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Underexcitation

Protection
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Power Transmission and Distribution

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Generator Protection
Underexcitation Protection
(Loss of Field protection)
Presenter: Dr. Hans-Joachim Herrmann
PTD PA13
Phone +49 911 433 8266
E-Mail: Hans-Joachim.Herrmann@siemens.com

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Reasons for Underexcitation


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? Failure of the excitation device


? short circuit in the excitation circuit
ZLoad

? interruption in the excitation circuit


? Maloperation of the automatic voltage
regulator
? Incorrect handling of the voltage regulator
(generator, transformer)
? Generator running with capacitive load

Countermeasure:
GS
3~

excitation
device

Underexcitation Protection
Note: This protection is also called
Loss of Field Protection

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Consequences of Excitation Failures


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Influence Quantities:
? type of construction of the generator
? design of the excitation
? grid conditions
? magnitude of delivered active power
? type of the voltage and power regulator
Consequences:
? rotor acceleration
? local overheating in the rotor and stator
? over-voltages in the rotor
? mechanical shocks onto the foundation
? grid starts oscillating

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Relation of Current and Voltage in a Synchronous


Generator
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Simplified equivalent circuit:


X

VP

ZL

machine equation:

VP = V - I jX

cylindrical-rotor machine:
(turbo generator)

X~Xd; VP = V- jXd I

salient-pole machine:
(hydro generator)
exact:

X:=Xq; Xd

Vector diagram:
Re
Vp

I jX
V
Iexc

?
?
V / jX

? = rotor angle
? = load angle

Im

reduced:

VP = V - j(XdId + XqIq)
VP ~ V - jXqI

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Possible Design of the Generator Capability Diagram


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Definition:

Preferred design

+Q
(Var)

+P
(W)

Operating
area
over excited

under excited

+P
(W)

Static
stability
limit

under
excited

Operating
area

over
excited

+Q
(Var)

Static stability
limit

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Capability Curve of a Turbo Generator


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0,85

type of generator:

0,8

0,85

0,9

MW

0,95

0,975

0,975

0,95

0,9

Progress. Its that simple.

nominal apparent power SN


=
nominal voltage
VN =
nominal current
IN
=
nominal frequency
fN
=
power factor
cos ? N =
cold-air temperature
Tx
=

220
200
180

0,8

TLRI 108/46
200
MVA
15.750 kV
7.331 kA
50.0
Hz
0.8
40.00 C

0,7

160
140

0,7

0,6

120

0,6

100
80

0,4

60

0,4

40

cosphi

cosphi

0,2

0,2

MVAr 140 120 100 80

60

underexcited

40 20

20

40

Q
60 80 100 120 140 160 180 MVAr
overexcited

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Load Diagram of a Synchronous Machine (Cylindricalrotor Machine)


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steady
state
stability
limit

dynamic
stability
limit

turbine limit
stator limit

theoretically
limit

VP If
SN

rotor limit

?N

?N

VN
; ? SN
X 'd

VN
Xd

underexcited

Xd: synchronous reactance


Xd: transient reactance
overexcited

The generator capability curve describes


the stability limits of the generator
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Per Unit Capability Diagram of a Synchronous Generator


in the Case of Undervoltage (V = 0.9 VN)
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P [p.u]
1

Stability
limit

0.85

V=1; I=1;
V=0.9; I= 1.11

overexcited

underexcited
0.81/xd

Q [p.u]

1/xd

In the case of an under-voltage the generator capability curve


moves to right and reduces the stability limits of the generator

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Conclusions for the Protection Design


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1. The generator capability curve describes in the


underexcitation region the stability limit of a generator
2. In the case of an undervoltage the stability becomes
much more critical (moves to active power axis)

A good underexcitation protection should consider both facts


(1 and 2)
The transformation of the generator diagram into the
admittance diagram is the solution, because:

? its direct proportional to the per unit generator diagram


(only the reactive axis must be multiplied by -1)
? the settings can be easy read out from the generator diagram
? it considers right the undervoltage behaviour

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Definitions for Converting the Generator


Diagram into the Admittance Diagram
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Complex Power:

S ? V ?I

Admittance:

S? P ? jQ

I
Y?
V

Y ? G ? jB

G: Conductance
B: Susceptance

Transformation:
?

P - jQ
I ?V
S*
Y?
?
?
?
?
2
2
V
V
V ?V
+

P
G? 2
V
Q
B? - 2
V

Q
P
j
V2
V2
+

Note: In the per unit calculation is VN = 1

In the per unit


representation
the diagrams
are the same,
only there is a
phase shift in
the reactive
part of 180

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Additional Solutions for the Underexcitation


Protection
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a) Excitation Current (IEXC)


- stabile for over-excitation
- insecure for under-excitation (IEXC can be smaller than IEXC, N)

b) Direct Measuring of the Rotor Angle (? )


stability limit depends on ? or 2 ?
- transversal reactance cannot be neglected with small excitation of
turbogenerators (Xq is also depending from 2 ? )

- steady

c) Reactive power I-QI>, Impedance I-ZI<


- the

reactive power protection gets more insensitive when voltage


decreases (at V<VN the stability limit curve moves to right)
- Impedance criterion is used by the competitors
(Stability limit can not be clear seen - see notes beyond )

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Underexcitation Protection with the Criterion


Admittance Y>
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char.3

char.2

char.1
G[p.u.]

? Admittance calculation guarantees


a right behaviour, if the voltages
decreases
? 3 independent characteristics and 3
timer
? characteristic 1,2 is adaptated on
the steady state curve;

?3

B[p.u.] x
d3

1
x d1

?2
1
x d2

? additional inquiry of the field voltage


(release a short trip time)

?1

? characteristic 3 is adaptated on the


dynamic stability limit curve
? blocking of the protection at V<25%
VN

Settings: Can direct read out from the generator diagram

1
1
x d1 ? x
d

? 1 = 80

1
1
x d2 ? 0.9 ? xd1

? 2 = 90

1
2
x d3 ? 1 or ? x d

? 3 = 100 or 110

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Reactions from the Protection


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Combination of
?

stator criterion (straight line characteristics)

rotor criterion (DC undervoltage in the excitation circuit)

Case no. 1:

only rotor criterion fulfilled:


no alarm, no trip

Case no. 2:

only stator criterion fulfilled ( char. 1,2):


only alarm, eventually long-time delayed trip (e.g. 10s)

Case no. 3:

rotor and stator criterion fulfilled (char. 1,2):


alarm and short-time delayed trip (e.g. <0,5s - 1s)

Case no. 4:

stator criterion fulfilled (char. 3):


alarm and short-time delayed trip (e.g. <0,3s)

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Conversion of the Reactive Power into 1/xd


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Example: Generator capability diagram (figure 9)


Generator:
Stability limit:

CT, VT: knV =

SN = 200 MVA
VN = 15,75 kV
Q = 90 MVAr

16kV / 100V
3
3

knl = 8000A/1A

1. Calculation the longitudinal reactance :


Xd ?

?U ?
? N?
? 3?
?
?

Q
3

2
U
? N ? 2,76?
Q

xd ? X d ?

3 IN
? 2,22 or
UN

x d ? SN ? 2,22
Q

2. Conversion into secondary values :

xdsek ? xd

U ?I
UN,G ?INsek ?knl
? xd N,G pN,W ? 2,38
UNsek ?I N,G?knU
I N,G?UpN,W

3. Setting value for Char. 1:


1
1 ? 0,42 ?
? 0,42 ,
x
xdsek
d1

? 1 ? 80?
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Measuring Algorithm
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1) Filtering of the input values


iL
vL

I L1 , I L2 , I L3 ,

V L1 , V L2 , V L3 ,

7UM6

I L ? I rL ? j I iL ,
V L ? VrL ? j ViL ,

2) Calculation of the positive sequence values

GS
3~
iL1,2,3

fourier filter
(50Hz)

uL1,2,3

symmetr.
comp.

I1
V1

3) Calculation of the complex power


I1

S?U I*

V1

S? P? jQ

4) Calculation of the admittance values


S

Y ?

S
2
U1

Y ?

1
1
? j
? G ? jB
R
X

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Power Transmission and Distribution

Underexcitation Protection with Criterion Impedance


I-ZI<
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Generator diagram is transferred in the impedance plan (e.g. X=V2/Q).


(Stability limit is represented as a circular arc.)
? characteristic: Offset-MHO

X[p.u.]
R[p.u.]

? characteristic 1, tdelay ? 0...0.3 s (for high


load generator and field failure)

0.5 xd

? tripping zone inside the circle

Char.1

? characteristic 2, tdelay ? 0.5 - 3 s (for low


load generator, section field voltage failure)

xd
Char.2

approximation
of stability
limit

Summary:
? Measuring principle is from the electro-

Relay settings according


IEEE C37.102-1995

mechanical relays, because impedance


measuring elements were only available
? circle characteristic is a compromise for

adaptation to the generator stability curve


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Transformation of Criterion Impedance I-ZI<


into the Admittance plan
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Transformation rule:
A circle without zero crossing inverted becomes again a circle

Impedance plane
X[p.u.]

Admittance plane

1
Y?
Z

G[p.u.]

R[p.u.]
0.5 xd

Char.1

B[p.u.]

xd

2
1
?
2 ?x d ? x ,d x d

Char. 2

2
x ,d

2
?1
,
2 ? xd

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Power Transmission and Distribution

Setting Example for Impedance and Admittance Principle


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Settings: 501- Generator xd= 0,27; xd = 1,81


Diameter= 1

0,5 Xd = 0,13

Admittance Plane
Impedance Plane

2.5

1.25

0.33
0.67

0
1
1.33

1.25

1.67
2

2.5
1

0.5

0.5

2.5

1.75

0.25

0.5

1/Xd = 0,55
Diameter: Xd = 1,81

All values are in per unit

2/Xd = 1,1

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Both Measuring Principle in the Admittance Plane


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Impedance principle

Admittance principle
Admittance Plane

Trajectory in the
case of underexcitation
with 100% excitation
loss

Generator
diagram
0

Settings:
xd = 0,27
xd = 1,81

2/Xd = 7,4

Note:
B-axis is for mathematical
reasons multiplied by -1

1/Xd = 0,55

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20

Power Transmission and Distribution

Turbo generators: Pick-up Conditions of Different


Relay Characteristics in the Admittance Plane
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1
R

II

5,5
1

2,5

?
2
X?
d

2
X
d

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21

Power Transmission and Distribution

Dynamic Test on a Network Model with RTDS


Fault Record
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Test condition: P=160 MW Q=25 MVar; If = 1,87 If0; Voltage regulator failure: V= 1,05
0,8
Relay settings: Char 1 = 0.55 ? 80, 10s; Char 2 = 0.51 ? 90, 10s; Char 3 =1.1 ? 110, 0s

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22

Power Transmission and Distribution

Dynamic Test on a Network Model with RTDS


Calculated Symmetrical Components
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3
9.512 ?10

4
1 ?10

in V in V
Prim. Spannung
Voltage

7500
U0
U1
U2

i
i

5000

i
2500

0.354

Strom in A in A
Prim. Current

1.229

?10 4

I0
I1
I2

0
4
1.5 ?10 94.986

500

1000

1500

2000

2500
3
2.483 ?10

ta

i
Zeit in ms

4
1 ?10

i
i

0.086

5000

0
94.986

500

1000

1500
ta

i ms
Time
in
Zeit in ms

2000

2500
2.483

?10 3

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23

Power Transmission and Distribution

Dynamic Test on a Network Model with RTDS


Results in the Impedance Plane
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Reactance in Ohm

0.5

0.5

Load
point

0.5

XZ( p )

XZS ( p )

1.5

All
impedances
are primary
values

2.5 2.5

1.5
1.5

0.5

0.5

R ?RZ( p ) ?RZS ( p )
i

1.5

Resistance in Ohm

2
2

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24

Power Transmission and Distribution

Dynamic Test on a Network Model with RTDS


Results in the Admittance Plane
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150

150

100
G1

Load
point

Ch1 ( l )
Ch2 ( l )
Ch3 ( m )
50

250
237.814

200

150

100
B1 ?l ?l ?m
i

Scaling in percent - related to primary values

50

50
12.87

X calculation every 50ms

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25

Power Transmission and Distribution

Dynamic Test on a Network Model with RTDS


RMS Fault Record - Low Load Condition
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Test condition: P=40 MW Q=25 MVar; If = 1,4 If0; Voltage regulator failure: V= 1,05
0,7
Relay settings: Char 1 = 0.55 ? 80, 10s; Char 2 = 0.51 ? 90, 10s; Char 3 =0.9 ? 100, 0s

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26

Power Transmission and Distribution

Dynamic Test on a Network Model with RTDS


Result in the Impedance Plane
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3.339

Load
point

Reactance
in in
Ohm
Primrwiderstand
Ohm

X1

Im( Z( p ) )

Generator oscillates
near pickup characteristic

Im( ZS ( p ) )

2
1.103

R1 ?Re ( Z( p ) ) ?Re( ZS ( p ) )
i
Primrwiderstan
in Ohm
Ohm
Resistance in

7
6.446

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27

Power Transmission and Distribution

Dynamic Test on a Network Model with RTDS


Result in the Admittance Plane
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50

50

Leitwerte in Prozent

40

Underexcited
region for 3.2 s

30

G( i )
Ch1 ( l )
Ch2 ( l )

20

Load
point

Ch3 ( m )

Oscillating near
the characteristic

10

0
5
100
100

80

60

40

20

20

B ( i ) ?l ?l ?m
Leitwerte in Prozent

Scaling in percent - related to primary values

12.066

X calculation every 20ms

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