Sunteți pe pagina 1din 28

# Underexcitation

Protection
The year of Profitable Growth

## Power Transmission and Distribution

Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.

Generator Protection
Underexcitation Protection
(Loss of Field protection)
Presenter: Dr. Hans-Joachim Herrmann
PTD PA13
Phone +49 911 433 8266
E-Mail: Hans-Joachim.Herrmann@siemens.com

Power Automation

## Reasons for Underexcitation

Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.

## ? Failure of the excitation device

? short circuit in the excitation circuit

## ? interruption in the excitation circuit

? Maloperation of the automatic voltage
regulator
? Incorrect handling of the voltage regulator
(generator, transformer)
? Generator running with capacitive load

Countermeasure:
GS
3~

excitation
device

Underexcitation Protection
Note: This protection is also called
Loss of Field Protection

Power Automation

## Consequences of Excitation Failures

Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.

Influence Quantities:
? type of construction of the generator
? design of the excitation
? grid conditions
? magnitude of delivered active power
? type of the voltage and power regulator
Consequences:
? rotor acceleration
? local overheating in the rotor and stator
? over-voltages in the rotor
? mechanical shocks onto the foundation
? grid starts oscillating

Power Automation

## Relation of Current and Voltage in a Synchronous

Generator
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.

## Simplified equivalent circuit:

X

VP

ZL

machine equation:

VP = V - I jX

cylindrical-rotor machine:
(turbo generator)

X~Xd; VP = V- jXd I

salient-pole machine:
(hydro generator)
exact:

X:=Xq; Xd

Vector diagram:
Re
Vp

I jX
V
Iexc

?
?
V / jX

? = rotor angle

Im

reduced:

VP = V - j(XdId + XqIq)
VP ~ V - jXqI

Power Automation

## Possible Design of the Generator Capability Diagram

Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.

Definition:

Preferred design

+Q
(Var)

+P
(W)

Operating
area
over excited

under excited

+P
(W)

Static
stability
limit

under
excited

Operating
area

over
excited

+Q
(Var)

Static stability
limit

Power Automation

## Capability Curve of a Turbo Generator

Power Automation

0,85

type of generator:

0,8

0,85

0,9

MW

0,95

0,975

0,975

0,95

0,9

## nominal apparent power SN

=
nominal voltage
VN =
nominal current
IN
=
nominal frequency
fN
=
power factor
cos ? N =
cold-air temperature
Tx
=

220
200
180

0,8

TLRI 108/46
200
MVA
15.750 kV
7.331 kA
50.0
Hz
0.8
40.00 C

0,7

160
140

0,7

0,6

120

0,6

100
80

0,4

60

0,4

40

cosphi

cosphi

0,2

0,2

## MVAr 140 120 100 80

60

underexcited

40 20

20

40

Q
60 80 100 120 140 160 180 MVAr
overexcited

Power Automation

## Load Diagram of a Synchronous Machine (Cylindricalrotor Machine)

Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.

state
stability
limit

dynamic
stability
limit

turbine limit
stator limit

theoretically
limit

VP If
SN

rotor limit

?N

?N

VN
; ? SN
X 'd

VN
Xd

underexcited

## Xd: synchronous reactance

Xd: transient reactance
overexcited

## The generator capability curve describes

the stability limits of the generator
Power Automation

## Per Unit Capability Diagram of a Synchronous Generator

in the Case of Undervoltage (V = 0.9 VN)
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.

P [p.u]
1

Stability
limit

0.85

V=1; I=1;
V=0.9; I= 1.11

overexcited

underexcited
0.81/xd

Q [p.u]

1/xd

## In the case of an under-voltage the generator capability curve

moves to right and reduces the stability limits of the generator

Power Automation

## Conclusions for the Protection Design

Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.

## 1. The generator capability curve describes in the

underexcitation region the stability limit of a generator
2. In the case of an undervoltage the stability becomes
much more critical (moves to active power axis)

## A good underexcitation protection should consider both facts

(1 and 2)
The transformation of the generator diagram into the
admittance diagram is the solution, because:

## ? its direct proportional to the per unit generator diagram

(only the reactive axis must be multiplied by -1)
? the settings can be easy read out from the generator diagram
? it considers right the undervoltage behaviour

Power Automation

10

## Definitions for Converting the Generator

Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.

Complex Power:

S ? V ?I

S? P ? jQ

I
Y?
V

Y ? G ? jB

G: Conductance
B: Susceptance

Transformation:
?

P - jQ
I ?V
S*
Y?
?
?
?
?
2
2
V
V
V ?V
+

P
G? 2
V
Q
B? - 2
V

Q
P
j
V2
V2
+

representation
the diagrams
are the same,
only there is a
phase shift in
the reactive
part of 180

Power Automation

11

## Additional Solutions for the Underexcitation

Protection
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.

## a) Excitation Current (IEXC)

- stabile for over-excitation
- insecure for under-excitation (IEXC can be smaller than IEXC, N)

## b) Direct Measuring of the Rotor Angle (? )

stability limit depends on ? or 2 ?
- transversal reactance cannot be neglected with small excitation of
turbogenerators (Xq is also depending from 2 ? )

- the

## reactive power protection gets more insensitive when voltage

decreases (at V<VN the stability limit curve moves to right)
- Impedance criterion is used by the competitors
(Stability limit can not be clear seen - see notes beyond )

Power Automation

12

## Underexcitation Protection with the Criterion

Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.

char.3

char.2

char.1
G[p.u.]

a right behaviour, if the voltages
decreases
? 3 independent characteristics and 3
timer
? characteristic 1,2 is adaptated on

?3

B[p.u.] x
d3

1
x d1

?2
1
x d2

## ? additional inquiry of the field voltage

(release a short trip time)

?1

## ? characteristic 3 is adaptated on the

dynamic stability limit curve
? blocking of the protection at V<25%
VN

## Settings: Can direct read out from the generator diagram

1
1
x d1 ? x
d

? 1 = 80

1
1
x d2 ? 0.9 ? xd1

? 2 = 90

1
2
x d3 ? 1 or ? x d

? 3 = 100 or 110

Power Automation

13

## Reactions from the Protection

Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.

Combination of
?

Case no. 1:

## only rotor criterion fulfilled:

no alarm, no trip

Case no. 2:

## only stator criterion fulfilled ( char. 1,2):

only alarm, eventually long-time delayed trip (e.g. 10s)

Case no. 3:

## rotor and stator criterion fulfilled (char. 1,2):

alarm and short-time delayed trip (e.g. <0,5s - 1s)

Case no. 4:

## stator criterion fulfilled (char. 3):

alarm and short-time delayed trip (e.g. <0,3s)

Power Automation

14

## Conversion of the Reactive Power into 1/xd

Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.

Generator:
Stability limit:

SN = 200 MVA
VN = 15,75 kV
Q = 90 MVAr

16kV / 100V
3
3

knl = 8000A/1A

Xd ?

?U ?
? N?
? 3?
?
?

Q
3

2
U
? N ? 2,76?
Q

xd ? X d ?

3 IN
? 2,22 or
UN

x d ? SN ? 2,22
Q

## 2. Conversion into secondary values :

xdsek ? xd

U ?I
UN,G ?INsek ?knl
? xd N,G pN,W ? 2,38
UNsek ?I N,G?knU
I N,G?UpN,W

1
1 ? 0,42 ?
? 0,42 ,
x
xdsek
d1

? 1 ? 80?
Power Automation

15

## Power Transmission and Distribution

Measuring Algorithm
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.

## 1) Filtering of the input values

iL
vL

I L1 , I L2 , I L3 ,

V L1 , V L2 , V L3 ,

7UM6

I L ? I rL ? j I iL ,
V L ? VrL ? j ViL ,

GS
3~
iL1,2,3

fourier filter
(50Hz)

uL1,2,3

symmetr.
comp.

I1
V1

I1

S?U I*

V1

S? P? jQ

S

Y ?

S
2
U1

Y ?

1
1
? j
? G ? jB
R
X

Power Automation

16

## Underexcitation Protection with Criterion Impedance

I-ZI<
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.

## Generator diagram is transferred in the impedance plan (e.g. X=V2/Q).

(Stability limit is represented as a circular arc.)
? characteristic: Offset-MHO

X[p.u.]
R[p.u.]

0.5 xd

Char.1

## ? characteristic 2, tdelay ? 0.5 - 3 s (for low

load generator, section field voltage failure)

xd
Char.2

approximation
of stability
limit

Summary:
? Measuring principle is from the electro-

## Relay settings according

IEEE C37.102-1995

## mechanical relays, because impedance

measuring elements were only available
? circle characteristic is a compromise for

Power Automation

17

## Transformation of Criterion Impedance I-ZI<

Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.

Transformation rule:
A circle without zero crossing inverted becomes again a circle

Impedance plane
X[p.u.]

1
Y?
Z

G[p.u.]

R[p.u.]
0.5 xd

Char.1

B[p.u.]

xd

2
1
?
2 ?x d ? x ,d x d

Char. 2

2
x ,d

2
?1
,
2 ? xd

Power Automation

18

## Setting Example for Impedance and Admittance Principle

Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.

## Settings: 501- Generator xd= 0,27; xd = 1,81

Diameter= 1

0,5 Xd = 0,13

Impedance Plane

2.5

1.25

0.33
0.67

0
1
1.33

1.25

1.67
2

2.5
1

0.5

0.5

2.5

1.75

0.25

0.5

1/Xd = 0,55
Diameter: Xd = 1,81

2/Xd = 1,1

Power Automation

19

## Both Measuring Principle in the Admittance Plane

Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.

Impedance principle

Trajectory in the
case of underexcitation
with 100% excitation
loss

Generator
diagram
0

Settings:
xd = 0,27
xd = 1,81

2/Xd = 7,4

Note:
B-axis is for mathematical
reasons multiplied by -1

1/Xd = 0,55

Power Automation

20

## Turbo generators: Pick-up Conditions of Different

Relay Characteristics in the Admittance Plane
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.

1
R

II

5,5
1

2,5

?
2
X?
d

2
X
d

Power Automation

21

## Dynamic Test on a Network Model with RTDS

Fault Record
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.

Test condition: P=160 MW Q=25 MVar; If = 1,87 If0; Voltage regulator failure: V= 1,05
0,8
Relay settings: Char 1 = 0.55 ? 80, 10s; Char 2 = 0.51 ? 90, 10s; Char 3 =1.1 ? 110, 0s

Power Automation

22

## Dynamic Test on a Network Model with RTDS

Calculated Symmetrical Components
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
3
9.512 ?10

4
1 ?10

in V in V
Prim. Spannung
Voltage

7500
U0
U1
U2

i
i

5000

i
2500

0.354

Strom in A in A
Prim. Current

1.229

?10 4

I0
I1
I2

0
4
1.5 ?10 94.986

500

1000

1500

2000

2500
3
2.483 ?10

ta

i
Zeit in ms

4
1 ?10

i
i

0.086

5000

0
94.986

500

1000

1500
ta

i ms
Time
in
Zeit in ms

2000

2500
2.483

?10 3

Power Automation

23

## Dynamic Test on a Network Model with RTDS

Results in the Impedance Plane
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.

Reactance in Ohm

0.5

0.5

point

0.5

XZ( p )

XZS ( p )

1.5

All
impedances
are primary
values

2.5 2.5

1.5
1.5

0.5

0.5

R ?RZ( p ) ?RZS ( p )
i

1.5

Resistance in Ohm

2
2

Power Automation

24

## Dynamic Test on a Network Model with RTDS

Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
150

150

100
G1

point

Ch1 ( l )
Ch2 ( l )
Ch3 ( m )
50

250
237.814

200

150

100
B1 ?l ?l ?m
i

50

50
12.87

Power Automation

25

## Dynamic Test on a Network Model with RTDS

RMS Fault Record - Low Load Condition
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.

Test condition: P=40 MW Q=25 MVar; If = 1,4 If0; Voltage regulator failure: V= 1,05
0,7
Relay settings: Char 1 = 0.55 ? 80, 10s; Char 2 = 0.51 ? 90, 10s; Char 3 =0.9 ? 100, 0s

Power Automation

26

## Dynamic Test on a Network Model with RTDS

Result in the Impedance Plane
Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.
3.339

point

Reactance
in in
Ohm
Primrwiderstand
Ohm

X1

Im( Z( p ) )

Generator oscillates
near pickup characteristic

Im( ZS ( p ) )

2
1.103

R1 ?Re ( Z( p ) ) ?Re( ZS ( p ) )
i
Primrwiderstan
in Ohm
Ohm
Resistance in

7
6.446

Power Automation

27

## Dynamic Test on a Network Model with RTDS

Power Automation
Progress. Its that simple.

50

50

Leitwerte in Prozent

40

Underexcited
region for 3.2 s

30

G( i )
Ch1 ( l )
Ch2 ( l )

20

point

Ch3 ( m )

Oscillating near
the characteristic

10

0
5
100
100

80

60

40

20

20

B ( i ) ?l ?l ?m
Leitwerte in Prozent

12.066

Power Automation

28