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CBSEPapers,Questions,Answers,MCQ...:Class9Ch5Cell:FundamentalUnitofLifeNCERTQ&A
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MAILYOURQPAPERSANDIDEAS

Class9Ch5Cell:FundamentalUnitofLife
NCERTQ&A

SendyourQuestionPapers,
suggestions,ideasatemail:
info@eduvictors.com

Q1:Whoobservedthecellsfirsttime?
Answer:RobertHooke.Heobservedthinsliceofcorkcellsunderasimplemicroscope.

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SimpleMicroscopemadebyRobertHooke(credits:Wikipedia)

Q2:DefineCell
Answer:Cellisthestructuralandfunctionalunitoflife.
Q3:Whoproposedthecelltheory?
Answer:Schleiden(1838)andSchwann(1839).
Q4:Whoexpandedcelltheorybysuggestingthatallcellsarisefrompreexisting
cells?
Answer:Virchow(1855.
Q5:Inwhichyearelectronmicroscopewasinvented?
Answer:1940
Q6:NamethebookinwhichRobertHookepublishedhisobservationsaboutcork
cells.
Answer:Micrographia.

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Q7:Whodiscoverednucleusinthecell?
Answer:RobertBrown(1831)
Q8:Namethetwopostulatesofthecelltheory.
Answer:
Cellisthebasicstructuralandfunctionalunitoflifeforalllivingbeings.
Allcellsarisefrompreexistingcells.
Q9:Whocoinedtheterm'protoplasm'?
Answer:Purkinjein1839coinedthetermprotoplasmforthefluidsubstanceofthecell.
Q10:Namethelargestcell?
Answer:Theeggoftheostrichisthelargestcell(170x135mm)whichcanbeseenby
anunaidedeye.

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Q11:Nametheworld'ssmallestcell.
Answer:ItisatypeofbacteriacalledMycoplasmaaboutadiameterof10m
(micrometre).
Q12:Namethesmallestcellinhumanbody.
Answer:Humanspermcellabout5x3m.
Q13:Namethebiggestcellinhumanbody.
Answer:Humanovamabout1mmindiameter.
Q14:Namethelongestcellinhumanbody.
Answer:Humannervecellabout1meterlong.
Q15:Namethecellinhumanbodywhichcannotreproduce.
Answer:RBCsorRedBloodCorpuscles/cells.
Q16:Giveanexampleofanucleatecelli.e.cellwithoutnucleus.
Answer:RBCsorRedBloodCorpuscles/cellsinmammals.
Q17:Giveanexampleofcellscontainingtwonuclei(Binucleate).
Answer:Paramecium
Q18:Giveexamplesofcellswhicharemutinucleate(i.e.havingmanynuclei).
Answer:Striatedmuscles,fewtypesalgaeandfungi.
Q19:Whatistheplasmamembranecomposedof?Answer:LipidsandProteins.Ithas
viscousbilayeroflipidwithproteinmoleculesoccurringoninnerandoutersidesoflipid
bilayer.(Phospholipidbilayer)
Q20:Whoproposedfluidmosaicmodelofcellorplasmamembrane?
Answer:SingerandNicholsan(1972)

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Note:Thefluidmosaicmodeldescribestheplasmamembraneasaphospholipidbilayer
withembeddedproteins.
Q21:Isplasmamembranepermeableorselectivelypermeable?
Answer:Selectivelypermeablei.e.itallowscertainmoleculesorionstopassthroughit.

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Q22:Whataredifferenttypestransportofcomponentsacrosscellmembrane?
Answer:Twotypes:
PassiveTransport:e.g.Diffusion,Osmosis
ActiveTransport:e.g.endocytosis,exocytosis

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Q23:DefinePassiveTransport.
Answer:Passivetransportisthenetmovementofmaterialsacrossmembranesthat
doesnotrequireanyspecialsourceofenergy.
Q24:Whatisdiffusion?
Answer:Diffusionisthenetmovementofmoleculesfromhightoregionsoflower
concentrationasaresultofrandommolecularmotion.Diffusiontendstodistribute
moleculesuniformly.

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ExchangeofgaseslikeCO2andO2inlungs,plants,bloodcells,O2enteringstomataof
leavesareexamplesofdiffusion.
Diffusionispassivetransporti.e.noexternalenergyisprovidedforthemovementof
molecules.Thenaturalkineticenergyoftheparticlesuppliestheenergy.

Q25:DefineOsmosis.Whataredifferenttypesofosmosis?Giveexamplesof
osmosis.
Answer:Osmosisisaspecialtypeofdiffusioni.e.passageofwater(solvent)acrossa
selectivelypermeablemembrane,fromaregionofhighwaterconcentration(dilute
solution)totheregionoflowwaterconcentration(concentratedsolution).
Osmosisisalsoapassivetransporti.e.noexternalenergyisrequiredforthepassage.
Therearetwotypeofosmosis:

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1. Endosmosis:Theprocessinwhichthewatermoleculesenterintothecellis
knownasendosmosis.
2. Exosmosis:Theprocessinwhichthewatermoleculesmoveoutofthecellis
knownasexosmosis.

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ExamplesofOsmosisare:
Absorptionofwaterbyplantroots.
Absorptionofwaterbyalimentarycanal.
Reabsorptionofwaterbytubulesofthenephroninkidneys.
Q26:Whathappenstoacell(plantcelloranimalcell)whenplacedinthefollowing
solutions:
(a)Hypotonicsolution
(b)Isotonicsolution
(c)Hypertonicsolution
Answer:
(a)HypotonicSolution:externalsolutionisdilutei.e.highwaterconcentration(low
soluteconcentration).Inthiscasewaterwillrushintothecellanditwillgainwater.
(b)IsotonicSolution:externalsolutionconcentrationissameasinternalsolution
concentrationofthecell.Inthiscase,thereisnonetmovementofwater.
(c)HypertonicSolution:externalsolutionisofhighsoluteconcentrationi.e.lowwater
concentration.Herewaterwillrushoutfromcellanditwillshrivel/shrink.
Thefigurebelowshowsredbloodcellandplantcellosmoticbehaviourinvarioustypes
ofsolutions.

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Q27:Whatisplasmolysis?
Answer:Whenalivingplantcellloseswaterplacedinhypertonicsolution,theplantcell
shrinksawayfromthecellwall.Thisprocessiscalledplasmolysis.Plantswith
plasmolysedcellswilt.
Q28:Placeadeshelledegginwaterforfiveminutes.Whatdoyouobserve?

(Note:Deshelledeggmeans,theshellofaneggisremovedbydissolvingitindilute
hydrochloricacid.Theshellismostlycalciumcarbonate.Athinouterskinnow
enclosestheegg.)
Answer:Theeggswellsbecausewaterpassesintoitbyosmosis.(hypotonicsolution).
Q29:Whatwillhappenifadeshelledegginaconcentratedsaltsolutionfor5
minutes?
Answer:TheeggshrinksbecausewaterpassesoutoftheeggintosaLtsolution.The
saltsolutionismore
concentratedthantheinsideoftheegg.(Hypertonic)
Q30(CBSE):Putdriedraisinsinplainwaterandleavethemforsometime.Thenplace
theminconcentratedsolutionofsugarorsalt.Whatdoyouobserveinbothcases?
Answer:CaseI:Raisinsgainwaterandswellswhenplacedinpurewater.
CaseII:Whenplacedintheconcentratedsolution,raisinslosewaterandhenceshrink.
Q31:Whatwouldhappeniftheplasmamembranerupturesorbreaksdown?
Answer:PlasmaorCellmembraneisaselectivelypermeablemembranei.e.itallows
movementofcertainmaterialsinandouttothecell.Incaseplasmamembrane
ruptures(likeinhypertonicsolution),thecellwillshrivelandeventuallydie.Atthis
time,lysosomesofthecellwillcomeintoaction.Lysosomeswillreleasedigestive
enzymesandeatupwornoutcellorganellesandforeignmaterial.
Q32:WhatdoyoumeanbyEndocytosis?HowdoesanAmoebaobtainitsfood?
Answer:Theprocessbywhichacellengulfsmaterialtobringitintothecelliscalled
endocytosis.Itisatypeofactivetransport.Endocytosisisoftwotypes:
Phagocytosis:Itreferstotheprocessofengulfinglargeparticles(orcell
eating).
Pinocytosis:itreferstoengulfingmacromolecules.(orcelldrinking)
Forexample,Amoebaobtainsitsfoodbyendocytosisinwhichtheflexibilityofthecell
membraneenablesthecelltoengulfinfoodandothermaterialfromitsexternal
environment.
Q33:DefineExocytosis.
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Answer:Exocytosisisprocesstomovematerialtotheoutsideofthecell.Avesicle
fuseswiththeplasmamembraneanddischargesitscontentsoutside.Thisallowscells
tosecretemolecules.Itisatypeofactivetransport.
Q34:Whyarelysosomesknownassuicidebags?
Answer:Lysosomesareorganellesthatcontaindigestiveenzymes.Theydigestexcess
orwornoutorganelles,foodparticles,andengulfedvirusesorbacteria.Lysosomes
fusewithvacuolesanddispensetheirenzymesintothevacuole,digestingitscontents.
Sometimes,lysosomesdigestthecellsthatcontainthem.Ithappenswhencellsget
damagedordestroyed.That'swhylysosomesarecalledsuicidalbags.
E.g.Whenatadpoledevelopsintoafrog,lysosomeswithinthecellsofthetadpoles
tailcauseitsdigestion.OrLysosomeshelpindefensebydigestinggerms,asinwhite
bloodcells.

ConceptMaponCellStructure

CellStructure(conceptmap)

Q35:Virusesare
(a)Unicellularmicroorganisms
(b)BiCellularmicroorganisms
(c)Multicellularmicroorganisms
(d)Noncellularmicroorganisms
Answer:(d).NonCellular.Viruseslieonthelineofdivisionbetweenlivingandnon
living.TheyarenonlivingcarryingRNAmaterial.Theyactaslivingwhenfindasuitable
hostandmultiply.
Q36:WhoisknownasFatherofBiology?
Answer:Aristotle.
Q37:WhodiscoveredGolgiapparatus?
Answer:CamilloGolgi
Q38:Whichcellorganelleisknownas"proteinfactory"?
Answer:Ribosomes
Q39:Whatistheenergycurrencyofthecellcalled?
Answer:ATP(Adenosinetriphosphate)
Q40:Whenchromosomesarevisibleinthenucleus?
Answer:Duringcelldivision.
Q41:WhichofthefollowingisNOTinvolvedinthesynthesisofproteins?
(a)roughER
(b)smoothER
(c)Golgibody
(d)ribosomes
Answer:(b)smoothER.
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RoughERisthesiteforproteinsynthesisandhasribosomesembedded.Ribosomeson
theroughERproduce
proteinsthatarepassedfromthecell;theGolgibodythenpackagesthemforthis
purpose.SmoothERisusedmainlyinthemakingoflipidsanddetoxifyingenzymes.
Q42:Whichofthefollowingoftendistinguishesplantcellsfromanimalcells?
(a)centrioles
(b)nucleus
(c)chromatin
(d)roughER
Answer:(a)Centrioles
Q43:Areplastidspresentinallcells?Whatareitstypes?
Answers:Plastidsarepresentonlyinplantcells.Basedoncolourpigments,thereare
threetypesofplastids:
Leucoplasts:Whiteorcolourless.
Chromoplast:Colouredlikeblue,red,yellow.
Chloroplast:Greenincolour.
Q44:Namethesaclikestructurewhichformthegrana?
Answer:Saclikestructuresinchloroplastsarecalledthylakoids.
Q45:Whataretheconditionsforosmosis?
Answer:Conditionsforosmosisare:
1. Thereshouldbetwosolutionsofdifferentconcentrations.
2. Themembraneseparatingthesetwosolutionsshouldbesemipermeable.

Q46:Willthetemperaturehaveanyeffectontheprocessoftheosmosis?
Answer:Yesthehighertemperaturewillincreasetherateofwaterenteringthecellas
itincreasesthekineticenergyofthesolution.
Q47:Whatisosmoregulation?
Answer:Theregulationofthewatercontentofthecelliscalledosmoregulation.
Q48:Whichorganoftheplantbodyhelpsinosmoregulation?
Answer:Leaves
Q49:Whichorganelleofthecellinanimalshelpsinosmregulation?
Answer:ContractileVacuole.
Q50Whatarecentrosomes?Whatfunctionsdotheyperform?
Answer:Centrosomeisa
small,starshapedprotoplamic
organelleandispresentnear
tonucleus.Inanimalcells,it
consistsoftwosmallgranules
calledcentrioles.These
centriolesareorthogonally
arrangedi.e.lieatrightangles
toeachother.Inplantcells,
centriolesareabsent.

Cetrosomesduringcelldivision

FunctionsofCentrosomes:
1. Initiatecelldivision
2. Duringcelldivision,centriolesmovetooppositepolesofthecellandhelpin
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spindleformation.
3. Theyformbasalbodies(microtubuleslikesturtures)whichformcilliaor
flagella.

Clickontheimagebelowtoseevideoshowingcelldivisioninpigkidneycells.
Hamamatsu.com,aJapanesecompany,sellsmicroscopyrelatedcamerashasa
nicecollectionofcellimages.

CellDivision
(source:http://learn.hamamatsu.com)

Q51:Whoisknownas'FatherofMicroscopy'?
Answer:AntonyvanLeeuwenhoek
Q52:AreVirusesProkaryoticorEukaryotic?
Answer:Neitherofthetwo.Virusesaresmallerthanprokaryoticcells.Avirusis
consideredasasimplenucleicacidsurroundbyaproteincoat.Theyactasnonliving
andbecomelivingonfindingasuitablehost.
Q53:Whichcellorganelleiscalled"kitchenofplant"?
Answer:Plastids
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Q54:Whichcellorganelleiscalled'controlcenter'?
Answer:Nucleus.
Q55:Whichcellorganelleiscalled'transportsystem'?
Answer:EndoplasmicReticulum
Q55:WhatisEndoplasmicReticulum(ER)?Nameitstypes?
Answer:Thecellorganelle,Endoplasmicreticulum(ER)isanextensive,interconnected,
membraneboundnetworkoftubesandsheets.Itconsistsofvariouschannelslike
cisternae,vesiclesandtubules.ERcarriesmaterialsthroughoutthecell.Therearetwo
typeofERs:
RoughEndoplasmicReticulum(RER)bearsribosomes,involvedinprotein
synthesis.
SmoothEndoplasmicReticulum(SER)Doesnotbearribosomes,involved
inlipidsynthesis.

Q56:WhatarethefunctionsofEndoplasmicReticulum(ER)?
Answer:
1. Helpsintransportingmaterialsfromoneparttootherinsidecell.
2. Actsasskeletalframeworkandprovidesmechanicalstrengthtocytoplasmic
matrix.
3. Provideslargersurfaceareaforsynthesisofvariousmetabolicactivities.
4. Itcontainsvariousenzymeswhichactascatalystinsynthesisoflipidsand
proteins.
5. SERisalsoinvolvedintheprocessofdetoxificationofdrugsandpoison.

Q57:Whatarethecomponentsnucleus?
Answer:
1. nucleolus
2. nuclearmembrane
3. chromatinnetwork(formsinchromosomesandcarrygenes).
4. nucleoplasm

Q58:Whatisthefunctionofnucleoplasm?
Answer:Nucleoplasmisasemifluidwhichcontainsanumberofenzymeswhichhelp
insynthesisandfunctioningofDNAandRNA(geneticmaterial).
Q59:Howchromaticnetworkisrelatedtochromosomes?
Answer:Chromatinnetworkisatangledfibrousmassinsidenucleus.Thechromatin
threadscondenseandturnintochromosomesduringcelldivision.
Q60:Whatarechromosomes?
Answer:Chromosomesarecompactrodlikebodies,whichareformedatthetimeof
celldivisionfromchromatinmaterial.TheyaremadeupofDNAandcarrygenes(unit
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ofinheritance).
Q61:WhatisthefullformofDNAandRNA?
Answer:DNADeoxyriboNucleicAcid
RNARibonucleicacid
Q62:WhodiscoveredVirus?
Answer:ViruswasdiscoveredbyIvanowsky,aRussianBotanistin1892.
Q63:Whatarethefunctionofnucleus?
Answer:
1. Nucleuscontrolsallthecellularactivitiesofthecell.
2. Nucleolusisinvolvedinsynthesisofribosomes.
3. Nucleuscontainshereditaryinformationofcell.
4. Itisresponsibleforcelldivision(reproduction)andtransmissionofgenetic
informationfromparentstooffspring.

SurfaceAreatoVolumeRatio
SurfaceAreaofacube(SA)=(lengthxWidth)x6Faces
Volumeofcube(V)=lengthxlengthlength
SurfaceAreatoVolumeRatio=SA/V
SA/Vratioofcubeof1cmlength=6:1
SA/Vratioofcubeof2cmlength=24/8=3:1
SA/Vratioofcubeof4cmlength=96/64=1.5:1
SA/Vratiodecreasesasthesizesofthecubeincreases
Q64:Whycan'tsinglecellsgrowverylarge?OrBigorganismslikehumanbeingsare
multicellular?Whycan'tsuchbigorganismsbeasinglelargecell?
Answer:Cellisthefundamentalunitoflife.Allmetabolicactivities(necessaryforlife)
takesplaceinsidethecell.Allrawmaterialsrequiredforthesemetabolicactivities
enterthroughthecellsurfaceviacellmembrane.Greaterthesurfaceare,large
amountofrawmaterialcanenter(thisisthecaseofunicellularmicroorganisms).As
thesizeofcellgrowslarger,theSurfaceAreatoVolume(SA/V)ratiodecreases,it
meansrawmaterialrequiredforthecelltosurvivewillnotbesufficient.Thus,SA/V
ratiolimitsthesizeofthecell.Thereforebigorganismslikehumanbeingsaremulch
cellular.
Q65(NTSEStage2):Whichofthefollowingisanexampleofasinglecellthatdoesnot
functionasafullfledgedorganism?
(a)Whitebloodcells(WBC)
(b)Amoeba
(c)WBCandAmoeba
(d)Paramecium
Answer:(a)WBC

Q66:Whydovegetablevendors(subziwalla)regularlysprinklewateronthe
vegetablesintheirbaskets?
Answer:Watermakesahypotonicenvironmentfortheplantcellsandtheytakeup
watertoavoidplasmolysedcondition.Thereforevegetableslookcrispandfresh.
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Q67:Whydowestaincellswhileobservingundermicroscope?Listcommonlyused
stains.
Answer:Stainshelpusvisualizespecificorganellesofcellsinbetterway.Otherwise
theseorganellesarenoteasilyrecognizableviamicroscope.Stainsordyesarebasicor
acidicinnaturehaveaffinitytocertainorganelles.Forexample,methyleneblueisa
basicdyewhichhasaffinitytonucleicacidandhenceitcanstainnucleus.Methylene
blueiscommonlyusedtostainanimalcells.Similarly,iodinedyeisusedtodetect
starchandusedtostainplantcells.EosinisusedtoidentifyRBCs,cellmembraneand
cytoplasm.Safarninisanothernuclearstain,andalsousedtostainRheoleavesto
visualizestomata.
(ReadanicearticleonCellStain)

Q68:ArethereanyexceptionstocelltheoryproposedbySchleiden&Schwannand
Virchow?Ifyes,whatarethose?
Answer:Yesthereareexceptionstocelltheory.Theseare:
1. CelltheorydonotexplainnatureofVirus.Theybecomeliveandmultiplythough
theyaremadeupofnonlivingmaterial.
2. Howcomethefirstlivingcelloriginatedorhowlifebeganontheearth.
(ScientistsJ.B.S.Haldane,StanleyL.MillerandHaroldC.Ureydidexperiments
toonthis.).
3. Mitochondriaandchloroplastshavetheirowngeneticmaterialandcan
reproduceindependently.
Q69:Whatisthethicknessofcellmembrane?
Answer:710nanometers.
Q70:Whyismitochondriaabsentinredbloodcells?
Answer:RBCsaretheoxygenandfoodtransporterstodifferentbodycells.Iftheyhave
mitcochondira,theywillconsumethecarryingoxygenforthemselves.

Q71:NamethecellorganelleswhichtheirownDNAandRibosomes.
Answer:MitochondriaandPlastids.

WatchyoutubevideoonTheWackyHistoryofCellTheorybyTED.com

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The wacky history of cell theory - Lauren Royal-Woods


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28comments:
AnilKumar November16,2012at9:06PM
Whatisthedifferencebetweenchloroplastandchromoplast?
Reply
Replies
www.eduvictors.in

November16,2012at10:20PM

Chloroplasts are green colour plastids due to the presence of


photosynthetic pigment i.e. chlorophyll. While chromoplasts are yellow or
reddish coloured plastids due to presence of pigments other than
chlorophyll.Chromoplastsareresponsibleforgivingcolourtoflowersand
fruits.Thereareleucoplastswhichstorenutrientssuchasstarch.

VaishnaviPawar August14,2014at6:41AM
Chromoplasts are colour giving plastids which give colour to flowers and
plants(exceptgreen).Chloroplastsaretheplastidswhichgivecolourtothe
greenplantsastheycontainagreencolourpigmentchlorophyll.Thelast
memberofthefamilyofplastidsisleucoplasts.Theystorefoodnutrientslike
starch,oils,etc
Reply

MalayGoel May15,2013at4:52AM

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CBSEPapers,Questions,Answers,MCQ...:Class9Ch5Cell:FundamentalUnitofLifeNCERTQ&A
Statetheobservationinthefollowing:
a) Dry apricots are left for sometimes in pure water and later transferred to sugar
solution.
b)ARBCiskeptinconcentratedsalinesolution.
Reply

MalvikaArora May19,2013at12:21AM
Whatisactivetransport?
Reply

EshitaAgarwal May22,2013at7:11AM
Whatwouldhappenifshelledrawegganddeshelledboiledeggareplacedinwater?
Reply

KaranSharma June9,2013at10:31PM
whathappenswheneggisfirstputinhclforsometimeandthenplacedinconcentrated
saltsolution
Reply

DeependraSingh June17,2013at11:39PM
For NCERT Solution from Class 9 to 12 visit www.ncerthelp.com or
www.ncerthelp.blogspot.in
Reply
Replies
RAY June20,2013at10:49AM
Thankzzzz......ithelpedalot....
Reply

indusingh July10,2013at11:27PM
nice..!
Reply

SriMadhumitha July18,2013at5:50AM
thanks...!!buttheydidn'tmentiontheyear,thecellwasdiscovered...!!
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nsharma July27,2013at6:39AM
canyougiveasummaryofthischapter
Reply

vinitayadav August26,2013at8:12AM
canyougivefine[brief]notesonchaptercell?
Reply

RiyaVarma September13,2013at9:49AM
in which way location of chlorophyll is different in eukaryotes as compared to
prokaryoticcellphotosyntheticbacteria?
Reply

http://cbsenotes.blogspot.in/2012/04/class9ch5cellfundamentalunitof.html

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8/24/2015

CBSEPapers,Questions,Answers,MCQ...:Class9Ch5Cell:FundamentalUnitofLifeNCERTQ&A
KrishnaDev April11,2014at11:23PM
Whatwouldhappentothelifeofacelliftherewasnogogliapparatus????
Reply

SubirMukherjee April27,2014at12:29AM
Ithinktheansofquestionno25isnotcorrectpleasedotheneedful
Reply

SubirMukherjee April27,2014at12:40AM
sorryquestionno.24
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adithyamanoj May31,2014at2:41AM
howdidthecellform????????????
Reply
Replies
Preethi.S May31,2015at5:44AM
Thiscommenthasbeenremovedbytheauthor.
Reply

Priyankpriyankgodhani August28,2014at7:25AM
Thiscommenthasbeenremovedbytheauthor.
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Priyankpriyankgodhani August28,2014at7:27AM
Doallorganismshavesamenumberofcell?Givereasonforyouranswer.
Reply
Replies
SumerChoudhary July25,2015at10:22AM
Thiscommenthasbeenremovedbytheauthor.

SumerChoudhary July25,2015at10:22AM
no,becausesizepforganismsaredifferentfromeachother.
Reply

Priyankpriyankgodhani August28,2014at7:31AM
Describethemolecularstructureofplasmamembrane.
Reply

AksharaVarna April11,2015at11:43PM
whycantsinglecellsgrowverylarge
Reply

AksharaVarna April11,2015at11:44PM
itistruelyhelpfulandinterestingalso

http://cbsenotes.blogspot.in/2012/04/class9ch5cellfundamentalunitof.html

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8/24/2015

CBSEPapers,Questions,Answers,MCQ...:Class9Ch5Cell:FundamentalUnitofLifeNCERTQ&A
Reply

kunaljena July25,2015at2:43AM
whatareleucoplasts
Reply

kunaljena July25,2015at2:44AM
whygolgibodyisnearER
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