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Cannabis (drug)

Marijuana redirects here. For other uses, see Marijuana


Bodily effects of


Cannabis, also known as marijuana[7] and by numerous other names,a[] is a preparation of the Cannabis
plant intended for use as a psychoactive drug or
medicine.[8][9] The main psychoactive part of cannabis
is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC); it is one of 483 known
compounds in the plant,[10] including at least 84 other
cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol
(CBN), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV).[11][12]

- Reddening
- Decreased intra-ocular
- Dryness

Cannabis is often consumed for mental and physical effects, such as heightened mood, relaxation,[13] and an
increase in appetite.[14] Possible side-eects include a
decrease in short-term memory, dry mouth, impaired
motor skills, red eyes,[13] and feelings of paranoia or
anxiety.[15] Onset of eects is within minutes when
smoked and about 30 minutes when eaten.[16] They last
for between two and six hours.[16]

- Sensation of
heat or cold
- Increased
heart rate

Cannabis is mostly used recreationally or as a medicinal

drug. It may also be used as part of religious or spiritual
- Relaxation
rites. In 2013 between 128 and 232 million people used
cannabis (2.7% to 4.9% of the global population between
the ages of 15 and 65).[17] In 2015 about half of people Main short-term physical eects of cannabis
from the United States have tried marijuana, 12% have
used it in the past year and 7.3% have used it in the past
month.[18] Usage has increased since 2013.[19]
The earliest recorded uses date from the 3rd millennium BC.[20] Since the early 20th century cannabis has
been subject to legal restrictions with the possession, use,
and sale of cannabis preparations containing psychoactive cannabinoids currently illegal in most countries of
the world; the United Nations deems it the most-used illicit drug in the world.[21][22] Medical marijuana refers to
the physician recommended use of cannabis which is taking place in Canada, Belgium, Australia, the Netherlands,
Spain, and 23 U.S. states.[23] Cannabis use as well as support for legalization has been increasing in the United
States in recent years.[24]


Cannabis is used to reduce nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy, to improve appetite in people with
HIV/AIDS, to treat chronic pain, and help with muscle
spasms.[25][26] Its use for other medical applications is insucient for conclusions about safety or ecacy. Shortterm use increases minor adverse eects, but does not
appear to increase major adverse eects.[27] Long-term
eects of cannabis are not clear,[27][28] and there are concerns including memory and cognition problems, risk for
addiction, risk of schizophrenia among young people, and
the risk of children taking it by accident.[25]
The medicinal value of cannabis is disputed. The
American Society of Addiction Medicine dismisses medical use because of concerns about dependence and adverse health eects.[29] The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) states that cannabis is associated with numerous harmful health eects, and that signicant aspects such as content, production, and supply are unregulated. The FDA approves of the prescription of two products (not for smoking) that have pure THC in a small controlled dose as the active substance.[30]


Main article: Medical cannabis




Main article: Eects of cannabis

cannabis tea, which contains relatively small concentrations of THC because THC is an oil (lipophilic)
and is only slightly water-soluble (with a solubility
of 2.8 mg per liter).[39] Cannabis tea is made by
rst adding a saturated fat to hot water (e.g. cream
or any milk except skim) with a small amount of

Cannabis has psychoactive and physiological eects

when consumed.[31] The immediate desired eects from
consuming cannabis include relaxation and mild euphoria (the high or stoned feeling), while some imme edibles, where cannabis is added as an ingredient to
diate undesired side-eects include a decrease in shortone of a variety of foods.
term memory, dry mouth, impaired motor skills and reddening of the eyes.[32] Aside from a subjective change
in perception and mood, the most common short-term
physical and neurological eects include increased heart
rate, increased appetite and consumption of food, low- 2 Adverse eects
ered blood pressure, impairment of short-term and working memory,[33][34] psychomotor coordination, and conMain article: Long-term eects of cannabis
Further information: Cannabis in pregnancy
According to the United States Department of Health and



Main article: Entheogenic use of cannabis

Cannabis has held sacred status in several religions.


Available forms

Main article: Cannabis consumption

Cannabis is consumed in many dierent ways:[35]





Street methadone



Alkyl nitrites


Anabolic steroids

Physical Harm

Cannabis is ranked as one of recreational drugs with a lower

amount of harm.[41]

Human Services, there were 455,000 emergency room

visits associated with cannabis use in 2011. These statisA joint prior to rolling, with a paper handmade lter on the left tics include visits in which the patient was treated for a
condition induced by or related to recent cannabis use.
The drug use must be implicated in the emergency department visit, but does not need to be the direct cause
smoking, which typically involves inhaling vaporof the visit. Most of the illicit drug emergency room visized cannabinoids (smoke) from small pipes,
its involved multiple drugs.[42] In 129,000 cases, cannabis
bongs (portable versions of hookahs with water
was the only implicated drug.[43][44]
chamber), paper-wrapped joints or tobacco-leafA 2013 literature review said that heavy, long term exwrapped blunts, roach clips, and other items.[36]
posure to marijuana may have biologically-based phys vaporizer, which heats any form of cannabis to 165 ical, mental, behavioral and social health consequences
190 C (329374 F),[37] causing the active ingre- and may be associated with diseases of the liver (pardients to evaporate into a vapor without burning the ticularly with co-existing hepatitis C), lungs, heart, and
plant material (the boiling point of THC is 157 C vasculature.[45] It is recommended that cannabis use be
stopped before and during pregnancy.[46]
(315 F) at 760 mmHg pressure).[38]





THC, the principal psychoactive constituent of the

cannabis plant, has low toxicity, the dose of THC needed
to kill 50% of tested rodents is extremely high. Acute
eects may include anxiety and panic, impaired attention, and memory (while intoxicated), an increased
risk of psychotic symptoms, and possibly and increased
risk of accidents if a person drives a motor vehicle while intoxicated.[47] Psychotic episodes are welldocumented and typically resolve within minutes or
hours. There have been few reports of symptoms lasting longer.[48][49] Cannabis has not been reported to cause
fatal overdose.[50] Studies have shown that cannabis use
causes impairments in memory that persist beyond shortterm intoxication.[51]



There has been a limited amount of studies that have

looked at the eects of smoking cannabis on the respiratory system.[52] Chronic heavy marijuana smoking is
associated with coughing, production of sputum, wheezing, and other symptoms of chronic bronchitis.[47] Regular cannabis use has not been shown to cause signicant abnormalities in lung function.[53] Short-term use of
cannabis is associated with bronchodilation.[54]



cannabis could not be made. If cannabis arteritis turns out
to be a distinct clinical entity, it might be the consequence
of vasoconstrictor activity observed from delta-8-THC
and delta-9-THC.[60] Other serious cardiovascular events
including myocardial infarction, stroke, sudden cardiac
death, and cardiomyopathy have been reported to be temporally associated with cannabis use. Research in these
events is complicated because cannabis is often used in
conjunction with tobacco, and drugs such as alcohol and
cocaine.[61] These putative eects can be taken in context
of a wide range of cardiovascular phenomena regulated
by the endocannabinoid system and an overall role of
cannabis in causing decreased peripheral resistance and
increased cardiac output, which potentially could pose a
threat to those with cardiovascular disease.[62]

2.5 Neurological
A 2013 review comparing dierent structural and functional imaging studies showed morphological brain alterations in long-term cannabis users which were found to
possibly correlate to cannabis exposure.[63] A 2010 review found resting blood ow to be lower globally and
in prefrontal areas of the brain in cannabis users, when
compared to non-users. It was also shown that giving THC or cannabis correlated with increased bloodow in these areas, and facilitated activation of the
anterior cingulate cortex and frontal cortex when participants were presented with assignments demanding
use of cognitive capacity.[64] Both reviews noted that
some of the studies that they examined had methodological limitations, for example small sample sizes or
not distinguishing adequately between cannabis and alcohol consumption.[63][64] A 2011 review found that
cannabis use impaired cognitive functions on several levels, ranging from basic coordination to executive function
tasks.[65] A 2013 review found that cannabis users consistently had smaller hippocampi than nonusers, but noted
limitations in the studies analyzed such as small sample
sizes and heterogeneity across studies.[66]

Cannabis smoke contains thousands of organic and inorganic chemical compounds. This tar is chemically similar
to that found in tobacco smoke,[55] and over fty known
carcinogens have been identied in cannabis smoke,[56]
including; nitrosamines, reactive aldehydes, and polycylic
hydrocarbons, including benz[a]pyrene.[57] As of 2015,
there is no consensus regarding whether cannabis smoking is associated with an increased risk of cancer.[58]
Light and moderate use of cannabis is not believed to increase risk of lung or upper airway cancer. Evidence for
causing these cancers is mixed concerning heavy, longterm use. In general there are far lower risks of pulmonary complications for regular cannabis smokers when 2.6 Suicide
compared with those of tobacco.[53] Combustion products are not present when using a vaporizer, consuming It is not[50]clear whether cannabis use aects the rate of
THC in pill form, or consuming cannabis foods.



There is serious suspicion among cardiologists, spurring

research but falling short of denitive proof, that cannabis
use has the potential to contribute to cardiovascular
disease.[59] Cannabis is believed to be an aggravating factor in rare cases of arteritis, a serious condition that in
some cases leads to amputation. Because 97% of casereports also smoked tobacco, a formal association with

2.7 Chronic use

Eects of chronic use may include bronchitis, a cannabis
dependence syndrome, and subtle impairments of attention and memory. These decits persist while chronically intoxicated.[47] There is little evidence that cognitive
impairments persist in adult abstinent cannabis users.[67]
Compared to non-smokers, people who smoked cannabis
regularly in adolescence exhibit reduced connectivity in


specic brain regions associated with memory, learning, alertness, and executive function.[44] A study has
suggested that sustained heavy, daily, adolescent onset
cannabis use over decades is associated with a decline in
IQ by age 38. No eects were found in those who initiated cannabis use later, or in those who ceased use earlier
in adulthood.[68]


Tolerance and withdrawal

Main article: Cannabis dependence

also expressed in neuroglial cells.[74] THC appears to alter mood and cognition through its agonist actions on
the CB1 receptors, which inhibit a secondary messenger
system (adenylate cyclase) in a dose dependent manner.
These actions can be blocked by the selective CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A (rimonabant), which has
been shown in clinical trials to be an eective treatment
for smoking cessation, weight loss, and as a means of controlling or reducing metabolic syndrome risk factors.[75]
However, due to the dysphoric eect of CB1 antagonists,
this drug is often discontinued due to these side eects.[76]
Via CB1 activation, THC indirectly increases dopamine
release and produces psychotropic eects. Cannabidiol
also acts as an allosteric modulator of the mu and delta
opioid receptors.[77] THC also potentiates the eects of
the glycine receptors.[78] The role of these interactions in
the marijuana high remains elusive.

Cannabis usually causes no tolerance or withdrawal

symptoms except in heavy users. In a survey of heavy
users 42.4% experienced withdrawal symptoms when
they tried to quit marijuana such as craving, irritability,
boredom, anxiety and sleep disturbances.[69] About 9%
of those who experiment with marijuana eventually become dependent. The rate goes up to 1 in 6 among those
4 Physical and chemical properties
who begin use as adolescents, and one quarter to one-half
of those who use it daily according to a NIDA review.[44]
A 2013 review estimates daily use is associated with a 10- 4.1 Detection in body uids
20% rate of dependence.[25] The highest risk of cannabis
dependence is found in those with a history of poor aca- Main article: Cannabis drug testing
demic achievement, deviant behavior in childhood and
adolescence, rebelliousness, poor parental relationships,
THC and its major (inactive) metabolite, THC-COOH,
or a parental history of drug and alcohol problems.[70]
can be measured in blood, urine, hair, oral uid or sweat
using chromatographic techniques as part of a drug use
testing program or a forensic investigation of a trac or
other criminal oense.[79] The concentrations obtained
3 Pharmacology
from such analyses can often be helpful in distinguishing
active use from passive exposure, elapsed time since use,
3.1 Mechanism of action
and extent or duration of use. These tests cannot, however, distinguish authorized cannabis smoking for mediSee also: Eects of cannabis Biochemical mechanisms cal purposes from unauthorized recreational smoking.[80]
in the brain
Commercial cannabinoid immunoassays, often employed
as the initial screening method when testing physiologiThe high lipid-solubility of cannabinoids results in their cal specimens for marijuana presence, have dierent depersisting in the body for long periods of time.[71] Even grees of cross-reactivity with THC and its metabolites.[81]
after a single administration of THC, detectable levels of Urine contains predominantly THC-COOH, while hair,
THC can be found in the body for weeks or longer (de- oral uid and sweat contain primarily THC.[79] Blood may
pending on the amount administered and the sensitivity contain both substances, with the relative amounts depenof the assessment method).[71] A number of investigators dent on the recency and extent of usage.[79]
have suggested that this is an important factor in mari- The Duquenois-Levine test is commonly used as a
juanas eects, perhaps because cannabinoids may accu- screening test in the eld, but it cannot denitively conmulate in the body, particularly in the lipid membranes rm the presence of cannabis, as a large range of subof neurons.[72]
stances have been shown to give false positives. Despite
Not until the end of the 20th century was the specic
mechanism of action of THC at the neuronal level studied. Researchers have subsequently conrmed that THC
exerts its most prominent eects via its actions on two
types of cannabinoid receptors, the CB1 receptor and
the CB2 receptor, both of which are G-protein coupled
receptors.[73] The CB1 receptor is found primarily in the
brain as well as in some peripheral tissues, and the CB2
receptor is found primarily in peripheral tissues, but is

this, it is common in the United States for prosecutors

to seek plea bargains on the basis of positive D-L tests,
claiming them denitive, or even to seek conviction without the use of gas chromatography conrmation, which
can only be done in the lab.[82] In 2011, researchers at
John Jay College of Criminal Justice reported that dietary zinc supplements can mask the presence of THC
and other drugs in urine.[83] However, a 2013 study conducted by researchers at the University of Utah School of

Medicine refute the possibility of self-administered zinc in 1993 to 8.8% in 2008.[87] Other studies have found
producing false-negative urine drug tests.[84]
similar increases in potency since cannabis THC content
began to be studied in the late 1970s.[88] It is unclear,
however, whether the increase in THC content has caused
people to consume more THC or if users adjust based on
5 Varieties and strains
the potency of the cannabis. It is likely that the higher
THC content allows people to ingest less tar. At the same
time Cannabidiol (CBD) levels in seized samples have
lowered as users look for a more mind altering high.[89]
Australias National Cannabis Prevention and Information Centre (NCPIC) states that the buds (owers) of the
female cannabis plant contain the highest concentration
of THC, followed by the leaves. The stalks and seeds have
much lower THC levels.[90] The UN states that leaves
can contain ten times less THC than the buds, and the
stalks one hundred times less THC.[86]
After revisions to cannabis rescheduling in the UK, the
government moved cannabis back from a class C to a
class B drug. A purported reason was the appearance
of high potency cannabis. They believe skunk accounts
for between 70 and 80% of samples seized by police[91]
(despite the fact that skunk can sometimes be incorrectly
mistaken for all types of herbal cannabis).[92][93] Extracts
such as hashish and hash oil typically contain more THC
than high potency cannabis owers.[94]

6 Preparations
Dried ower buds
Types of cannabis

CBD is a 5-HTA receptor agonist, which may also contribute to an anxiolytic eect.[85] This likely means the
high concentrations of CBD found in Cannabis indica
mitigate the anxiogenic eect of THC signicantly.[85]
The eects of sativa are well known for their cerebral
high, hence its daytime use as medical cannabis, while
indica is well known for its sedative eects and preferred
night time use as medical cannabis.[85]


Hash oil
Infusion (dairy butter)
Pipe resin
A forced-air vaporizer. The detachable balloon lls
with vapors

Psychoactive ingredients
6.1 Marijuana

According to the United Nations Oce on Drugs and

Crime (UNODC), the amount of THC present in a
cannabis sample is generally used as a measure of
cannabis potency.[86] The three main forms of cannabis
products are the ower, resin (hashish), and oil (hash oil).
The UNODC states that cannabis often contains 5% THC
content, resin can contain up to 20% THC content,
and that Cannabis oil may contain more than 60% THC

Marijuana consists of the dried owers and subtending

leaves and stems of the female Cannabis plant.[95][96] This
is the most widely consumed form, containing 3% to 20%
THC,[97] with reports of up-to 33% THC.[98] In contrast,
cannabis varieties used to produce industrial hemp contain less than 1% THC and are thus not valued for recreational use.[99]

This is the stock material from which all other prepaA study published in 2010 has shown that the average rations are derived. It is noted that cannabis or its
THC content of seized marijuana increased from 3.4% extracts must be suciently heated or dehydrated to


cause decarboxylation of its most abundant cannabinoid, 6.6 Infusions

tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), into psychoactive
There are many varieties of cannabis infusions owing to
the variety of non-volatile solvents used. The plant material is mixed with the solvent and then pressed and ltered
6.2 Kief
to express the oils of the plant into the solvent. Examples
of solvents used in this process are cocoa butter, dairy
Main article: Kief
butter, cooking oil, glycerine, and skin moisturizers. Depending on the solvent, these may be used in cannabis
or applied topically.[114]
Kief is a powder, rich in trichomes,
which can be
sifted from the leaves and owers of cannabis plants and
either consumed in powder form or compressed to produce cakes of hashish.[102] The word kif derives from 6.7 Adulterated cannabis
colloquial Arabic kf/kf, meaning pleasure.[103]
Contaminants may be found in hashish obtained from
soap bar"-type sources.[115] The dried owers of
the plant may be contaminated by the plant taking
6.3 Hashish
up heavy metals and other toxins from its growing
environment,[116] or by the addition of glass.[117] In the
Main article: Hashish
Netherlands, chalk has been used to make cannabis appear to be of a higher quality.[118] Increasing the weight
Hashish (also spelled hasheesh, hashisha, or simply hash)
of hashish products in Germany with lead caused lead inis a concentrated resin cake or ball produced from pressed
toxication in at least 29 users.[119]
kief, the detached trichomes and ne material that falls
o cannabis owers and leaves.[104] or from scraping the Despite cannabis being generally perceived as a natural
in a recent Australian survey[121] one in four
resin from the surface of the plants and rolling it into product,
balls. It varies in color from black to golden brown de- Australians consider cannabis grown indoors under hypending upon purity and variety of cultivar it was ob- droponic conditions to be a greater health risk due to intained from.[105] It can be consumed orally or smoked, creased contamination, added to the plant during cultivaand is also vaporised, or 'vaped'.[106] The term Rosin tion to enhance the plant growth and quality.
Hash refers to a high quality solventless product obtained
through heat and pressure.[107]

6.8 Medical usage



Further information: Medical cannabis

Main article: Tincture of cannabis

Medical marijuana refers to the use of the Cannabis plant

as a physician-recommended herbal therapy as well as
Cannabinoids can be extracted from cannabis plant mat- synthetic THC and cannabinoids. So far, the medical use
ter using high-proof spirits (often grain alcohol) to cre- of cannabis is legal only in a limited number of territories,
ate a tincture, often referred to as green dragon.[108] including Canada, Belgium, Australia, the Netherlands,
Nabiximols is a branded product name from a tincture Spain, and several U.S. states. This usage generally requires a prescription, and distribution is usually done
manufacturing pharmaceutical company.[109]
within a framework dened by local laws. There is evidence supporting the use of cannabis or its derivatives in
6.5 Hash oil
the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, neuropathic pain, and multiple sclerosis. Lower
Main article: Hash oil
levels of evidence support its use for AIDS wasting syndrome, epilepsy, rheumatoid arthritis, and glaucoma.[44]
Hash oil is a resinous matrix of cannabinoids obtained
from the Cannabis plant by solvent extraction,[110] formed
into a hardened or viscous mass.[111]

7 History

Hash oil can be the most potent of the main cannabis

products because of its high level of psychoactive
compound per its volume, which can vary depending
on the plants mix of essential oils and psychoactive
compounds.[112] Butane and supercritical carbon dioxide
hash oil have become popular in recent years.[113]

See also: War on Drugs, Legal history of cannabis in the

United States and History of medical cannabis
Cannabis is indigenous to Central and South Asia.[124]
Evidence of the inhalation of cannabis smoke can be
found in the 3rd millennium BCE, as indicated by charred

The Chinese character for hemp ( or m) depicts two plants

under a shelter.[122] Cannabis cultivation dates back at least 3000
years in Taiwan.[123]
Cannabis sativa from Vienna Dioscurides, 512 AD

cannabis seeds found in a ritual brazier at an ancient burial

site in present-day Romania.[125] In 2003, a leather basket
lled with cannabis leaf fragments and seeds was found
next to a 2,500- to 2,800-year-old mummied shaman in
the northwestern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of
China.[126][127] Evidence for the consumption of cannabis
has also been found in Egyptian mummies dated about
950 BC.[128][129]

Science showed that pipes dug up from the garden

of Shakespeare's home in Stratford-upon-Avon contain
traces of cannabis.[138] The chemical analysis was carried out after researchers hypothesized that the noted
weed mentioned in Sonnet 76 and the journey in my
head from Sonnet 27 could be references to cannabis and
the use thereof.[139] Examples of classic literature featuring cannabis include Les paradis articiels by Charles
Cannabis is also known to have been used by the an- Baudelaire and The Hasheesh Eater by Fitz Hugh Ludlow.
cient Hindus of India and Nepal thousands of years ago.
The herb is called ganja (Sanskrit: , IAST: gaj) or John Gregory Bourke described use of mariguan,
ganjika in Sanskrit and other modern Indo-Aryan lan- which he identies as Cannabis indica or Indian hemp,
guages.[130][131] Some scholars suggest that the ancient by Mexican residents of the Rio Grande region of Texas
drug soma, mentioned in the Vedas, was cannabis, al- in 1894. He described its uses for treatment of asthma,
to expedite delivery, to keep away witches, and as a lovethough this theory is disputed.[132]
philtre. He also wrote that many Mexicans added the
Cannabis was also known to the ancient Assyrians, herb to their cigarritos or mescal, often taking a bite of
who discovered its psychoactive properties through the
sugar afterward to intensify the eect. Bourke wrote
Aryans.[133] Using it in some religious ceremonies, they that because it was often used in a mixture with toloachi
called it qunubu (meaning way to produce smoke),
(which he inaccurately describes as Datura stramonium),
a probable origin of the modern word cannabis.[134] mariguan was one of several plants known as "loco weed".
Cannabis was also introduced by the Aryans to the Bourke compared mariguan to hasheesh, which he called
Scythians, Thracians and Dacians, whose shamans (the one of the greatest curses of the East, citing reports
kapnobatai"those who walk on smoke/clouds) burned that users become maniacs and are apt to commit all
cannabis owers to induce a state of trance.[135]
sorts of acts of violence and murder, causing degenerCannabis has an ancient history of ritual use and is found ation of the body and an idiotic appearance, and menin pharmacological cults around the world. Hemp seeds tioned laws against sale of hasheesh in most Eastern
discovered by archaeologists at Pazyryk suggest early cer- countries.[140][141][142]
emonial practices like eating by the Scythians occurred Cannabis was criminalized in various countries beginning
during the 5th to 2nd century BCE, conrming previous in the early 20th century. In the United States, the rst
historical reports by Herodotus.[136] It was used by Mus- restrictions for sale of cannabis came in 1906 (in District
lims in various Su orders as early as the Mamluk period, of Columbia).[143] It was outlawed in South Africa in
for example by the Qalandars.[137]
1911, in Jamaica (then a British colony) in 1913, and in
A study published in the South African Journal of the United Kingdom and New Zealand in the 1920s.[144]


claimed that the act was passed in order to destroy the
US hemp industry,[147][148][149] with the primary involvement of businessmen Andrew Mellon, Randolph Hearst,
and the Du Pont family.[147][149] But the improvements of
the decorticators, machines that separate the bers from
the hemp stem, could not make hemp ber a very cheap
substitute for bers from other sources because it could
not change that basic fact that strong bers are only found
in the bast, the outer part of the stem. Only about 1/3 of
the stem are long and strong bers.[147][150][151][152] The
company DuPont and many industrial historians dispute
a link between nylon and hemp. They argue that the purpose of developing the nylon was to produce a ber that
could be used in thin stockings for females and compete
with silk.[153][154][155]
In New York City, there were more than 19,000 kg
(41,000 lb) of marijuana growing like weeds throughout
the boroughs until 1951, when the White Wing Squad,
headed by the Sanitation Department General Inspector John E. Gleason, was charged with destroying the
many pot farms that had sprouted up across the city. The
Brooklyn Public Library reports: this group was held to
a high moral standard and was prohibited from entering
saloons, using foul language, and neglecting horses. The
Squad found the most weed in Queens but even in Brooklyn dug up millions of dollars worth of the plants, many
as tall as Christmas trees. Gleason oversaw incineration
of the plants in Woodside, Queens.[156]
The United Nations 2012 Global Drug Report stated that
cannabis was the worlds most widely produced, trafcked, and consumed drug in the world in 2010, identifying that between 119 million and 224 million users
existed in the worlds adult (18 or older) population.[157]

8 Society and culture

Cannabis indica uid extract, American Druggists Syndicate,

8.1 Legal status

Canada criminalized cannabis in the Opium and Drug

Act of 1923, before any reports of use of the drug in
Canada. In 1925 a compromise was made at an international conference in The Hague about the International
Opium Convention that banned exportation of Indian
hemp to countries that had prohibited its use, and requiring importing countries to issue certicates approving the importation and stating that the shipment was required exclusively for medical or scientic purposes. It
also required parties to exercise an eective control of
such a nature as to prevent the illicit international trac
in Indian hemp and especially in the resin.[145][146]

Main article: Legality of cannabis

See also: Prohibition of drugs and Drug liberalization
Since the beginning of the 20th century, most countries have enacted laws against the cultivation, possession or transfer of cannabis.[159] These laws have impacted adversely on the cannabis plants cultivation for
non-recreational purposes, but there are many regions
where, under certain circumstances, handling of cannabis
is legal or licensed. Many jurisdictions have lessened the
penalties for possession of small quantities of cannabis, so
that it is punished by conscation and sometimes a ne,
rather than imprisonment, focusing more on those who
trac the drug on the black market.

In the United States in 1937, the Marihuana Tax Act was

passed, and prohibited the production of hemp in addition to cannabis. The reasons that hemp was also included in this law are disputedseveral scholars have

In some areas where cannabis use has been historically

tolerated, some new restrictions have been put in place,
such as the closing of cannabis coee shops near the
borders of the Netherlands,[160] closing of coee shops



Woman selling cannabis and bhang in Guwahati, Assam, India

Cannabis propaganda sheet from 1935

8.2 Economics
8.2.1 Production
Main article: Cannabis cultivation
near secondary schools in the Netherlands and crackdowns on Pusher Street in Christiania, Copenhagen in
It is often claimed by growers and breeders of herbal
cannabis that advances in breeding and cultivation techSome jurisdictions use free voluntary treatment pro- niques have increased the potency of cannabis since the
grams and/or mandatory treatment programs for frequent late 1960s and early '70s, when THC was rst discovered
known users. Simple possession can carry long prison and understood. However, potent seedless cannabis such
terms in some countries, particularly in East Asia, where as "Thai sticks" were already available at that time. Sinthe sale of cannabis may lead to a sentence of life in prison semilla (Spanish for without seed) is the dried, seedor even execution. More recently however, many politi- less inorescences of female cannabis plants. Because
cal parties, non-prot organizations and causes based on THC production drops o once pollination occurs, the
the legalization of medical cannabis and/or legalizing the male plants (which produce little THC themselves) are
plant entirely (with some restrictions) have emerged.
eliminated before they shed pollen to prevent pollination.
In December 2012, the U.S. state of Washington be- Advanced cultivation techniques such as hydroponics,
came the rst state to ocially legalize cannabis in a cloning, high-intensity articial lighting, and the sea of
state law (Washington Initiative 502) (but still illegal by green method are frequently employed as a response (in
federal law),[163] with the state of Colorado following part) to prohibition enforcement eorts that make outclose behind (Colorado Amendment 64).[164] On January door cultivation more risky. It is often cited that the av1, 2013, the rst marijuana club for private marijuana erage levels of THC in cannabis sold in United States rose
smoking (no buying or selling, however) was allowed for dramatically between the 1970s and 2000, but such statethe rst time in Colorado.[165] The California Supreme ments are likely skewed because of undue weight given
more expensive and potent, but less prevalent
Court decided in May 2013 that local governments can to much [172]
ban medical marijuana dispensaries despite a state law
in California that permits the use of cannabis for medi- Skunk refers to several named strains of potent
cal purposes. At least 180 cities across California have cannabis, grown through selective breeding and someenacted bans in recent years.[166]
times hydroponics. It is a cross-breed of Cannabis sativa
In December 2013, Uruguay became the rst country to and C. indica (although other strains of this mix exist
legalize growing, sale and use of cannabis.[167] However, in abundance). Skunk cannabis potency ranges usually
as of August 2014, no cannabis has yet been sold legally from 6% to 15% and rarely as high as 20%. The averlevel in coee shops in the Netherlands is about
in Uruguay. According to the law, the only cannabis that age THC [173]
can be sold legally must be grown in the country by no
more than ve licensed growers, and these have yet to
be selected; in fact the call for applications did not go
out until August 1, 2014.[168] In the elections of October 2014, there is a signicant chance that lawmakers
opposed to legal cannabis will come to control the legislature, and the law will be repealed before it has fully
taken eect.[169][170][171]

8.2.2 Price
The price or street value of cannabis varies widely depending on geographic area and potency.[174]
In the United States, cannabis is overall the number four



value crop, and is number one or two in many states

including California, New York and Florida, averaging
$3,000/lb.[175][176] It is believed to generate an estimated
$36 billion market.[177] The United Nations Oce on
Drugs and Crime claims in its 2008 World Drug Report
that typical U.S. retail prices are $1015 per gram (approximately $280420 per ounce). Street prices in North
America are known to range from about $40 to $400 per
ounce, depending on quality.[178]
The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug
Addiction reports that typical retail prices in Europe for
cannabis varies from 2 to 20 per gram, with a majority of European countries reporting prices in the range



areas), thus leading to the gateway sequence in those

individuals since they are most likely to experiment with
any drug oered.[181]
An alternative to the gateway hypothesis is the Common
Liability to Addiction theory (CLA). It states that some
individuals are, for various reasons, willing to try multiple recreational substances. The gateway drugs are
merely those that are (usually) available at an earlier age
than the harder drugs. Researchers have noted in an extensive review, Vanyukov et al., that it is dangerous to
present the sequence of events described in gateway theory in causative terms as this hinders both research and

9 Research

Marijuana vending machines for selling or dispensing

cannabis are in use in the United States and are planned Further information: Medical cannabis#Research
to be used in Canada.[180]

Further information: Gateway drug theory

Cannabis research is challenging since the plant is illegal in most countries.[192][193][194][195][196] Researchgrade samples of the drug are dicult to obtain for research purposes, unless granted under authority of national governments.

The Gateway Hypothesis states that cannabis use increases the probability of trying harder drugs. The hypothesis has been hotly debated as it is regarded by some
as the primary rationale for the United States prohibition on cannabis use.[181][182] A Pew Research Center poll
found that political opposition to marijuana use was signicantly associated with concerns about health eects
and whether legalization would increase marijuana use
by children.[183]

There are also other diculties in researching the effects of cannabis. Many people who smoke cannabis
also smoke tobacco.[197] This causes confounding factors, where questions arise as to whether the tobacco, the
cannabis, or both that have caused a cancer. Another difculty researchers have is in recruiting people who smoke
cannabis into studies. Because cannabis is an illegal drug
in many countries, people may be reluctant to take part in
research, and if they do agree to take part, they may not
say how much cannabis they actually smoke.[198]


Gateway drug

Some studies state that while there is no proof for the

gateway hypothesis,[184] young cannabis users should
still be considered as a risk group for intervention
programs.[185] Other ndings indicate that hard drug 10 Footnotes
users are likely to be poly-drug users, and that interventions must address the use of multiple drugs instead of a
pot,[200] grass,[201] and herb[202] are
single hard drug.[186] Almost two-thirds of the poly drug ^ a: Weed,
other nicknames for marijuana or
users in the 2009/10 Scottish Crime and Justice Survey among the many [203][204]
used cannabis.
^ b: Sources for this section and more information can
The gateway eect may appear due to social factors in- be found in the Medical cannabis article
volved in using any illegal drug. Because of the illegal
status of cannabis, its consumers are likely to nd themselves in situations allowing them to acquaint with individuals using or selling other illegal drugs.[188][189] Utilizing this argument some studies have shown that alco11 See also
hol and tobacco may additionally be regarded as gate[190]
however, a more parsimonious explanaway drugs;
tion could be that cannabis is simply more readily avail Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome
able (and at an earlier age) than illegal hard drugs. In turn
alcohol and tobacco are easier to obtain at an earlier point
than is cannabis (though the reverse may be true in some




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External links

Wiktionary Appendix of Cannabis Slang





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Cannabis (drug) Source: Contributors: AxelBoldt, Bryan Derksen, Novalis, Fubar Obfusco, Heron, Leandrod, Stevertigo, D, Bewildebeast, Fred Bauder, Fuzzie, Ronincyberpunk, Gabbe, Ixfd64, 172, AlexR,
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