhi ziji
jia]
fu
yu
qi
qi.
arrive ZIJI home give to
3.Gen wife
Having arrived at his home, (he) gave (it) to his wife.

ZI+JI phrasal DP, later forms a compound X0 lexical item.


ZI and JI lost as independent anaphors.
Survive as compounds with verbs

(32)

Modern ZI+V

zi-sha
ZI-kill
commit suicide

Modern V+JI

ke-ji
conquer-JI
self restraint

5. Summary
Archaic Chinese
ZI: Generally adjoin/cliticize to V
Only locally bound
JI: In argument position
Local or LD
Changes
1. Clitic ZI more common > Possibility of LD binding, Higher position, Different host
2. ZI as possessor > Emergence of Modern ZIJI (ZI select NP JI to form phrasal DP)
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