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MIMO for LTE

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MIMO for LTE

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MIMO for LTE

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MIMO for LTE

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MIMO for LTE

LTE Physical Layer services assume multiple port antenna systems are used.
Multiple port antenna
systems are implemented for the following reasons:
Improved transmission reliability
Greater coverage or range
Reduced UE power consumption
Increased transmission throughput
Multiple port antenna systems include the following:
Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO)
Multiple Input Single Output (MISO)
Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)

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In a SIMO configuration the transmitter (usually the UE) has one transmitter and the
receiver (the
eNodeB) has two physically separated antenna ports. The receiver picks up multiple
versions of the
same signal but separated spatially. SIMO receivers use the following techniques to
compute the best
received signal.
Switched Diversity
In Switched Diversity, the input with the best signal is chosen as the best source. The
best signal
may be based on Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) or Bit Error Rate (BER). Switched
diversity is the most
simple and inexpensive SIMO technique.
Equal Gain Combining
Equal Gain Combining is a summation of all available received signals.
Maximum Ratio Combining
In Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC), each received signal has compensation
applied to it before being
combined to produce a composite single signal. This technique is particularly effective
where the signal
undergoes deep fading. Because fading probably occurs at different frequencies on
each antenna port,
the reliability of the radio link is increased.

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A MISO (eNodeB) transmitter has two or more physically separated antenna ports,
while the MISO (UE)
receiver has one antenna. Each Tx port transmits the same information bits. In
addition to data signals,
reference signals are also transmitted via both antenna ports. The normal reference
signal pattern is
sent via the first antenna port and the diversity reference signal pattern via the second
antenna port.
In Space-Time Transmit Diversity (STTD) the same data is transmitted
simultaneously over both Tx
ports. On each port, the channel-coded data is processed in blocks of four bits, then
the bits are time
reversed and complex conjugated. The physical separation of the antenna ports
provides the space
diversity, and the time difference derived from the bit-reversing process provides the
time diversity. These
features together make the decoding process in the receiver more reliable.

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MIMO systems contain multiple antenna ports at both the transmitter and receiver.
The MIMO transmitter
transmits signals using time, frequency, and space diversity. The MIMO receiver
recovers the data across
multiple receiving antenna ports.

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Space-Time Coding (STC) provides diversity gain to combat the effects of unwanted
multipath
propagation. Similar to STTD, time delayed and coded versions of the same signal
are sent from the
same transmitter antenna. The codes that are used are mainly: trellis and block (less
complex) codes.
This improves the SNR for cell edge performance.
Spatial Multiplexing (SM)
With Spatial Multiplexing, unique (different) data streams are transmitted over
different antenna ports.
Spatial multiplexing can double (2x2 MIMO) or quadruple (4x4 MIMO) capacity and
throughput. This
technique gives higher capacity when RF conditions are favorable and users are
closer to the eNodeB.
The graphic shows spatial multiplexing with a 2x2 MIMO configuration. The receiver
can identify the
transmitting antenna port for each received signal

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MIMO supports single user MIMO and multi-user MIMO. Single User MIMO improves
the performance
for a UE (via space time coding), or increases the throughput for a UE (using spatial
multiplexing).

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In multi-user MIMO, the data for different users is multiplexed onto a single timefrequency resource, so
the capacity of the cell can increase in terms of users without increasing the system
bandwidth.
Switching between SU-MIMO and MU-MIMO is supported on a per UE basis. The
use of codes and reference signals not only allows the receiver to differentiate
between antenna streams and users, but also allows accurate channel estimation

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MIMO supports both open loop and closed loop control. Open loop MIMO
transceivers adjust their
transmission based on received (reference signal) measurements. This assumes no
rapid feedback
technique is available from the UE receiver back to the eNodeB transmitter.
Unfortunately, in open loop
operation, the transmitter receives no feedback regarding antenna port operation or
signal strength in
the forward direction.
Closed loop MIMO supports a feedback loop describing eNodeB transmitter
operation and UE
recommendations. Both the eNodeB and UE contain a codebook which describes
possible RF
parameters, for example, the phase shift between antenna ports. In closed loop
MIMO, the UE
describes eNodeB transmitter operation by returning an index into the shared
codebook.
Closed loop operation uses the following steps.
1. The eNodeB transmits a DL pilot channel as a reference signal on all antenna
ports.
2. he UE evaluates various codebook options that specify the RF parameters.
3. The UE transmits its recommendations in the form of a codebook index to the
eNodeB.
4. The eNodeB adjusts its DL transmission to the UE based on the recommended
parameters.

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In case of open loop spatial multiplex two cases have to be distinguished. If the
transmitted rank indication (TRI) = 1 the transmission mode corresponds to transmit
diversity.
If TRI >1 large delay CDD is used. The number of layers is 2, 3 or 4.
In case of closed loop spatial multiplexing feedback from the UE it is used.
The UE feedbacks values of the RI = Rank Indicator and PMI = Precoding Matrix
Indicator.
In case of 2 antenna ports the codebook consists of 2 matrices, in case of 4 antenna
ports there are 16 entries. A restriction may be signaled so that only a subset thereof
can be used.

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Release 10 has enhanced the reference signal design with user specific reference symbols
for signal demodulation and common reference symbols for feedback purposes in downlink
and more orthogonal reference signal structure in uplink. The enhanced design enables better
performance when the number of antenna branches is high.
Downlink MIMO has already been included in LTE Release 8. The LTE Release 8 codebook
and reference symbol design was found to be quite optimum for two and four transmit
antennas (2x2, 2x4 and 4x4 antenna configurations), but the channel state information
feedback from UE to eNB could have been more accurate. This limitation is overcome by the
new reference symbol design of Release 10, which is also more effective when the number of
transmit antennas is higher. Based on the studies and numerous contributions in 3GPP, it can
be safely concluded that the higher the number of antennas, the higher is the gain that
Release 10 MIMO provides in downlink. With two eNB and two UE antennas, Release 10
downlink MIMO provides no improvements over release 8 in SU-MIMO mode but small
performance improvements have been gained in MU-MIMO mode. In most cases it is best to
operate two TX antenna eNBs in Release 8 SU-MIMO mode. When eNB has four transmit
antennas, Release 10 downlink MIMO gain is more than 20% over Release 8 and with eight
transmit antennas a bit higher. Reference symbol overhead effects on system performance
are significant with four and eight transmit antennas. Therefore the selection of MIMO
operating modes and system parameters for both Release 8 and 10 UE is a critical network
optimization task.

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An important point worth remembering is that the network should also support
Release 8 and 9 UE which does not benefit from the Release 10 enhancements. The
capacity gain from Release 10 downlink MIMO enhancements could even be negative
since new reference symbols create overhead for all UE. However, these overheads
can be decreased by decreasing the Release 8 and 9 specific reference symbols, but
this would prevent non-LTE-A UE to operate in MIMO mode and thus lower their data
rates. Additionally, there would be negative effects on common control channel
performance. Consequently, the timing of the introduction of the new features and the
configuration of the system parameters are essential for an optimum performance of
the LTE network.
CSI - For downlink channel sounding / Sparse, low overhead (configurable)
CSI = PMI(precoding matrix indicator) + RI(rank indicator) + CQI (channel quality
indicator)
DM - UE-specific DM-RS, which is precoded, makes it possible to apply noncodebook-based precoding (precoding based on CSI feedback and/or UL sounding)UE-specific DM-RS will enable application of enhanced multi-user beamformingsuch
as zero forcing (ZF) for, e.g., 4-by-2 MIMO - DM RS pattern for higher numbers of
layers is extended for 2-layer format for transmission mode 8 in Rel-9 //CDM between
RS of two layers// E.g. for 4 antenna ports:

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Uplink MIMO provides significantly higher peak rates and improved spectrum efficiency in
uplink direction. SU-MIMO provides mainly increased data rates in lightly loaded networks for
high-end multi-transmitter UE, whereas MU-MIMO can offer significant improvement of
spectrum efficiency even with single transmitter UE. This can boost network capacity at low
costs The LTE-A system can operate in both SU and MU-MIMO modes at the same time
using dynamic user specific MIMO transmission configuration.

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Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH) is used instead of PDSCH.


Special RS pattern with higher density in frequency domain supports longer delay
spread
from multi-cell transmission.
Multimedia Broadcast Single Frequency Network(MBSFN) mode of operation is
supported by EUTRAN to enable efficient multicell transmission of EMBMS
services

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