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ORGANIZATION OF THE BODY

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Anatomy and physiology


is the study of the human body.

Anatomy

is concerned with the structure of a part.


For example,

- The stomach is a J-shaped, pouch-like organ


- The stomach wall has thick folds, which disappear as
the stomach expands to increase its capacity.

Physiology

is concerned with the function of a part.


For example,
- the stomach temporarily stores food, secretes digestive
juices, and passes on partially digested food to the small
intestine.
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Anatomy and physiology are closely connected in


that the structure of an organ suits its function.
For example,

the stomachs pouch-like shape and ability to


expand are suitable to its function of storing
food.
In addition,
the microscopic structure of the stomach wall is suitable
to its secretion of digestive juices.
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Organization of Body Parts

The structure of the body can be studied at


different levels of organization (Fig. 1.1).
Firstly, all substances, including body parts,
are composed of chemicals made up of
submicroscopic particles called atoms.

Atoms join to form molecules, which can in


turn join to form macromolecules.
For example,
molecules called amino acids join to form a macromolecule
called protein, which makes up the bulk of our muscles.
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Macromolecules are found in all cells the


basic units of all living things.
Within cells are organelles tiny structures
that perform cellular functions.
For example,
- the organelle called the nucleus is especially
concerned with cell reproduction;
- another organelle, called the mitochondrion,
supplies the
cell with energy.

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Tissues are the next level of organization.


A tissue is composed of similar types of cells and
performs a specific function.

An organ
is composed of several types of tissues and performs
a particular function within an organ system.

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For example,
the stomach is an organ that is a part of the
digestive system.

It has a specific role in this system, whose overall


function is to supply the body with the nutrients
needed for growth and repair.

The other systems of the body also have


specific functions.
All of the body systems together make up the
organismsuch as, a human being.
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Anatomical terms
superior

medial

proximal

superficial

inferior

lateral

distal

deep

Figure 1.2 Directional terms. Directional terms tell us where body parts are
located with reference to the body in anatomical position.

Anatomical position
Anatomical position:
Standing erect, with face forward,
arms at the sides, and palms and
toes directed forward,
as illustrated in Figure 1.1.

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Directional Terms

Directional terms are used to describe the location of one


body part in relation to another (Fig. 1.2):

Anterior
(ventral)

means that a body part is located toward


the front. The windpipe (trachea) is anterior to
the esophagus.

Posterior means that a body part is located toward


(dorsal)
the back. The heart is posterior to the rib cage.
Superior

means that a body part is located above another


part, or toward the head. The face is superior to
the neck.

Inferior

means that a body part is below another part, or


toward the feet. The navel is inferior to the chin.
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Medial

means that a body part is nearer than another


part to an imaginary midline of the body. The
bridge of the nose is medial to the eyes

Lateral

means that a body part is farther away from the


midline. The eyes are lateral to the nose

Proximal

means that a body part is closer to the point of


attachment or closer to the trunk. The elbow is
proximal to the hand.

Distal

means that a body part is farther from the point


of attachment or farther from the trunk or
torso.
The hand is distal to the elbow

Superficial

means that a body part is located near the

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Deep
(internal)

means that the body part is located away from


the surface. The intestines are deep to the
spine.

Central

means that a body part is situated at the


center of the body or an organ. The central
nervous system is located along the main axis
of the body.

Peripheral means that a body part is situated away from


the center of the body or an organ. The
peripheral nervous system is located outside
the central nervous system

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Figure 1.3 Terms for body parts and areas. a. Anterior. b. Posterior.
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a. Sagital (median)
plane

d. Sagital section of
pelvic cavity

b. Frontal (coronal)
plane

e. Frontal section
of thoracic cavity

c. Transverse (horizontal) plane

f. Transverse section
of head at eye level

Figure 1.4 Body planes and sections.


The planes shown in (a), (b), and (c) are typically used as sites for
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sectioning the body as shown in (d), (e), and (f).

Figure 1.5 The two major body cavities and their


subdivisions. a. Left lateral view; b. Frontal view.
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BODY CAVITIES AND MEMBRANES

During embryonic development, the body is


first divided into two internal cavities:

the posterior (dorsal) body cavity and


the anterior (ventral) body cavity.

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Posterior (Dorsal) Body Cavity


(1) The cranial cavity, enclosed by the bony cranium,
contains the brain.
(2) The vertebral canal, enclosed by vertebrae,
contains the spinal cord (Fig. 1.5a)
The posterior body cavity is lined by three membranous
layers called the meninges.
The most inner of the meninges is tightly bound to the
surface of the brain and the spinal cord.
The space between this layer and the next layer is filled
with cerebrospinal fluid.
Spinal meningitis, a serious condition, is an inflammation of the
meninges usually caused by an infection.
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Anterior (Ventral) Body Cavity


The large anterior body cavity is subdivided into:
the superior thoracic cavity and
the inferior abdominopelvic cavity (Fig.1.5a).
A muscular partition called the diaphragm
separates the two cavities.
Membranes that line these cavities
are called serous membranes
because they secrete a fluid
(serous fluid) that has just
about the same composition
as serum reduces friction.

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Thoracic Cavity

The thoracic cavity is enclosed by the rib


cage, and has three portions:
the left,
contain the lungs
right,
medial portions

The medial portion, called the mediastinum, contains the


heart, thymus gland, trachea, esophagus, and other
structures (Fig. 1.5b).
The lungs are surrounded by a serous membrane called
the pleura (parietal and visceral pleura, pleura cavity +
pleural fluid)
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Abdominopelvic Cavity
has two portions:
the superior abdominal cavity
The stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, and
most of the small and large intestines
the inferior pelvic cavity.
contains the rectum, the urinary bladder, the
internal reproductive organs, and the rest of
the large intestine.
Males have an external extension of the abdominal wall,
called the scrotum, where the testes are found.
Many of the organs of the abdominopelvic cavity are
covered visceral peritoneum, while the wall of the
abdominal cavity is lined with the parietal
peritoneum (cavity: peritoneal fluid).
Peritonitis, another serious condition, is an inflammation of
the peritoneum, again usually caused by an infection.
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HOMEOSTASIS

Internal conditions are not absolutely constant;


they tend to fluctuate above and below a
particular value.
the internal state of the body is often described as
one of dynamic equilibrium.
If internal conditions change to any great degree,
illness results.
homeostatic mechanisms medically important

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A homeostatic mechanism has three components:


A sensor, detects a change in the internal environment
A regulatory center, activates the effectors
An effector, reverses the change and brings conditions
back to normal again.

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a. The general
pattern

c. A human
example

b. A mechanical
example

Figure 1.7 Negative feedback.

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Figure 1.8 Homeostasis and body temperature regulation .

Negative feedback mechanisms control body temperature so that it remains relatively stable at
37C. These mechanisms return the temperature to normal when it fluctuates above and below
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this set point.

Figure 1.9
Regulation of
tissue fluid
composition
Cells are
surrounded by
tissue fluid (blue),
which is continually
refreshed because
oxygen and nutrient
molecules
constantly exit the
bloodstream, and
carbon dioxide and
waste molecules
continually enter the
bloodstream.
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