Sunteți pe pagina 1din 438

Equipment of the Indian Army

Contents
1

Equipment of the Indian Army

1.1

Infantry weapons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.1

Small arms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1.2

Explosives, rockets and missile systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2.1

Utility and miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2.2

Engineering and support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2.3

Mine protected, Mine clearing and Mine laying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2.4

Combat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3

Artillery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4

Missile systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4.1

Anti-tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4.2

Ballistic and cruise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.4.3

Air defence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.5.1

Helicopters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.5.2

UAVs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Future procurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.6.1

Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.6.2

Artillery and missile systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.6.3

Infantry equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.6.4

Aviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.7

Gallery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.8

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.9

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2

1.5

1.6

2-inch mortar

2.1

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2

Specications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.3

Variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.4

Ammunition type (+ round weight and colour) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.5

Modern Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.5.1

Specications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
i

ii

CONTENTS
2.6

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

AGS-17

11

3.1

Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

3.2

Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

3.3

Ammunition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

3.4

Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

3.5

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

3.6

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

AGS-30

15

4.1

Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

4.2

Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

4.3

Ammunition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

4.4

Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

4.5

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

4.6

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

4.7

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

AK-103

18

5.1

Design details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

5.2

Magazines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

5.3

Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

5.3.1

AK-103-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

5.3.2

AK-103-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

5.3.3

AK-103N2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

5.3.4

AK-103N3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

5.3.5

AK-104 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

5.4

Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

5.5

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

5.6

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

5.7

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

AK-47

21

6.1

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

6.1.1

Pre-history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

6.1.2

Development and competition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

6.1.3

Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

6.1.4

Receiver development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

6.2.1

Operating cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

6.2.2

Fire selector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

6.2.3

Magazines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

6.2

CONTENTS
6.2.4

Sights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25

6.2.5

Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25

6.2.6

Terminal ballistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25

6.2.7

Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

6.2.8

Service life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

6.3.1

Production outside of the Soviet Union/Russian Federation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28

6.3.2

Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28

6.3.3

Licensing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28

6.4

Illicit trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28

6.5

Cultural inuence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28

6.6

Kalashnikov Museum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

6.7

Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30

6.8

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33

6.9

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33

6.10 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33

6.11 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

6.12 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

6.13 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

AKM

51

7.1

Design details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

7.1.1

Improvements over AK-47 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

7.1.2

Barrel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

7.1.3

Gas block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52

7.1.4

Bolt carrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52

7.1.5

Stock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53

7.1.6

Spring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53

7.1.7

Sights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53

Magazines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53

7.2.1

Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54

7.2.2

Ammunition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54

7.3

Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54

7.4

Users and local versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

7.5

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

58

7.6

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

58

7.7

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

59

6.3

7.2

iii

Bren light machine gun

68

8.1

Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68

8.2

Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

8.2.1

69

Second World War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

iv

CONTENTS
8.2.2

Post-war . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

8.3.1

Mark 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

8.3.2

Mark 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74

8.3.3

Mark 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74

8.3.4

Mark 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

8.3.5

L4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

8.3.6

Taden gun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

8.3.7

Semiautomatic Bren guns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

8.3.8

Twin barrel variant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

8.4

World War II production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

8.5

Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

77

8.6

Gallery of images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79

8.7

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79

8.8

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

8.9

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

8.10 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

Carl Gustav recoilless rie

82

9.1

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

9.2

Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

9.2.1

Specications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

9.2.2

M3 MAAWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

9.2.3

Ammunition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

85

9.3

Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

85

9.4

See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

9.5

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

9.6

External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

8.3

10 Denel NTW-20

92

10.1 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

10.2 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

10.3 Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

10.4 Inuence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

10.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

10.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

10.7 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

10.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

11 Dragunov sniper rie

94

11.1 Design details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

11.1.1 Operating mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

CONTENTS

11.1.2 Barrel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

11.1.3 Ammunition feeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

11.1.4 Sights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

11.1.5 Stock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

96

11.1.6 Ammunition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

11.1.7 Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

11.2 Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

11.2.1 Commercial variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

98

11.3 Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

98

11.4 Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

11.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101


11.6 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

11.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103


12 FN FAL

104

12.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104


12.2 Design details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
12.3 Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
12.3.1 Sturmgewehr 58 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
12.3.2 FN production variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
12.3.3 Other FN Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
12.4 Production and use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
12.4.1 Argentina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
12.4.2 Brazil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
12.4.3 British and Commonwealth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
12.4.4 Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
12.4.5 Greece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
12.4.6 India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
12.4.7 Israel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
12.4.8 Rhodesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
12.4.9 United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
12.4.10 Venezuela . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
12.5 Conicts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
12.6 Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
12.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
12.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
12.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
13 FN MAG

126

13.1 Design details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126


13.1.1 Operating mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
13.1.2 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

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13.2 Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
13.2.1 FN production variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
13.2.2 British subvariants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
13.2.3 Swedish Army variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
13.2.4 USA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
13.3 Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
13.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
13.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
13.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

14 Glock
14.1 History

141
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

14.1.1 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141


14.1.2 Product evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
14.2 Design details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
14.2.1 Operating mechanism
14.2.2 Features

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

14.2.3 Barrel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149


14.2.4 Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
14.2.5 Feeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
14.2.6 Sights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
14.2.7 Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
14.3 Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
14.3.1 919mm Parabellum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
14.3.2 10mm Auto
14.3.3 .45 ACP

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

14.3.4 .40 S&W . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153


14.3.5 .380 ACP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
14.3.6 .357 SIG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
14.3.7 .45 GAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
14.3.8 Model comparison chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
14.3.9 Regional variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
14.3.10 Training variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
14.4 Production in other countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
14.5 Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
14.6 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

14.7 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161


14.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
15 GP-25

168

15.1 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168


15.2 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

CONTENTS

vii

15.3 Ammunition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169


15.3.1 Grenades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
15.4 Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
15.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
15.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
15.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
16 Heckler & Koch PSG1

171

16.1 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171


16.2 Design details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
16.3 Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
16.3.1 PSG1A1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
16.3.2 MSG90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
16.4 Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
16.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
16.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
16.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
17 IMI Galil

174

17.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174


17.2 Design details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
17.2.1 Operating mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
17.2.2 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
17.2.3 Barrel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
17.2.4 Feeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
17.2.5 Sights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
17.2.6 Stock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
17.3 Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
17.3.1 AR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
17.3.2 SAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
17.3.3 ARM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
17.3.4 MAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
17.3.5 7.62mm variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
17.3.6 Other variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
17.4 Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
17.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
17.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
17.7 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
17.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
18 IMI Tavor TAR-21

187

18.1 History and design objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187

viii

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18.1.1 Trials in Israel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
18.1.2 Design features and engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
18.2 Tavor Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
18.2.1 MTAR21 (X95) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
18.2.2 Semi-automatic TC-21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
18.3 Awards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
18.4 Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
18.4.1 Local users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
18.4.2 Foreign users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
18.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
18.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
18.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

19 INSAS rie

202

19.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202


19.2 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
19.2.1 Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
19.3 Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
19.3.1 INSAS Standard Rie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
19.3.2 Kalantak and Excalibur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
19.3.3 LMG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
19.4 Replacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
19.5 Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
19.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
19.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
19.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
20 Ishapore 2A1 rie

208

20.1 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208


20.2 Additional Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
20.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
20.4 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
21 KPV heavy machine gun

210

21.1 KPVT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210


21.2 Naval armament . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
21.3 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
21.4 Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
21.5 Gallery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
21.6 Ammunition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
21.7 Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
21.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214

CONTENTS

ix

21.9 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214


21.10External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
22 L16 81mm mortar

215

22.1 Gallery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215


22.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
22.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
23 M16 rie

217

23.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217


23.2 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
23.2.1 Project SALVO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
23.2.2 Eugene Stoner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
23.2.3 CONARC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
23.2.4 M16 adoption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
23.2.5 NATO standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
23.2.6 Reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
23.3 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
23.3.1 5.56 mm cartridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
23.3.2 Magazines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
23.3.3 Grips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
23.4 Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
23.4.1 Muzzle devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
23.4.2 Grenade launchers and shotguns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
23.4.3 Riot Control Launcher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
23.5 Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
23.5.1 Pre-Production ArmaLite AR-15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
23.5.2 AR-15 (Colt Models 601 & 602) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
23.5.3 M16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
23.5.4 XM16E1 and M16A1 (Colt Model 603) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
23.5.5 M16A2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
23.5.6 M16A3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
23.5.7 M16A4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
23.5.8 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
23.6 Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
23.6.1 Colt Model 655 and 656 Snipervariants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
23.6.2 XM177 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
23.6.3 Colt Model 733 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
23.6.4 M231 Firing Port Weapon (FPW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
23.6.5 Mk 4 Mod 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
23.6.6 Mark 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
23.6.7 M4 carbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240

CONTENTS
23.6.8 International derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
23.7 Production and users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
23.7.1 Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
23.8 Future replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
23.8.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
23.8.2 Replacement designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
23.8.3 LSAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
23.8.4 Gas Piston . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
23.9 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
23.10Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
23.11References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
23.12External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257

24 M2 Browning

259

24.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259


24.2 Design details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
24.2.1 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
24.2.2 Ammunition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
24.3 Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
24.3.1 United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
24.3.2 Commonwealth and other forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
24.3.3 M2 as a sniper rie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
24.4 Variants and derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
24.4.1 M2 variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
24.4.2 M2A1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
24.5 Aircraft guns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
24.5.1 AN/M2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
24.5.2 M296 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
24.5.3 XM213/M213, XM218, GAU-15/A, GAU-16/A, and GAU-18/A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
24.5.4 AN/M3, GAU-21/A, and M3P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
24.6 Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
24.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
24.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
24.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
25 M4 carbine

279

25.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279


25.1.1 Improved M4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
25.1.2 Replacement attempts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
25.2 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
25.2.1 Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
25.3 Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285

CONTENTS

xi

25.3.1 M4 MWS (Modular Weapon System) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285


25.3.2 M4A1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
25.3.3 Mark 18 CQBR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
25.3.4 Enhanced M4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
25.3.5 M4 Commando . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
25.3.6 Armwest LLC M4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
25.4 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
25.4.1 Early feedback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
25.4.2 2006 CNA report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
25.4.3 2007 dust test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
25.4.4 Reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
25.4.5 Gas piston . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
25.5 Trademark issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
25.6 Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
25.6.1 U.S. civilian ownership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
25.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
25.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
25.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
26 M40 recoilless rie

296

26.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296


26.2 Ammunition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
26.3 Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
26.4 Gallery

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299

26.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299


26.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
26.6.1 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
26.6.2 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
26.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
27 Mauser
27.1 History

301
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301

27.1.1 Early years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301


27.1.2 After 1940 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
27.2 Civilian market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
27.2.1 Manufacturers

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303

27.3 Mauser rearms pre-1945

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

27.3.1 Ries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304


27.3.2 Pistols

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313

27.4 Mauser rearms after the Second World War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315


27.4.1 1960s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
27.4.2 1970s1990

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315

xii

CONTENTS
27.4.3 19902004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
27.5 Autocannons

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316

27.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316


27.7 Citations

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316

27.8 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317


27.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
28 Modern Sub Machine Carbine

318

28.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318


28.2 Design details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
28.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
28.4 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
29 Multi Caliber Individual Weapon System

320

29.1 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320


29.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
30 NSV machine gun

321

30.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321


30.2 Use in Finland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
30.3 Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
30.4 Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
30.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
30.6 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323

31 Pistol Auto 9mm 1A


31.1 History

325

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325

31.2 Design Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326


31.3 Specications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
31.4 Cartridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
31.4.1 Physical Characteristics

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326

31.4.2 Performance Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326


31.5 Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
31.5.1 Law Enforcement and Military use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
31.5.2 Civilian use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
31.6 References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327

32 Pistol Mitralier model 1963/1965

328

32.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328


32.2 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
32.2.1 Operating Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
32.2.2 Disassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
32.3 Patriotic Guards version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330

CONTENTS

xiii

32.3.1 Other civilian versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330


32.4 PM md. 80 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
32.5 PM md. 90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
32.5.1 Short barrel version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
32.6 7.62 mm RPK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
32.7 Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
32.7.1 Nonstate users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
32.8 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
32.9 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
33 PK machine gun

335

33.1 Design details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335


33.2 Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
33.2.1 PKM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
33.2.2 PKMN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
33.2.3 PKMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
33.2.4 PKMSN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
33.2.5 PKT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
33.2.6 PKP Pecheneg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
33.3 Foreign Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
33.3.1 HCP PKM-"NATO(Poland) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
33.3.2 Zastava M84/M86 (Serbia) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
33.3.3 Norinco Type 80 (People's Republic of China) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
33.3.4 Arsenal MG-1 & MG-1M (Bulgaria) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
33.3.5 Cugir Mitraliera md. 66 (Romania) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
33.3.6 KGK general purpose machine gun (Hungary) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
33.4 Production status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
33.5 Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
33.5.1 Former users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
33.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
33.7 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
33.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
34 RPO-A Shmel

346

34.1 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346


34.2 Ammunition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
34.3 Specications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
34.4 Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
34.5 Service history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
34.6 Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
34.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
34.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348

xiv

CONTENTS
34.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349

35 Sterling submachine gun


35.1 History

351

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351

35.2 Design details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351


35.3 Manufacture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
35.4 Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
35.4.1 7.62 NATO variant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
35.5 Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
35.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
35.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
35.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
36 T91 assault rie

360

36.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360


36.2 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
36.3 Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
36.4 Production and Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
36.5 Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
36.6 Gallery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
36.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
36.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
36.9 Wikilinks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
37 Uzi

363

37.1 Design

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

37.1.1 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363


37.1.2 Stocks

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364

37.1.3 Magazines

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364

37.1.4 Caliber conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364


37.2 Operational use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
37.3 Worldwide sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
37.4 Military variants

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369

37.5 Civilian variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370


37.5.1 Uzi carbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
37.5.2 Mini-Uzi carbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
37.5.3 Uzi pistol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
37.6 Foreign copies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
37.6.1 AG Strojnica ERO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
37.6.2 Norinco M320 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
37.7 Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
37.7.1 Africa

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372

CONTENTS

xv

37.7.2 Asia

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373

37.7.3 Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374


37.7.4 North America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
37.7.5 Oceania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
37.7.6 South America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
37.8 Gallery

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376

37.9 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376


37.10References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376

37.11External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378


38 vz. 58

379

38.1 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379


38.2 Design details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
38.2.1 Operating mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
38.2.2 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
38.2.3 Sights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
38.2.4 Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
38.3 Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
38.4 Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
38.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
38.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
38.7 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
38.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
38.9 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
38.9.1 Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387
38.9.2 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400
38.9.3 Content license . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422

Chapter 1

Equipment of the Indian Army


This is a list of some of the modern & historical equipment used by Indian Army. Most of the army equipment is
of foreign design and license produced in India but eorts are on to progressively design and manufacture equipment
indigenously. The 41 Indian Ordnance Factories under control of Ordnance Factories Board manufacture most of
Army equipment like small arms, ammunition, combat vehicles, artillery, etc.

1.1 Infantry weapons


1.1.1

Small arms

1.1.2

Explosives, rockets and missile systems

1.2 Vehicles
1.2.1

Utility and miscellaneous


This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

1.2.2

Engineering and support

1.2.3

Mine protected, Mine clearing and Mine laying

1.2.4

Combat

1.3 Artillery
1.4 Missile systems
1.4.1

Anti-tank

1.4.2

Ballistic and cruise

Agni-II
Brahmos
Agni-V
1

CHAPTER 1. EQUIPMENT OF THE INDIAN ARMY

1.4.3

Air defence

1.5 Aircraft
1.5.1

Helicopters

See also: List of active Indian military aircraft

1.5.2

UAVs

1.6 Future procurements


1.6.1

Vehicles

BMP-2 based AKASH SAM carrier production started at Ordnance Factory Medak.
BMP-2 based 105mm Light tank to be manufactured at Ordnance Factory Medak.
BMP-2 based NBC protected recon vehicle to be manufactured at Ordnance Factory Medak.
TATA Light Specialist Vehicle LSV with LMG, MMG to be purchased.
Future Infantry Combat Vehicle - 2600 FICV to be procured to replace old BMP-2s. Initially, GoI asked dierent private and public sector companies to delevelop FICV.But,it seems that the plan to develop new vehicle is
put on hold due to budgetary cuts.Instead, upgradation of old BMP-2s with new powerful engines,transmission
and new Kliver turret with 30mm gun and four Kornet-M ATGM launchers in being tried.
Armoured Personnel Carrier - 100 APC to be procured for United Nations peace keeping missions.
1586 vehicles to be procured to mount ATGMs on these.

1.6.2

Artillery and missile systems

Israeli ATGM Spike (missile) opted over U.S. made FGM-148 Javelin by Indian Army.In October 2014, India
chose to buy the Spike over the U.S. Javelin. Indian Ministry of Defense ocials told the magazine that the
order is for 321 launchers, 8,356 missiles, 15 training simulators, and peripheral equipment.* [64]* [65]* [66]
Under the Field Artillery Rationalization Plan, Indian Army plans to procure 3000 to 4000 155 mm towed,
wheeled and tracked artillery systems. The requirement for artillery guns to be met with indigenous development and production.* [67] Production of crucial bi-modular charge system will be started soon at Nalanda
ordnance factory. HEMRL, a DRDO lab has developed the technology indigenously.* [68]
State-run Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) will deliver two types of indigenously developed 155mm howitzers
to the Indian Army based on the FH77B howitzer purchased way back in 1986. One version will be 155/39
calibre while the other will be 155/45 calibre. Trials are to be completed by June 2013* [69]
Government is also evaluating 155mm/52 self-propelled howitzers wherein three Indian vendors, including
two private sector companies, have been selected for trials of their equipment.
Prahaar- the solid-fueled missile is slated to replace the liquid fueled Prithvi1. Liquid-fueled missiles have
lengthy preparation times giving adequate warning to the enemy, while solid-fueled ones can be ready in minutes.* [70]
Agni-V Intercontinental version of the Agni missile system. The missile was test red for the rst time on
19 April 2012 and was inducted in 2014.

1.7. GALLERY

1.6.3

Infantry equipment

Futuristic Infantry Soldier As a System (F-INSAS) is the Indian Army's principal modernisation program
from 2012 to 2020. In the rst phase, to be completed by 2012,the infantry soldiers will be equipped with
modular weapon systems that will have multi-functions. The Indian Army intends to modernise its entire 465
infantry and paramilitary battalions by 2020 with this program.
Modern Sub Machine Carbine - to replace the Indian Sterling submachine gun.* [71]
Indian Army has requirement for 300,000 modular body armour and ballistic helmets primarily for their Infantry regiments. RFI's have been issued.
1000 Anti materiel ries are to acquired for which global RFI's have been issued by the MOD.
Indian Army is looking for new multi caliber assault rie for its 356 infantry battelions and some special
operation units.It will replace old INSAS ries. Four foreign rms Colt with its Colt CM901, Beretta with
its ARX-160, Ceska with its CZ-805 BREN and Israel Weapon Industries (IWI)with its Galil ACE are in
competition. Initially 65,000 ries will be bought directly from the selected foreign vendor, for an estimated
Rs 4,850 crore, OFB will subsequently produce over 113,000 ries after getting transfer of technology (ToT)
from the vendor.Trial of the ries is underway. * Indian Army is also in the process to procurement of 44,000
CQB carbines for around Rs 3,200 crore, with subsequent production of another 1,20,000 by OFB under ToT.
Beretta, Colt, Sig Sauer and IWI carbines are in the competition.
Multi Caliber Individual Weapon System - A multi caliber assault rie developed by ARDE for Indian Armed
Forces. It can be tted with either 5.56mm or 7.62mm or 6.8mm gun barrel. It is developed to replace INSAS
ries.It will be handed over to army after extensive user trials.
Sniper Ries - 3500 new sniper ries to be procured to replace old Dragunov SVDs. The new sniper ries
should have 1000m range and should be tted with bipods and re the 7.62mm NATO bullets.* [7]

1.6.4

Aviation

Light Utility Helicopter: The Indian army has projected a requirement for up to 197 light helicopters to
replace its ageing eet of Chetaks and Cheetahs. The Indian Army chose the Eurocopter AS 550 under a
US$550 million contract in summer of 2007. Under this contract 60 helicopters were to be supplied from
Eurocopter in y-away condition and the rest were to be assembled by HAL in India. This order was later
scrapped due to allegations of unfair eld trials from competing company Bell Helicopters.* [72]* [73] A fresh
tender process was initiated later. Eurocopter Fennec and Kamov Ka-226 is in the competition now. Trial is
completed but the nal decision is pending.
Light Combat Helicopter: The HAL Light Combat Helicopter is a derivative of the HAL Dhruv, which was
inducted into the Indian armed forces. Using a successful and proven helicopter as the base platform is expected
to conserve the project costs for the LCH, which is pegged at 3.76 billion (US$59.0 million). The Dhruv's
weaponised version, HAL Rudra is also being inducted in the Indian Army. The LCH was expected to be ready
for the Initial Operational Clearance (IOC) by December 2010 with the Final Operational Clearance (FOC) in
2011. However, the revised timeframes hold that the 5.5-tonne LCH should be ready for induction into IAF
by 20122013.* [74] The rst prototype of LCH completed its rst ground run on 4 February 2010.* [75] HAL
has a rm order to deliver 65 LCH to the IAF and 114 to the Army.* [76]

1.7 Gallery
Indian Army artillery gun
Indian Army Ambulance
BEL Battleeld Surveillance Radar-Short Range (BFSR-SR)
T-90 tanks during ring in Thar Desert.
A soldier tests a Beretta 92.

CHAPTER 1. EQUIPMENT OF THE INDIAN ARMY


Indian Army T-72 with ERA
Indian Army Armoured Corps during a training exercise
Vijayanta Mk 1 MBT
T-72's belong to the Indian Army with UN markings.

1.8 See also


Currently active military equipment by country
Ordnance Factories Board

1.9 References
[1] http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Army/Galleries/50-5/0548.jpg?
[2] Tavor21 rie headed into service with Indian Special Forces. DefenseIndustryDaily.com.
[3] Ministry of Defence, Govt of India. Mod.nic.in. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
[4] T91 (Type 91) Assault Rie / Carbine (2003)".
[5] Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN
978-0-7106-2869-5.
[6] Pradeep Thakur (18 February 2008). Latest Kalashnikovs to be made in India. The Times of India. Retrieved
2010-04-01.
[7] http://www.ndtv.com/india-news/re-arming-the-indian-armys-troops-with-lethal-modern-weapons-505844
[8] Mohar, Vijay. Army orders 1 million pieces of grenade developed by DRDO's Chandigarh lab. Tribuneindia.com.
Retrieved 2013-08-11.
[9] Mitsubishi Pajero SUV makes it debut as an Indian Army vehicle in Sikkim!". IndianCarsBikes.in. 28 September 2011.
Retrieved 2012-04-21.
[10] Sandeep Singh (8 December 2014). Maruti Gypsy gets repeat order from Army, 4,100 this time. The Indian Express.
Retrieved 9 December 2014.
[11] Windy-505: Indian Army's rst-ever patented, high-mobility, fast-attack vehicle : INDIASCOPE - India Today.
Indiatoday.intoday.in. 2004-12-06. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
[12] Sodertalje, Sweden 046 - Scania 111 SBAT 6x6 Military version | Flickr Condivisione di foto!". Flickr.com. Retrieved
2013-08-23.
[13] No complaints against Tatra trucks: Defence Ministry. M.ibnlive.com. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
[14] Sarvatra Bridging System [www.bharat-rakshak.com]". Bharat-rakshak.com. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
[15] BHARAT RAKSHAK MONITOR - Volume 4(5)". Bharat-rakshak.com. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
[16] Mat-Fording
[17] Armoured Vehicle Tracked Light Repair. DefenceTalk.com. Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved
14 June 2012.
[18] More Armored Recovery Vehicles for Indian Army. Defensenews.com. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
[19] John Pike. Casspir. Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
[20] Welcome to Frontline : Vol. 29 :: No. 08. Hinduonnet.com. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
[21] Army Decides to Take 124 More MBT Arjun (Press release). Government of India Press Information Bureau. 17
May 2010.

1.9. REFERENCES

[22] http://www.spslandforces.com/exclusive/?id=141&h=Arjun-Mk-II-Tank-Clears-All-Army-Trials-Service-Next-Year
[23] Defence ministry scraps Rs 6000cr tender for purchase of 197 helicopters. The Times of India. 29 August 2014.
Retrieved 29 August 2014.
[24] John Pike. T-90 Bhisma. Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2010-02-07.
[25] RIA Novosti Dmitry Korobeinikov (24 August 2009). Indian army receives rst T-90 tanks made under Russian license
| Top Russian news and analysis online | 'RIA Novosti' newswire. En.beta.rian.ru. Retrieved 2010-02-07.
[26] Armor: The Frugal T-90. Strategypage.com. 4 October 2008. Retrieved 2010-02-07.
[27] Army scuttles Arjun trials to push through Russian T-90 purchase. Business Standard. 26 November 2012. Retrieved
2012-11-29.
[28] India has approved the manufacture of 235 T-90 main battle tanks under Russian license. September 19, 2013.
[29] Defence News - Army Opts For T-90s Battle Tanks. Defencenews.in. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
[30] T-72M1 Main Battle Tank. Bharat Rakshak. Archived from the original on 6 June 2009. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
[31] John Pike. Indian Army Equipment. Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
[32] Land Forces Site BMP-2. Bharat Rakshak. 20 February 2002. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
[33] Indian Army to Upgrade its BMP-2/2K Infantry Combat Vehicles to BMP-2M Standard - Deagel.com, May 6, 2013
[34] Army inducts DRDO-developed NBC recce vehicle. The Times of India. 4 July 2009.
[35] Mahindra Rakshak. Bharat Rakshak. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
[36] "'Rakshak' saved soldiers' lives: Mahindra. The Economic Times. 6 April 2008. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
[37] Mahindra says 'Rakshak' saved soldiers' lives. Deccan Herald. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
[38] Murky Competitions for Indian Howitzer Orders May End SoonOr Not. Retrieved 2013-02-21.
[39] Arms trade register. SIPRI. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
[40] Artillery Booms Again. South Asian Defence & Strategic Review. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
[41] Higher callibre artillery gun to be ready by 2013:MoD. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
[42] In a rst, pvt Indian rms can bid to make artillery guns. The Indian Express. April 12, 2013. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
[43] M101 Howitzer. Weapons System. 11 May 2012.
[44] Army Strength. bharat-rakshak.com. Archived from the original on 1 June 2009. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
[45] Artillery. bharat-rakshak.com. Archived from the original on 30 May 2009. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
[46] Pike, John. M-46 Catapult. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
[47] Tata, L&T bag orders for Pinaka rocket launcher. Indianexpress.com. 3 April 2006. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
[48] Pinaka Rockets. PIB, Govt of India. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
[49] India will purchase 8,000 Israeli Spike anti-tank guided missiles and 300 units of launchers - Armyrecognition.com, 26
October 2014
[50] Indian Army to Purchase 4100 Milan 2T Anti Tank Guided Missiles in USD 120 million Deal. IndiaDefence. 26
January 2009.
[51] CCS Clears USD 250 Million Konkur Missiles for Army. DefenceNow. 26 October 2012.
[52] Press Information Bureau English Releases. Pib.nic.in. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
[53] India to buy Russias Konkurs-M, Invar guided missiles - News - Economy - The Voice of Russia: News, Breaking
news, Politics, Economics, Business, Russia, International current events, Expert opinion, podcasts, Video. The Voice
of Russia. 2012-11-08. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
[54] TNN Oct 19, 2012, 03.05AM IST (2012-10-19). Govt nod for purchase of 25,000 Invar, air-launched version of
BrahMos missiles - Times Of India. Articles.timesondia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2013-08-23.

CHAPTER 1. EQUIPMENT OF THE INDIAN ARMY

[55] Agni-V
[56] S-300PMU SA-10 GRUMBLE Russia / Soviet Nuclear Forces. Fas.org. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
[57] http://www8.janes.com/Search/documentView.do?docId=/content1/janesdata/yb/jlad/jlad0225.htm
[58] India buys $400M worth of Russian missile systems Source
[59] Indian Army will replace old 40mm L/70 anti-aircraft guns with weapons from local companies - Armyrecognition.com,
11 March 2014
[60] Order of Battle - India
[61] Army gets attack helicopters as India eyes China threat. NDTV.com. Retrieved 2012-12-13.
[62] http://www.flightglobal.com/news/articles/hals-third-lch-prototype-conducts-maiden-flight-406134/
[63] Upgraded HAL Cheetal Helicopters for Indian Army - Armedforces-International.com, December 19, 2012
[64] Ran Dagoni (24 March 2011). Rafael in $1b Indian anti-tank missile deal. Globes Israel business news. Retrieved
14 September 2011.
[65] Israel pips US in anti-tank guided missile supply to India. Times of India. 2012-11-29. Retrieved 2012-11-29.
[66] http://www.defensenews.com/article/20131120/DEFREG03/311200016/India-Eyes-Spike-Javelin-Buys
[67] Business Standard. 155-mm gun contract: DRDO enters the fray. Business-standard.com. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
[68] the hindu businessline. Nalanda Ordnance Factory Board developing indigenous artillery shells. the hindu.com. Retrieved 2012-05-13.
[69] Indian OFB soon to deliver artillery guns for user trials. Army Technology. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
[70] Prithvi missiles to be replaced by more capable Prahar
[71] DRDO to display sub-machine carbine at Defexpo 2010. Defenseworld.net. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
[72] Indian Army tender for 197 Eurocopter Fennec helicopters Scrapped. Indiaenews.com. 6 December 2007. Retrieved
2012-04-21.
[73] Eurocopter wins big Indian Army deal
[74] Indigenous attack chopper to y in March. The Times of India. 23 November 2008. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
[75] Indigenous attack copter ready for rst ight. Dnaindia.com. 8 February 2010. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
[76] MyNews.in. HAL to ight test LCH prototype next month. Mynews.in. Retrieved 2012-04-21.

Chapter 2

2-inch mortar
This article is about the World War II mortar. For the World War I mortar, see 2 inch Medium Mortar.
The Ordnance SBML 2-inch mortar, or more commonly just 2-inch mortar, was a British mortar issued to the
British Army and the Commonwealth armies that saw use during the Second World War and later.
It had the advantages of being more portable than larger mortars which needed vehicles for them to be carried around,
but the '2-inch' gave greater range and repower than rie grenades.

2.1 History
The British Army had two types of mortar in service at the outbreak of the Second World War, one of which was
the 2-inch weapon for use with infantry platoons. The 2-inch mortar had been developed during the 1930s after
the British Army had inspected weapons of a similar calibre in service with other European countries, including the
Spanish 50mm version. Although deemed unsuitable for the British Army as it stood, the Spanish mortar did serve as
the starting point from which the Armament Research Department could begin development of its own weapon. In
November 1937 ten examples of the new mortar were readied with 1,600 rounds each of high-explosive and smoke
bombs. The resulting trials conrmed the reliability and dependability of the weapon. The Director of Artillery
ordered it to be placed in production in February 1938, only four months after the initial eld trials, which meant that
by 1939 some 500 of the weapons and their associated ammunition were already established in service as the Mk II,
with crews trained in its use.
Over the duration of the war the 2-inch mortar was developed into no fewer than eight separate marks, from which
also stemmed a number of other variations. Some were successful and others less so; one of the latter, the 'Weston'
version, was developed in 1944, but was found to be less than satisfactory when used on soft ground. This weapon
had the advantage of being tted with an automatic recocking feature of the ring mechanism, but despite this it was
withdrawn from use.
The standard service version of the 2-inch (51 mm) mortar had a barrel length of 21 inches (530 mm) and could re
a high explosive bomb weighing 2.25 lb (1.02 kg) out to a range of 500 yards. With such a short barrel the normal
ring method, where the bomb was dropped down the tube and a pin in the base of the barrel struck the detonator
in the tail of the bomb, would not work so ring was by a small trigger mechanism at the breech. Originally the
2-inch (51 mm) mortar was tted with a large collimating sight with elevating and cross-level bubbles, but this was
soon dropped as unnecessary for front-line use. It was replaced instead with a simple white line painted up the length
of the barrel. The rer only had to line this up in the direction of the target and re a number of bombs for eect.
Whilst this method of operation may sound rather haphazard, it worked well and the practice continued long after the
war. The mortar evolved in other directions too, with the original large base plate being replaced by a simple curved
model, to give it a combat weight of 10.25 lb (4.65 kg). Due to its small size, and for simplicity, the mortar had no
forward strut or bipod that most larger designs needed. The barrel would be held at the correct angle by one soldier
while the other loaded and red the round. It could achieve a ring rate of some eight rounds per minute. The bombs
were cylindrical with a (perforated) four nned tail. For the HE projectile an impact fuze was tted in the nose of the
bomb. The illuminating round weighed 1 lb (0.45 kg), the smoke round weighed 2.25 lb (1.02 kg). A whole range of
other ammunition was also developed, including a specialised bomb that cast a lightweight explosive-lled net over
7

CHAPTER 2. 2-INCH MORTAR

mineelds which could be detonated, clearing a path.


Variants of the weapon itself included the Mk VII* with a shortened barrel, for use by airborne units, the Mk VII for
use in Universal (Bren Gun) Carriers and the Mk III used as a smoke discharger in tanks.
Post war, the 2-inch mortar was kept in service to re smoke and illuminating rounds. It remained in service until
the late 1980s when it was replaced by the L9A1 51 mm Light Mortar.

2.2 Specications
Calibre: 2 inches (50.8 mm)
Length: 21 inches (53 cm)
Weight: 10 1 2 pounds (4.8 kg)
Firing mechanism: Trip (small trigger)
Elevation: 45-90
Range: 500 yards (460 m)
Rate of re: Eight rounds per minute

Free Belgian Forces re the 2-inch mortar during a training exercise in Wales, 1941

2.3 Variations
Mk I = introduced in 1918 and declared obsolete in 1919

2.4. AMMUNITION TYPE (+ ROUND WEIGHT AND COLOUR)

Mk II = the rst model introduced in 1938 with a large baseplate


Mk II* = the 1938 version intended for use with the Universal (Bren Gun) Carrier
Mk II** = a second version for use with the Universal Carrier
Mk II*** = version for use by infantry at platoon level and tted with a large baseplate
Mk III = version used as a smoke launcher for tanks
Mk IV = limited production run and did not enter service
Mk V = not manufactured
Mk VI = not manufactured
Mk VII = for use on Universal Carriers
Mk VII* = for use by airborne forces, having a shorter barrel (14 inches (360 mm) = 36 cm) and a baseplate
replaced with a spade-like plate
Mk VII** = infantry use with long barrel and spade-like baseplate
Mk VIIA = Indian Army model
Mk VIII = another short-barrelled version for the airborne forces

2.4 Ammunition type (+ round weight and colour)


High explosive (HE): 2.25 lb (1.02 kg) - olive drab body, red band
White phosphorus smoke (WP SMK): 2.25 lb (1.02 kg) - dark green body
Titanium tetrachloride smoke (FM SMK): 2 lb (0.91 kg) - dark green body
Illumination (ILL): 1 lb (0.45 kg) - drab khaki (light OD) body
Signal Multi Star: 1 lb (white 2 lb) - light stone (grey) body
note: the Multi Star available in white, red, green, and red/green mixed

2.5 Modern Variants


Indias Ordnance Factory Board's 51mm E1 mortar is a copy of the 2-inch British mortar of World War II; it
is still in production and service in India.* [1]

2.5.1

Specications

Calibre: 51.25mm (2 in)


Weight: 4.88 kg
Range: 200-850m
Rate of Fire:
normal: Eight rounds per minute
high: 12 rounds per minute
Bomb weight:
High Explosive: 950g (800m range)* [2]

10

2.6 References
[1]
[2]

CHAPTER 2. 2-INCH MORTAR

Chapter 3

AGS-17

AGS-17 in Afghanistan. 1986

The AGS-17 Plamya (Russian: ; Flame) is a Soviet-designed automatic grenade launcher in service worldwide.

3.1 Description
The AGS-17 is a heavy infantry support weapon designed to operate from a tripod or mounted on an installation
or vehicle. The AGS-17 res 30 mm grenades in either direct or indirect re to provide suppressive and lethal re
support against soft skinned or fortied targets.
The weapon uses a blowback mechanism to sustain operation. Rounds are red through a removable (to reduce barrel
stress) ried barrel.
The standard metal ammunition box contains 30 linked rounds.
The tripod is equipped with ne levelling gear for indirect re trajectories.
11

12

CHAPTER 3. AGS-17

3.2 Development
Development of the AGS-17 (Avtomaticheskiy Granatomyot Stankovyi - Automatic Grenade launcher, Mounted)
started in the USSR in 1967 by the OKB-16 design bureau (now known as the KBP Instrument Design Bureau,
located in the city of Tula). Most probably its development was inspired by the Sino-Soviet border conict of the late
1960s, as well as initial experience with several US automatic grenade launchers, learned from Vietnamese troops
who were often on the receiving end of these weapons.
It was thought that an automatic grenade launcher would be one of the most eective infantry support weapons against
typical Chinesehuman waveattacks. This lightweight weapon was to provide infantry with close to medium range
re support against enemy personnel and unarmored targets. like trucks, half-tracks, jeeps and sandbag-protected
machine-gun nests. The rst prototypes of the new weapon entered trials in 1969, with mass production commencing in 1971. Never used against the Chinese, the AGS-17 was widely operated and well liked by Soviet troops in
Afghanistan as a ground support weapon or as a vehicle weapon on improvised mounts installed on armored personnel
carriers and trucks.
At the same time, a special airborne version of the AGS-17 was developed for installation on Mi-24 Hind gunship
helicopters.
It is still in use with the Russian army as a direct re support weapon for infantry troops; it is also installed in
several vehicle mounts and turrets along with machine guns, guided rocket launchers and sighting equipment. A
special airborne version, the AG-17A, was installed on the door mounts of several Mil Mi-8 Hip combat transport
helicopters and on gun pods used in late model Mi-24 Hind gunships; this weapon had a thick aluminium jacket on
the barrel and used a special mount and an electric remotely controlled trigger. It is being replaced by the AGS-30
launcher, (using the same ammunition, this weapon weighs only 16 kg unloaded on the tripod and has an upgraded
blowback action).

3.3 Ammunition
The AGS-17 res 3029 caliber (belted) cartridges with a steel cartridge case. Two types of ammunition are commonly red from the AGS-17. The VOG-17M is the version of the original 30 mm grenade ammunition, which is
currently available and has a basic high explosive fragmentation warhead. The VOG-30 is similar, but contains a
better explosive lling and an enhanced fragmentation design that greatly increases the eective blast radius.
The Bulgarian weapons manufacturer Arcus produces AR-ROG hand grenades based on VOG-17 cartridges and
UZRGM (Russian: ), which is also a Soviet design of fuse.* [1]

3.4 Users

Afghanistan* [2]

Angola* [2]

Armenia - imported

Bulgaria - produced locally by Arsenal AD

Chad* [2]

China - produced by Norinco.* [2]* [3]

Cuba* [2] - Cuba makes the AGS-17 and issues them to the Avispas Negras

Czech Republic

Finland - designated 30 KrKK AGS-17, replaced by the HK GMG in 2005* [4]

Georgia* [5]

India* [2]

3.5. SEE ALSO

Iran* [2]

Lebanon

Iraq - produced under license* [2]* [3]

Latvia - used in the 1990s, now replaced by the HK GMG * [2]

Montenegro - designated the M93* [2]

Mozambique* [2]

Nicaragua* [2]

North Korea* [6]

Russia* [2]

Serbia - designated the M93* [2]

Syria* [7]

Slovakia* [8]

Thailand

Vietnam* [9]

13

3.5 See also


AGS-30
Vektor Y3 AGL
SB LAG 40
GA-40 similar weapon
HK GMG, similar weapon
XM174 grenade launcher, similar weapon
Milkor MGL, another South African 40 mm grenade launcher
Mk 19 grenade launcher, similar weapon
Type 87 grenade launcher, used by the People's Liberation Army
List of Russian weaponry
Comparison of automatic grenade launchers

3.6 References
[1] Arcus AR-ROG defensive hand grenade (Bulgaria), Grenades - Hand. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
[2] Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN
978-0-7106-2869-5.
[3] A new generation of AGLs: within only a few decades the Automatic Grenade Launcher (AGL) has leapt from the
concept stage to becoming a widely accepted and valued infantry support weapon, providing the foot soldier with a highly
eective area re suppression system.. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
[4]

14

CHAPTER 3. AGS-17

[5] Armament of the Georgian Army. Retrieved 23 November 2014.


[6] https://fas.org/nuke/guide/dprk/nkor.pdf
[7] | At the border of Jobar and Zamalka. 16 January 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
[8] Vcvikov tde v Prpore vcviku Martin. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
[9] Vietnam made groove machine guns against the wave people(in Vietnamese)

Koll, Christian (2009). Soviet Cannon - A Comprehensive Study of Soviet Arms and Ammunition in Calibres 12.7mm
to 57mm. Austria: Koll. p. 239. ISBN 978-3-200-01445-9.

Chapter 4

AGS-30
The AGS-30 is a Russian-designed automatic grenade launcher currently in production in the Russian Federation and
in service with the Russian armed forces.

4.1 Description
Designed on the basis of AGS-17, the AGS-30 provides better mobility, longer range and better accuracy during
ring. Signicantly lighter than its previous version but far more advanced and powerful, the AGS-30 weighs 30 kg
loaded, meaning it can be carried by one person. Using a specially designed GPD-30 grenade, recently put into serial
production,* [2] the AGS-30 can engage targets at over 2000m. Recoil is lessened with a much smoother grenade
ejection mechanism. An adjustable SAG-30 tripod mount (GRAU index 6P17) is also included.

4.2 Development
After the dissolution of the USSR, Russia found itself in a dicult position in the First Chechen war. After the
success of AGS-17 in Afghanistan, the KBP Instrument Design Bureau immediately began work on the new grenade
launcher. The Russian army needed a weapon that could easily ush out militants out of their fortied building
hideouts and level them in seconds. The new design proved to be reliable and lethal. Another improvement to the
weapon is its ability to stay undetectable by the enemy - reduced sound when ring, reduced ash and the lightning
speed of the grenade make the AGS-30 very hard to detect. It can be operated from almost everywhere - from
attaching it to a window, to mud and grassy surfaces. Ocially adopted in 2002.* [3] Adopted by the Russian Interior
Ministry Troops.* [4]

4.3 Ammunition
AGS-30 is fed from special belt drums that hold 30 linked rounds. Loaded belt drum weights about 14 kg. Interestingly, spade grips are installed on the gun cradle integral to tripod, instead of the gun body; trigger is located at the
right spade grip making ring more controlled and comfortable. The AGS-30 can re in only full automatic modes.
Standard sighting equipment is 2.7X magnication PAG-17 optical sight.

4.4 Users

Azerbaijan

India* [5]

Russia
15

16

CHAPTER 4. AGS-30

4.5 See also

The AGS-30 and 6P41 Pecheneg general purpose machine gun mounted on a GAZ-2975 Tigr

AGS-17, the predecessor to the AGS-30


Vektor Y3 AGL
SB LAG 40
HK GMG, similar weapon
XM174 grenade launcher, similar weapon
Milkor MGL, another South African 40 mm grenade launcher
Mk 19 grenade launcher, similar weapon
List of Russian weaponry
Comparison of automatic grenade launchers

4.6 References
[1] Open Joint Stock CompanyV.A.Degtyarev Plant/ AGS-30 30 mm antipersonnel automatic grenade launching system
. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
[2] " " " - 30. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
[3] " " " - ". Retrieved 23 November 2014.
[4] http://www.kbptula.ru/ru/novosti/novosti-kbp/399-perspektivy-sotrudnichestva-budut-rasshireny
[5] " " " - 2014. Retrieved 23 November 2014.

4.7. EXTERNAL LINKS

4.7 External links


AGS-30 Automatic Grenade Launcher System.
AGS-30 grenade launcher / machine gun (Russia)".

17

Chapter 5

AK-103
The AK-103 assault rie is a derivative of the AK-74M chambered for the 7.6239mm M43 round, similar to the
older AKM. The AK-103 can be tted with a variety of sights, including night vision and telescopic sights, plus a
knife-bayonet or a grenade launcher. It uses plastic components whenever possible instead of wood or metal.

5.1 Design details

AK-103 with the stock folded.

AK-103

Protective coatings ensure excellent corrosion resistance of metal parts. Forearm, magazine, butt stock and pistol grip
are made of high strength plastic.* [2]
18

5.2. MAGAZINES

19

The AK-104 is a compact version of the AK-103. It has a muzzle brake derived from the older AKS-74U combined
with a shorter barrel. It is also chambered for 7.6239mm ammunition.

5.2 Magazines
The early slab-sided steel AK-47 magazines weigh .43 kg (0.95 lb) empty.* [3] The later steel AKM magazines had
lighter sheet-metal bodies with prominent reinforcing ribs weighing .33 kg (0.73 lb) empty.* [3]* [4] The current issue
steel-reinforced plastic magazines are even lighter, weighing .25 kg (0.55 lb) empty.* [5] Early steel AK-47 magazines
are 9.75 inches long, and the later ribbed steel AKM and newer plastic magazines are about an inch shorter.* [6]* [7]
Note: All, 7.6239mm AK magazines are backwards compatible with older AK variants.
Note *: 10.12 kg (22.3 lb) is the maximum amount of ammo that the average soldier can comfortably carry... it also allows for
best comparison of the three most common AK-47 magazines and the AK-74 magazine

5.3 Variants
5.3.1

AK-103-1

This is a semiautomatic version for the police and civilian market

5.3.2

AK-103-2

This has a three round burst feature in place of full automatic version for police and civilian market

5.3.3

AK-103N2

Has a mount for the 1PN58 night scope

5.3.4

AK-103N3

Has a mount for the 1PN51 night scope

5.3.5

AK-104

Carbine version of the AK-103

5.4 Users

India: The Russian arms company Izhmash is negotiating to issue a license to an Indian private arms
manufacturer to produce the AK-103.* [10]

Libya: Seen in the hands of anti-Gadda forces & loyalists in numerous photos. The ries in use are the
AK-103-2 version.* [11]* [12]

Russia: Used by various special police groups, spec ops groups and civilians.* [13] It is also in limited
service with the Russian Army.* [14]

Venezuela: Standard issue weapon of the Venezuelan Army.* [15] Made under license by CAVIM with
initial licensing fee payments made in 2006 with the transfer of Russian-made AK-103s to Venezuela in
2008.* [16] CAVIM's AK-103 factories opened ocially in 2012.* [16]* [17] CAVIM-made AK-103s were
delivered to the Venezuelan Army in 2013.* [18]

Pakistan: Used by Special Service Group Navy. * [19]

20

CHAPTER 5. AK-103

5.5 See also


AK-107 (Includes AK-108)
List of Russian weaponry
List of assault ries

5.6 References
[1] """". Retrieved 14 November 2014.
[2] """". Retrieved 14 November 2014.
[3] Dockery, Kevin (2007). Future Weapons. p. 102. ISBN 0425217507.
[4] Ak 47 Technical Description - Manual. Scribd.com. 2010-09-30. Retrieved 2012-08-23.
[5]
[6] Rie Evaluation Study, United States Army, Combat Development Command, ADA046961, 20 Dec 1962
[7] Are kalashnikov magazines as robust as their reputation? He tormented a selection of AR magazines last year, now he
takes on the AK. The results you may nd surprising.. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
[8] Dockery, Kevin (2007). Future Weapons. p. 102. ISBN 0-425-21750-7.
[9] Dockery, Kevin (2007). Future Weapons. p. 102.
[10] Pradeep Thakur (2008-02-18). Latest Kalashnikovs to be made in India. The Times of India. Retrieved 2010-04-01.
[11] Bryan Chan; Luis Sinco (2011-03-04). On the revolutionary road in Libya, Photo #4. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved
2010-04-01.
[12] Update II: AK-103 Exports to Libya. Security Scholar. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
[13] Modern Firearms. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
[14] "" """. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
[15] Russia to build 2 Kalashnikov factories in Venezuela by 2010 / Sputnik international. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
[16] John Pike. Defense Industry. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
[17] Christopher Looft. Venezuela Set to Mass Produce Kalashnikovs, Sniper Ries. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
[18] Cavim inicia entrega de fusiles de asalto Kalashnikov AK-103 a la Fuerza Armada de Venezuela. Infodefensa.com. 3
June 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
[19] Special Forces (Maritime) (Pakistan), Amphibious and special forces. Jane's Information Group.

5.7 External links


Modern Firearms - AK-103
Kalashnikov.guns.ru
Izhmash page on the AK-103

Chapter 6

AK-47
This article is about the assault rie. For other uses, see AK-47 (disambiguation).
The AK-47 is a selective-re, gas-operated 7.6239mm assault rie, rst developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail
Kalashnikov. It is ocially known in the Soviet documentation as Avtomat Kalashnikova (Russian: ).
It is also known as Kalashnikov, AK, or in Russian slang, Kalash.
Design work on the AK-47 began in the last year of World War II (1945). After the war in 1946, the AK-47 was
presented for ocial military trials. In 1948, the xed-stock version was introduced into active service with selected
units of the Soviet Army. An early development of the design was the AKS (SSkladnoy or folding), which
was equipped with an underfolding metal shoulder stock. In 1949, the AK-47 was ocially accepted by the Soviet
Armed Forces* [8] and used by the majority of the member states of the Warsaw Pact.
Even after six decades the model and its variants remain the most popular and widely used assault ries in the world
because of their substantial reliability under harsh conditions, low production costs compared to contemporary Western weapons, availability in virtually every geographic region and ease of use. The AK-47 has been manufactured
in many countries and has seen service with armed forces as well as irregular forces worldwide, and was the basis
for developing many other types of individual and crew-served rearms. As of 2004, out of the estimated 500 million rearms worldwide, approximately 100 million belong to the Kalashnikov family, three-quarters of which are
AK-47s.* [3]

6.1 History
6.1.1

Pre-history

During World War II, the Germans introduced the StG 44 (Sturmgewehr, literally assault rie)* [9] in large
numbersabout half a million were built. This gun, from which the English terminology assault rieoriginates,
was chambered in a new intermediate cartridge, the 7.9233mm Kurz.* [10] The Soviets captured an early prototype
of the StG 44, a Mkb 42(H), and they were also given samples of the U.S. M1 Carbine, which was also developed
for a less powerful round. Based on these developments, on 15 July 1943, the People's Commissariat for Armaments
decided to introduce a Soviet intermediate cartridge. A team led by N.M. Elizarov (.. ) was charged
with the development of what eventually became the 7.6239mm M43; the new cartridge went into mass production
in March 1944.* [11] At the same meeting that adopted the new cartridge, the Soviet planners decided that a whole
range of new small arms should use it, including a semi-automatic carbine, a fully automatic rie, and a light machine
gun. Design contests for these new weapons began in earnest in 1944.* [12]

6.1.2

Development and competition

Mikhail Kalashnikov began his career as a weapon designer while in a hospital after he was shot in the shoulder during
the Battle of Bryansk.* [4]* [13] After tinkering with a submachine gun design in 1942* [14] and with a light machine
gun in 1943,* [15]* [16] in 1944 he entered a competition for a new weapon that would chamber the 7.6241mm
21

22

CHAPTER 6. AK-47

cartridge developed by Yelizarov and Syomin in 1943 (the 7.6241mm cartridge predated the current 7.6239mm
M1943). In the 1944 competition for intermediate cartridge weapons, Kalashnikov submitted a semi-automatic, gasoperated carbine, strongly inuenced by the American M1 Garand, but that lost out to a Simonov design, which was
adopted as the SKS-45.* [17]
In the fully automatic weapon category, the specications (- TTT) number 245643* [18] passed down by the GAU in November 1943 were rather ambitious: the weapon was to have a 500520 mm
long barrel and had to weigh no more than 5 kg, including a folding bipod. Despite this, many Soviet designers
participated in this category, Tokarev, Korovin, Degtyarev, Shpagin, Simonov, and Prilutsky are some of the more
prominent names who submitted designs;* [19] Kalashnikov did not submit an entry for this contest.* [18] A gun
presented by Sudayev, the AS-44 (weight: 5.6 kg, barrel length 505 mm), came up ahead in the mid-1944 trials.
However subsequent eld trials conducted in 1945 found it to be too heavy for the average soldier and Sudayev
was asked to lighten his gun; his lightened variant (5.35 kg, 485 mm barrel) turned out to be less reliable and less
accurate. In October 1945, the GAU was convinced to dispense with the built-in bipod requirement; Sudayev's gun
in this variant, called OAS ( ), weighed only 4.8 kg. Sudayev however fell ill
and died in 1946, preventing further development.* [20]* [21]* [22]
The experience gained from the reliability issues of the lightened Sudayev design convinced the GAU that a brand
new competition had to be held, and for this round the requirements were explicitly stated: a wholesale replacement
of the PPSh-41 and PPS-43 sub-machine guns was what they were after. The new competition was initiated in 1946
under GAU TTT number 3131-45. Ten designs had been submitted by August 1946.* [23]
Kalashnikov and his design team from factory number two in Kovrov submitted an entry. It was a gas-operated rie
which had a breech-block mechanism similar to his 1944 carbine, and a curved 30-round magazine. Kalashnikov's
ries (codenamed AK-1 and 2, the former with a milled receiver and the latter with a stamped one) proved to be
reliable and the weapon was accepted to second round of competition along with designs by A. A. Dementyev (KBP-520) and A. A. Bulkin (TKB-415). In late 1946, as the ries were being tested, one of Kalashnikov's assistants,
Aleksandr Zaitsev, suggested a major redesign of AK-1, particularly to improve reliability. At rst, Kalashnikov was
reluctant, given that their rie had already fared better than its competitors. Eventually, however, Zaitsev managed to
persuade Kalashnikov. The new rie (factory name KB-P-580) proved to be simple and reliable under a wide range
of conditions with convenient handling characteristics; prototypes with serial numbers one to three were completed in
November 1947. Production of the rst army trial series began in early 1948 at the Izhevsk factory number 524,* [24]
and in 1949 it was adopted by the Soviet Army as 7.62 mm Kalashnikov assault rie (AK)".* [8]

6.1.3

Design

A Type 2 AK-47, the rst machined receiver variation

The AK-47 is best described as a hybrid of previous rie technology innovations:* [25] the trigger mechanism,* [26]
double locking lugs and unlocking raceway of the M1 Garand/M1 carbine, the safety mechanism of the John Browning
designed Remington Model 8 rie, and the gas system of the Sturmgewehr 44.
Kalashnikov borrowed the long stroke piston design from the M1 Garand, with the op rod and piston mounted on the
top instead of the bottom of the rie.* [27]
Kalashnikov's team had access to all of these weapons and had no need to reinvent the wheel,* [25] though he

6.1. HISTORY

23

denied that his design was based on the German Sturmgewehr 44 assault rie.* [28] Kalashnikov himself observed:
A lot of Russian Army soldiers ask me how one can become a constructor, and how new weaponry is designed.
These are very dicult questions. Each designer seems to have his own paths, his own successes and failures. But
one thing is clear: before attempting to create something new, it is vital to have a good appreciation of everything
that already exists in this eld. I myself have had many experiences conrming this to be so.* [13]
There are claims about Kalashnikov copying other designs, like Bulkin's TKB-415* [2] or Simonov's AVS-31.* [29]

6.1.4

Receiver development

AKMS with a Type 4B receiver (top), and an AK-47 with a Type 2A

There were many diculties during the initial phase of production. The rst production models had stamped sheet
metal receivers. Diculties were encountered in welding the guide and ejector rails, causing high rejection rates.* [30]
Instead of halting production, a heavy machined receiver was substituted for the sheet metal receiver. This was a more
costly process, but the use of machined receivers accelerated production as tooling and labor for the earlier Mosin
Nagant rie's machined receiver were easily adapted. Partly because of these problems, the Soviets were not able to
distribute large numbers of the new rie to soldiers until 1956. During this time, production of the interim SKS rie
continued.* [30]
Once manufacturing diculties had been overcome, a redesigned version designated the AKM (M formodernized
orupgraded"; in Russian: [Avtomat Kalashnikova Modernizirovanniy]) was introduced in 1959.* [31] This new model used a stamped sheet metal receiver and featured a slanted muzzle
brake on the end of the barrel to compensate for muzzle rise under recoil. In addition, a hammer retarder was added
to prevent the weapon from ring out of battery (without the bolt being fully closed), during rapid or automatic
re.* [30] This is also sometimes referred to as acyclic rate reducer, or simplyrate reducer, as it also has the
eect of reducing the number of rounds red per minute during automatic re. It was also roughly one-third lighter
than the previous model.* [31]
Both licensed and unlicensed production of the Kalashnikov weapons abroad were almost exclusively of the AKM
variant, partially due to the much easier production of the stamped receiver. This model is the most commonly
encountered, having been produced in much greater quantities. All ries based on the Kalashnikov design are frequently referred to as AK-47s in the West, although this is only correct when applied to ries based on the original
three receiver types.* [32] In most former Eastern Bloc countries, the weapon is known simply as theKalashnikov

24

CHAPTER 6. AK-47

or AK. The photo above at right illustrates the dierences between the Type 2 milled receiver and the Type 4
stamped, including the use of rivets rather than welds on the stamped receiver, as well as the placement of a small
dimple above the magazine well for stabilization of the magazine.
In 1974, the Soviets began replacing their AK-47 and AKM ries with a newer design, the AK-74, which uses
5.4539mm ammunition. This new rie and cartridge had only started to be manufactured in Eastern European
nations when the Soviet Union collapsed, drastically slowing production of the AK-74 and other weapons of the
former Soviet bloc.

6.2 Features
The AK-47 was designed to be a simple, reliable automatic rie that could be manufactured quickly and cheaply,
using mass production methods that were state of the art in the Soviet Union during the late 1940s.* [33] The large
gas piston, generous clearances between moving parts, and tapered cartridge case design allow the gun to endure large
amounts of foreign matter and fouling without failing to cycle. This reliability comes at the expense of accuracy, as
the looser tolerances do not allow for precision and consistency.

6.2.1

Operating cycle

The AK-47 uses a long stroke gas system, as was found in the M1 Garand.* [27] To re, the operator inserts a loaded
magazine, pulls back and releases the charging handle, and then pulls the trigger. In semi-automatic, the rearm
res only once, requiring the trigger to be released and depressed again for the next shot. In full-automatic, the rie
continues to re automatically cycling fresh rounds into the chamber, until the magazine is exhausted or pressure is
released from the trigger. As each bullet travels through the barrel, a portion of the gases expanding behind it is
diverted into the gas tube above the barrel, where it acts on the gas piston. The piston, in turn, is driven backward,
pushing the bolt carrier, which causes the bolt to move backwards, ejecting the spent round, and chambering a new
round when the recoil spring pushes it forward.* [34]
This long-stroke piston design used by the AK-47 (and notably in the designs of the M1 Garand and IMI Tavor)* [35]
is generally associated with greater reliability in adverse conditions.* [36]

6.2.2

Fire selector

The prototype of the AK-47, had a separate re selector and safety.* [37] These were later combined in the production
version to simplify the design. The re selector is a large lever located on the right side of the rie, it acts as a dustcover and prevents the charging handle from being pulled fully to the rear when it is on safe.* [38] It is operated by the
shooter's right fore-ngers and it has 3 settings: safe (up), full-auto (center), and semi-auto (down).* [38] The reason
for this is, under stress a soldier will push the selector lever down with considerable force bypassing the full-auto stage
and setting the rie to semi-auto.* [38] To set the AK-47 to full-auto requires the deliberate action of centering the
selector lever.* [38] Some AK-type ries also have a more traditional selector lever on the left side of the receiver just
above the pistol grip.* [38] This lever is operated by the shooter's right thumb and has three settings: safe (forward),
full-auto (center), and semi-auto (backward).* [38]

6.2.3

Magazines

The standard magazine capacity is 30 rounds. There are also 10, 20 and 40-round box magazines, as well as 75-round
drum magazines.
The AK-47's 30-round magazines have a pronounced curve that allows them to smoothly feed ammunition into the
chamber. Their heavy steel construction combined with feed-lips(the surfaces at the top of the magazine that
control the angle at which the cartridge enters the chamber) machined from a single steel billet makes them highly
resistant to damage. These magazines are so strong thatSoldiers have been known to use their mags as hammers, and
even bottle openers.* [39]* [40] This contributes to the AK-47 magazine being more reliable, but makes it heavier
than U.S. and NATO magazines. The early slab-sided steel AK-47 magazines weigh .43 kg (0.95 lb) empty.* [41]
The later steel AKM magazines had lighter sheet-metal bodies with prominent reinforcing ribs weighing .33 kg (0.73
lb) empty.* [41]* [42] The current issue steel-reinforced polymer magazines are even lighter, weighing .25 kg (0.55

6.2. FEATURES

25

lb) empty.* [7] Early steel AK-47 magazines are 9.75 inches long, and the later ribbed steel AKM and newer polymer
magazines are about an inch shorter.* [43]* [44]
Note: All, 7.6239mm AK magazines are backwards compatible with older AK variants.
Note *: 10.12 kg (22.3 lb) is the maximum amount of ammo that the average soldier can comfortably carry... it also allows for
best comparison of the three most common AK-47 magazines and the AK-74 magazine

Most Yugoslavian and some East German AK magazines were made with cartridge followers that hold the bolt open
when empty; however, most AK magazine followers allow the bolt to close when the magazine is empty.

6.2.4

Sights

The AK-47 uses a notched rear tangent iron sight calibrated in 100 m (109 yd) increments from 100 to 800 m (109
to 875 yd).* [46] The front sight is a post adjustable for elevation in the eld. Horizontal adjustment is done by the
armory before issue. Thepoint-blank rangebattle zero setting "" on the 7.6239mm AK-47 rear tangent sight
element corresponds to a 300 m (328 yd) zero.* [46]* [47] These settings mirror the MosinNagant and SKS ries
which the AK-47 replaced. For the AK-47 combined with service cartridges the 300 m battle zero setting limits the
apparentbullet risewithin approximately 5 to +31 cm (2.0 to 12.2 in) relative to the line of sight. Soldiers are
instructed to re at any target within this range by simply placing the sights on the center of mass (the belt buckle)
of the enemy target. Any errors in range estimation are tactically irrelevant, as a well-aimed shot will hit the torso of
the enemy soldier. Some AK-type ries have a front sight with a ip-up luminous dot that is calibrated at 50 m (55
yd), for improved night ghting.* [46]

Side rail
All current AKs (100 series) and some older models, have side rails for mounting a variety of scopes and sighting
devices, such as the PSO-1 Optical Sniper Sight.* [48] The side rails, allow for removal and remounting of optical
accessories without interfering with the zeroing of the optic. However, the 100 series side folding stocks cannot be
folded with the optics mounted.

6.2.5

Accessories

Accessories supplied with the rie include a 387 mm (15.2 in) long 6H3 bayonet featuring a 200 mm (7.9 in) long
spear point blade. The AK-47 bayonet is installed by slipping the 17.7 mm (0.70 in) diameter muzzle ring around
the muzzle and latching the handle down on the bayonet lug under the front sight base.* [49]
All current model AK-47 ries can mount under-barrel 40 mm grenade launchers such as the GP-25 and its variants,
which can re up to 20 rounds per minute and have an eective range of up to 400 metres.* [50] The main grenade
is the VOG-25 (VOG-25M) fragmentation grenade which has a 6 m (9 m) (20 ft (30 ft)) lethality radius. The VOG25P/VOG-25PM (jumping) variant explodes 0.51 metre (1.63.3 ft) above the ground.* [51]
The AK-47 can also mount a (rarely used) cup-type grenade launcher, the Kalashnikov grenade launcher that res
standard RGD-5 Soviet hand-grenades. The maximum eective range is approximately 150 meters.* [52] This
launcher can also be used to launch tear-gas and riot control grenades.

6.2.6

Terminal ballistics

Main article: 7.6239mm


The AK res the 7.6239mm cartridge with a muzzle velocity of 715 m/s (2,350 ft/s).* [7] The cartridge weight is
16.3 g (0.6 oz), the projectile weight is 7.9 g (122 gr).* [53] The AK has excellent penetration when shooting through
heavy foliage, walls or a common vehicle's metal body and into an opponent attempting to use these things as cover.
The 7.62x39mm M43 projectile does not generally fragment when striking an opponent and has an unusual tendency
to remain intact even after making contact with bone. The 7.62x39mm round produces signicant wounding in
cases where the bullet tumbles (yaws) in tissue,* [54] but produces relatively minor wounds in cases where the bullet
exits before beginning to yaw.* [55]* [56]* [57] In the absence of yaw, the M43 round can pencil through tissue with
relatively little injury.* [55]* [58]

26

CHAPTER 6. AK-47

Most, if not all, of the 7.62x39mm ammunition found today is of the upgraded M67 variety. This variety deleted
the steel insert, shifting the center of gravity rearward, and allowing the projectile to destabilize (or yaw) at about 3.3
in (8.4 cm), nearly 6.7 in (17 cm) earlier in tissue than the M43 round.* [59] This change also reduces penetration in
ballistic gelatin to ~25 in (64 cm) for the newer M67 round versus ~29 in (74 cm) for the older M43 round.* [59]* [60]
However, the wounding potential of M67 is mostly limited to the small permanent wound channel the bullet itself
makes, especially when the bullet yaws.* [59]

6.2.7

Accuracy

The AK-47's accuracy has always been considered to be good enoughto hit an adult male torso out to about 300
m (328 yd).* [61]* [62] At 300 m (328 yd), expert shooters (ring AK-47s) at prone or at bench rest positions had
diculty putting ten consecutive rounds on target.* [63] Despite the Soviet engineers best eorts and no matter
the changes, the AK-47's accuracy could not be signicantly improved; when it came to precise shooting, it was a
stubbornly mediocre arm.* [63] An AK can re a 10 shot group of 5.9 in (15 cm) at 100 m (109 yd),* [64] and
17.5 in (44 cm) at 300 m (328 yd)* [63] Curiously, the newer stamped steel receiver AKM models are actually less
accurate than their predecessors.* [62] There are advantages and disadvantages in both forged/milled receivers and
stamped receivers. Milled/Forged Receivers are much more rigid, exing less as the rie is red thus not hindering
accuracy as much as stamped receivers. Stamped receivers on the other hand are a bit more rugged since it has some
give in it and have less chances of having metal fatigue under heavy usage.* [62] As a result, the milled AK-47's
are capable of shooting 3 to 5 in (8 to 13 cm) groups at 100 yd (91 m), whereas the stamped AKM's are capable of
shooting 4 to 6 in (10 to 15 cm) groups at 100 yd (91 m).* [62] The best shooters are able to hit a man-sized target at
800 m (875 yd) within ve shots (ring from prone or bench rest position) or ten shots (standing).* [65]

6.2.8

Service life

The AK-47 and its variants are made in dozens of countries, with quality ranging from nely engineered weapons
to pieces of questionable workmanship.* [66] As a result, the AK-47 has a service/system life of approximately
6,000,* [67] to 10,000,* [68] to 15,000* [69] rounds.* [70] The AK-47 was designed to be a cheap, simple, easy to
manufacture assault rie,* [71] perfectly matching Soviet military doctrine that treats equipment and weapons as
disposable items.* [72] As units are often deployed without adequate logistical support and dependent onbattleeld
cannibalizationfor resupply, it is actually more cost-eective to replace rather than repair weapons.* [72]
The AK-47 has small parts and springs that need to be replaced every few thousand rounds. However..."Every time
it is disassembled beyond the eld stripping stage, it will take some time for some parts to regain their t, some parts
may tend to shake loose and fall out when ring the weapon. Some parts of the AK-47 line are riveted together.
Repairing these can be quite a hassle, since the end of the rivet has to be ground o and a new one set after the part
is replaced.* [46]

6.3 Variants
Early variants (7.6239mm)
Issue of 1948/49 Type 1: The very earliest models, stamped sheet metal receiver, are now very rare.
Issue of 1951 Type 2: Has a milled receiver. Barrel and chamber are chrome plated to resist corrosion.
Issue of 1954/55 Type 3: Lightened, milled receiver variant. Rie weight is 3.47 kg (7.7 lb).* [5]
AKS (AKS-47) Type 1, 2, or 3 receiver: Featured a downward-folding metal stock similar to that of the
German MP40, for use in the restricted space in the BMP infantry combat vehicle, as well as by paratroops.
AKN (AKSN) Night scope rail.* [73]
Modernized (7.6239mm)
AKM A simplied, lighter version of the AK-47; Type 4 receiver is made from stamped and riveted sheet
metal. A slanted muzzle device was added to counter climb in automatic re. Rie weight is 3.1 kg (6.8 lb)* [7]
due to the lighter receiver. This is the most ubiquitous variant of the AK-47.

6.3. VARIANTS

27

AKMS Under-folding stock version of the AKM intended for airborne troops.
AKMN (AKMSN) Night scope rail.
AKML (AKMSL) Slotted ash suppressor and night scope rail.* [74]
RPK Hand-held machine gun version with longer barrel and bipod. The variants RPKS, RPKN (RPKSN),
RPKL (RPKSL) mirror AKM variants. The Svariants have a side-folding wooden stock.
Low-impulse variants (5.4539mm)
AK-74 Assault rie.
AKS-74 Side-folding stock.
AK-74N (AKS-74N) Night scope rail.
AKS-74U Compact carbine.
AKS-74UN Night scope rail.
RPK-74 Light machine gun.
RPKS-74 Side-folding stock.
RPK-74N (RPKS-74N) Night scope rail.
The 100 Series
5.4539mm / 5.5645mm / 7.6239mm
AK-74M/AK-101/AK-103 Modernized AK-74. Scope rail and side-folding stock.
AK-107/AK-108 Balanced recoil models.
AK-105/AK-102/AK-104 Carbine.
RPK-74M / RPK-201 / RPKM and RPK-203 Light machine gun.
Other weapons
Saiga-12 12-gauge shotgun. Built on AK receiver.
Saiga-12S Pistol grip and side-folding stock.
Saiga-12K Shorter barrel.
Saiga-20 (S/K) 20-gauge.
Saiga-410 (S/K) .410 bore.
Saiga semi-automatic rie
KSK shotgun 12-gauge combat shotgun (based on Saiga-12).
Vepr-12 Molot 12-gauge combat shotgun. Built on RPK receiver.
Bizon Submachine gun with helical magazine. Borrows 60% of details from AKS-74U. 918mm PM,
919mm Luger, .380 ACP; 7.6225mm TT (box magazine).
Vityaz-SN 919mm Parabellum Submachine gun. Successor to the Bizon and the standard SMG for all
branches of Russian military and police forces* [75]
OTs-14 Groza Bullpup assault rie. 939mm, 7.6239mm.
AK-12 series
AK-12 The AK-12 uses the same gas-operated long-stroke piston system of previous Kalashnikov ries, with
many modern features that are radically dierent from other guns in its family. However, in late September
2013, the AK-12 was passed over by the Russian military.* [76]

28

6.3.1

CHAPTER 6. AK-47

Production outside of the Soviet Union/Russian Federation

Military variants only. Includes new designs substantially derived from the Kalashnikov.
Certainly more have been produced elsewhere; but the above list represents known producers and is limited to only
military variants. An updated AK-47 design the AK-103 is still produced in Russia.

6.3.2

Derivatives

The basic design of the AK-47 has been used as the basis for other successful rie designs such as the Finnish Rk
62/76 and Rk 95 Tp, the Israeli Galil, the Indian INSAS and the Yugoslav Zastava M76 and M77/82 ries. Several
bullpup designs have surfaced such as the Chinese Norinco Type 86S, although none have been produced in quantity.
Bullpup conversions are also available commercially.
Further information: list of weapons inuenced by the Kalashnikov design

6.3.3

Licensing

OJSC IzhMash has repeatedly claimed that the majority of manufacturers produce AK-47s without a proper license
from IZH.* [94]* [95] The Izhevsk Machine Tool Factory acquired a patent in 1999, making manufacture of the newest
Kalashnikov ries, such as AK-100s by anyone other than themselves illegal in countries where a patent is granted.
However, older variants, such as AK and AKM are public domain due to age of design.

6.4 Illicit trade


Throughout the world, the AK and its variants are among the most commonly smuggled small arms sold to governments, rebels, criminals, and civilians alike, with little international oversight. In some countries, prices for AKs are
very low; in Somalia, Rwanda, Mozambique, Congo and Tanzania prices are between $30 and $125 per weapon,* [96]
and prices have fallen in the last few decades due to mass counterfeiting. Moiss Nam observed that in a small town
in Kenya in 1986, an AK-47 cost fteen cows but that in 2005, the price was down to four cows indicating that supply
was immense.* [97] The weapon has appeared in a number of conicts including clashes in the Balkans, Iraq,
Afghanistan, and Somalia.* [96]
The Taliban and the Northern Alliance fought each other with Soviet AKs; some of these were exported to Pakistan.
The gun is now also made in Pakistan's semi-autonomous areas (see Khyber Pass Copy).* [98] "'The Distribution
of Iranian Ammunition in Africa', by the private British arms-tracking group Conict Armament Research (CAR),
shows how Iran broke trade embargoes [sic?] and inltrated African markets with massive amounts of illegal, unmarked 7.62 mm rounds for the Kalashnikov-style AK-47 ries.* [99]
Estimated numbers of AK-type weapons vary. The Small Arms Survey suggest thatbetween 70 and 100 million of
these weapons have been produced since 1947.* [100] The World Bank estimates that out of the 500 million total
rearms available worldwide, 100 million are of the Kalashnikov family, and 75 million are AK-47s.* [3] Because AKtype weapons have been made in other countries, often illicitly, it is impossible to know how many really exist.* [101]

6.5 Cultural inuence


Basically, it's the anti-Western cach of it ... And you know, one man's terrorist is another man's freedom ghter,
so we all sort of think, oh boy, we've got a little bit of Che Guevara in us. And this accounts for the popularity of the
(AK 47) weapon. Plus I think that in the United States it's considered counterculture, which is always something that
citizens in this country kind of like ... It's kind of sticking a nger in the eye of the man, if you will.
Larry Kahaner, author of AK-47: The Weapon That Changed the Face of War* [102]
Russia/Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China, as well as Western countries (especially the United States)
supplied arms and technical knowledge to numerous countries and rebel forces in a global struggle between the

6.6. KALASHNIKOV MUSEUM

29

Warsaw Pact nations and their allies against NATO and their allies called the Cold War. While the NATO countries
used ries such as the relatively expensive M14, FN FAL, HK G3 and M16 assault rie during this time, the low
production and materials costs of the AK-47 meant that the Russia/USSR could produce and supply its allies at a
very low cost. Because of its low cost, it was also duplicated or used as the basis for many other ries (see List
of weapons inuenced by the Kalashnikov design), such as the Israeli Galil, Chinese Type 56, and Swiss SIG SG
550. As a result, the Cold War saw the mass export of AK-47s by the Soviet Union and the PRC to their allies,
such as the Nicaraguan Sandinistas, Viet Cong as well as Middle Eastern, Asian, and African revolutionaries. The
United States also purchased the Type 56 from the PRC to give to the mujahideen guerrillas during the Soviet war
in Afghanistan.* [103]
The proliferation of this weapon is reected by more than just numbers. The AK-47 is included in the ag of
Mozambique and its emblem, an acknowledgment that the country's leaders gained power in large part through the
eective use of their AK-47s.* [104] It is also found in the coats of arms of East Timor, the revolution era coat of
arms of Burkina Faso and the ag of Hezbollah.
In parts of the Western world, the AK-47 is associated with their enemies; both Cold War era and present-day. In the
pro-communist states, the AK-47 became a symbol of third-world revolution. During the 1980s, the Soviet Union
became the principal arms dealer to countries embargoed by Western nations, including Middle Eastern nations such
as Syria, Libya and Iran, who welcomed Soviet Union backing against Israel. After the fall of the Soviet Union,
AK-47s were sold both openly and on the black market to any group with cash, including drug cartels and dictatorial
states, and more recently they have been seen in the hands of Islamic groups such as the Taliban and Al-Qaeda in
Afghanistan and Iraq, and FARC, Ejrcito de Liberacin Nacional guerrillas in Colombia. Western movies often
portray criminals, gang members and terrorists using AK-47s. For these reasons, in the U.S. and Western Europe
the AK-47 is stereotypically regarded as the weapon of choice of insurgents, gangsters and terrorists. Conversely,
throughout the developing world, the AK-47 can be positively attributed with revolutionaries against foreign occupation, imperialism, or colonialism.* [102]
In Mexico, the AK-47 is known as Cuerno de Chivo(literally Ram's Horn) because of its curved magazine
design and is one of the weapons of choice of Mexican drug cartels. It is sometimes mentioned in Mexican folk music
lyrics.* [106]
In 2006, Colombian musician and peace activist Csar Lpez devised the escopetarra, an AK converted into a guitar. One sold for US$17,000 in a fundraiser held to benet the victims of anti-personnel mines, while another was
exhibited at the United Nations' Conference on Disarmament.* [107]
The AK-47 made an appearance in U.S. popular culture as a recurring focus in the 2005 Nicolas Cage lm Lord of
War. There are numerous monologues in the movie focusing on the weapon and its eects on global conict and the
gun running market, such as:

Of all the weapons in the vast Soviet arsenal, nothing was more protable than Avtomat Kalashnikova model of 1947.
More commonly known as the AK-47, or Kalashnikov. It's the world's most popular assault rie. A weapon all ghters
love. An elegantly simple 9 pound amalgamation of forged steel and plywood. It doesn't break, jam, or overheat. It'll
shoot whether it's covered in mud or lled with sand. It's so easy, even a child can use it; and they do. The Soviets put
the gun on a coin. Mozambique put it on their ag. Since the end of the Cold War, the Kalashnikov has become the
Russian people's greatest export. After that comes vodka, caviar, and suicidal novelists. One thing is for sure, no one
was lining up to buy their cars.* [108]

6.6 Kalashnikov Museum


The Kalashnikov Museum (also called the AK-47 museum) opened on 4 November 2004, in Izhevsk, Udmurt Republic. This city is in the Ural Region of Russia. The museum chronicles the biography of General Kalashnikov,
and documents the invention of the AK-47. The museum complex of small arms of M. T. Kalashnikov, a series of
halls and multimedia exhibitions is devoted to the evolution of the AK-47 assault rie and attracts 10,000 monthly
visitors.* [109]
Nadezhda Vechtomova, the museum director stated in an interview that the purpose of the museum is to honor the
ingenuity of the inventor and the hard work of the employees and to separate the weapon as a weapon of murder
from the people who are producing it and to tell its history in our country.

30

CHAPTER 6. AK-47

6.7 Users

Afghanistan* [110]

Albania* [111]

Algeria* [111]

Angola* [111]

Armenia* [111]

Azerbaijan* [111]* [112]

Bangladesh* [111]

Belarus* [111]

Benin* [111]

Bosnia and Herzegovina* [111]

Botswana* [111]

Bulgaria* [111]

Burkina Faso* [113]* [114]* [115]

Burundi* [116]* [117]

Cambodia* [111]

Cameroon* [118]* [119]

Cape Verde* [111]

Central African Republic* [111]

Chad* [111]

Chile* [120]

People's Republic of China: Type 56 variant was used.* [121]

Comoros* [111]

Republic of the Congo* [111]

Democratic Republic of the Congo* [111]

Cuba* [111]

Djibouti* [122]* [123]

Egypt* [111]

Eritrea* [111]

Ethiopia* [111]

El Salvador* [124]

Finland: Rk 62, Rk 95 Tp.

Gabon* [111]

6.7. USERS

Gambia* [125]* [126]* [127]* [128]

Ghana* [129]* [130]

Greece: EKAM counter-terrorist unit of the Hellenic Police.* [131]* [132]

Guinea* [111]

Equatorial Guinea* [111]

Guinea-Bissau* [111]

Guyana* [111]

Hungary* [111]

India:* [111] Used by Force One.* [133]

Indonesia: Still used by TNI-AD, TNI-AL, TNI-AU, and Police

Iran* [111]

Iraq* [110]* [111]

Ivory Coast* [134]* [135]* [136]

Kazakhstan* [111]

Kenya* [137]

North Korea: Type 56 and Type 58 variants were used.* [111]

Laos* [111]

Kuwait* [138]

Lebanon* [111]

Liberia* [111]

Libya* [111]

Macedonia* [111]* [139]

Madagascar* [111]

Mali* [111]

Malta: Type 56 variant.* [111]

Mauritania* [140]* [141]* [142]

Moldova* [111]

Mongolia* [111]

Morocco* [111]

Mozambique* [111]

Myanmar: Used by the Myanmar Police Force (include the Chinese Type 56).

Namibia* [111]

Niger* [143]* [144]* [145]

31

32

CHAPTER 6. AK-47

Nigeria* [146]* [147]* [148]

Pakistan: Type 56* [149] and AK-103* [150] used.

Palestine* [151]

Peru* [111]

Philippines: Used by the Santiago City PNP.* [152]

Poland:* [2] Replaced by AKM and kbs wz. 1996 Beryl.

Qatar* [111]

Rhodesia* [153]

Romania* [111]

Russia:* [2] Replaced by the AK-74 since 1974.

Rwanda* [154]

Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic* [155]

Sao Tome and Principe* [111]

Senegal* [156]

Serbia* [111]

Seychelles* [111]

Sierra Leone* [111]

Slovenia* [111]

Somalia* [111]

South Africa: Used by the Special Forces Brigade.* [157]

Sri Lanka: Type 56 variant.* [111]

Sudan* [111]

South Sudan

Suriname* [111]

Syria* [111]

Tajikistan* [111]

Tanzania* [111]

Togo* [111]

Turkey* [111]

Turkmenistan* [111]

Uganda* [111]

Ukraine* [111]

Dominican Republic* [111]

6.8. SEE ALSO

UAE* [111]

Uzbekistan* [111]

Vietnam: Type 56 variant was used extensively by the Viet Cong.* [121]

Yemen* [111]

Yugoslavia* [2]

Zambia* [111]

Zimbabwe* [111]

33

6.8 See also


Comparison of the AK-47 and M16
List of Russian inventions
List of Russian weaponry
List of assault ries
List of weapons inuenced by the Kalashnikov design
Table of handgun and rie cartridges
Overview of gun laws by nation

6.9 Notes
[1] Table data are for AK-47 with Type 3 receiver.

6.10 References
[1] Monetchikov 2005, chpts. 6 and 7 (if AK-46 and 47 are to be seen as separate designs).
[2] Maksim Popenker (5 February 2009). Kalashnikov AK (AK-47) AKS, AKM and AKMS assault ries (USSR)". World
Guns. Modern Firearms & Ammunition. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
[3] Phillip Killicoat (April 2007).Weaponomics: The Global Market for Assault Ries(PDF). World Bank Policy Research
Working Paper 4202 (Post-Conict Transitions Working Paper No. 10). Oxford University. p. 3. Retrieved 3 April 2010.
[4] AK-47 Inventor Doesn't Lose Sleep Over Havoc Wrought With His Invention. USA: Fox News. 6 July 2007. OCLC
36334372. Retrieved 3 April 2010.
[5] . 7,62- 1967, pp. 161162.
[6] . 7,62- () 1983, pp. 149150.
[7] AKM (AK-47) Kalashnikov modernized assault rie, caliber 7.62mm. Izhmash.
[8] Monetchikov 2005, p. 67; Bolotin 1995, p. 129.
[9] Rottman 2011, p. 9.
[10] Machine Carbine Promoted Tactical and Technical Trends, No. 57, April 1945.
[11] C. J. Chivers (2010). The Gun. Simon & Schuster. pp. 166167. ISBN 978-1-4391-9653-3.
[12] Monetchikov 2005, pp. 2425.

34

CHAPTER 6. AK-47

[13] Bolotin 1995, pp. 123124.


[14] Bolotin 1995, p. 123.
[15] Monetchikov 2005, p. 38.
[16] David Naumovich Bolotin; [translation: Igor F. Naftul'e ; edited by John Walter, Heikki Pohjolainen] (1995). Soviet
Small-arms and Ammunition. Hyvink: Finnish Arms Museum Foundation (Suomen asemuseosti). p. 150. ISBN
9519718419.
[17] David Naumovich Bolotin; [translation: Igor F. Naftul'e ; edited by John Walter, Heikki Pohjolainen] (1995). Soviet
Small-arms and Ammunition. Hyvink: Finnish Arms Museum Foundation (Suomen asemuseosti). p. 115. ISBN
9519718419.
[18] , . , , 2010/3, p. 15
[19] Monetchikov 2005, p. 26.
[20] Sergei Monetchikov (October 2002). : , . bratishka.ru
[21] Bolotin 1995, pp. 127.
[22] Monetchikov 2005, p. 35.
[23] Monetchikov 2005, p. 36.
[24] Monetchikov 2005, p. 64.
[25] Anatoly Wasserman (23 February 2010). [The Great Compilator]. - (in
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[30] Poyer 2006, pp. 811.
[31] Edward Ezell (1 March 1986). The AK47 story: evolution of the Kalashnikov weapons. Stackpole Books. p. 36. ISBN
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[32] Poyer 2006, p. 2.
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[37] Maxim Popenker; Anthony G Williams (2005). Assault Rie. Crowood Press. ISBN 978-1-86126-700-9.
[38] Peter G. Kokalis, Kalashnikovs 3 of the best. arsenalinc.com
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2014.
[40] Ak Mag bottle opener. YouTube. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
[41] Dockery, Kevin (2007). Future Weapons. p. 102. ISBN 0425217507.
[42] Ak 47 Technical Description Manual. Scribd.com. 30 September 2010. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
[43] Rie Evaluation Study, United States Army, Combat Development Command, ADA046961, 20 December 1962

6.10. REFERENCES

35

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[46] Ak 47 Technical Manual. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
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[48] 7.62 mm Kalashnikov assault ries AK103, 104. Izhmash. Retrieved 8 June 2012.
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[57] Fackler, ML; Malinowski, JA; Hoxie, SW; Jason, A. (September 1990). Wounding eects of the AK-47 rie used
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Military Medicine, Part I: Warfare, Weaponry, and the Casualty, Vol. 5, Conventional Warfare: Ballistic, Blast, and Burn
Injuries. Washington, DC: Oce of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army, United States of America (1990) Fig
4-38 p. 148
[59] Military rie bullet wound patterns. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
[60] Martin L. Fackler. Military rie bullet wound patterns comparison charts. Frfrogspad.com.
[61] The USA's M4 Carbine Controversy. Defenseindustrydaily.com. 21 November 2011. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
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[63] C. J. Chivers (2011) The Gun. Simon and Schuster Publishing. ISBN 0743271734. pp. 206207. Taken from the Long
Range Dispersion Firing Test of the AK-47 Assault Rie, U.S. Army Foreign Science and Technology Center. August
1969. Just how mediocre? Two decades later, the U.S. Army would hold long-range ring tests with Kalashnikov
variants, including three Soviet, two Chinese, and a Romanian model. At 300 meters, expert shooters at prone or bench
rest positions had diculty putting ten consecutive rounds on target. The testers then had the weapons red from a cradle
by a machine, which removed human error. At 300 meters, the ten-rounds group red in this manner had a minimum
dispersion of 17.5 inches, compared to the 12.6 inches with an M-16, the American assault rie elded in Vietnam as a
reaction to the Kalashnikov's spread.
[64] G. L. M. Kjellgren The Practical Range of Small Arms. The American Rieman. pp. 4044
[65] . 7,62- () 1983, p. 155 (under the default conditions of no wind and sea level atmospheric
pressure, 15 C (59 F)).
[66] Rottman 2011, p. 39.
[67] http://www.ak-47.us/pic/books/emak90.pdf[] Possible archive
[68] wz.88 Tantal. Forgotten Weapons. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
[69] Arsenal 7.62mm ArsenalAssault Rie AR-M1 and with Folding Butt AR-M1F. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
[70] AK-47 Assault Rie. armedforcesmuseum.com

36

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[71] Victor Davis Hanson (2011). The Most Popular Gun in the World. The New Atlantis 32: 140147.
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[76] Kalashnikov Plans New Rie, More Export Models Director. RIA Novosti. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
[77] 74 [Azerbaijan began
serial production of AK-74M assault ries under Russian license]. (in Russian). Moscow: Centre for Analysis of
World Arms Trade. 8 July 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
[78] Roman Dimov. Kalashnikov Arms Versions. The AK Site. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007.
[79] MPi-K / MPi-AK Assault Rie Series. (in Russian). Retrieved 19 February
2013.
[80] Advertisement yer for manufacturing capabilities of the GAEC Gafat Armament Engineering Complex. at the Wayback
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[81] " / (
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[82] Why General Kalashnikov couldn't sell the AK in India. India Today.
[83] Assault Rie 7,62mm. Indian Ordnance Factory Board
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[85] People's Daily Online Nigeria to mass-produce Nigerian version of AK-47 ries. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
[86] DEFENCE INDUSTRY CORPORATION OF NIGERIA (DICON) OFFICIAL WEBSITE. Retrieved 2 October
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[87] US Department of Defense, North Korea Country Handbook 1997, Appendix A: Equipment Recognition, PPSH 1943
SUBMACHINEGUN (TYPE-50 CHINA/MODEL-49 DPRK), p. A-79.
[88] US Department of Defense, North Korea Country Handbook 1997, Appendix A: Equipment Recognition, TYPE-68
(AKM) ASSAULT RIFLE, p. A-77.
[89] Andrei Chang (16 November 2009). Russia confronts Pakistan, China over copied weapons. upiasia.com.
[90] Poland. Assault Ries. (in Russian). Retrieved 19 February 2013.
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[92] Aleksandr Raigorodetsky (6 October 2011). "" ("") ()["Malyuk
Assault Rie (Ukraine)].
(in Russian).
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the original on 4 June 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2008.
[94] " ". Lenta.ru. Archived from the original on 2
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[95] "'' ". Lenta.ru. Retrieved 19 July 2006.
[96] The AK-47: The World's Favourite Killing Machine. ControlArms Brieng Note (26 June 2006).
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[99] Georey Ingersoll (14 January 2013) "Investigation Reveals Iran's Secret Role In African Conicts", Business Insider.
[100] Continuity and Change: PRODUCTS AND PRODUCERS. Small Arms Survey 2004

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[101] P. Graves-Brown (November 2007).Avtomat Kalashnikova


. Journal of Material Culture 12 (3): 285307. doi:10.1177/1359183507081896.
[102] Andrea Seabrook (26 November 2006) AK-47: The Weapon Changed the Face of War. NPR Weekend Edition Sunday
[103] Chinese Type-56 Assault Rie. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
[104] Michael R. Gordon (13 March 1997). Burst of Pride for a Staccato Executioner: AK-47. The New York Times.
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[106] Ben Muessig. Narcocorridos: The Songs of Mexico's Drug War. AolNews. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
[107] Hctor Latorre (24 January 2006). Escopetarras: disparando msica. BBC World. Archived from the original on 22
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[108] Lord of War (2005) memorable quotes. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 29 October 2012.
[109] Chivers, C.J. AK-47 Museum: Homage to the Gun That Won the East. The New York Times, 18 February 2007
[110] Larry Kahaner (26 November 2006). Weapon Of Mass Destruction. The Washington Post. Retrieved 3 April 2010.
[111] Richard D. Jones; Leland S. Ness, eds. (27 January 2009). Jane's Infantry Weapons 20092010 (35 ed.). Jane's Information
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38

CHAPTER 6. AK-47

[131] Milan Milosevic (2005). Trojanski Konj za Teroriste. Kalibar (in Serbian). Novosti AD. Retrieved 4 April 2009.
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[133] Maha's elite counter terror unit Force One becomes operational. Business Standard (New Delhi: Business Standard
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[136] Tim Tanton (22 July 2009).Faith helps Ivoirian general endure suering, challenges. UMC.org. Retrieved 29 December
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[137] Kenya National Assembly Ocial Record. 25 September 2007.
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Southeast European Times (United States European Command). OCLC 731936128. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
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[141] Jemal Oumar (29 November 2011). Nouakchott displays military might. Magharebia.
[142] Taouk MJAIED, James ANDRE. International breaking news and headlines. France 24. Retrieved 29 December
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[143] Find Imagery. DefenseImagery.mil. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
[144] Mike Hettwer Photography. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
[145] Charlotte Bozonette (5 March 2013). Niger remains wary of Mali crisis on its doorstep. The Guardian.
[146] People's Daily Online Nigeria to mass-produce Nigerian version of AK-47 ries. People's Daily. 2 October 2006.
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[151] Israel Aids Palestinians With Arms. The New York Times. 5 September 2008.
[152] Santiago city forms SWAT team to combat crime. Philippine Information Agency. 2 September 2006.
[153] Rod Wells. Part-Time War (2011 ed.). Fern House. p. 155. ISBN 978-1-902702-25-4.
[154] Rwanda Rwandan Army ranks land ground forces combat uniforms military equipment rwandais grades unif Army
Recognition Army Recognition. Armyrecognition.com. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
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[157] Harry McCallion. Killing Zone (11 April 1996 ed.). Bloomsbury Paperbacks. pp. 13281. ISBN 0-7475-2567-6.

6.11. BIBLIOGRAPHY

39

6.11 Bibliography
Bolotin, David Naumovich (1995). [The History of
Soviet Small-arms and Ammunition] (PDF). Voyenno-Istoricheskaya Biblioteka (in Russian). Saint Petersburg:
Poligon. ISBN 5-85503-072-5.
Monetchikov, Sergei Borisovich (2005). [The History of Russian Assault Rie].
Entsiklopediya Russkoi Armii (in Russian). Izdatel'stvo Atlant 44. ISBN 5-98655-006-4.
Poyer, Joe (1 January 2006). The AK-47 and AK-74 Kalashnikov Ries and Their Variations: A Shooter's and
Collector's Guide. North Cape Publications. ISBN 978-1-882391-41-7.
Rottman, Gordon (24 May 2011). The AK-47: Kalashnikov-series assault ries. Osprey Publishing. ISBN
978-1-84908-835-0.

6.12 Further reading


Books
Chivers, C.J (October 2010). The Gun. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-7076-2.
Ezell, Edward Clinton; R. Blake Stevens (1 December 2001). Kalashnikov: The Arms and the Man. Cobourg,
ON: Collector Grade Publications. ISBN 978-0-88935-267-4.
Gulevich, I. D., ed. (1967). . 7,62- [7.62 mm AK] (in Russian) (3 ed.). Moscow:
Voenizdat.
Michael Hodges (January 2007). Ak47: The Story of the People's Gun. Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 978-0340-92104-3.
Honeycutt Jr, Fred L. and Anthony, Patt F. Military Ries of Japan. (1996) Fifth Edition, 8th printing; Julin
Books. ISBN 0-9623208-7-0.
Kahaner, Larry (2007). AK-47: the weapon that changed the face of war. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0471-72641-8.
Kalashnikov, Mikhail Timofeevich; Joly, Elena (2006). The gun that changed the world. Polity Press. ISBN
978-0-7456-3691-7.
Shilin, Valery; Cutshaw, Charlie (1 March 2000). Legends and Reality of the AK: A Behind-The Scenes Look
at the History, Design, and Impact of the Kalashnikov Family of Weapons. Paladin Press. ISBN 978-1-58160069-8.
Vilchinsky, I. K., ed. (1983). . 7,62- () [7.62 mm AKM (AKMS)] (in Russian)
(3 ed.). Moscow: Voenizdat.
John Walter (4 September 1999). Kalashnikov: machine pistols, assault ries, and machine-guns, 1945 to the
present. Greenhill Books/Lionel Leventhal. ISBN 978-1-85367-364-1.
Articles
How the AK-47 Rewrote the Rules of Modern Warfare Three-part article by C. J. Chivers, for Wired Magazine
. 1999/3, pp. 1821 has an article about the AK-47 prototypes
.. Kalashnikov, " 47?" (Who is the author of AK-47?) an article rejecting some of the
alternative theories as to the authorship of the AK-47, Kalashnikov magazine, 2002/2, pp. 47 (in Russian)
. Degtyaryov, " " an article comparing the internals of the StG 44 and AK-47,
Kalashnikov magazine, 2009/4, pp. 1823 (in Russian)

40

CHAPTER 6. AK-47
" ..." Transcription of the commission report on the testing round from the summer of
1947; no winner was selected at this point, but the commission held Kalashnikov's, Dementiev's and Bulkin's
designs as most closely satisfying TTT number 3131. Kalashnikov magazine, 2009/8, pp. 1822 (in Russian)
" " Report/letter on the nal round of testing, 27 December 1947, declaring Kalashnikov's
design the winner. Kalashnikov magazine, 2009/9, pp. 1622 (in Russian)
Articles on the 1948 military trials: " " and " ", Kalashnikov magazine, 2009/10-11

6.13 External links


AK Site Kalashnikov Home Page (Mirror) at the Wayback Machine (archived 29 September 2007)
US Army Operator's Manual for the AK-47 Assault Rie
Nazarian's Gun's Recognition Guide (MANUAL) AK 47 Manual (.pdf)
The Timeless, Ubiquitous AK-47 slideshow by Time magazine
AK-47: The Weapon Changed the Face of War audio report by NPR
The AK-47: The Gun That Changed The Battleeld audio report by NPR
AK-47 Documentary: Part 1 & Part 2 by Al Jazeera English
AK-47 Full Auto, U.S. Army in Iraq from the Internet Archive
Years of the gun: A political history of the AK-47 in Pakistan by Dawn News

6.13. EXTERNAL LINKS

Vietcong guerrilla stands beneath a Vietcong ag carrying his AK-47 rie. Note: re selector, bolt handle and magazine lever.

41

42

The gas-operated mechanism of a Chinese AK-47

bakeliteAK magazines

CHAPTER 6. AK-47

6.13. EXTERNAL LINKS

Rear sight of a Chinese Type 56


Note: 100 to 800 m (109 to 875 yd) settings and omission of a battle zero setting

AK-47 6H3 bayonet and scabbard

43

44

AK-103 with GP-34 Grenade Launcher

CHAPTER 6. AK-47

6.13. EXTERNAL LINKS

Wound Proles of Russian small-arms ammunition compiled by Dr. Martin Fackler on behalf of the U.S. military.

1955 AK-47 Type 3

45

46

7.62x39mm cartridges from Russia, China and Pakistan

AK-74 and RPK-74

CHAPTER 6. AK-47

6.13. EXTERNAL LINKS

AK-12

Iraqi Tabuk Sniper Rie

Cambodian AK-47 with black furniture

47

48

A U.S. Army M.P. inspects a Soviet AK-47 recovered in Vietnam, 1968.

CHAPTER 6. AK-47

6.13. EXTERNAL LINKS

49

During the Soviet war in Afghanistan in the 1980s, several sources simultaneously arming both sides of the Afghan conict, the
country was lled with AK-47s and their derivatives.* [105]

A Soviet Spetsnaz (special operations) group prepares for a mission in Afghanistan, 1988.

50

CHAPTER 6. AK-47

A map of states that use the AK. AK-47 operators are marked red, AK derivative operators are marked orange and modernized AK
operators are marked pink.

Chapter 7

AKM
For other uses, see AKM (disambiguation).
The AKM (Russian: ; Avtomat Kalashnikova Modernizirovanniy or
Kalashnikov modernized automatic rie) is a 7.62mm assault rie designed by Mikhail Kalashnikov. It is a common
modernized variant of the AK-47 rie developed in the 1940s.
Introduced into service with the Soviet Army in 1959, the AKM is the most ubiquitous variant of the entire AK series
of rearms and it has found widespread use with most member states of the former Warsaw Pact and its many African
and Asian allies as well as being widely exported and produced in many other countries. The production of these
Soviet ries was carried out at both the Tula Arms Plant and Izhmash. It was ocially replaced in Soviet frontline
service by the AK-74 in the late 1970s, but remains in use worldwide.

7.1 Design details


The AKM is an assault rie using the 7.6239mm Soviet intermediate cartridge. It is gas operated with a rotating
bolt. The AKM is capable of selective re, ring either single shots or automatic at a cyclic rate of 600 rounds/min.
Despite being replaced in the late 1970s by the AK-74 the AKM is still in service in some Russian Army reserve and
second-line units and several east European countries.

7.1.1

Improvements over AK-47

Compared to the AK-47, the AKM features detail improvements and enhancements that optimized the rie for mass
production; some parts and assemblies were conceived using simplied manufacturing methods. Notably, the AK47's milled steel receiver was replaced by a U-shaped steel stamping. As a result of these modications, the AKMs
weight was reduced by approx. 1 kg (2.2 lb), the accuracy during automatic re was increased and several reliability
issues were addressed. The AK-47's chrome-lined barrel was retained, a common feature of Soviet weapons which
resists wear and corrosion, particularly under harsh eld conditions and near-universal Eastern Bloc use of corrosively
primed ammunition.
The AKMs receiver, compared to the AK-47, is stamped from a smooth 1.0 mm (0.04 in) sheet of steel. To the
stamped sheet metal receiver housing a rear stock trunnion and forward barrel trunnion are fastened using rivets. The
receiver housing also features a rigid tubular cross-section support that adds structural strength. Guide rails that assist
the bolt carriers movement which also incorporates the ejector are installed inside the receiver through spot welding.
As a weight-saving measure, the stamped receiver cover is of thinner gauge metal than that of the AK-47. In order
to maintain strength and durability it employs both longitudinal and latitudinal reinforcing ribs.

7.1.2

Barrel

The forward barrel trunnion has a non-threaded socket for the barrel and a transverse hole for a pin that secures the
barrel in place. On some models the rear trunnion has two extended mounting arms on both sides that support the
51

52

CHAPTER 7. AKM

The AKMS variant eld stripped (below) compared to the American M16.

buttstock; other xed models use a stepped shaped trunnion that covers the full width of the inside of the receiver.
The AKMs barrel is installed in the forward trunnion and pinned (as opposed to the AK-47, which has a one piece
receiver with integral trunnions and a barrel that is screwed-in). Additionally the barrel has horizontal guide slots
that help align and secure the handguards in place. To increase the weapons accuracy during automatic re, the
AKM was tted with a slant cut muzzle brake that helps redirect expanding propellant gases upward and to the right
during ring, which mitigates the rise of the muzzle during an automatic burst when held by a right-handed rer. The
muzzle brake is threaded on to the end of the barrel with a left-hand thread. Not all AKMs had slant muzzle brakes;
some were also tted with the older muzzle nut which came from the AK-47. Most AKMs with muzzle nuts were
older production weapons. The AKM's slant brake can also be used on the AK-47, which had a simple nut to cover
the threads.

7.1.3

Gas block

The gas block in the AKM does not have a cleaning rod capture or sling loop but is instead tted with an integrated
bayonet support collar that has a cleaning rod guide hole. The forward sling loop was relocated to the front handguard
retainer cap. The handguard retainer also has notches that determine the position of the handguards on the barrel.
The AKMs laminated wood handguards have lateral grooves that help securely grip the rie.
Gas relief ports that alleviate gas pressure in the piston cylinder (placed horizontally in a row on the gas cylinder in
the AK-47) were moved forward to the gas block and placed in a radial arrangement.

7.1.4

Bolt carrier

The AKMs bolt carrier is slightly lighter in weight and, despite some minor dierences in its shape, it can be used
interchangeably with the AK-47s bolt carrier and bolt.

7.2. MAGAZINES

7.1.5

53

Stock

The wooden stock used in the AKM is further hollowed in order to reduce weight and is longer and straighter than
that of the AK-47, which assists accuracy for subsequent shots during rapid and automatic re. The wooden stock
also houses the issued cleaning kit, which is a small diameter metal tube with a twist lock cap. The kit normally
contains the cleaning jag to which a piece of cloth material is wrapped around and dipped into cleaning solution. It
also contains a pin punch, an assembly pin to hold the trigger, disconnector and rate reducer together while putting
these back into the receiver after cleaning the weapon, and a barrel brush. The kit is secured inside the butt stock via
a spring loaded trap door in the stock's pressed sheet metal butt cap.

7.1.6

Spring

The AKM uses a modied return spring mechanism, which replaces the single recoil spring guide rod with a dual
U-shaped wire guide. The AKM has a modied trigger assembly, equipped with a hammer-release delaying device
(installed on the same axis pin together with the trigger and disconnector) commonly called a rate reducer. In
fact its primary purpose is not to reduce the rate of automatic re; it is a safety device to ensure the weapon will only
re on automatic when the bolt is fully locked, as the hammer is tripped by the bolt carrier's last few millimetres of
forward movement. The device also reduces trigger slapor trigger bounceand the weapons rate of re,
which also reduces the dispersion of bullets when ring in fully automatic mode. The hammer was also changed and
equipped with a protrusion that engages the rate reducer and the trigger has only one notched hammer release arm
(compared to two parallel arms in the AK-47).

7.1.7

Sights

The AKMs notched rear tangent iron sight is calibrated in 100 m (109 yd) increments from 100 to 1,000 m (109
to 1,094 yd) and compared to the AK-74 the leafs position teeth that secure the sliding adjustable notch were
transferred over from the right to the left edge of the ramp. The front sight is a post adjustable for elevation in the
eld and has a slightly dierent shape and its bottom portion is more narrow compared to the AK-47. Horizontal
adjustment is done by the armory before issue. Thepoint-blank rangebattle zero setting "" on the 7.6239mm
AKM rear tangent sight element corresponds to a 300 m (328 yd) zero.* [2] For the AKM combined with service
cartridges the 300 m battle zero setting limits the apparent bullet rise within approximately 5 to +31 cm (2.0
to 12.2 in) relative to the line of sight. Soldiers are instructed to re at any target within this range by simply placing
the sights on the center of mass (the belt buckle) of the enemy target. Any errors in range estimation are tactically
irrelevant, as a well-aimed shot will hit the torso of the enemy soldier.* [2]

7.2 Magazines
The early slab-sided steel AK-47 30-round detachable box magazines weigh .43 kg (0.95 lb) empty.* [3] The later steel
AKM 30-round magazines had lighter sheet-metal bodies with prominent reinforcing ribs weighing .33 kg (0.73 lb)
empty.* [3]* [4] Later steel-reinforced 30-round plastic box magazines were introduced. These rust-colored magazines
are often mistakenly identied as being made of Bakelite (a phenolic resin), but were actually fabricated from a twopart glass-reinforced polyethylene plastic molding, assembled using an epoxy resin adhesive.* [5] Noted for their
durability, these magazines did however compromise the rie's camouage.* [5] The current issue steel-reinforced
matte true black nonreective surface nished magazines, fabricated from ABS plastic, are even lighter, weighing .25
kg (0.55 lb) empty.* [6] Early steel AK-47 magazines are 9.75 in (248 mm) long, and the later ribbed steel AKM and
newer plastic magazines are about 1 in (25 mm) shorter.* [7]* [8]
The transition from steel to mainly plastic magazines yielded a signicant weight reduction and allow a soldier to
carry more rounds for the same weight.
Note: All, 7.6239mm AK magazines are backwards compatible with older AK variants.
Note *: 10.12 kg (22.3 lb) is the maximum amount of ammo that the average soldier can comfortably carry. It also allows for
best comparison of the three most common AK-47 magazines

54

CHAPTER 7. AKM

AKMS with rust colored steel-reinforced 30-round plastic box magazine

7.2.1

Accessories

The AKM comes supplied with a dierent accessory kit that contains a M1959 6X4 or 6X3-type bayonet and comes
with synthetic or steel magazines. The 6X3-type bayonet blade forms a wire-cutting device when coupled with its
scabbard. The polymer grip and upper part of the scabbard provide insulation from the metal blade and bottom part
of the metal scabbard, using a rubber insulator sleeve, to safely cut electried wire. The kit also comes with a punch
used to drive out various pins and a device that aids in assembling the rate reducing mechanism. The GP-25 Grenade
launcher can also be tted onto the AKM.

7.2.2

Ammunition

The weapon uses the same ammunition as the AK-47: the 7.6239mm M43 intermediate rie cartridge. The AKM
mechanism's design principles and procedures for loading and ring are practically identical to those of the AK-47,
the only dierence being the trigger assembly (during the return stage of the bolt carrier on fully automatic mode) as
a result of incorporating the rate reducer device.

7.3 Variants
The main variant of the AKM is the AKMS (S Skladnoy Folding), which was equipped with an under folding metal
shoulder stock in place of the xed wooden stock. The metal stock of the AKMS is somewhat dierent from the
folding stock of the previous AKS-47 model as it has a modied locking mechanism, which locks both support arms
of the AKMS stock instead of just one (left arm) as in the AKS-47 folding model. It is also made of rivetted steel
pressings, instead of the milled versions of most AKS-47s.
The AKM was produced in the following versions: AKMP, AKML and AKMLP, whereas the AKMS led to the
following models AKMSP, AKMSN and AKMSNP. It is designed especially for use by paratroopersas the folding
stock permits more space for other equipment when jumping from a plane and then landing.
The AKMP rie uses subdued Radium-illuminated aiming points integrated into the front and rear sight. These
sights enable targets to be engaged in low-light conditions, e.g. when the battleeld is illuminated with ares, res or

7.4. USERS AND LOCAL VERSIONS

55

muzzle ashes or when the target is visible as a shadow against an illuminated background. The sliding notch on the
sight arm is then moved to the Ssetting (which corresponds to the 3setting in the AKM). The sight itself is
guided on the sliding scale and has a socket, which contains a tritium gas-lled capsule directly beneath the day-time
notch. The tritium front post installs into the front sight base using a detent and spring.
The AKML comes equipped with a side-rail used to attach a night vision device. The mount comprises a at plate
riveted to the left wall of the receiver housing and a support bracket xed to the mounting base with screws. To shield
the light-sensitive photo detector plate of the night vision sight, the weapon uses a slotted ash suppressor, which
replaces the standard recoil compensator. The AKML can also be deployed in the prone position with a detachable barrel-mounted bipod that helps stabilize the weapon and reduces operator fatigue during prolonged periods of
observation. The bipod is supplied as an accessory and is carried in a holster attached to the duty belt.
The AKMN comes equipped with a side-rail used to attach a night vision device. The model designated AKMN-1
can thus mount the multi-model night vision scope 1PN51* [11] and the AKMN2 the multi-model night vision scope
1PN58.* [12]
The AKMLP is a version of the AKML with tritium sights (as in the AKMP).
The AKMSP rie is based on the folding stock AKMS variant but tted with tritium night sights, as in the AKMP.
The AKMSN model is derived from the AKMS and features an accessory rail used to mount a night vision sensor
as seen on the AKML and additionally a ash hider and bipod. The left arm of the AKMSNs folding stock is
bent outwards in order to avoid the sight mount bracket during folding and the sling loop was moved further to the
rear. Similarly to the AKMN-1, the AKMSN-1 can mount the multi-model night vision scope 1PN51* [11] and the
AKMSN2 the multi-model night vision scope 1PN58.* [12]
A version of the AKMSN additionally supplied with factory tritium night sights is called the AKMSNP.
A version of the AKM with a modied lower handguard designed to accept the 40 mm wz. 1974 Pallad grenade
launcher was developed in Poland and designated the karabinek-granatnik wz. 1974.

7.4 Users and local versions


The following countries and combatants use the AKM, unless information is provided on a local version that is used
alongside it or instead:

Afghanistan* [13]

Albania* [14]

Algeria* [14]

Angola* [14]

Armenia* [14]

Azerbaijan* [14]

Bangladesh* [14]

Belarus* [14]

Benin* [14]

Bosnia-Herzegovina* [14]

Botswana* [14]

Bulgaria: Produced locally.* [14]* [15]

Cambodia* [14]

Cape Verde* [14]

56

CHAPTER 7. AKM

Central African Republic* [14]

Chad* [14]

Chile* [16]

Comoros* [14]

Congo-Brazzaville* [14]

Cuba: Produced locally under license.* [14]

Democratic Republic of the Congo* [14]

Djibouti* [13]

East Germany: Produced locally. Examples include the MPi-KM (xed stock) and MPi-KMS (sidefolding stock)* [17]

Egypt: The Misr is an Egyptian copy of the AKM, manufactured by Factory 54 of the Maadi Company
for Engineering Industries in Cairo for the Egyptian Army and for export sales.* [18]* [19]* [20]* [21]* [22]

Equatorial Guinea* [14]

Ethiopia* [13]

El Salvador

Eritrea* [14]

Estonia: Still in limited military/police use. Replaced by AK-74.* [14]

Finland: Holds stocks of imported AKM clones for wartime reserve service (the Chinese Type 56 known
as the RK 56 TP and the East German MPi-KM as the RK 72* [23]) along with locally designed AK derivatives
(the Rk 62 and the Rk 95 TP).

Gabon* [14]

Georgia* [14]

Guinea* [14]

Guinea-Bissau* [14]

Guyana* [14]

Hungary:* [14] There is a Hungarian copy of the AKM called 'AK-63' manufactured by FG. The AK-63
comes with a xed wooden or plastic stock, but there is a version with an under-folding metal stock called
AK-63D.

India* [14] Various models of AKM and AKM style rie in use. A local variant developed and manufactured by the Rie Factory Ishapore.

Iran* [14] from Chinese manufactures

Iraq* [14] from Soviet and Romanian manufactures

Israel:* [14] Captured from Arab armies over the course of the Arab-Israeli Conict.

Kazakhstan* [14]

Kyrgyzstan* [13]

Laos* [14]

7.4. USERS AND LOCAL VERSIONS

Latvia* [14]

Lesotho* [14]

Liberia* [14]

Libya* [14]

Lithuania* [14]

Madagascar* [14]

Mali* [14] Armed and Security Forces of Mali

Moldova* [14]

Mongolia* [14]

Morocco* [14]

Mozambique* [14]

Nicaragua

North Korea: Type 68 variant.* [14] The variant does not have a rate reducer.* [24]

Oman: Some captured from Dhofari rebels.* [25]

Pakistan: Type 56 variant.* [14]

Palestinian Authority: M70 variant* [26]

Peru* [14]

People's Republic of China: Type 56 variant.* [13]

Poland: Produced locally.Replaced by Kbs wz. 1996 Beryl and soon by MSBS.* [15]* [17]

Qatar* [14]

Republic of Macedonia* [14]

Romania: Produced locally.* [14]* [15]

57

Russia:* [14] Still in limited military and police use. Ocially replaced in most Russian military units by
the AK-74. Some usage mainly in urban environments due to the ability to penetrate heavy cover.

So Tom and Prncipe* [14]

Saudi Arabia* [27]

Serbia* [14]

Seychelles* [14]

South Sudan* [13]

Sierra Leone* [14]

Slovenia* [14]

Somalia* [14]

Soviet Union* [13]

Sudan* [14]

58

CHAPTER 7. AKM

Suriname* [14]
Sweden A small number of AKM's are used by the Swedish Armed Forces for familiarization training,* [28] but they are not issued to combat units.

Syria* [14]

Tajikistan* [14]

Tanzania* [14]

Togo* [14]

Turkey* [14]* [29]

Turkmenistan* [14]

Ukraine* [14] still in limited use, ocially replaced in most Ukrainian military units by the AK-74. AKMS
used by Ukrainian Security Service

United Arab Emirates* [14]

Uzbekistan* [14]

Vietnam* [14] Standard infantry rie of the Vietnamese Army.

Yemen* [14]

Yugoslavia: Several variants based on the AKM built by Zastava Arms factory, most notably the M70
and M70B.* [30]

Zambia* [14]

Zimbabwe* [14]

7.5 See also


AK-74
RPK
List of Russian weaponry
List of assault ries
Comparison of the AK-47 and M16

7.6 References
[1] http://www.izhmash.ru/eng/product/akm.shtml AKM (AK-47) Kalashnikov modernized assault rie, caliber 7.62mm
[2] Gordon Rottman (24 May 2011). The AK-47: Kalashnikov-series Assault Ries. Osprey Publishing. pp. 42. ISBN
978-1-84908-835-0. Retrieved 24 December 2011.
[3] Dockery, Kevin (2007). Future Weapons. p. 102. ISBN 0425217507.
[4] Ak 47 Technical Description - Manual. Scribd.com. 2010-09-30. Retrieved 2012-08-23.
[5] Kokalis, 49
[6] " """. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
[7] Rie Evaluation Study, United States Army, Combat Development Command, ADA046961, 20 Dec 1962

7.7. EXTERNAL LINKS

59

[8] Are kalashnikov magazines as robust as their reputation? He tormented a selection of AR magazines last year, now he
takes on the AK. The results you may nd surprising.. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
[9] Dockery, Kevin (2007). Future Weapons. p. 102. ISBN 0-425-21750-7.
[10] Dockery, Kevin (2007). Future Weapons. p. 102.
[11] 151 [PRODUCT 1PN51
TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION AND OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS] (in Russian). January 1992. pp. 11,16.
[12] 158 [PRODUCT 1PN58
TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION AND OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS] (in Russian). February 1991. pp. 5,1213.
[13] Rottman, Gordon (2011). The AK-47 Kalashnikov series assault ries. Great Britain: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-184908-461-1.
[14] Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN
978-0-7106-2869-5.
[15] Personal infantry weapons: old weapons or new hardware in the coming decades? Free Online Library. Thefreelibrary.com. Retrieved on 2014-04-20.
[16] Gander, Terry J.; Hogg, Ian V. Jane's Infantry Weapons 1995/1996. Jane's Information Group; 21 edition (May 1995).
ISBN 978-0-7106-1241-0.
[17] Modern Firearms AK-47 AKM. World.guns.ru. Retrieved on 2014-04-20.
[18] Maadi Company for Engineering Industries (Factory 54) Special Weapons Facilities Egypt. Fas.org. Retrieved
2009-11-20.
[19] John Pike (2005-04-27). Maadi Company for Engineering Industries (Factory 54)". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved
2009-11-20.
[20] Exhibits Page 16. Avtomats-in-action.com. Archived from the original on 25 December 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-20.
[21] Je Freeman. Egyptian Ries. Home.comcast.net. Retrieved 2009-11-20.
[22] Search the Small Arms Survey Website and Resources [Results for Misr]". Small Arms Survey. Geneva, Switzerland:
Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
[23] Puolustusvoimat: Kalustoesittely. Mil.. 2009-05-20. Retrieved 2009-11-20.
[24] US Department of Defense, North Korea Country Handbook 1997, Appendix A: Equipment Recognition, TYPE-68
(AKM) ASSAULT RIFLE, p. A-77
[25] McNab, Chris (2002). 20th Century Military Uniforms (2nd ed.). Kent: Grange Books. ISBN 1-84013-476-3.
[26] Palestinian security men, Hamas gunmen killed in West Bank clashes_English_Xinhua. News.xinhuanet.com (2009-0531). Retrieved on 2014-04-20.
[27] Find Imagery. DefenseImagery.mil. Retrieved on 2014-04-20.
[28] M16 M16a2 Kalashnikov Ak-47 Utlndska Vapensatsen. SoldF.com. Retrieved on 2014-04-20.
[29] Kalashnikov AKM. Military Factory. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
[30] Automatic Weapon Family cal. 7.62x39mm. Zastava-arms.co.rs.

7.7 External links


Modern Firearms article
http://www.kalashnikov.ru/upload/medialibrary/570/016_025.pdf

60

CHAPTER 7. AKM

7.7. EXTERNAL LINKS

AKM Type I bayonet of the Nationale Volksarmee that has cut an electrical wire

AKMS without magazine

61

62

AKML with NPS-3

An AKMS (top) compared to a standard Soviet AK-47 (bottom).

CHAPTER 7. AKM

7.7. EXTERNAL LINKS

AKMS with sound suppressor and silent BS-1 Tishina grenade launcher attached.

Egyptian soldiers in training with Egyptian-made Misr ries.

63

64

A Kbk AKMS tted with a MILES laser training device in the hands of a Polish soldier in 1997.

CHAPTER 7. AKM

7.7. EXTERNAL LINKS

A Romanian sub-ocer with a PM md. 65

65

66

Foreground: A member of the United States Air Force eld-qualifying with a USSR AKM in Iraq.

OLF rebels in Kenya armed with AKM and AK-47 ries.

CHAPTER 7. AKM

7.7. EXTERNAL LINKS

U.S. Marine ring an East German MpiKMS-72 assault rie.

67

Chapter 8

Bren light machine gun


Brenredirects here. For the research network, see BREN. For other uses, see Bren (disambiguation).
L4A1redirects here. For Bren_light_machine_gun#L4, see L4A1.
The Bren Gun, usually called simply the Bren, was a series of light machine guns adopted by Britain in the 1930s
and used in various roles until 1992. While best known for its role as the British and Commonwealth forces' primary
infantry light machine gun (LMG) in World War II, it was also used in the Korean War and saw service throughout
the latter half of the 20th century, including the 1982 Falklands War. Although tted with a bipod, it could also be
mounted on a tripod or vehicle-mounted.
The Bren was a modied version of Czechoslovak-designed light machine guns, the ZB vz. 26 and its descendants,
which British Army ocials had tested during a rearms service competition in the 1930s. The later Bren featured
a distinctive top-mounted curved box magazine, conical ash hider and quick change barrel. The name Bren was
derived from Brno, Moravia, the Czechoslovak city where the Zb vz. 26 was originally designed (in Zbrojovka Brno
Factory), and Eneld, site of the British Royal Small Arms Factory. The original and main designer was Vclav
Holek, a talented gun inventor and design engineer.
In the 1950s many Brens were rebarrelled to accept the 7.6251mm NATO cartridge and modied to feed from the
magazine for the L1 (Commonwealth version of the FN FAL) rie as the L4 light machine gun. It was replaced in
the British Army as the section LMG by the L7 general-purpose machine gun (GPMG), a heavier belt-fed weapon.
This was in turn supplemented in the 1980s by the L86 Light Support Weapon ring the 5.5645mm NATO round,
leaving the Bren in use only as a pintle mount on some vehicles.
The Bren is still manufactured by Indian Ordnance Factories as the Gun, Machine 7.62mm 1B.* [1]

8.1 Development
At the close of the First World War in 1918, the British Army was equipped with two main automatic weapons;
the Vickers Medium Machine Gun (MMG) and the Lewis Light Machine Gun (LMG). The Vickers was heavy and
required a supply of water to keep it in operation, which tended to relegate it to static defence and indirect re support.
The Lewis, although lighter, was still heavy and was prone to a variety of frequent stoppages; also, the barrel couldn't
be changed in the eld, which meant that sustained ring resulted in overheating until it stopped altogether. In 1922,
the Small Arms Committee of the British Army ran competitive trials to nd replacement for the Lewis, between
the Madsen, the Browning Automatic Rie (BAR), the Hotchkiss, the Beardmore-Farquhar and the Lewis itself.
Although the BAR was recommended, the sheer number of Lewis guns available and the dicult nancial conditions
meant that nothing was done. Various new models of light machinegun were tested as they became available, and in
1930, a further set of extensive trials commenced. This time the weapons tested included the SIG Neuhausen KE7
the Vickers-Berthier and the Czechoslovak ZB vz.27. The Vickers-Berthier was later adopted by the Indian Army
because it could be manufactured at once, rather than wait for the British Bren production run to nish; it too saw
extensive service in World War II.* [2]
Following these trials, the British Army adopted the Czechoslovak ZB vz.26 light machine gun manufactured in Brno
in 1935, although a slightly modied model, the ZB vz. 27, rather than the ZB vz. 26 had actually been submitted
68

8.2. SERVICE

69

for the trials. A licence to manufacture was sought, and the Czech design was modied to British requirements. The
major changes were in the magazine and barrel. The magazine was curved in order to feed the rimmed .303 British
cartridge, a change from the various rimless Mauser-design cartridges such as the 7.92 mm Mauser round previously
used by Czech designs. These modications were categorised in various numbered designations, ZB vz. 27, ZB vz.
30, ZB vz. 32, and nally the ZB vz. 33, which became the Bren.
The Bren was a gas-operated weapon, which used the same .303 ammunition as the standard British rie, the LeeEneld, ring at a rate of between 480 and 540 rounds per minute (rpm), depending on the model. Propellant gases
vented from a port towards the muzzle end of the barrel through a regulator (visible in the photo, just in front of the
bipod) with four quick-adjustment apertures of dierent sizes, intended to tailor the gas volume to dierent ambient
temperatures (smallest ow at high temperature, e.g. summer desert, largest at low temperature, e.g. winter Arctic).
The vented gas drove a piston which in turn actuated the breech block. Each gun came with a spare barrel that could
be quickly changed when the barrel became hot during sustained re, though later guns featured a chrome-lined
barrel which reduced the need for a spare. To change barrels, the release catch in front of the magazine was rotated
to unlock the barrel. The carrying handle above the barrel was used to grip and remove the hot barrel without risk of
burning the hands.
The Bren was magazine-fed, which slowed its rate of re and required more frequent reloading than British belt-fed
machine guns such as the larger .303 Vickers machine gun. However, the slower rate of re prevented more rapid
overheating of the Bren's air-cooled barrel, and the Bren was much lighter than belt-fed machine guns which typically
had cooling jackets, often liquid lled. The magazines also prevented the ammunition from getting dirty, which was
more of a problem with the Vickers with its 250-round canvas belts. The sights were oset to the left, to avoid the
magazine which was on the top of the weapon. The position of the sights meant that the Bren could be red only
from the right shoulder.* [3]

8.2 Service
8.2.1

Second World War

In the British and Commonwealth armies, the Bren was generally issued on a scale of one per rie section, with three
rie sections in each platoon.* [4] A further three Bren guns were issued to the Admin platoon of each rie company.
An infantry battalion also had a carrierplatoon, equipped with Universal Carriers, most of which carried Bren
guns. Parachute battalions from 1944 had an extra Bren in the AT platoon.* [5] The 66-man Assault Troopof
British Commandos had a nominal establishment of four Bren guns. Realising the need for additional section-level
repower, the British Army endeavoured to issue the Bren in great numbers, with a stated goal of one Bren to every
four private soldiers.* [6]
The Bren was operated by a two-man crew, sometimes commanded by a Lance Corporal as an infantry section's
gun group, the remainder of the section forming the rie group. The gunner or Number 1carried and
red the Bren, and a loader or Number 2carried extra magazines, a spare barrel and a tool kit. Number 2 helped
reload the gun and replace the barrel when it overheated, and spotted targets for Number 1.
Generally, the Bren was red from the prone position using the attached bipod.* [7] On occasion, a Bren gunner
would use his weapon on the move supported by a sling, much like an automatic rie, and from standing or kneeling
positions. Using the sling, Australian soldiers regularly red the Bren from the hip, for instance in the marching re
tactic, a form of suppressive re moving forward in assault. A Victoria Cross was awarded to Private Bruce Kingsbury
for such use at Isurava, New Guinea in 1942, during the Australians' ghting retreat from Kokoda.
Each British soldier's equipment normally included two magazines for his section's Bren gun. The large ammunition
pouches on the 1937 Pattern Web Equipment were designed around the Bren magazine. Every soldier would be
trained to re the Bren in case of an emergency, though these soldiers did not receive a Bren prociency badge.
The Bren had an eective range of around 600 yards (550 m) when red from a prone position with a bipod. Initial
versions of the weapon were sometimes considered too accurate because the cone or pattern of re was extremely
concentrated. Soldiers often expressed a preference for worn-out barrels in order to spread the cone of re and
increase suppressive eects. Later versions of the Bren addressed this issue by providing a wider cone of re.* [6]
For a light machine gun of the interwar and early World War II era, the Bren was about average in weight. On long
marches in non-operational areas it was often partially disassembled and its parts were carried by two soldiers. The
top-mounted magazine vibrated and moved during re, making the weapon more visible in combat, and many Bren
gunners used paint or improvised canvas covers to disguise the prominent magazine.* [8]

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CHAPTER 8. BREN LIGHT MACHINE GUN

Bren gunner of the Royal Scots in the Netherlands, 1944.

The 30-round magazine was in practice usually lled with 27 or 28 rounds to prevent jams and avoid wearing out the
magazine spring. Care needed to be taken when loading the magazine to ensure that each round went ahead of the
previous round, so that the .303 cartridge rims did not overlap the wrong way, which would cause a jam. The spent
cartridge cases were ejected downwards, which was an improvement on the Lewis gun which ejected sideways, since
the glint of them ying through the air could compromise a concealed ring position.* [9]
In general, the Bren was considered a reliable and eective light machine gun, though in North Africa it was reported to
jam regularly unless kept very clean and free of sand or dirt.* [6] It was popular with British troops, who respected the
Bren for its reliability and combat eectiveness. The quality of the materials used would generally ensure minimal
jamming. When the gun did jam through fouling caused by prolonged ring, the operator could adjust the fourposition gas regulator to feed more gas to the piston increasing the power to operate the mechanism. The barrel
needed to be unlocked and slid forward slightly to allow the regulator to be turned. It was even said that all problems
with the Bren could simply be cleared by hitting the gun, turning the regulator, or doing both.
A complicated tripod mount was available to allow the Bren to be used as an indirect-re weapon, but this was rarely
used in the eld. The Bren was also used on many vehicles, including on Universal Carriers, to which it gave the
alternative nameBren Gun Carrier, and on tanks and armoured cars. However, it could not be used as a co-axial
weapon on tanks, as the magazine restricted its depression and was awkward to handle in conned spaces, and it was
therefore used on a pintle mount only. (The belt fed Vickers or BESA, the latter being another Czechoslovak machine
gun design adopted by the British, were instead used as co-axial weapons.) An unfortunate problem occurred when

8.2. SERVICE

71

Bren carried by a Canadian soldier in 1945.

the Bren was red from the Dingo Scout Car; the hot cartridge cases tended to be ejected down the neck of the
driver, whose position was right next to the pintle. A canvas bag was designed to catch the cartridges and overcome
the problem, but it seems to have been rarely issued.* [10]
The Bren was also employed in the anti-aircraft role. A tall tripod was available to allow high angle re. There were
also several designs of less portable mountings, including the Gallows and Motley mounts. A 100-round pan magazine
was available for the Bren for use in the anti-aircraft role.* [11]
The Bren's direct ancestor, the Czechoslovak ZB vz. 26, was also used in World War 2 by German and Romanian

72

CHAPTER 8. BREN LIGHT MACHINE GUN

Bren gun mounted on a tripod, 2010

forces, including units of the Waen SS. Many 7.92 mm ZB light machine guns were shipped to China, where they
were employed rst against the Japanese in World War II, and later against UN forces in Korea, including British and
Commonwealth units. Some ex-Chinese Czech ZB weapons were also in use in the early stages of the Vietnam War.
Production of a 7.92 mm round model for the Far East was carried out by Inglis of Canada.
The Bren was also delivered to the Soviet Union as part of the lend-lease program* [12]

8.2.2

Post-war

The British Army, and the armies of various countries of the Commonwealth, used the Bren in the Korean War, the
Malayan Emergency, the Mau Mau Uprising and the IndonesiaMalaysia confrontation, where it was preferred to its
replacement, the belt-fed GPMG, on account of its lighter weight. During the Falklands War in 1982, 40 Commando
Royal Marines carried one LMG and one GPMG per section.
When the British Army adopted the 7.62 mm NATO cartridge, the Bren was re-designed to 7.62 mm calibre, tted
with a new bolt, barrel and magazine. It was redesignated as the L4 Light Machine Gun (in various sub-versions) and
remained in British Army service into the 1990s. A slotted ash hider similar to that of the contemporary L1 rie and
L7 General Purpose Machine Gun replaced the conical ash hider. The change from a rimmed to rimless cartridge
and nearly straight magazine improved feeding considerably, and allowed use of 20-round magazines from the 7.62
mm L1A1 Self-Loading Rie. The 30-round magazine from the L4 also tted the L1A1 rie, but the magazine
spring was not always strong enough to provide enough upward pressure to feed rounds correctly, this being remedied
by stretching the magazine springs.
Completion of the move to a 5.56 mm NATO cartridge led to Army removing the Bren/L4 from the list of approved
weapons and then withdrawing it from service. The fact that Bren guns had remained in service for so many years
with so many dierent countries in so many wars says much about the quality of the weapon's design.
The Mark III Bren remained in limited use with the Army Reserve of the Irish Defence Forces until 2006, when the
7.62 mm GPMG replaced it. The Bren was popular with the soldiers who red it (known as Brenners) as it was light
and durable, and had a reputation for accuracy. The most notable use of the Bren by Irish forces was in the Congo
Crisis during the 1960s, when the Bren was the regular army's standard section automatic weapon.

8.3. VARIANTS

Indian troops man a Bren gun on an anti-aircraft tripod, Western Desert April 1941

8.3 Variants
8.3.1

Mark 1

From September 1937. The original Bren based on the Czechoslovak gun.
Features:
Drum pattern rear aperture sight
Buttstrap for use over the shoulder when ring
Rear grip under butt
Telescoping bipod
Folding cocking handle

73

74

CHAPTER 8. BREN LIGHT MACHINE GUN

8.3.2

Mark 2

Introduced 1941. A simpler version of the Mk 1. Produced by Inglis of Canada and the Monotype Group through a
number of component manufacturing factories. Sometimes known as the Garage handsmodel.
Features:
Folding leaf rear sight
Buttstrap deleted
Rear grip deleted
Fixed height bipod
Fixed cocking handle
The Bren Mk2 was much simplied in the body, which although still being milled from a solid billet of steel, required signicantly fewer milling operations than the Mk1 which gave it a much cleaner appearance. The bipod
was simplied in design as well as not having extending legs. Most Mk2 bipods resembled a simple 'A' frame and
were more 'soldier proof'. The Mk2 also featured a slightly higher rate of re than the Mk1. The woodwork on the
Mk2 was simplied by being less ornate and ergonomic, which sped up the manufacturing process. The barrel was
also simplied by means of a non-stepped removable ash hider and in some cases, a barrel fore-end that was matte
instead of highly polished. The buered buttplate of the Mk1 was omitted and replaced with a sheet metal buttplate.

8.3.3

Mark 3

A shorter and lighter Bren made by Eneld from 1944 for the war in the East and for Airborne Forces. This was a
conversion of the Mk1 whose main distinguishing feature was a shorter barrel.

8.3. VARIANTS

8.3.4

75

Mark 4

As with the Mk3 but this was a conversion of a Mk2.

8.3.5

L4

L4 or Machine Gun 1B in Indian service

A conversion of the Bren to 7.62mm NATO from 1958. Indian Army variants may be new-build, not conversions.
L4 Brens can easily be identied by their dierent magazine. The British-issue L4 magazine is of 30-round capacity
and has a slight curve. The L4 magazine was interchangeable with the L1A1 SLR magazine, so the L4 Bren also
can be seen tted with straight 20-round magazines from the SLR or with the straight 30-round magazine from the
Australian L2A1 or Canadian C2A1 heavy-barrel SLR. The ash suppressor was changed from the cone type of .303
variants to a slotted type similar in appearance to that used on the SLR and L7 GPMG. All L4s are chambered for
7.6251mm NATO rimless ammunition.

8.3.6

Taden gun

Main article: Taden gun


The Taden gun was a development of the Bren to use with the .280 British intermediate round proposed to replace
the .303 in British service. The Taden was belt-fed with spade grips and would have replaced both the Bren and the
Vickers machine gun. Although reliable it was not accepted due to the US-driven standardization within NATO on
the larger 7.62x51mm NATO round.* [13]

8.3.7

Semiautomatic Bren guns

Many nations' militaries have disposed of their Bren guns as surplus to their needs. Surplus Brens have been imported
to the United States for sale to collectors, but due to US gun laws restricting the importation of automatic weapons
such guns must be legally destroyed by cutting up the receivers. A number of US gunsmiths have manufactured new

76

CHAPTER 8. BREN LIGHT MACHINE GUN

semiautomatic Brens by welding the pieces of destroyed receivers back together, with modications to prevent the use
of full automatic parts, and tting new re control components capable of only semiautomatic re. The balance of
the parts are surplus Bren parts. Such semiautomatic machinegunsare legally considered ries under US Federal
law and the laws of most states.

8.3.8

Twin barrel variant

A twin barrel variant of the Bren was manufactured in China during the 1950s from ZB26 light machine guns.* [14]
It came with side by side barrels and was chambered in the 7.62x39mm round fed from AK-47 magazines. The only
known example can be seen at the Tongzhou militia museum.* [15]* [16]* [17]

8.4 World War II production

Ronnie, the Bren Gun Girl, poses with the nished product at the John Inglis plant, Toronto, 1941

RSAF Eneld, UK: 400 per month.


1943: 1,000 per week.
John Inglis and Company, Canada: A contract was signed with the British and Canadian governments in
March 1938 to supply 5,000 Bren machine guns to Great Britain and 7,000 Bren machine guns to Canada.
Both countries shared the capital costs of bringing in this new production facility. Production started in 1940,
and by 1943 Inglis was producing 60% of the world output of Bren machine guns.
Long Branch, Toronto, Canada.
Ishapore, India.
Lithgow Small Arms Factory, Australia.

8.5. USERS

8.5 Users

Watched by two small boys, a member of the FFI (French Forces of the Interior), poses with his Bren at Chteaudun, 1944

Argentina: several captured during the Falklands War.

Australia: during World War II and Korean War.

Bangladesh* [18]

77

78

CHAPTER 8. BREN LIGHT MACHINE GUN

Barbados* [18]

Belize* [18]

Botswana* [18]

Bulgaria: during World War II.

Canada: during World War II and Korean War.

People's Republic of China: During the Chinese Civil War

Republic of China: Chinese National Revolutionary Army of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek of the
Republic of China during the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War

Democratic Republic of Congo* [18]

Cyprus

Free France: Used by the Free French Forces.

Gambia* [18]

Ghana* [18]

Greece

Guyana* [18]

India: manufactured by the Ordnance Factories Board* [18]* [19]

Ireland: Irish Defence Forces, replaced by the FN MAG in 1960s, used by the Reserve Defence Forces
(RDF), until 2006.
Israel: during its war of independence and for some time thereafter.
Italy: airdropped to partisans and also issued to the Italian Co-Belligerent Army in the latter part of WWII.
Also used by the Italian Police in the 7.62 mm calibre.

Jamaica: still used by the Jamaica Combined Cadet Force

Kenya* [18]

Lesotho* [18]

Luxembourg

Malaysia: General Operations Force of the Royal Malaysian Police (before replaced by the German-made
7.62mm NATO Heckler & Koch HK11).
Mauritius* [18]
Nepal* [18]
Netherlands: The Netherlands Royal Army during World War II and thereafter until 1964, the Netherlands
Royal Army Reserve Corps from 1948 until 1989 and the Royal Netherlands Air Force from 1945 until 1964.

North Korea: used captured examples

New Zealand: WW2 and L4 post war

Poland: Used by the Polish Underground State, Armored and partisans units during World War II.

Rhodesia

8.6. GALLERY OF IMAGES

Seychelles* [18]

Union of South Africa

Sri Lanka: Used by Ceylon Defence Force in World War II and thereafter by the Sri Lanka Army

Suriname* [18]

Swaziland* [18]

Thailand

Tonga* [18]

Trinidad and Tobago* [18]

Uganda* [18]

United Kingdom: British and Commonwealth forces, and cadet forces until the introduction of the L98
Cadet Rie

Yugoslavia: Yugoslav Chetniks during World War II; some remained in stockpiles until Balkan wars of
'90s

79

Zimbabwe* [18]

8.6 Gallery of images


At the Battle of Ortona, December 1943
Welsh Guards in action with a Bren near Cagny, July 1944
Bren without the magazine tted used by Polish Commandos
Members of the Milice with Bren guns.
Bren near Tilburg, October 1944
Bren in Canadian museum
Twin Bren anti-aircraft mounting
Bren Mk3
Universal Carrier
A Bren in an anti-aircraft mount
Wounded German soldiers ferried to rst aid post on a Cromwell tank, 3 September 1944

8.7 See also


Taden gun
Charlton Automatic Rie
Besal
Sterling 7.62
Kucher Model K1
FM 24/29 light machine gun

80

CHAPTER 8. BREN LIGHT MACHINE GUN


Type 96 Light Machine Gun
Type 99 Light Machine Gun
DP-28
M1918 Browning Automatic Rie
Mendoza RM2
Huot Automatic Rie
Veronica Foster, aka The Bren Gun Girl
ZB-530
Universal Carrier (Bren Gun Carrier)
Vickers-Berthier
Vickers K machine gun

8.8 Notes
[1] Ordnance Factory Board
[2] The Bren Gun, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 978-1782000822 (pp. 9-11)
[3] Grant, Neil (2013), The Bren Gun, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 978-1782000822 (p. 40)
[4] British Infantry Battalion, June 1944, Rie Company.
[5] The British Parachute Battalion, circa 1944 to 1945.
[6] Dunlap
[7]It [the L4A4 Bren] is normally red from the shoulder in the lying position, supported by the bipod, although it may be
red from other positions to engage targets at close range. Chapter 1, Section 1, para 102, Australian Army Manual of
Land Warfare, Part 2, Infantry Training, Vol 4 Pam 6, Machine Gun 7.62mm L4A4, Australian Government 1979.
[8] George, John
[9] Grant, p. 41
[10] Grant, p. 41
[11]
[12] Glantz, David M. (2005). Colossus reborn : the Red Army at war, 1941-1943. Lawrence, Kan.: Univ. Press of Kansas. p.
193. ISBN 0700613536.
[13] Assault ries and their ammunition.
[14] http://b11.cnc.qzone.qq.com/cgi-bin/blognew/blog_output_data?uin=2396467630&blogid=1345345996&styledm=cnc.qzonestyle.
gtimg.cn&imgdm=cnc.qzs.qq.com&bdm=b.cnc.qzone.qq.com&mode=2&numperpage=15&blogseed=0.3048486567568034&
prop
[15] http://www.militarybbs.cn/thread-19788-1-1.html
[16] http://www.militarybbs.cn/data/attachment/forum/201305/25/202049ak7acqgffqzs4ssc.jpg
[17] http://bbs.tiexue.net/post_6531365_1.html
[18] Jones, Richard D.; Ness, Leland S., eds. (January 27, 2009). Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010 (35th ed.). Coulsdon:
Jane's Information Group. ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.
[19] http://ofbindia.gov.in/products/data/weapons/wsc/16.htm

8.9. REFERENCES

8.9 References
Dunlap, Roy F. (1948). Ordnance Went Up Front. The Samworth Press.
George, John (Lt. Col.) (1948). Shots Fired In Anger. The Samworth Press.

8.10 External links


The Light Machine Gun
Photogallery of BREN Mk. I
Photo of L4 Bren gun in use with Nepalese army, circa 2006
Twin barrel Bren LMG
Modern Firearms (additional information)

81

Chapter 9

Carl Gustav recoilless rie


The Carl Gustav (Swedish pronunciation: [k stv]; also known as Carl Gustaf, Gustav Bazooka and M2CG)
is an 84 mm man-portable reusable anti-tank recoilless rie produced by Saab Bofors Dynamics (formerly Bofors
Anti-Armour AB) in Sweden. The rst prototype of the Carl Gustav was produced in 1946, and while similar weapons
of the era have generally disappeared, the Carl Gustav remains in widespread use today.
In its country of origin it is ocially named Grg m/48 (Granatgevr or grenade rie, model 48). British troops refer
to it as the Charlie G, while Canadian troops often refer to it as the 84 or Carl G. In U.S. military service it is known
as the M3 Multi-role Anti-armor Anti-tank Weapon System (MAAWS) or Ranger Antitank Weapons System (RAWS),
but is often called the Gustav or the Goose or simply the Carl Johnson by US soldiers. In Australia it is irreverently
known as Charlie Gusto or Charlie Gutsache (guts ache, slang for stomach pain).

9.1 History
The Carl Gustav was developed by Hugo Abramson and Harald Jentzen at the Kungliga Armfrvaltningens Tygavdelning (Royal Swedish Arms Administration) and produced at Carl Gustav Stads Gevrsfaktori from where it
derives its name. The weapon was rst introduced into Swedish service in 1948 as the 8,4 cm Granatgevr m/48 (Grg
m/48), lling the same anti-tank role as the U.S. Army's Bazooka, British PIAT and German Panzerschreck. Unlike
these weapons, however, the Carl Gustav used a ried barrel for spin-stabilizing its rounds, as opposed to ns used
by the other systems.
The use of the recoilless ring system allowed the Carl Gustav to use ammunition containing considerably more
propellant, ring its rounds at 290 m/s, as opposed to about 105 m/s for the Panzerschreck and Bazooka and about
75 m/s for the PIAT. The result was superior accuracy at longer ranges. The Carl Gustav can be used to attack larger
stationary targets at up to 700 m, but the relatively low speed of the projectile restricts attacks on moving targets to a
range of 400 m or less.
The Carl Gustav was soon sold around the world and became one of the primary squad-level anti-tank weapons for
many West European armies. An improved version (M2) was introduced in 1964 and quickly replaced the original
version. The current M3 version was introduced in 1991, using a thin steel liner containing the riing, strengthened
by a carbon ber outer sleeve. External steel parts were replaced with aluminium alloys or plastics, reducing the
empty weapon weight considerablyfrom 16.35 kg to 10 kg.
In recent years, the weapon has found new life in a variety of roles. The British Special Air Service, United States
Special Forces and United States Army Rangers use M3s in bunker-busting and anti-vehicle roles, while the German
Bundeswehr maintains a small number of M2s for battleeld illumination. Many armies continue to use it as a viable
anti-armor weapon, especially against 1950s- and 60s-era tanks and other armored vehicles still in use worldwide.
In a well-documented incident during the Falklands War, a Royal Marine attacked an Argentinian corvette (ARA
Guerrico) using a Carl Gustav.* [5]
The Carl Gustav was used against Taliban defensive fortications by soldiers of Princess Patricia's Canadian Light
Infantry in operations in Afghanistan. They developed a new system for ring at night in which a spotter with a
night-scope res tracer ammunition to mark the target for the Carl Gustav gunner.
Carl Gustav launchers were used by Free Libyan Army during the Libyan Civil War in 2011; the weapons being used
82

9.2. DESCRIPTION

83

were either captured or provided by defecting members of the Libyan Army.


In November 2011, the U.S. Army began ordering the M3 MAAWS for regular units deployed in Afghanistan.
Soldiers were being engaged with RPGs at 900 meters, while their light weapons had eective ranges of 500600
meters. The Carl Gustaf allows airburst capability of troops in delade out to 1,250 meters, and high explosive use
out to 1,300 meters. While the weapon provides enhanced eectiveness, its 9.5 kg weight burdens troops. On 28
March 2013, USSOCOM announced a call for sources to develop a kit to lighten the M3 MAAWS by 1.3-2.2 kg's,
plus a 7.5 cm reduction in overall length, without aecting the weapon's center of gravity or ruggedness, including air
delivery and salt water submersion. A kit with production conguration is to be delivered within 16 months. Saab has
developed a weight-reduced version prior to the SOCOM release weighing approximately 11 kg and is 5 cm shorter.
Live re tests have demonstrated no decrease in performance, no increase in recoil, and nearly equivalent barrel life.
It will be ready for government testing in 2014. Saab has also developed a new high explosive round that has a direct
re range of 1500 meters when using a re control system.* [6]
At AUSA 2014, Saab Dynamics displayed its new Carl Gustaf M4 variant. Compared to the M3 MAAWS, the M4
is 3.4 kg (7.5 lb) lighter weighing 6.6 kg (15 lb) and shorter with a 950 mm (37 in) overall length. The shorter
length was in response to the need to wield the weapon in urban terrain, and weight savings were achieved through
using lighter components whenever possible including a carbon ber tube with titanium liner, as well as a new venturi
design. Other new features include a red-spot sight, a travel safety catch to allow the M4 to be carried while loaded,
an adjustable shoulder rest and forward grip for improved ergonomics, a shot counter to keep track of how many
rounds have been red to manage the weapon's 1,000-round barrel life, picatinny rails for grips and sight mounts,
and a remote round management function so intelligent sights can talkto programmable rounds. Sources claim
the M4 can meet the needs of USSOCOM for a shorter and lighter recoilless rie and note that they are considering
acquiring it under the designation of M3A1.* [7]* [8] The Defense Department has agreed to evaluate the shorter and
lighter M4 version over the next two years.* [9]

9.2 Description

In May 2009, U.S. Army Special Forces soldiers train with the Carl Gustav recoilless rie in Basra, Iraq, during the Iraq War. Note
the ring position and recoilless backblast.

The basic weapon consists of the main tube with the breech-mounted Venturi recoil damper, with two grips near the
front and a shoulder mount. The weapon is tted with iron sights, but is normally aimed with the attached 3x optical

84

CHAPTER 9. CARL GUSTAV RECOILLESS RIFLE

sight with a 17 degree (300 mrad) eld of view. The most modern variants elded to Swedish rie companies have
been tted with the Swedish aimpoint sighting system. Luminous front and rear sight inserts are available for the iron
sights when aiming at night, and an image intensication system may also be used.
The Carl Gustav can be red from the standing, kneeling, sitting or prone positions, and a bipod may be attached in
front of the shoulder piece. An operating handle called the Venturi lockis used to move the hinged breech to
one side for reloading. The weapon is normally operated by a two-man crew, one carrying and ring the weapon, the
other carrying ammunition and reloading.

9.2.1

Specications

Calibre: 84 mm ried (24 lands, progressive twist)* [10]


Crew: 2 optimal, 1 minimal
Weights: 14.2 kg (M2); 8.5 kg (M3); 0.8 kg (mount); 7.0 kg (M4)
Length: 1.13m (M2); 1.07m (M3); 1.0m (M4)
Breech: Hinged
Rate of re: 6 rounds per minute
Sights: Iron sights, optical 3, laser rangender, image intensication system

9.2.2

M3 MAAWS

The M3 Multi-role Anti-armor Anti-tank Weapon System (MAAWS) is the U.S. military designation for the Carl
Gustaf M3 recoilless rie. It is primarily used by USSOCOM forces such as the Army Special Forces, 75th Ranger
Regiment, Navy SEALS, Delta Force, DEVGRU and MARSOC. When in use with the 75th Ranger Regiment it is
known as the Ranger Anti-tank Weapons System (RAWS).
In the late 1980s, the Special Operations Forces Modernization Action Plan indicated need for a Ranger AntiArmor/Anti-Personnel Weapon System (RAAWS) to replace the M67 recoilless rie in use by the 75th Ranger
Regiment. A market survey in 1987 indicated that the Carl Gustaf M3 was the best candidate for satisfying RAAWS
requirements. On 29 September 1988, the M3 was selected as the RAAWS from candidate proposals submitted
in response to the market survey compiled by ARDEC. A subsequent review of the contractor-supplied fatigue test
data determined that the data did not meet U.S. Army requirements. Bent Laboratories conducted fatigue test of
2 tubes to establish an interim safe service life for the weapon. Tests were conducted in 1993. The manufacturer
s recommended life for the weapon was 500 rounds, but bore surfaces showed no indications of erosion until 2,360
rounds. The U.S. Navy SEALs became interested in the program and moved it to a Joint Integrated Product Team.
The program name subsequently changed from the RAAWS to the Multi-Role Anti-Armor/Anti-Personnel Weapon
System (MAAWS).* [11]
Army Rangers found the M3 Carl Gustav was best employed using a two-man team. One person would carry the
launcher and be armed with a pistol for personal protection, and the other would carry 56 rounds of ammunition and
act as a spotter for the gunner. Although the single-shot AT-4 is lighter and can be carried by one person, a Gustav
team with the heavier recoilless rie can reload and re more rounds.* [12]
The M3 MAAWS res the following ammunition:
High Explosive Dual Purpose (HEDP) round
High Explosive Anti-Tank (HEAT) round
High Explosive (HE) round
Illumination round
Smoke round
Area Defence Munition (ADM) echette round

9.3. USERS

85

In late 2012, the Army elded 58 M3s and 1,500 rounds of ammunition to units deployed to Afghanistan to destroy
enemy targets out to 1,000 meters. This was because RPG and machine gun teams could attack 900 meters away,
while existing weaponry like the M141 Bunker Defeat Munition, M72 LAW, M136 AT-4 and MK153 SMAW had
eective ranges of only 500 meters. The AT-4 is lighter and cheaper but is made of reinforced berglass, while the
M3's ried metal/carbon ber launch tube allows for reloading. Employing the 22 lb M3 is easier than the 50 lb
FGM-148 Javelin with its launcher with missile and reusable command launch unit, is faster than waiting on mortars,
and is cheaper than the Javelin and artillery shells for engaging targets in hard cover.* [11]

9.2.3

Ammunition

Improvements to the ammunition have been continual. While the older HEAT rounds are not particularly eective
against modern tank armor, the weapon has found new life as a bunker-buster with an HEDP round. In addition,
improved HEAT, high explosive (HE), smoke and illumination (star shell or are) ammunition is also available. For
full eectiveness, illumination rounds have to be red at a very high angle, creating a danger for the gunner as the
backblast from ring can burn him. For this reason several armies have retired the illumination rounds, while the
U.S. Army requires that they be red from a standing position.
Note that the following are Canadian designations (other countries use similar terminology, replacing the FFV)
FFV441 is an HE round, useful in a lobbedtrajectory to 1,000m, which can be fused to either detonate on
impact or as an airburst.
FFV441B is an HE round with an eective range against personnel in the open of 1,100 m. The round arms
after 20 to 70 m of ight, weighs 3.1 kg, and is red at a muzzle velocity of 255 m/s.* [10]
FFV469 is a smoke round red like the FFV441, with a range of about 1,300 m. The 3.1 kg round is also red
at 255 m/s.* [10]
FFV502 is an HEDP round with the ability to be set to detonate either on impact or one-tenth of a second
afterwards. Eective range is 1,000 m against dispersed soft targets such as infantry in the open, 500 m against
stationary targets and 300 m against moving targets. Minimum range is 15 to 40 m to arm the warhead.
Penetration exceeds 150 mm of rolled homogeneous armour (RHA). Ammunition weight is 3.3 kg and muzzle
velocity is 230 m/s.* [10]
FFV545 is an illuminating star shell, red up to 2,300 m maximum range, but with an eective envelope of
300 to 2,100 m. Suspended by parachute, the star shell burns for 30 seconds while producing 650,000 candela,
providing a 400 to 500 m diameter area of illumination.
FFV551 is the primary HEAT round and is a rocket-assisted projectile (RAP). Eective range is up to 700
m (400 m against moving targets) and penetration up to 400 mm of RHA. Ammunition weight is 3.2 kg and
muzzle velocity is 255 m/s.* [10]
FFV552 is a practice round with the same ballistics as the 551.
FFV651 is a newer HEAT round using mid-ight rocket assistance for ranges up to 1,000m. In theory, it has
less penetration than the FFV551, but it includes a stand-o probe for the fuse to improve performance against
reactive armour.
FFV751 is a tandem-warhead HEAT round with an eective range of 500 m and ability to penetrate more than
500 mm of armour. Weight is 4 kg.* [10]
HEAT 655 CS (Conned Spaces) high-explosive anti-tank (HEAT) round that can be red by the 84 mm
Carl Gustaf recoilless weapon from within small enclosures* [13]

9.3 Users

Australia:* [14] M2 replaced by M3 variant.* [15]

Austria* [14]

86

CHAPTER 9. CARL GUSTAV RECOILLESS RIFLE

Belgium* [16]

Belize* [14]

Botswana* [14]

Brazil* [14]

Burkina Faso* [14]

Burma* [17]

Canada* [14]

Czech Republic* [18]

Denmark:* [14] M2 called M/79,* [19] M3 called M/85.* [20] Commonly referred to as Dysekanonin
the army.

Estonia: M2, M3.* [21]

Germany* [16]

Ghana* [14]

Greece* [22]

Honduras* [14]

India:* [14] a modied version has also been developed by the DRDO which is signicantly lighter due to
use of advanced composites.

Indonesia: used by the Komando Pasukan Katak (Kopaska) tactical diver group and Komando Pasukan
Khusus (Kopassus) special forces group.* [23]

Ireland: Defence Forces specialist units, including Army Ranger Wing (ARW).* [14]

Israel* [14]

Japan: M2 called 84 mm Recoilless Rie.,* [4] M3 called multi-purpose gun ()'

Kenya* [14]

Kuwait.* [24]

Latvia

Libya* [14]

Lithuania: M2, M3.* [25]* [26]

Malaysia* [14]

Myanmar: used by divisional heavy weapon companies in bunker busting/infantry support/light artillery
role for counter-insurgency campaigns.

New Zealand* [14]

Nigeria* [14]

Norway* [14]

Pakistan* [27]

9.4. SEE ALSO

Poland: used by special forces.* [28]

Portugal* [29]* [30]

Sierra Leone* [14]

Singapore* [14]

Sweden* [14]

Tamil Eelam: used by the Tamil Tigers during the Final Eelam War.* [31]

Thailand* [14]

United Arab Emirates* [14]

87

United Kingdom: M2 variant was used from the 1970s until the early 1990s.* [32] AEI Systems Ltd.
a British defense products manufacturer headquartered in Ascot, Berkshire oers a variant of the platform
dubbed the AE84-RCL designed to re the M540/M550 line of 84246 mm R ammunition manufactured in
Belgium by Mecar.* [33]

United States: used by USSOCOM, U.S. Army Ranger battalions,* [34] and some regular U.S. Army
infantry units in the War in Afghanistan.* [35]* [36] In February 2014, the M3 MAAWS was designated as a
Program of Record within the US Army and became standard-issue in Army Light Infantry units.* [37]

Venezuela

Zambia* [14]

9.4 See also


Panzerfaust (German, 1943, man-portable)
Panzerfaust 3 (German, 1992, man-portable)
RPG-2 (USSR, 1947, man-portable)
55 S 55 (Finland, 1947, man-portable)
M40 recoilless rie (USA, 1947, tripod mounted)
B-10 recoilless rie (USSR, 1954, tripod mounted)

9.5 References
[1] Carl Gustav M4, Saab, 2014
[2] Saabs latest Carl Gustav M4 system impresses customers in live re demonstration (press release), Saab, 2014-09-26, The
ocial Carl Gustav M4 product launch will take place at the AUSA exhibition in Washington, DC, on 1315 Oct 2014
[3] 84mm ", Right-Wing (in Japanese), JP: Sakura, retrieved 2009-11-04
[4] Exhibition of Equipments, JP: Plala, retrieved July 29, 2008.
[5] The Falklands Conict The Defence of Grytviken, Navy News (UK), 3 April 1982, archived from the original on
2003-05-07.
[6] SOCOM Seeks Lighter Carl Gustaf, Defense media network, 22 April 2013.
[7] New Carl-Gustaf weapon system design unveiled - Military1.com, 8 October 2014
[8] Saab Adds Capabilities In New Recoilless Rie - Aviationweek.com, 13 October 2014

88

CHAPTER 9. CARL GUSTAV RECOILLESS RIFLE

[9] Army, Special Operations Forces Eye Lighter, Cheaper Shoulder-Fired Weapons - Nationaldefensemagazine.org, 10 November 2014
[10] OPFOR Worldwide Equipment Guide, US: Army TRADOC DCSINT Threat Support Directorate, January 1999.
[11] Saab to Supply Carl-Gustaf 84mm Recoilless Rie System to the U.S. Army, SA defense journal, 19 June 2013.
[12] Carl Gustav Rules In America, Strategy page, 10 September 2014.
[13] Saab reveals conned spaces capability for Carl Gustaf, Infantry Weapons (Jane's).
[14] Jones, Richard D. Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's; 35 ed. (January 27, 2009). ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.
[15] Direct re support weapons land 40 phase 2. Defence Material Organisation. October 2010. Retrieved 24 April 2011.
[16] Grenade, World, RU: Guns.
[17] Svenska vapen hos Burmas arme[Sweden sells to Burmas army], SvD (in Swedish) (SE).
[18] Karl Gustav protitankov zbra (in Czech), CZ: Army.
[19] Dysekanon M/79, Panser vrns vben (in Danish), DK: Dansk panser.
[20] Dysekanon M/85, Panser vrns vben (in Danish), DK: Dansk panser.
[21] http://www.mil.ee/?menu=tehnika1&sisu=carlgustav |contribution-url= missing title (help), Tehnika [Technical] (in Ewe),
EE: Military.
[22] Armored vehicle weapons in formation, Greek Army ground forces military equipment, Army Recognition.
[23] Kopassus & Kopaska Specijalne Postrojbe Republike Indonezije (in Croatian). HR: Hrvatski Vojnik Magazine.
Retrieved 2010-06-12.
[24] Kuwait Army Equipment, Global security.
[25] Prietankinis granatsvaidis AT-4 (in Lithuanian), LT: KAM.
[26] Prietankinis granatsvaidis Carl GustafM2, M3 (in Lithuanian), LT: KAM.
[27] Pakistan Army. PK: Defence.
[28] Altair, PL.
[29] Exerccio Capolo no distrito de Santarm [Capolo exercise in the Santarm district] (in Portuguese), PT: Operacional.
[30] Armas, Meios dos fuzileiros [Marinesequipment] (in Portuguese), PT: Marinha.
[31] Army, LK.
[32] Owen, William F. (2007). Light Anti-Armour Weapons: Anti-Everything?" (PDF). Asian Military Review. Retrieved
2010-05-12.
[33] AE84-RCL recoilless rie, AEI Systems, retrieved September 16, 2014.
[34] The World defense almanac 199697, p. 32.
[35] Robinson, Spc Nigel (2011-10-27). Carl Gustav Recoilless Rie. 7th Mobile Public Aairs Detachment. Defense
Video and Imagery Distribution System. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
[36] US Army Orders Additional Carl-Gustaf Weapon System, Defense talk, 27 September 2012.
[37] Carl Gustaf Selected as Standard Equipment for US Army Light Infantry Units, Deagel, 20 February 2014.

9.6. EXTERNAL LINKS

9.6 External links


Saabs Bofors - manufacturer's product page
Saab Bofors - ocial manufacturer's brochure
Saabs Bofors - Area Defence Munition (ADM 401) brochure
Instructors Manual - Canadian Forces
Video of loading and ring drill for Carl Gustaf recoilless rie
Video of a Carl Gustaf recoilless rie being red
M3 MAAWS at GlobalSecurity.org
Carl Gustaf antitank recoilless rie (Sweden) - Modern Firearms

89

90

CHAPTER 9. CARL GUSTAV RECOILLESS RIFLE

9.6. EXTERNAL LINKS

91

JGSDF soldiers operating the Howa 84RR IN February 2004. The Howa 84RR is a Japanese-made version of the Carl Gustav.

U.S. Army Special Forces soldiers re the M3 recoilless rie during familiarization training at Camp Sheejan, Iraq in August 2007.

Chapter 10

Denel NTW-20
The NTW-20 is a South African anti-materiel rie or large-calibre sniper rie, developed by Denel Mechem in the
1990s.
It is intended for deployment against targets including parked aircraft, telecommunication masts, power lines, missile sites, radar installations, reneries, satellite dishes, gun emplacements, bunkers and personnel, using a range of
specialized projectiles.* [1] As with other weapons of this type, it can also be used for counter sniping and ordnance
disposal (shooting explosive ordnance from a safe distance).

10.1 Development
The weapon was designed by Tony Neophytou (co-designer of the innovative Neostead combat shotgun). Development of the system began in August 1995 under theAerotekname and a working prototype was ready for testing
four and a half months later. This rapid progress was made possible by Neophytou's expertise in the eld of recoil
reduction systems, having worked on helicopter turrets in the past. In order to further reduce the amount of research
and development, the project recycled the barrel, bolt and barrel extension of the existing Vektor GA1 automatic
cannon.* [2] It was put into production by Denel Land Systems in two versions; 20 x 110* [3] and 20 x 82.* [4] The
latter model is also available in 14.5 x 114 and conversion between the calibres can be done in the eld by swapping
the barrel and bolt assembly. The signicantly larger 20 x 110 model cannot be converted to another calibre.* [5]
The rie was accepted into service with the South African National Defence Force in 1998.

10.2 Features
The NTW 20/14.5 is one of the few rearms in existence that allow the changing of the caliber without completely
disassembling and reworking the weapon. Switching between the two calibers of the NTW (20mm and 14.5mm)
requires changing the bolt, barrel, sighting gear and magazine. (A third variant, the NTW 20x110 has been developed,
but is not designed for barrel caliber switching.) Caliber switching the NTW 20/14.5 can be accomplished in the eld
without specialized tools. The magazine protrudes from the left side of the receiver. The NTW can be disassembled
and packed into two backpacks for carriage. A muzzle brake is tted on the end of the barrel which absorbs an
estimated 50%60% of recoil. This is further supplemented by a buered slide in the receiver.

10.3 Variants
10.4 Inuence
Denel Land Systems was contracted to supply weapon systems for the Indian Armed Forces, including anti-materiel
ries and self-propelled howitzers. However, following allegations that it had paid kickbacks to secure a deal for
anti-materiel ries, Denel was black-listed by the government. Subsequently, the Ordnance Factory Tiruchirappalli
92

10.5. SEE ALSO

93

(OFT), in association with the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), began developing an
indigenous antimaterial rie called Vidhwansak, which borrowed heavily from the Denel NTW-20. The development
of Vidhwansak was completed in November 2005.* [6]

10.5 See also


Vidhwansak
RT-20 (rie)
Truvelo Sniper Ries

10.6 References
[1] Kokalis, Peter: Weapons Tests And Evaluations: The Best Of Soldier Of Fortune, page 223. Paladin Press, 2001.
[2] Kokalis, 224
[3] Infantry Weapons - NTW 20 X 110. Denel Land Systems. Retrieved 2013-05-21.
[4] Infantry Weapons - NTW 20 X 82. Denel Land Systems. Retrieved 2013-05-21.
[5] Denel NTW-20 - Anti-Materiel Rie - History, Specs and Pictures - Military, Security and Civilian Guns and Equipment
. Militaryfactory.com. 2012-08-20. Retrieved 2013-05-21.
[6] Girja Shankar Kaura (2006-02-05). Ordnance factories bag order for 30,000 carbines. The Tribune. Retrieved
2009-06-07.

10.7 Bibliography
Kokalis, Peter (2001). Weapons Tests And Evaluations: The Best Of Soldier Of Fortune. Boulder, CO: Paladin
Press. ISBN 978-1-58160-122-0.

10.8 External links


NTW 20 anti-materiel rie 20 x 82 mm
NTW 20 anti-materiel rie 20 x 110 mm HS
Modern Firearms Page

Chapter 11

Dragunov sniper rie


Not to be confused with Degtyarev sniper rie.
The Dragunov sniper rie (formal Russian: 1963
Snayperskaya Vintovka sistem'y Dragunova obraz'tsa 1963 goda (SVD-63), ocially Sniper Rie, System of Dragunov, Model of the Year 1963) is a semi-automatic sniper/designated marksman rie chambered in 7.6254mmR
and developed in the Soviet Union.
The Dragunov was designed as a squad support weapon since, according to Soviet and Soviet-derived military doctrines, the long-range engagement ability was lost to ordinary troops when submachine guns and assault ries (which
are optimized for close-range and medium-range, rapid-re combat) were adopted. For that reason, it was originally named 1963 Self-Loading Rie, System of
Dragunov, Model of the Year 1963.
It was selected as the winner of a contest that included three competing designs: by Sergei Simonov, Aleksandr
Konstantinov and Yevgeny Dragunov. Extensive eld testing of the ries conducted in a wide range of environmental
conditions resulted in Dragunovs proposal being accepted into service in 1963. An initial pre-production batch
consisting of 200 ries was assembled for evaluation purposes, and from 1964 serial production was carried out by
Izhmash.
Since then, the Dragunov has become the standard squad support weapon of several countries, including those of the
former Warsaw Pact. Licensed production of the rie was established in China (Type 79 and Type 85) and Iran (as
a direct copy of the Chinese Type 79).

11.1 Design details


11.1.1

Operating mechanism

The Dragunov is a semi-automatic, gas-operated rie with a short-stroke gas-piston system. The barrel breech is
locked through a rotating bolt (left rotation) and uses three locking lugs to engage corresponding locking recesses in
the barrel extension. The rie has a manual, two-position gas regulator.
After discharging the last cartridge from the magazine, the bolt carrier and bolt are held back on a bolt catch that is
released by pulling the cocking handle to the rear. The rie has a hammer-type striking mechanism and a manual
lever safety selector. The ring pin is a free-oatingtype and, as a result, some soft-primered ammunition had
the reputation of causing a "slam re" event. Thus, military grade ammunition with primers conrmed to be properly
seated is recommended for the Dragunov and its variants. This appears to have solved the slam reissue. The
rie's receiver is machined to provide additional accuracy and torsional strength. The Dragunov's receiver bears a
number of similarities to the AK action, such as the large dust cover, iron sights and lever safety selector, but these
similarities are primarily cosmetic in nature.
94

11.1. DESIGN DETAILS

11.1.2

95

Barrel

The barrel prole is relatively thin to save weight and is ended with a slotted ash suppressor. The barrels bore is
chrome-lined for increased corrosion resistance, and features 4 right-hand grooves. It is not ried over its full length
but partly over a length of 547 mm (21.5 in). In the 1960s, the twist rate was 320 mm (1:12.6 in). During the 1970s,
the twist rate was tightened to 240 mm (1:9.4 in), which reduced the accuracy of re with sniper cartridges by 19%.
This adaptation was done in order to facilitate the use of tracer and armor-piercing incendiary ammunition, since
these bullet types required a shorter twist rate for adequate stabilization.* [3]

11.1.3

Ammunition feeding

The weapon is fed from a curved box magazine with a 10-round capacity and the cartridges are double-stacked in a
checker pattern.

11.1.4

Sights

PSO-1's unique reticle. The rangender is in the lower left, chevrons for bullet drop compensation are found in the middle, and
stadia marks for windage to the left and right of the center reticule. The reticule is illuminated by a small battery-powered lamp.

The rie features mechanically adjustable backup iron sights with a sliding tangent rear sight (the sight can be adjusted
to a maximum range of 1,200 m (1,312 yd)). The iron sights can be used with or without the standard issue optical
sight in place. This is possible because the scope mount does not block the area between the front and rear sights.
The Dragunov is issued with a quick-detachable PSO-1 optical sight.* [4] The PSO-1 sight (at a total length of 375
mm with a lens cover and sun shade, 4x magnication and 6 eld of view) mounts to a proprietary side rail mount
that does not block the view of the iron sight line. The PSO-1 sight includes a variety of features, such as a bullet drop
compensation (BDC) elevation adjustment knob and an illuminated rangender grid that can be used up to 1,000 m
(1,094 yd), a reticle that enables target acquisition in low light conditions as well as an infrared charging screen that is
used as a passive detection system. The current version of the sight is the PSO-1M2. This telescopic sight is dierent

96

CHAPTER 11. DRAGUNOV SNIPER RIFLE

PSO-1 scope and carrying case. Note the proprietary quick-release mounting bracket.

from the original PSO-1 only in that it lacks the now obsolete Infra-Red detector. The PSO-1 sight enables area
targets to be engaged at ranges upwards of 1,300 m (1,422 yd); eective ranges in combat situations have been stated
at between 600 to 1,300 m (656 to 1,422 yd), depending on the nature of the target (point or area target) quality of
ammunition and skill of the shooter.* [5]* [6]
Several other models of the PSO sight are available with varying levels of magnication and alternative aiming reticules.* [7] Ries designated SVDN come equipped with a night sight, such as the NSP-3, NSPU, PGN-1, NSPUM or
the Polish passive PCS-6. Ries designated SVDN-1 can use the multi-model night scope NSPU-3 (1PN51)* [8] and
ries designated SVDN2 can use the multi-model night scope NSPUM (1PN58).* [9]

11.1.5

Stock

SVD rie featuring a wooden handguard/gas tube cover and skeletonized stock used before the change to synthetic black furniture.

The Dragunov has a vented, two-piece wooden handguard/gas tube cover and a skeletonized wooden thumbhole
stock equipped with a detachable cheek rest; the latter is removed when using iron sights. Newer production models
feature synthetic furniture made of a black polymer the handguard and gas tube cover are more or less identical in
appearance, while the thumbhole stock is of a dierent shape.
The barrel is semi free-oated, since it is connected by a spring loaded mechanism to the handguard/gas tube cover
so the handguard can move with the barrel during ring.

11.2. VARIANTS

11.1.6

97

Ammunition

For precision shooting, specically designed sniper cartridges are used, developed by V. M. Sabelnikov, P. P. Sazonov
and V. M. Dvorianinov. The proprietary 7N1 load has a steel jacketed projectile with an air pocket, a steel core and
a lead knocker in the base for maximum terminal eect. The 7N1 was replaced in 1999 by the 7N14 round. The
7N14 is a new load developed for the SVD. It consists of a 151 grain projectile that travels at the same 830 m/s, but
it has a sharp hardened steel core projectile. The rie can also re standard 7.6254mmR ammunition with either
conventional, tracer or armor piercing incendiary rounds.
The Russian military has established accuracy standards that the SVD and its corresponding sniper grade ammunition
have to meet. Manufacturers must perform ring tests to check if the ries and sniper grade ammunition fulll these
standards. To comply to the standards, the SVD rie with 7N1 sniper cartridges may not produce more than 1.24
MOA extreme vertical spread with 240 mm twist rate barrels and no more than 1.04 MOA extreme vertical spread
with 320 mm twist rate barrels. When using standard grade 57-N-323S cartridges, the accuracy of the SVD is reduced
to 2.21 MOA extreme vertical spread. The extreme vertical spreads for the SVD are established by shooting 5-shot
groups at 300 m range. The accuracy requirements demanded of the SVD with sniper grade ammunition are similar
to the American M24 Sniper Weapon System with M118SB cartridges (1.18 MOA extreme vertical spread) and the
M110 Semi-Automatic Sniper System with M118LR ammunition (1.27 MOA extreme vertical spread).

11.1.7

Accessories

A number of accessories are provided with the rie, including a blade-type bayonet (AKM clipped point or the
AK-74 spear point bayonet), four spare magazines, a leather or nylon sling, magazine pouch, cleaning kit and an
accessory/maintenance kit for the telescopic sight. Also included is a cold weather battery case with a shirt clip,
with a permanently attached cord [approximately 24long] ending with another battery case cap that has an extension
to press against the internal contact in lieu of the battery to complete the circuit. Placing the external battery case
into the shooters' clothing close to the body keeps it from freezing; using the clip ensures it remains in place. The
clamp-style bipod attaches to machined-out reliefs near the front of the receiver, it literally grabs the two cut out areas
and securely mounts with a large round sized head on the clamp bolt able to tightly attach the bipod. The legs are
individually adjustable [as opposed to xed length found on many ries and LMG's] and can be folded and stowed
in a forward position negating the need to remove the bipod before placing the rie into the canvas carrying case.
Interestingly enough, the two legs are held close together with aJshaped clamp attached to one leg and swung over
the other leg. Original Soviet/Russian SVD bipods fetch a very high price when they rarely appear on the market.

11.2 Variants

Pair of Dragunovs imported to the U.S. as Tigers. Top rie has cheek pad, two 10-round magazines, and ash suppressor. Bottom
rie was marketed as a hunting carbine. It has no cheek pad, two 5-round magazines, and no ash suppressor.

98

CHAPTER 11. DRAGUNOV SNIPER RIFLE

In the early 1990s, a compact variant of the SVD designed for airborne infantry was introduced, known as the SVDS
(Russian: , short for Snayperskaya Vintovka Dragunova Skladnaya,
Dragunov Sniper Rie with folding stock), which features a tubular metal stock that folds to the right side of the
receiver (equipped with a synthetic shoulder pad and a xed cheek riser) and a synthetic pistol grip. The barrel was
also given a heavier prole, the receiver housing was strengthened, the gas cylinder block was improved and a ported,
conical ash hider was adopted.
The SVDS also comes in a night-capable variant designated SVDSN.
In 1994, the Russian TsKIB SOO company (currently, a division of the KBP Instrument Design Bureau) developed
the SVU sniper rie (short for Snayperskaya Vintovka Ukorochennaya,Sniper Rie, Shortened) oered to special
units of the Russian Ministry of Internal Aairs (MVD).
The SVU, compared to the SVD, has a considerably shorter overall length because of the bullpup layout and shortened
barrel that also received a triple-bae muzzle brake with an approx. 40% recoil reduction eectiveness. The rie
was equipped with folding iron sights (rear aperture sight in a rotating drum) and the PSO-1 telescopic sight.
A variant of the SVU, designed with a selective-re capability and using 20-round magazines, is called the SVU-A
(A Avtomaticheskaya).
The SVDK is a Russian SVD variant chambered for the 9.364mm 7N33 cartridge. The SVDK is mechanically
adapted to use dimensionally larger 9.3x64mm Brenneke cartridges.
In 1998, Poland adopted a modernized variant of the SVD designated the SWD-M, which uses a heavy barrel, bipod
(mounted to the forearm) and LD-6 (6x42) telescopic sight.
Another variant of the SVD is the Iraqi Al-Kadesih. The 7.6254mmR Al-Kadesih rie is not to be confused with
the Iraqi 7.6239mm Tabuk sniper rie.* [10] The Al-Kadesih while stylistically similar to the SVD is kind of a
hybrid between the SVD and Romanian PSL ries and has some key dierences with the SVD that prevent parts
interchangeability with the SVD. The Al-Kadesih has a unique pressed-metal receiver which is longer than that of
the SVD, although the overall length of the rie is similar to that of the SVD. It is tted for the Soviet-era PSO-1
optical sight. Further, the barrel is pinned, rather than screwed, to the receiver, although it is of the same length as
that of the SVD. The fore-end has four longitudinal slots on each side instead of six short slots. Another readily visible
distinguishing feature of the Al-Kadesih is that the magazine has an ornamental relief pattern showing a stylised palm
tree.* [11]* [12]

11.2.1

Commercial variants

The Dragunov also served as the basis for several hunting ries. In 1962, the state armory in Izhevsk developed the
Medved (Bear) rie, initially chambered rst in the 9x53mm cartridge and later in the 7.62x51mm NATO round for
export. In the early 1970s, Izhevsk introduced the Tigr (Tiger) hunting rie with a xed thumbhole stock without a
cheekpiece. They were originally produced individually, but, since 1992, they have been made serially in batches.
Today, they are available with shortened (520 mm) and full length (620 mm) barrel, dierent stocks (including SVDS
style folding stock) and chambered in 7.62x54mmR, .308 Winchester, .30-06 Springeld or 9.3x64mm Brenneke.

11.3 Deployment
The Dragunov is an original rie design for several reasons. First, it was not meant for highly trained and specialized
sniper teams, but rather for designated marksmen. After the introduction of the SVD, the Soviet Army deployed
designated marksmen at the basic motorized infantry rie platoon level.* [13] Those designated marksmen were often
chosen from personnel who did well in terms of rie marksmanship while members of DOSAAF. Such marksmen
were estimated to have a 50% probability of hitting a standing, man-sized target at 800 m (875 yd), and an 80%
probability of hitting a standing, man-sized target at 500 m (547 yd). For distances not exceeding 200 m (219 yd)
the probability was estimated to be well above 90%. To attain this level of accuracy the sniper could not engage more
than two such targets per minute.* [14] Later in every platoon of Warsaw Pact troops, there was at least one Dragunov
rie marksman. In the German Democratic Republic arsenals alone, there were almost 2,000 Dragunov ries,* [15]
while in many Western armies there was not even a single sniper rie except in special forces units (as an example, in
the Italian Army until the 1990s), but in Warsaw Pact troop formations, the Dragunov marksmen were widespread
among the regular units. To fulll this role, the rie is relatively light for a sniper rie, but well balanced, making it
easier to use in a dynamic battle. It is also a semi-automatic rie, a rare feature for accuracy-oriented ries in the

11.4. USERS

99

1960s (except for customized ordnance, like M1 Garands), to allow rapid re and quicker engagement of multiple
targets. As with all precision-oriented ries, the user has to take care not to overheat the barrel and limit the use of
rapid re. In order to re eective API ammunition, its accuracy potential was slightly downgraded by shortening
the twist rate, another uncommon priority for a pure sniper rie. It has a relatively light barrel prole; its precision
is good, but not exceptional. Like an assault rie, the rie has mounts on the barrel to x a bayonet. The standard
AKM bayonet can even be used to cut electried barbed wire. Lastly, the rie was meant to be a relatively cheap
mass-produced rearm.
These features and unusual characteristics were driven by the tactical use doctrine of Dragunov armed marksman,
which was: from (just behind) the rst line targeting high-value targets of opportunity and providing special longdistance disrupting and suppressive re on the battleeld, even with sudden close encounters with enemy troops in
mind. A relatively small number of marksmen could assist conventional troops by combating or harassing valuable
targets and assets such as: key enemy personnel like ocers, non-commissioned ocers and radio operators, exposed
tank commanders, designated marksmen and snipers, machinegun teams, anti-tank warfare teams, etc.* [16]

11.4 Users

A Hungarian soldier takes aim with the SVD.

Afghanistan* [17]

Albania* [18]

Bangladesh: Uses Chinese Type 85 copy.* [19]

Belarus* [20]

Bulgaria* [20]

China: Norinco-made copy of the SVD, known as the Type 79.* [21] Equipped with a 4x magnication
optical sight which is a copy of the PSO-1. The rie has a slightly shorter butt. Also produced a modied Type
85* [21]* [22] and several other commercial copies of the SVD.* [22]* [23]* [24] An upgraded variant called the
CS/LR19 was also debuted. Export variants such as the NSG-85were also produced.

100

CHAPTER 11. DRAGUNOV SNIPER RIFLE

Kazakh soldiers on exercise.

A U.S. Marine receives instruction on the SVD.

Czech Republic* [25]


Finland: Known as the 7.62 TKIV Dragunov, which stands for tarkkuuskivri henkilmaaleja vastaan
(sniper rie against infantry targets).* [26]
Hungary* [27]

11.5. SEE ALSO

India: Used byDesignated Marksmenin the Indian Army, and built locally by the Ordnance Factories
Board under license.* [28]
Iran: Locally produced as the Nakhjir 3 Sniper Rie.* [29]* [30]* [31]
Iraq: Al Kadesiah, made based on SVD and PSL.* [32] Ocial Iraqi designation is either Al-Qadissiya
or Al-Gadissiya.* [33]

Kazakhstan* [20]

Kyrgyzstan* [20]

Lebanon: Lebanese Armed Forces

Libya* [20]

Moldova

Mongolia* [34]

Nicaragua* [20]

North Korea* [35]

Pakistan: Used by the Pakistan Army,* [36] Frontier Constabulary, Frontier Corps (Balochistan)

Philippines: Used by Moro Islamic Liberation Front * [37]

101

Poland:* [20] Polish SVD modernization; known as SWD-M- and updated with a heavier barrel, variable
magnication scope and detachable bipod.* [38] It's planned to replace SVD with MSBS's marksman variant.* [39]

Russian Federation: SVD-M.* [20]

Slovakia* [40]

Soviet Union: Entered service with the Soviet Army in 1967.* [17]

Tajikistan* [20]

Turkey: Used by Gendarmerie General Command and Polis zel Harekat.* [41]* [42]

Turkmenistan* [20]

Ukraine* [20]

Uzbekistan* [20]

Venezuela: Currently being bought by the Army of Venezuela.* [43]

Vietnam: In use since the Vietnam War.

Zimbabwe

11.5 See also


SVDK a variant of the SVD, chambered in 9.3x64mm Brenneke.
Mosin-Nagant, the rie replaced by the SVD.
VSS Vintorez, a suppressed sniper rie also used in limited numbers in Russia.
FAMAE FD-200, a Chilean sniper rie based on the SIG 542 rie.

102

CHAPTER 11. DRAGUNOV SNIPER RIFLE

Puca Semiautomat cu Lunet (PSL), a Romanian designated marksman/sniper rie that resembles the SVD,
chambered in 7.62x54mmR.
Zastava M76, a Yugoslavian designated marksman/sniper rie that resembles the SVD, chambered in 7.92x57mm
Mauser.
Zastava M91, a Serbian designated marksman/sniper rie that resembles the SVD, chambered in 7.62x54mmR.
U.S. Marine Corps Designated Marksman Rie, used in a similar role.
FR F2 sniper rie, French equivalent
List of Russian weaponry
Table of handgun and rie cartridges

11.6 References
[1] Weapons corner: sniper ries then and now. Infantry Magazine. 2006.
[2] Hogg, Ian (2002). Jane's Guns Recognition Guide. Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-00-712760-X.
[3] Evgeniy Dragunov: Creator of Firepower (abstracts from a forthcoming book)
[4] PSO-1 Manual (PDF). AR15.com. Retrieved October 29, 2007.
[5] snipersparadise.com discussion on the SVD eective range by sniper instructors/users. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
[6] UN judgement dealing with sniping during the Yugoslav wars. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
[7] DRAGUNOV OPTICS APPLICATIONS
[8] 151 [PRODUCT 1PN51
TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION AND OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS] (in Russian). January 1992. pp. 11, 16.
[9] 158 [PRODUCT 1PN58
TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION AND OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS] (in Russian). February 1991. pp. 5, 13.
[10] American Rieman, February 2010, page 59. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
[11] The Iraqi Al Kadesiah Rie. Dragunov.net. Retrieved 30 Dec 2012.
[12] Iraqi Al Kadesiah (also known as Al Kadesih) Sniper Rie 7.62x54R. designatedmarksman.net. Retrieved 2014-06-27.
[13] US Army, FM 100-2-3 The Soviet Army: Troops, Organization and Equipment, 4-3
[14] Isby, David C. (1981). Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army. Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-531-03732-0.
[15] List of GDR weapons. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
[16] Po, Enrico: Dragunov, RID Magazine June 1997 p.49-52
[17] Miller, David (2001). The Illustrated Directory of 20th Century Guns. Salamander Books Ltd. ISBN 1-84065-245-4.
[18] The World Defence Almanac 2006, page. 95, Mnch Publishing Group, Bonn 2006
[19] http://www.bdmilitary.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=215&Itemid=95[]
[20] Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN
978-0-7106-2869-5.
[21] Type 79/85 Sniper Rie.dead link] Retrieved on September 21, 2008.
[22] 7.62 mm SNIPPING RIFLE.dead link] Retrieved on September 29, 2008.
[23] NDM-86. Retrieved on September 21, 2008.
[24] NDM86. Retrieved on September 29, 2008.
[25] http://www.army.cz/assets/files/9334/zbrane_definit.pdf

11.7. EXTERNAL LINKS

103

[26] The Finnish Defence Forces 7.62 TKIV Dragunov. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
[27] http://www.defenseimagery.mil/imagery.html#guid=7712ecc946c9d0cea6d40c00c5c8878f43b1e2d3
[28] Singh, Lieutenant General R.K. Jasbir. Indian Defence Yearbook. India: Natraj Publishers. pp. 388391. ISBN 978-8186857-11-3.
[29] http://www.diomil.ir/images/Product/aig/Specifications/sniperrifle.jpg
[30] Walter, John (2006). Ries of the World. Krause Publications. pp. 100101. ISBN 0-89689-241-7.
[31] Jones, Richard (2009). Jane's Infantry Weapons 20092010. Jane's Information Group. p. 897. ISBN 0-7106-2869-2.
[32] Iraqi Al Kadesiah. Retrieved on August 26, 2008.
[33] Small Arms (Infantry Weapons) used by the Anti-Coalition Insurgency. Retrieved on August 26, 2008.
[34] Dragunov dot net - SVD ries in use in Europe
[35] https://fas.org/nuke/guide/dprk/nkor.pdf
[36] SVD. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
[37] https://fbcdn-sphotos-f-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-xpa1/t31.0-8/10904517_836504139739525_7731303280040156385_
o.jpg
[38] Karabin wyborowy SWD-M - zapomniana modernizacja
[39] NCBiR bdzie nansowao MSBS-5,56 - Altair Agencja Lotnicza. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
[40] vodn strnka :: Ministerstvo obrany SR
[41] SLAHLAR. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
[42] "http://img313.imageshack.us/img313/4062/487043li7.jpg iin Google Grsel Sonular. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
[43] Chvezs Bid for Russian Arms Pains U.S. Retrieved on September 21, 2008.

11.7 External links


IZHMASH JSC ocial site: 7.62 mm Dragunov Sniper Rie SVD
IZHMASH JSC ocial site: 7.62 mm Dragunov Sniper Rie with folding butt SVDS
Dragunov.net Dragunov rie information
Designatedmarksman.net Romanian PSL and Iraqi Al Kadesiah rie information
Buddy Hinton Collection
SVD with 20-round magazine
Sniper Central
SVD eld manual
Technical data, instructional images and diagrams of the Dragunov sniper rie (Russian)
Video of operation on YouTube (Japanese)

Chapter 12

FN FAL
The Fusil Automatique Lger (Light Automatic Rie) or FAL is a semi-automatic, selective re battle rie
produced by the Belgian armaments manufacturer Fabrique Nationale de Herstal (FN). During the Cold War it was
adopted by many North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries, with the notable exception of the United
States. It is one of the most widely used ries in history, having been used by more than 90 countries.* [4]
The FAL was predominantly chambered for the 7.6251mm NATO round, and because of its prevalence and
widespread use among the armed forces of many NATO countries during the Cold War it was nicknamed The
right arm of the Free World".* [2]
A British Commonwealth derivative of the FN FAL has been produced under licence as the L1A1 Self-Loading Rie.

12.1 History
In 1946, the rst FN FAL prototype was completed. It was designed to re the intermediate 7.9233mm Kurz
cartridge developed and used by the forces of Nazi Germany during World War II (see StG44 assault rie). After
testing this prototype in 1948, the British Army urged FN to build additional prototypes, including one in bullpup
conguration, chambered for their new .280 British caliber intermediate cartridge.* [5] After evaluating the single
bullpup prototype, FN decided to return instead to their original, conventional design for future production.* [5]
In 1950, the United Kingdom presented the redesigned FN rie and the British EM-2, both in .280 British calibre, to
the United States for comparison testing against the favoured United States Army design of the timeEarle Harvey's
T25.* [6] It was hoped that a common cartridge and rie could be standardized for issue to the armies of all NATO
member countries. After this testing was completed, U.S. Army ocials suggested that FN should redesign their rie
to re the U.S. prototype ".30 Light Riecartridge. FN decided to hedge their bets with the U.S., and in 1951 even
made a deal that the U.S. could produce FALs royalty-free, given that the UK appeared to be favouring their own
EM-2.
This decision appeared to be correct when the British Army decided to adopt the EM-2 and .280 British cartridge
in the very same month.* [5] This decision was later rescinded after the Labour Party lost the 1951 General Election
and Winston Churchill returned as Prime Minister. It is believed that there was a quid pro quo agreement between
Churchill and U.S. President Harry Truman in 1952 that the British accept the .30 Light Rie cartridge as NATO
standard in return for U.S. acceptance of the FN FAL as NATO standard. The .30 Light Rie cartridge was in fact
later standardized as the 7.62 mm NATO; however, the U.S. insisted on continued rie tests. The FAL chambered
for the .30 Light Rie went up against the redesigned T25 (now redesignated as the T47), and an M1 Garand variant,
the T44. Eventually, the T44 won out, becoming the M14. However, in the meantime, most other NATO countries
were evaluating and selecting the FAL.
FN created what is possibly the classic post-war battle rie. Formally introduced by its designers Dieudonn Saive and
Ernest Vervier in 1951, and produced two years later, it has been described as the Right Arm of the Free World.
*
[7] The FAL battle rie has its Warsaw Pact counterpart in the AKM, each being elded by dozens of countries and
produced in many of them. A few, such as Israel and South Africa, manufactured and issued both designs at various
times. Unlike the Soviet AKM assault rie, the FAL utilized a heavier full-power rie cartridge.
104

12.2. DESIGN DETAILS

105

12.2 Design details


The FAL operates by means of a gas-operated action very similar to that of the Russian SVT-40. The gas system is
driven by a short-stroke, spring-loaded piston housed above the barrel, and the locking mechanism is what is known
as a tilting breechblock. To lock, it drops down into a solid shoulder of metal in the heavy receiver much like the bolts
of the Russian SKS carbine and French MAS-49 series of semi-automatic ries. The gas system is tted with a gas
regulator behind the front sight base, allowing adjustment of the gas system in response to environmental conditions.
The piston system can be bypassed completely, using the gas plug, to allow for the ring of rie grenades and manual
operation.* [8] The FAL's magazine capacity ranges from ve to 30 rounds, with most magazines holding 20 rounds.
In xed stock versions of the FAL, the recoil spring is housed in the stock, while in folding-stock versions it is housed
in the receiver cover, necessitating a slightly dierent receiver cover, recoil spring, and bolt carrier, and a modied
lower receiver for the stock.* [9]

Dutch FN FAL with an infrared light and scope on exhibit at the Legermuseum in Delft.

FAL ries have also been manufactured in both light and heavy-barrel congurations, with the heavy barrel intended
for automatic re as a section or squad light support weapon. Most heavy barrel FALs are equipped with bipods,
although some light barrel models were equipped with bipods, such as the Austrian StG58 and the German G1, and
a bipod was later made available as an accessory.
Among other 7.6251mm NATO battle ries at the time, the FN FAL had relatively light recoil, due to the gas
system being able to be tuned via regulator in fore-end of the rie, which allowed for excess gas which would simply
increase recoil to bleed o. In fully automatic mode, however, the shooter receives considerable abuse from recoil,
and the weapon climbs o-target quickly, making automatic re only of marginal eectiveness. Many military forces
using the FAL eventually eliminated full-automatic rearms training in the light-barrel FAL.

12.3 Variants
12.3.1

Sturmgewehr 58

The Sturmgewehr 58 (StG 58) is a battle rie manufactured under license by Steyr-Daimler-Puch (now Steyr Mannlicher),
and was formerly the standard rie of the sterreichisches Bundesheer (Austrian Federal Army). It is essentially a
user customized version of the FAL and is still in use, mainly as a drill weapon in the Austrian forces. It was selected
in a 1958 competition, beating the Spanish CETME and American AR-10.
The StG 58 featured a folding bipod, and diers from the FAL by using a plastic stock, rather than wood, to reduce
weight, in the later production ries (although the early FN-built production ries did come with wooden stocks).
It can be distinguished from its Belgian and Argentine counterparts by its combination ash suppressor and grenade
launcher.
It was replaced by the AUG in 1977, although the StG 58 served with many units as the primary service rie through
the mid-1980s.

106

12.3.2

CHAPTER 12. FN FAL

FN production variants

LAR 50.41 & 50.42


Also known as FALO as an abbreviation from the French Fusil Automatique Lourd;
Heavy barrel for sustained re with 30-round magazine as a squad automatic weapon;
Known in Canada as the C2A1, it was their primary squad automatic weapon until it was phased out during
the 1980s in favor of the C9, which has better accuracy and higher ammunition capacity than the C2;
Known to the Australian Army as the L2A1, it was replaced by the FN Minimi. The L2A1 or 'heavy barrel'
FAL was used by several Commonwealth nations and was found to frequently experience a failure to feed after
ring two rounds from a full magazine when in automatic mode.
The 50.41 is tted with a synthetic buttstock, while the 50.42's buttstock is made from wood.

FAL 50.61 variant

FAL 50.61
Folding-stock, standard barrel length.
FAL 50.62
Folding-stock, shorter 458 mm barrel, paratrooper version and folding charging handle.
FAL 50.63
Folding-stock, shorter 436 mm barrel, paratrooper version, folding charging handle. This shorter version was
requested by Belgian paratroopers. The upper receiver was not cut for a carry handle, the bolt stop device were
absent which allowed the folded-stock rie to t through the doorway of their C-119 Flying Boxcar when worn
horizontally across the chest.

FAL 50.64
Folding-stock, standard barrel length, 'Hiduminium' aluminum alloy lower receiver, the charging handle on the
50.64 was a folding model similar to the L1A1 ries.

12.4. PRODUCTION AND USE

107

FAL OSW (DSA-58 OSW - Operational Special Weapon)


Folding-stock, shorter 330 mm barrel, paratrooper version.
Cyclic rate of 750 rounds/minute.

12.3.3

Other FN Variants

FAL .280 Experimental Rie


FAL Universal Carbine
FAL Bullpup 1951
Olin/Winchester FAL
Main article: Olin/Winchester Salvo Rie
A semi-automatic, twin barrel variant chambered in the 5.56mm Duplex round during Project SALVO.* [10] This
platform was designed by Stefan Kenneth Janson who previously designed the EM-2 rie.
Armtech L1A1 SAS
Dutch company Armtech built the L1A1 SAS, a carbine variant of the L1A1 with a barrel length of 290 mm.* [11]

12.4 Production and use


The FAL has been used by over 90 countries, and over two million have been produced.* [1]* [4] The FAL was originally made by Fabrique Nationale de Herstal (FN) in Lige, Belgium, but it has also been made under license in a
number of countries. A distinct sub-family was the Commonwealth inch-dimensioned versions that were manufactured in the United Kingdom and Australia (as the L1A1 Self Loading Rie or SLR), and in Canada as the C1. The
standard metric-dimensioned FAL was manufactured in South Africa (where it was known as the R1), Brazil, Israel,
Austria and Argentina. Mexico assembled FN-made components into complete ries at its national arsenal in Mexico
City. The FAL was also exported to many other countries, such as Venezuela, where a small-arms industry produces
some basically unchanged variants, as well as ammunition. By modern standards, one disadvantage of the FAL is
the amount of work which goes into machining the complex receiver, bolt and bolt carrier. Some theorized that the
movement of the tilting bolt mechanism tends to return dierently with each shot, aecting inherent accuracy of the
weapon, but this has been proven to be false. The FAL's receiver is machined, while most other modern military
ries use quicker stamping or casting techniques. Modern FALs have many improvements over those produced by
FN and others in the mid-20th-century.

12.4.1

Argentina

The Argentine Armed Forces ocially adopted the FN FAL in 1955, but the rst FN made examples did not arrive
in Argentina until the autumn of 1958. Subsequently, in 1960, licensed production of FALs began and continued
until the mid-to-late 1990s, when production ceased. In 2010, a project to modernize the totality of the existing FAL
and to produce an unknown number of them was approved. This project was called FAL M5.
Argentine FALs were produced by the government-owned arsenal FM (Fabricaciones Militares) at the Fbrica Militar
de Armas PorttilesDomingo Matheu(FMAPDM) in Rosario. The acronymFALwas kept, its translation
beingFusil Automtico Liviano, (Light Automatic Rie). Production weapons includedStandardandPara
(folding buttstock) versions. Military ries were produced with the full auto re option. The ries were usually known
as the FM FAL, for the Fabricaciones Militaresbrand name (FN and FM have a long-standing licensing and
manufacturing agreement). A heavy barrel version, known as the FAP (Fusil Automtico Pesado, or heavy automatic
rie) was also produced for the armed forces, to be used as a squad automatic weapon. The Argentine 'heavy barrel'

108

CHAPTER 12. FN FAL

A modern Para-style FAL

FAL, also used by several other nations, was found to frequently experience a failure to feed after ring two rounds
from a full magazine when in automatic mode.
A version of the FALMP III chambered in the 5.5645mm NATO cartridge was developed in the early 1980s. It
used M16 type magazines but one version called the FALMP III 5.56mm Type 2 used Steyr AUG magazines. The
FARA 83 (Fusil Automtico Repblica Argentina) was to replace the Argentine military's FAL ries. The design
borrowed features from the FAL such as the gas system and folding stock. It seems to have been also inuenced to
some degree by other ries (the Beretta AR70/223, M16, and the Galil). An estimated quantity of between 2,500
and 3,000 examples were produced for eld testing, but military spending cuts killed the project in the mid-1980s.
There was also a semi-automaticonly version, the FSL, intended for the civilian market. Legislation changes in
1995 (namely, the enactment of Presidential Decree N 64/95) imposed a de facto ban on semi-automatic assault
weapons. Today, it can take up to two years to obtain a permit for the ownership of an FSL. The FSL was oered
with full or folding stocks, plastic furniture and orthoptic sights.
Argentine FALs saw action during the Falklands War (Falklands-Malvinas/South Atlantic War), and in dierent
peace-keeping operations such as in Cyprus and the former Yugoslavia. Rosario-made FALs are known to have been
exported to Bolivia (in 1971), Colombia, Croatia (during the wars in former Yugoslavia during the 1990s), Honduras,
Nigeria (this is unconrmed, most Nigerian FALs are from FN in Belgium or are British-made L1A1s), Peru, and
Uruguay (which reportedly took delivery of some Brazilian IMBEL-made FALs as well). Deactivated ex-Argentinean
FALs from the many thousands captured during the Falklands War are used by UK forces as part of the soldier's load
on some training courses run over public land in the UK.
The Argentine Marine Corps, a branch of the Argentine Navy, has replaced the FN/FM FAL in front line units,
adopting the U.S. M16A2. The Argentine Army has expressed its desire to acquire at least 1,500 new ries chambered
for the 5.5645mm NATO SS109/U.S. M855 (.223 Remington) cartridge, to be used primarily by its peacekeeping
troops on overseas deployments.
The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) secretly purchased several thousand Argentine FAL ries in 1981, which
were supplied to the Nicaraguan Contras rebel group. These ries have since appeared throughout Central America

12.4. PRODUCTION AND USE

109

in use with other organizations.


These ries are currently being modernized to a new standard, the FAL M5 (or FAL V), which uses polymer parts
to reduce weight, and has Picatinny rails and optic mounts for carrying accessories.

12.4.2

Brazil

Main article: IMBEL MD


Brazil took delivery of a small quantity of FN-made FAL ries for evaluation as early as 1954. Troop eld testing was
performed with FN made FALs between 1958 and 1962. Then, in 1964, Brazil ocially adopted the rie, designating
the rie M964 for 1964. Licensed production started shortly thereafter at the Indstria de Material Blico do Brasil
(IMBEL), in Itajub in the state of Minas Gerais. The folding stock version was designated M964A1. By the late
1980s/early 1990s, IMBEL had manufactured some 200,000 M964 ries. Later Brazilian made FALs have Type
3, hammer forged receivers. Early FN made FALs for Brazil are typical FN 1964 models with Type 1 or Type 2
receivers, plastic stock, handguard, and pistol grip, 22 mm cylindrical ash hider for grenade launching, and plastic
model Dcarrying handle. Brazilian-made FALs are thought to have been exported to Uruguay. A heavy barrel
version, known as the FAP (Fuzil Automtico Pesado, or heavy automatic rie) was also produced for the armed
forces, to be used as a squad automatic weapon.
Brazil's current service weapon is a development of the FAL in 5.5645mm. Known as the MD-2 and MD-3 assault ries, it is also manufactured by IMBEL. The rst prototype, the MD-1, came out around 1983. In 1985, the
MD-2 was presented and adopted by the Brazilian Armed Forces and Military Police. Its new 5.5645mm NATO
chambering aside, the MD-2/MD-3 is still very similar to the FAL and externally resembles it, changes include a
change in the locking system, which was replaced by an M16-type rotating bolt. The MD-2 and MD-3 use STANAG
magazines, but have dierent buttstocks. The MD-2 features a FN 50.63 'para' side-folding stock, while the MD-3
uses the same xed polymer stock of the standard FAL.
IMBEL also produced a semi-automatic version of the FAL for Springeld Armory, Inc. (not to be confused with

110

CHAPTER 12. FN FAL

Brazilian soldiers from the Ipiranga Special Border Platoon

the US military Springeld Armory), which was marketed in the US as the SAR-48 (standard model) and SAR-4800
(made after 1989 with some military features removed to comply with new legislation), starting in the mid-1980s.
IMBEL-made receivers have been much in demand among American gunsmiths building FALs from parts kits.
IMBEL currently oer the FAL in 8 versions,* [12]
M964, the standard length semi-auto and full auto.
M964 MD1, short barrel semi-auto and full auto.
M964 MD2, standard length semi-auto only.
M964 MD3, short barrel semi-auto only.
M964A1, folding stock standard barrel semi-auto and full auto.
M964A1 MD1, folding stock short barrel semi-auto and full auto.
M964A1 MD2, folding stock standard barrel semi-auto only.
M964A1 MD3, folding stock short barrel semi-auto only.

12.4.3

British and Commonwealth

Main article: L1A1 Self-Loading Rie

12.4. PRODUCTION AND USE

111

British L1A1 SLR

Australia
The Australian Army, as a late member of the Allied Rie Committee along with the United Kingdom and Canada
adopted the committee's improved version of the FAL rie, designated the L1A1 rie by Australia and Great Britain,
and C1 by Canada. The Australian L1A1 is also known as the Self-Loading Rie (SLR), and in full auto form, the
Automatic Rie (AR). The Australian L1A1 FAL rie was in service with Australian forces until it was superseded
by the F88 Austeyr (a licence-built version of the Steyr AUG) in 1988, though some remained in service with Reserve units until late 1993. Australian L1A1s were semi-automatic only, unless battleeld conditions mandated that
modications be made.
The Australians, in co-ordination with Canada, developed a heavy-barrel version of the L1A1 as an Automatic Rie
variant, designated L2A1. The L2A1 was similar to the FN FAL 50.41/42, but with a unique combined bipod/handguard and a receiver dust-cover mounted tangent rear sight from Canada. It is noteworthy that most countries that
adopted the FAL rejected the Heavy Barrel FAL, presumably because it did not perform well in the machine gun
role. Countries that did embrace the Heavy Barrel FAL included Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Canada, and Israel.
The Australian L1A1/L2A1 ries were produced by the Small Arms Factory, Lithgow, with approximately 220,000
L1A1 ries produced between 1959 and 1986. L2A1 production was approximately 10,000 ries produced between
1962 and 1982. Lithgow exported a large number of L1A1 ries to many countries in the region. The L1A1 is still
used as a ceremonial weapon by Australia's Federation Guard.
Canada
The Canadian Forces operated a number of versions, the most common being the C1A1, similar to the British L1A1
(which became more or less a Commonwealth standard). It was manufactured under license by Canadian Arsenals
Limited.* [13] Although the FAL was created in Belgium, Canada was the rst to adopt it. The Canadian Forces
began using the C1, a modied version of the FAL, in 1955.* [14] It served as Canada's standard battle rie until
1984, when it began to be phased out in favor of the lighter Diemaco C7, a licence-built version of the US M16. The
Canadians also operated an automatic variant, the C2A1, as a section support weapon, which was very similar to the
Australian L2A1. The C1A1 was also adopted by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in 1961.* [15]
Malaysia
The Malaysian Army was another country that adopted the Commonwealth L1A1 SLR rie, to replace their obsolete
bolt action ries. The Royal Malaysian Navy adopted the L1A1 SLR early than Malaysian Army about 1965-66
alongside the Sterling SMG, while the army didn't adopt it until 1969.
New Zealand
New Zealand's Armed Forces used the Australian-manufactured SLR L1A1 as the standard service rie for just under
30 years, replaced by the Steyr AUG in 1988. The Australian L2A1 (AR) variant of the weapon also saw limited
use.* [16]

112

CHAPTER 12. FN FAL

United Kingdom
The United Kingdom produced its own variant of the FN FAL incorporating the modications developed by the
Allied Rie Committee, designating it the L1A1 Self Loading Rie (SLR). The weapons were manufactured by the
Royal Small Arms Factory Eneld, Birmingham Small Arms, Royal Ordnance Factory and ROF Fazakerley. After
the production run ceased, replacement components were made by Parker Hale Limited. The SLR served the British
Armed Forces from 1954 until approximately 1994, being replaced by the L85A1 from 1985 onwards.

12.4.4

Germany

The rst German FALs were from an order placed in late 1955/early 1956, for several thousand FN FAL socalled Canadamodels with wood furniture and the prong ash hider. These weapons were intended for the
Bundesgrenzschutz (border guard) and not the nascent Bundeswehr (army), which at the time used M1 Garands and
M1/M2 carbines. In November 1956, however, West Germany ordered 100,000 additional FALs, designated the G1,
for the army. FN made the ries between April 1957 and May 1958. G1s served in the West German Bundeswehr for
a relatively short time in the late 1950s and early 1960s, before they were replaced by the Spanish CETME Modelo
58 rie in 1959 (which was extensively reworked into the later G3 rie). The G1 featured a pressed metal handguard
identical to the ones used on the Austrian Stg. 58, as well as the Dutch and Greek FALs, this being slightly slimmer
than the standard wood or plastic handguards, and featuring horizontal lines running almost their entire length. G1s
were also tted with a unique removable prong ash hider, adding another external distinction. The main reason for
the replacement of the G1 in Germany was the refusal of the Belgians to grant a license for production of the weapon
in Germany. Many G1 FALs were passed on to Turkey after their withdrawal from German service. Of note is the
fact that the G1 was the rst FAL variant with the 3mm lower sights specically requested by Germany, previous
versions having the taller Commonwealth-type sights also seen on Israeli models.

12.4.5

Greece

FN FAL ries produced in Belgium were adopted by the Greek Army before the adoption of HK G3A3s ries
produced under license by Hellenic Arms Industry(). For a few years, FN FAL ries were also produced under
license by the Greek PYRKAL () factory. FN FAL and FALO ries were in use by Greek Army Special
Forces and IV Army Corps from 1973 till 1999 and are still in use by Greek Coast Guard.* [17] * [18]

12.4.6

India

The Rie 7.62 mm 1A1 is a reverse engineering of the UK L1A1 self-loading rie, manufactured by Ordnance Factory
Tiruchirappalli of Ordnance Factories Board. The Indian 1A1 diers from the UK SLR in that the wooden butt-stock
uses the butt-plate from the Lee-Eneld with trap for oil bottle and cleaning pull-through. The 1A1 rie has been
supplemented in service with the Indian Army by the INSAS 5.56 mm assault rie. The 1A1 rie is still available for
export sales. A fully automatic version of the rie (known as the 1C) is also available.* [19]* [20]

12.4.7

Israel

After the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) had to overcome several logistics problems which
were a result of the wide variety of old rearms that were in service. In 1955 the IDF adopted the IMI-produced Uzi
submachine gun. To replace the German Mauser Kar 98k and some British Lee-Eneld ries, the IDF decided in the
same year to adopt the FN FAL as its standard-issue infantry rie, under the name Rov've Mittan or Romat ()", an
abbreviation ofSelf-Loading Rie. The FAL version ordered by the IDF came in two basic variants, both regular
and heavy-barrel (automatic rie), and were chambered for 7.62 mm NATO ammunition. In common with heavybarrel FALs used by several other nations, the Israeli 'heavy barrel' FAL (called the Makle'a Kal, or Makleon) was
found to frequently experience a failure to feed after ring two rounds from a full magazine when in automatic mode.
The Israeli FALs were originally produced as selective-re ries, though later light-barrel rie versions were altered
to semi-automatic re only. The Israeli models are recognizable by a distinctive handguard with a forward perforated
sheet metal section, and a rear wood section unlike most other FALs in shape, and their higher 'Commonwealth'-type
sights.

12.4. PRODUCTION AND USE

113

A West German soldier on a joint exercise with American troops in 1960. The Germans used the FAL briey in the late 1950s and
early 1960s under the designation Gewehr G1.

The Israeli FAL rst saw action in relatively small quantities during the Suez Crisis of 1956, and by the Six-Day War
in June 1967, it was the standard Israeli rie. During the Yom Kippur War of October 1973 it was still in frontline service as the standard Israeli rie, though increasing criticism eventually led to the phasing-out of the weapon.
Israeli forces were primarily mechanized in nature; the long, heavy FAL slowed deployment drills, and proved exceedingly dicult to maneuver within the connes of a vehicle.* [21]* [22] Additionally, Israeli forces experienced
repeated jamming of the FAL due to heavy sand and dust ingress endemic to Middle Eastern desert warfare, requiring repeated eld-stripping and cleaning of the rie, sometimes while under re.* [22] During the later stages
of the Yom Kippur War, it was noted that some Israeli soldiers had informally exchanged their FALs for the far

114

CHAPTER 12. FN FAL

Israeli Heavy Barrel FAL. Note the hinged butt plate.

more reliable Soviet Kalashnikov AK-47 assault ries taken from dead and captured Arab soldiers. Though the IDF
evaluated a few modied FAL ries with 'sand clearance' slots in the bolt carrier and receiver (which were already
part of the Commonwealth L1A1/C1A1 design), malfunction rates did not signicantly improve.* [23] The Israeli
FAL was eventually replaced by the M16 and the Galil (a weapon using the Soviet Kalashnikov operating system,
and chambered in either 5.5645 or 7.62 NATO),* [22]* [23] though the FAL remained in production in Israel until
the 1980s.* [24]

12.4.8

Rhodesia

Like most British dependencies of the time, Southern Rhodesia had equipped its security forces with the British
L1A1, or SLR, by the early 1960s. Following that country's unilateral declaration of independence in 1965, new
ries could not be readily procured from the UK, so Belgian FNs and South African R1s were imported instead.* [16]
The older L1s subsequently completed their service with territorial troops in the Rhodesia Regiment.* [25]
During the Rhodesian Bush War, security forces tted most standard FNs with customised ash suppressors to reduce
recoil on fully automatic re. However, a few soldiers rejected these devices, which they charged upset the balance
of their weapons during close action.* [25] In this theatre, the FN was generally considered superior to the Soviet
Kalashnikovs or SKS carbines carried by communist-backed PF insurgents.* [25]
Trade sanctions and the gradual erosion of South African support in the 1970s led to serious ammunition shortages.* [26] Consequently, shipments of G3s were accepted from Portugal, although the security forces considered
these less reliable than the FAL.* [25] Following Robert Mugabe's ascension to power in 1980, Rhodesia's remaining
FNs were passed on to her Zimbabwean successor state.* [27] To simplify maintenance and logistics, the weapon
initially remained a standard service rie in the Zimbabwe Defence Force. It was anticipated that more 7.62 NATO
ammunition would be imported to cover existing shortages, but a sabotage action carried out against the old Rhodesian Army stockpiles negated this factor. Zimbabwe promptly supplemented its surviving inventory with Soviet and
North Korean arms.* [28]

12.4.9

United States

Main article: T48 rie


Following World War II and the establishment of the NATO alliance, there was pressure to adopt a standard rie,
alliance-wide. The FAL was originally designed to handle intermediate cartridges, but in an attempt to secure US
favor for the rie, the FAL was redesigned to use the newly developed 7.6251mm NATO cartridge. The US tested
several variants of the FAL to replace the M1 Garand. These ries were tested against the T44, essentially an updated
version of the basic Garand design.* [29] Despite the T44 and T48 showing performing similarly in trials,* [29] the
T44 was, for several reasons, selected and the US formally adopted the T44 as the M14 service rie.
During the late 1980s and 1990s, many countries decommissioned the FAL from their armories and sold them en
masse to United States importers as surplus. The ries were imported to the United States as fully automatic guns.

12.4. PRODUCTION AND USE

115

Rhodesian army reservists on patrol with South African R1s.

Once in the U.S., the FAL's werede-militarized(upper receiver destroyed) to eliminate the ries' character as an
automatic rie, as stipulated by the Gun Control Act of 1968 (GCA 68 currently prohibits the importation of foreignmade full-automatic ries prior to the enactment of the Gun Control Act; semiautomatic versions of the same rearm
were legal to import until the Semiautomatic Assault Rie Ban of 1989). Thousands of the resulting parts kits

116

CHAPTER 12. FN FAL

Century Arms FN-FAL rie built from an L1A1 parts kit

were sold at generally low prices ($90 $250) to hobbyists. The hobbyists rebuilt the parts kits to legal and functional
semi-automatic ries on new semi-automatic upper receivers. FAL ries are still commercially available from a few
domestic rms in semi-auto conguration: Entreprise Arms, DSArms, and Century International Arms. Century
Arms created a semi-automatic version L1A1 with an IMBEL upper receiver and surplus British Eneld inch-pattern
parts, while DSArms used Steyr-style metric-pattern FAL designs (this standard-metric dierence means the Century
Arms and DSArms rearms are not made from fully interchangeable batches of parts).

12.4.10

Venezuela

Until recently, the FAL was the main service rie of the Venezuelan army, made under license by CAVIM.* [30]
The rst batch of ries to arrive in Venezuela were chambered in 749mm (also known as 7 mm Liviano or 7 mm
Venezuelan). Essentially a 757mm round shortened to intermediate length, this caliber was jointly developed by
Venezuelan and Belgian engineers motivated by a global move towards intermediate calibers. The Venezuelans, who
had been exclusively using the 757mm round in their light and medium weapons since the turn of the 21st century,
felt it was a perfect platform on which to base a caliber tailored to the particular rigors of the Venezuelan terrain.
Eventually the plan was dropped despite having ordered millions of rounds and thousands of weapons of this caliber.
As the Cold War escalated, the military command felt it necessary to align with NATO despite not being a member,
resulting in the adoption of the 7.6251mm cartridge and the rechambering of the 5,000 or so FAL ries that had
already arrived in 749mm by 1955-56.
Venezuela has bought 100,000 AK-103 assault ries from Russia in order to replace the old FALs.* [30] Although
the full shipment arrived by the end of 2006, the FAL will remain in service with the Venezuelan Reserve Forces and
the Territorial Guard.

12.5 Conicts
In the more than 50 years of use worldwide, the FAL has seen use in conicts all over the world. During the Falklands
War, the FN FAL was used by both sides. The FAL was used by the Argentine armed forces and the L1A1 Self
Loading Rie (SLR), a semi-automatic only version of the FAL, was used by the UK armed forces.* [31]
Suez Crisis
Aden Emergency
Malayan Emergency
Bay of Pigs Invasion
Indonesian Confrontation
Vietnam War* [2]
Cambodian Civil War

12.6. USERS

117

Six-Day War* [2]


Turkish invasion of Cyprus
Portuguese Colonial War
South African Border War* [16]
Angolan Civil War
Northern Ireland Troubles
War of Attrition
Rhodesian Bush War* [16]
Falklands War* [2]
Gulf War
Balkan Wars
Cenepa War
Sierra Leone Civil War
Yom Kippur War
Rwandan Civil War
Iraqi insurgency* [32]
Libyan Civil War* [33]* [34]
Syrian civil war

12.6 Users

Angola* [27]

Argentina: Produced under license.* [35]

Australia: Produced under license,* [35] replaced by the F88 Austeyr, a license built variant of the Steyr
AUG. Currently still issued as a drill weapon to members of the ceremonial Federation Guard.

Austria: Produced under license.* [35]

Bosnia & Herzegovina* [36]

Bahrain* [27]

Bangladesh* [27]

Barbados* [27]

Belgium* [27]

Belize* [27]

Bolivia* [27]

Botswana* [27]

Brazil: Produced under license.* [35]

Burundi* [27]

118

Nigerian troops in Somalia with FALs

CHAPTER 12. FN FAL

12.6. USERS

Cambodia* [27]

Cameroon* [27]

Croatia: Used during Croatian War of Independence, often called "Falovka".* [37]

Canada: Produced under license.* [35]

Chad* [27]

Chile* [27] Former user

Colombia* [27]

Costa Rica* [27]

Cuba* [38]

Cyprus* [27]

Democratic Republic of Congo* [27]

Djibouti* [27]

Dominican Republic* [27]

Ecuador* [27]

Fiji* [27]

Gambia* [27]

Ghana* [27]

Greece* [17]* [18]

Guyana* [27]

Honduras* [27]

119

India: Manufactured a reverse engineering of the UK L1A1 self-loading rie. The Indian 1A1 diers from
the UK SLR in that the wooden butt-stock uses the butt-plate from the Lee-Eneld with trap for oil bottle and
cleaning pull-through. A fully automatic version of the rie (known as the 1C) is also available.* [19]* [20]* [35]

Ireland:* [27] Used as the service rie of the Irish Defence Forces from the early 1961 (starting with UN
service in the Congo) until 1989 when it was replaced by the Steyr AUG. The Irish Naval Service still use the
FN FAL for line throwing. In 2011, the Irish Army re-introducing an upgraded and modied version of the
FN FAL as a sniper support weapon.* [39]

Israel: Produced under license.,* [35] ocially replaced by IMI Galil and M16.

Jamaica* [27]

Katanga

Kenya* [27]

Kuwait* [27]

Lebanon* [27]

Liberia* [27]

Libya: Anti-Gadda forces* [33]

Luxembourg:* [27] Used Belgian FALs from 1957 to 1996, replaced by Steyr AUG.

120

CHAPTER 12. FN FAL

Malawi* [27]

Malaysia* [27]

Malta* [27]

Mauritius: Used by Mauritius Police Force.* [40]* [41]

Mexico: Produced under license.* [35]

Morocco* [27]

Template:Country data Moro Islamic Liberation Front* [27]

Mozambique* [27]

Myanmar* [27]

Nepal* [27]
Netherlands: The Royal Netherlands Army adopted the rie with a bipod and in semi-automatic form,
in 1961. In service it was called Het licht automatisch geweer, but usually known as the 'FAL'. The ries had
unique sights (hooded at the front) and the German style sheet metal front handguard. A sniper version, Geweer
Lange Afstand, was also used standard with a scope of Dutch origin produced by the Artillerie Inrichtingen, and
without the bipod. The scope was designated Kijker Richt Recht AI 62. The heavy-barrel FAL 50.42 version
was also adopted later as a squad automatic weapon as the Het zwaar automatisch geweer.* [42]

New Zealand:* [43] Used Australian built L1A1 from 1960, replaced by Steyr AUG in 1988.
Nigeria:* [27] Licensed by DICON (Defence Industries Corporation of Nigeria) in Nigeria as the NR1. [44]* [45]* [46]
*

Oman* [27]

Pakistan: Used by the Pakistan Army.* [47]

Panama* [27]

Papua New Guinea* [27] Used Australian built L1A1.

Paraguay* [27]

Peru* [27]

Portugal In 1960, the Army issued quantities of light-barrel FN and West German G1 FAL ries to several
of its elite commando forces, including the Companhias de Caadores Especiais (Special Hunter [Ranger]
companies).* [48] The latter often expressed a preference for the lighter FAL over the Portuguese-manufactured
version of the H&K G3 rie when on ambush or patrol.* [49] In Portuguese service, the FN FAL was designated
Espingarda Automtica 7,62 mm FN m/962.

Qatar* [34]

Rhodesia: Adopted in the 1960s.* [50]

Rwanda* [27]

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines* [27]

Saudi Arabia* [47]

Sierra Leone* [47]

12.6. USERS

South Africa: Produced under license* [35] by ARMSCOR. After a competition between the German G3
rie, the Armalite AR-10, and the FN FAL, the South African Defence Force adopted three main variants
of the FAL: a rie with the designation R1, a lightweightvariant of the FN FAL 50.64 with folding butt,
fabricated locally under the designation R2, and a model designed for police use not capable of automatic re
under the designation R3.* [51] ( 200,000 were destroyed in UN-sponsoredOperation Mouonin 2001). A
number of other variants of the R1 were built, the R1 HB, which had a heavy barrel and bipod, the R1 Sniper,
which could be tted with a scope and the R1 Para Carbine, which used a Single Point IR sight and had a
shorter barrel.* [52]

South Kasai

South Sudan: Used in Armed Forces of South Sudan.

Sri Lanka: The Sri Lankan Army adopted the L1A1 SLR rie in the 1970s to replace the bolt action
Lee-Eneld rie and Sten sub-machinegun. It was widely used in the early stages of the Sri Lankan Civil War
before being replaced by the AK-47 and Type 56 assault ries.

Suriname* [27]

Swaziland* [27]

Syria* [27]

Tanzania* [27]

Thailand: Used by Royal Thai Police since the 1960s, designated Rie Type 05(1962).* [47]

Togo* [27]

Trinidad and Tobago* [27]

Tunisia* [27]

Turkey: Used by Turkish Land Forces as G1 between 1960s - 1980s.* [53] Saw action in 1974 Cyprus
War. [54]* [55]
*

Uganda* [27]

United Arab Emirates * [27]

121

United Kingdom: L1A1 version used by the British Army until 1987, then replaced by the L85A1. The
rie has since been phased out of service from the British Army.* [2]

Uruguay* [27]

Venezuela: Produced under license.* [35]

West Germany* [56]

Yemen* [27]

Zambia* [27]

Zimbabwe* [27]

122

CHAPTER 12. FN FAL

12.7 See also


List of battle ries
FN-49, predecessor to the FAL
L1A1 Self-Loading Rie, the British Commonwealth pattern of the FAL
FN CAL, an unsuccessful FN 5.56mm NATO assault rie that externally resembles the FAL
FN FNC, replacement for the FAL in the Belgian Army
IMBEL MD97
ParaFAL
Olin/Winchester Salvo Rie
Table of handgun and rie cartridges

12.8 References
[1] FN Herstal - Major Product Achievements. FN Herstal. Retrieved 2010-06-24.
[2] Bishop, Chris. Guns in Combat. Chartwell Books, Inc (1998). ISBN 0-7858-0844-2.
[3] Fabrique Nationale FN FAL Battle Rie (1953)". MilitaryFactory. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
[4] Hogg, Ian (2002). Jane's Guns Recognition Guide. Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-00-712760-X.
[5] FN FAL (Belgium)". Retrieved 14 November 2014.
[6] Earl Harvey's T-25
[7] Cashner, Bob (2013). The FN FAL Battle Rie. Osprey. p. 5. ISBN 1780969031.
[8] Tuning the FALs Gas System. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
[9] Popeneker, Maxim & Williams, Anthony (2005). Assault Rie. The Crowood Press Ltd. ISBN 1-86126-700-2.
[10] http://img716.imageshack.us/img716/1769/211758147gio0y5m.jpg
[11] Armtech FAL SAS. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
[12] Administrator. Fuzil 7,62 M964 (FAL)". Retrieved 14 November 2014.
[13] Service Ries. Retrieved on May 13, 2008.
[14] Popenker, Maxim (2004). Assault Rie. Wiltshire: The Crowood Press Ltd. pp. 8083.
[15] Phillips, Roger (1965). Small Arms of the Mounted Police. Bloomeld, Ont. Canada: Museum Restoration Service. pp.
2223.
[16] McNab, Chris (2002). 20th Century Military Uniforms (2nd ed.). Kent: Grange Books. ISBN 1-84013-476-3.
[17] Sazanidis
[18] Hellenic Army General Sta / Army History Directorate
[19] Rie 7.62 MM 1A1. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
[20] OFB 7.62 mm 1A1 and 1C ries (India), Ries. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
[21] South African Military History Society Newsletter (June 2006) http://samilitaryhistory.org/6/06junnl.html
[22] Bodinson, Holt, Centurys Golani Sporter: The Israeli-designed AK Hybrid is a Solid Performer, Guns Magazine, July 2007
[23] Weapons Wizard Israeli Galili, Soldier of Fortune Magazine, March 1982
[24] Robert Cashner (20 August 2013). The FN FAL Battle Rie. Osprey Publishing. pp. 2122. ISBN 978-1-78096-903-9.

12.8. REFERENCES

123

[25] Chris Cocks. Fireforce: One Man's War in the Rhodesian Light Infantry (July 1, 2001 ed.). Covos Day. pp. 139141.
ISBN 1-919874-32-1.
[26] Smith, Ian (1997). The Great Betrayal. London: Blake Publishing Ltd. pp. 7475. ISBN 1-85782-176-9.
[27] Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN
978-0-7106-2869-5.
[28] Nelson, Harold (1983), Zimbabwe: a country study, The American University (Washington, D.C.), ISBN 0160015987
[29] Stevens, R. Blake, The FAL Rie, Collector Grade Publications, ISBN 0-88935-168-6, ISBN 978-0-88935-168-4 (1993)
[30] Pablo Dreyfus. A Recurrent Latin American Nightmare. Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 2010-04-01.
[31] Top Ten Combat Ries. Military Channel. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
[32] Baker, Aryn (20 January 2014). A Nightmare Returns. Time Magazine. p. 31.
[33] Up Close With Mustafa Abud Al-Jeleil, Leader Of Libyan Rebels. World Crunch.com.com. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
[34] Gadda forces 'intercept arms from Qatar'". 2011-07-05. Retrieved 2011-07-05.
[35] Report: Proling the Small Arms Industry - World Policy Institute - Research Project. World Policy Institute. November
2000. Retrieved 2010-07-15.
[36] BSWiki Information. Mukalo. November 2013. Retrieved 2014-10-18.
[37] Obuka Bojne Frankopan (utica)". YouTube. Botswanac. Retrieved 31 October 2013.
[38] The Bay of Pigs. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
[39] Lavery, Don (2011-11-06). Irish Independent Article. Retrieved 2011-11-06.
[40] http://www.kotzot.com/mauritius-police-force-nomination/
[41] Patrick Laverdant. mauritian_bw198.jpg - Patrick Laverdant. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
[42] Ezell, 1988, p. 276
[43] http://www.vietnamwar.govt.nz/photo/762mm-calibre-l1a1-self-loading-rifle 7.62mm calibre L1A1 Self Loading Rie
New Zealand History Online
[44] Licensed and unlicensed production of FN Herstal products, to August 2006. Small Arms Survey. Retrieved 201004-10.
[45] Nigeria - Arms Procurement and Defense Industries. June 1991. Retrieved 2010-04-10.
[46] DOSSIER - The Question of Arms in Africa. Agenzia Fides. Retrieved 2010-04-10.
[47] The History of the FAL/LAR.
[48] Afonso, Aniceto and Gomes, Carlos de Matos, Guerra Colonial (2000), ISBN 972-46-1192-2, pp. 183184, 358-359
[49] Afonso, Aniceto and Gomes, Carlos de Matos, Guerra Colonial (2000), ISBN 972-46-1192-2, pp. 358359
[50] The military rie cartridges of Rhodesia Zimbabwe: from Cecil Rhodes to Robert Mugabe.. Retrieved 14 November
2014.
[51] Ezell, 1988, p. 328
[52] Small Arms Illustrated, 2010
[53] Modern Firearms. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
[54] http://www.ulusalkanal.com.tr/images/album/konuksever6.jpg
[55] http://www.ulusalkanal.com.tr/images/album/konuksever4.jpg
[56] " - ". Retrieved 14 November 2014.

A fonso, Aniceto and Gomes, Carlos de Matos. Guerra Colonial, 2000.

124

CHAPTER 12. FN FAL

Chano, David; Doan Van Toai. Vietnam, A Portrait of its People at War. London: Taurus & Co, 1996. ISBN
1-86064-076-1.
Ezell, Clinton. Small Arms of the World, Stackpole Books, 1983.
Hellenic Army General Sta / Army History Directorate, (Greek).( /
), The armament of Greek Army 1868 - 2000 ( 1868
2000)", Athens, Greece, 2000.
Pikula, Maj. Sam. The Armalite AR-10, 1998.
Sazanidis, Christos. (Greek). Arms of the Greeks ( )". Maiandros (),
Thessaloniki, Greece, 1995. ISBN 978-960-90213-0-2.
Stevens, R. Blake. The FAL Rie Classic Edition. Cobourg, Ontario, Canada: Collector Grade Publications
Incorporated, 1993. ISBN 0-88935-168-6.
Stevens, R. Blake. More on the Fabled FAL: A Companion to The FAL Rie. Cobourg, Ontario, Canada:
Collector Grade Publications Incorporated, 2011. ISBN 978-0-88935-534-7.

12.9 External links


Additional information, including pictures at Modern Firearms
FNH Firearms Blog
The FAL Files
The FN/FAL & L1A1 FAQ
FAL Manual Collection
FN FAL Rie Ejector Photos
Video
Video of operation on YouTube (Japanese)
FN FAL ParatrooperModel Presentation (.MPEG)

12.9. EXTERNAL LINKS

125

Chapter 13

FN MAG
L7A1and L7A2redirect here. For the tank gun, see Royal Ordnance L7.
For the hoax, see Konspiration 58.
The FN MAG is a Belgian 7.62 mm general-purpose machine gun, designed in the early 1950s at Fabrique Nationale
(FN) by Ernest Vervier. It has been used by more than 80 countries, and it has been made under licence in several
countries, including Argentina, Egypt, India and the United Kingdom.* [2]
The weapon's name is an abbreviation for Mitrailleuse d'Appui Gnral,* [3] meaning general-purpose machine gun
(GPMG). The MAG is available in three primary versions: the standard, infantry Model 60-20 machine gun, the
Model 60-40 coaxial machine gun for armoured ghting vehicles and the Model 60-30 aircraft variant.

13.1 Design details

A U.S. Marine ring the British L7A2 version of the MAG.

126

13.1. DESIGN DETAILS

127

An FN MAG mounted on a Eurocopter EC 725 Cougar MkII at the 2007 Paris Air Show held at Le Bourget airport.

The MAG Model 60-20 is an automatic, air-cooled, gas-operated machine gun, ring belt-fed 7.6251mm NATO
from an open bolt.

13.1.1

Operating mechanism

The MAG uses ignited powder gases vented through a port in the barrel to propel a gas piston rod connected to the
locking assembly (it uses a long-stroke piston system). The barrel breech is locked with a vertically tilting, downward
locking lever mechanism that is connected to the bolt carrier through an articulated joint. The locking shoulder and
camming surfaces that guide the locking lever are located at the base of the receiver. The MAG uses a series of
proven design concepts from other successful rearms, for example the locking mechanism is modeled on that of
the Browning M1918 (BAR) automatic rie, and the feed and trigger mechanisms are from the WWII-era MG42
universal machine gun.* [4]
The MAG res from an open bolt. Both the spring-powered extractor and ejector are contained in the bolt. After
ring, spent cartridge casings are removed through an ejection port located at the base of the receiver (a spring-loaded
dust cover of the MG42 type covers the ejection port). The machine gun has a striker ring mechanism (the bolt
carrier acts as the striker as it contains a channel that houses the ring pin, which protrudes out from the surface of
the bolt upon ring), an automatic-only trigger assembly and a manual cross-bolt push-button safety, which is located
above the pistol grip. With the safety placed in the safe setting, the sear mechanism is disabled. The safety can only
be engaged with the weapon cocked.* [5]

13.1.2

Features

The weapon feeds from the left side from open-link, metal ammunition belts: either the American disintegrating
M13 belt (NATO standard) or the segmented German DM1 belt, whose 50-round sections can be linked through
a cartridge. In order to adapt the weapon to feed from one belt type to the other, several components of the feed
mechanism need to be recongured since the position of the feed tray's cartridge stop and pawl angles in the top
cover are dierent. The MAG features a pawl-type feeding mechanism that continues to move the feed link during
both the rearward and forward cycles of the reciprocating bolt carrier, producing a smooth belt ow. The feeding
mechanism's three pawls are actuated by a roller connected to the bolt carrier. The feed channel rail, feed link, both

128

CHAPTER 13. FN MAG

feed slides and the feed tray are chrome plated. The top cover body is an anodized aluminum casting. In the infantry
assault role, the weapon can be tted with a sheet metal container that houses a 50-round belt and is attached to the
left side of the receiver.* [5]
The quick-change barrel has a slotted ash suppressor. The barrel's chamber and bore are chromium-lined and the
barrel has four right-hand grooves with a 305 mm (1:12 in) riing twist rate. Also attached to the barrel is the front
sight base, carry handle and gas block (equipped with an exhaust-type gas regulator valve with three settings).* [5]
The machine gun is tted with a folding bipod (attached to the end of the gas cylinder) that can be adjusted for height.
For carrying or use as a forearm, the aluminum legs can be folded back and secured in slots under the receiver by
hooks and a spring-loaded catch. When ring from the hip, the bipod legs remain extended and the left leg is gripped
for support. The bipod can be removed from the gas cylinder by tapping-out a roll pin in the gas cylinder head until
it is ush and the bipod can be rotated enough to clear the gas cylinder's retaining lugs.* [5]
The MAG is also equipped with a xed wooden stock, pistol grip, carrying handle and iron sights that consist of a
forward blade (adjustable mechanically for both windage and elevation) and a folding leaf rear sight with an aperture
in the down position for ring distances from 200 to 800 m in 100 m increments and an open U-notch for ranges
from 800 to 1,800 m graduated every 100 m. The rear sight is hinged to a base with protective ears that is integral
with the receiver's upper forging.
The MAG's receiver is constructed from sheet metal stampings reinforced by steel plates and rivets. The front is
reinforced to accept the barrel nut and gas cylinder which are permanently mounted. Guide rails that support the bolt
assembly and piston extension during their reciprocating movement are riveted to the side plates. The bolt's guide
rails are shaped downward to drive the locking lever into engagement with the locking shoulder, which is also riveted
to the side plates. The rear of the receiver has been reinforced and slotted to accept the butt-stock.* [5]
In the static machine gun role, the weapon is mounted on a tripod that oers a higher degree of accuracy and control
than the bipod, for example the FN 360 tripod, which features an elevation adjustment mechanism that enables the
weapon's bore axis to be maintained from 300 mm (11.8 in) to 600 mm (23.6 in), has a 30 to +15 elevation change
and a 360 traverse range.

13.2 Variants
13.2.1

FN production variants

The vehicle-mounted variant of the MAG lacks a stock, bipod, carry handle, pistol grip, ejection port dust cover
and a mount for optical sights. It does, however, have a new closed-type gas regulator. Depending on the weapon's
employment, the machine gun can also be tted with an extended charging handle linkage, standard trigger group
(with a pistol grip), or a specialized trigger assembly with an electrically red trigger.
The pintle-mounted aircraft model is fed from either the right- or left-hand side exclusively with the M13 belt. Thus
congured, weapons typically lack standard iron sights and are equipped with electrically powered triggers.

13.2. VARIANTS

129

The Type 74 machine gun, a Taiwanese version of the MAG.

13.2.2

British subvariants

The L7 general-purpose machine gun is used by the British Army.* [6] The L7 and the related L8 are license-built
derivatives of the MAG. The ocial British Army designation for the current version is the L7A2 GPMG (General
Purpose Machine Gun). The L7 was adopted by the British forces as a replacement for the long-serving Vickers
machine gun (in the medium role) and the Bren (in the light assault role), following trials in 1957. Built under license
originally by Royal Small Arms Factory, Eneld Lock and currently by Manroy Engineering,* [7] it serves in the British
Army, the Royal Marines and other services. There have been two main variants, the L7A1 and L7A2, developed
for infantry use, with the L7A2 having superseded the earlier variant. Several other variants have been developed,
notably the L8 (produced in the L8A1 and L8A2 versions), modied for mounting inside armoured vehicles (the
L37 variant was developed for mounting on armoured vehicles). Although intended to replace the Bren entirely, that
light machine gun (re-titled as the L4) continued in use in jungle terrain (especially in the Far East), where there
was no requirement for the medium machine gun role, and with secondary units, until the adoption of the L86A1
Light Support Weapon (LSW). The LSW was intended to replace both the L7 and the L4 in the light machine gun
role, but dissatisfaction with the L86's sustained re capabilities and reliability resulted in combat units continuing
to utilize the L7 whenever possible (although neither it, nor its 7.6251 mm NATO ammunition were supposed to
be issued to infantry platoons). The British Army and Royal Marines have since been issued with the L110A2 (FN
Minimi Para) to replace the LSW as the light section support or re support weapon. This uses the same NATOstandard 5.5645mm ammunition as the L85 assault rie. However, 7.62 mm L7 variants continue to be used in
both dismounted roles and mounted on some British military vehicles, naval vessels, and aircraft.
In 1961, the Royal Small Arms Factory, Eneld (now BAE Systems) in the United Kingdom, undertook license
production of the MAG in the following versions: L7A2, L8A2, L37A2, L20A1 and the L43A1. These models all
use the M13 ammunition belt.
The L7A2, general-purpose machine gun, replaced the L7A1 in service with the British Army. Compared to the
MAG Model 60-20, it features, among other minor changes, a 10-position gas regulator valve, a plastic butt-stock
and a bracket, used to mount optical day- and night-vision sights, mounted to the left side of the receiver. In a
stationary defensive role, the L7A2 can be mounted on the L4A1 tripod in conjunction with a periscope sight.

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CHAPTER 13. FN MAG

7.62 Metralladora Tipo 60-20 MAG, Argentine version of the FN MAG used by the Argentine Army.

The L8A2 coaxial tank machine gun (replaced the L8A1) has a dierent gas valve switch (closed, single-position),
when compared to the analogous Model 60-40, a dierent ash hider and a modied cocking handle. The weapon
also has a trigger group that accepts electrical input and a lever in the feed tray that enables the belt to be removed
without lifting the feed tray cover.
Another tank machine gun is the L37A2 (succeeded the L37A1) designed to be mounted on tank turrets, in the
commander's position, on wheeled armoured vehicles and on armored personnel carriers. It diers from the L8A2
primarily in its trigger, which was adapted from the L7A2 GPMG. The machine gun can be used in the ground role
for self-defense, by dismounted vehicle crew members, the egress kit consists of an L7A2 barrel, bipod and buttstock.
The L20A1 aircraft machine gun was based on the L8A2, from which it diers by having an electrical trigger and a
slotted ash suppressor. The L20A1 can be converted to right-hand feed by changing several components in the feed
mechanism.
The L43A1, also developed from the L8A2, is a coaxially mounted tank machine gun used to sight-in the vehicle's main gun by ring ballistically matched tracer ammunition at the target to conrm the trajectory visually. The
weapon's barrel, tted with a ash hider, has a reinforced and heavier structure that increases the weapon's accuracy
especially during sustained re.

13.2.3

Swedish Army variants

All versions are licence-manufactured by FFV-Carl Gustaf. The Swedish abbreviation for kulspruta(machine
gun, lit. bulletsprayer) is ksp. Strvis the abbreviation of Stridsvagn(battle tank).
Kulspruta 58: Ksp 58, adapted in 1958 using the 6.555mm Mauser rie cartridge which at that time was the
standard cartridge in the Swedish Army.
Kulspruta 58 B: In the early 1970s, the weapon was modied with a new gas regulator and at the same time the
barrels were replaced to the new standard 7.62 NATO, same as used by the AK 4. Ksp 58 replaced the considerably
heavier Ksp m/42B in the infantry units.

13.2. VARIANTS

131

Ksp 58B

Kulspruta 58 C: On Combat Vehicle 90, this version replaced the previously used Ksp m/39 in the third quarter of
2004.
Kulspruta 58 Strv: stripped variant mainly used for xed mounting in tanks. Phased out along with Stridsvagn 103.
Kulspruta 58 D: Reserved designation for the renovated and modied Ksp 58B. The trial version is referred to as
'Ksp 58 DF', where the 'F' stands for 'Frsk' (Experimental). Some of the modications:* [8]
A MIL-STD 1913 Picatinny rail system added. Half of the weapons feature an adjustable rail - the others a
xed.
Red dot sight (Aimpoint CompCS).
The carrying handle is shortened to half its original length. This was necessary in order to t an extended rail
for sight systems.
Collapsible butt stock or folding stock.
100 mm shorter barrel.
Better and shorter ash hider to reduce the length of the weapon and to produce a smaller muzzle ash, which
means less disruption to the user's night vision.
Fluted barrel in order to reduce the weight and better dissipate the heat of the barrel.
Gas regulator has only 4 settings (instead of 8). The last position is painted red and is intended for emergency
use.
Larger 100-round ammunition pouches replaced 50-round pouches.
New ammunition cases.
New equipment bags.
Bi-pod is painted green.
There is a sheet for protection / one side green other side white / summer & winter camouage.
The weight of the MG is the same, but the entire system is 3 kg (6.5 lbs) lighter.

132

13.2.4

CHAPTER 13. FN MAG

USA

Main article: M240 machine gun


On January 14, 1977, the US Army awarded a contract to FN Herstal for the delivery of a modernized Model 60-40

The heat shield on the M240B.

variant tank machine gun designated the M240. Initially, the rearms were produced in Belgium. Currently they are
manufactured in the USA by FN's US wholly owned subsidiary FNMI (FN Manufacturing Inc.) located in Columbia,
South Carolina, and by U.S. Ordnance in McCarran, Nevada.
The M240 is built in several versions:
M240 standard coaxial machine gun used in US armored vehicles. It is used in the M60 series of tanks (where
it replaced the M73/M219 7.62 mm machine guns) and the M1 Abrams family. It has an electrically operated
trigger and a reloading lever. Compared to the MAG Model 60-40, the M240 has a dierent ash hider and
gas valve.
M240B is a modernized derivative of the M240G, which features a perforated hand-guard and heat shroud, a
MIL-STD-1913 rail integral with the receiver top cover, which enables the use of optical day and night sights,
a new synthetic stock and a new ammunition container. It was selected to be the U.S. Army's new medium
machine gun on December 1, 1995, replacing the M60 machine gun - it defeated the M60E4 during trials.
M240Bs are also replacing M240Gs in USMC service. The M240B weighs 12.5 kg (28 lb) and has a length
of 1,245 mm (49.0 in). The rate of re is 650750 rounds/min.
M240C with a right-hand feed system. It is used in the M2 and M3 Bradley series of infantry ghting vehicles
as a coaxial gun to the main armament.
M240D an upgrade of the M240E1 and is optimized for use in military helicopters in a pintle-mounted conguration. The M240D is also supplied with an egress kit for dismounted use.
M240E1 installed since 1987 on LAV-series wheeled armored ghting vehicles, has a spade-type grip with an
integral trigger and cocking mechanism.

13.2. VARIANTS

133

A US Marine Corps tripod-mounted M240G.

M240L paired with the lighter M192 tripod reducing system weight by 5.5 pounds (2.5 kg).

M240G introduced into service with the United States Marine Corps and the 75th Ranger Regiment in the
mid 1990s in place of the M60E3. The M240G is used on the M122A1 tripod for stationary use, and is also
used in vehicular and aircraft mounts. It weighs 10.99 kg (24.2 lb),* [4] has an overall length of 1,245 mm
(49.0 in) and a rate of re of 650950 rounds/min.

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CHAPTER 13. FN MAG

M240H an improved version of the M240D. The M240H features a rail equipped feed cover, an improved
ash suppressor, and has been congured so it can be more quickly converted to infantry standard using an
Egress Kit. The M240H is 41.2 in (1,050 mm) long, has a 23.6 in (600 mm) barrel, and has an empty weight
of 26.3 lb (11.9 kg).
M240L is a development of the M240B reduced in weight by 5.5 pounds (2.5 kg). The weight savings on
the M240L are achieved by incorporating titanium and by using alternative fabricating methods for major
components. A short barrel and collapsible stock are available.

13.3 Users

Argentina: The MAG is in use in the Argentine Army as the 7,62 Ametralladora Tipo 60-20 MAG* [9]
after being purchased more than two decades ago. The MAG saw action during the Falklands War. Argentinian
MAGs were license-manufactured by the state-owned Direccin General de Fabricaciones Militares (DGFM)
arsenal.* [10]* [11]

An Australian soldier in Borneo manning a British L7A1 during the IndonesiaMalaysia confrontation, 1965.

Australia: The MAG is the standard GPMG of the Australian Defence Force, in particular the Australian
Army, where it is known as the MAG 58.* [12] It is also used by the Australian Customs and Border Protection
Service.* [13]

Austria: The MAG is used by the Austrian Army as the 7,62 mm MG FNMAG/Pz and is used in the
Schtzenpanzer Ulan and the Leopard 2A4.* [14]* [15] It's also used as the armament of the new S-70A-42
Black Hawk helicopters.* [14]

Bahamas:The FN MAG is used by the Royal Bahamas Defence Force

Bahrain* [16]

Barbados* [16]

Belgium: Designated MAG M2 and MAG M3 for the coax version.* [16]* [17]

13.3. USERS

Belize* [16]

Bolivia* [16]

Botswana* [16]

Brazil: Standard support weapon of the Brazilian Army, known as the M971.* [18]

Brunei* [16]

Burkina Faso* [16]

Burundi* [16]

Cameroon* [16]

135

A sailor of a Naval Mobile Construction Battalion res an M240B, a U.S. derivative of the MAG adopted for infantry use in the
1990s.

Canada: Used in the Canadian Forces with the designation the C6 GPMG,* [19] it is used primarily as
a platoon level support weapon* [20] One or two C6 machine guns are assigned to each Rie platoon. The C6
GPMG is also mounted on a variety of vehicles, including the G-Wagon LUVW, LAV III, Coyote and Leopard
C2. In these vehicles, the C6 GPMGs are co-axially and pintle mounted and used to provide re support to the
infantry or for local defence of the vehicle itself.

Chad* [16]

Chile* [21]

China: Made for export as the CQ, 7.62 51 with an adjustable butt.* [22]* [23] The XY, 7.62 51 is
made with a wooden butt.* [22]
Colombia* [16]

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CHAPTER 13. FN MAG

A Canadian soldier res the C6 variant of the MAG.

Cuba* [16]

Cyprus* [16]

Democratic Republic of Congo* [16]

Denmark: Used as armament in EH101 * [24]

Djibouti* [16]

Dominican Republic* [16]

Ecuador* [16]

El Salvador* [25]

Egypt: Made under license by the Maadi Company for Engineering Industries.* [2]* [10]* [26]

Estonia: The Swedish-made version known as the Ksp 58B has been adopted as the standard MG.* [27]

France: 500 machine guns were purchased in 2011, and an additional 10,000 machine guns will eventually
be supplied.* [28]

Gabon* [16]

Gambia* [16]

Ghana* [16]

Guatemala* [16]

Greece: Used by the EKAM counter-terrorist unit of the Hellenic Police.* [29]

13.3. USERS

Haiti* [16]

Honduras* [16]

India: Manufactured by the Ordnance Factories Board under license.* [2]

Indonesia: Standard general-purpose machine gun of Indonesian Armed Forces. Also used by Komando
Pasukan Katak (Kopaska) tactical diver group and Komando Pasukan Khusus (Kopassus) special forces group.* [30]
FN MAGs made under license as the SPM2 GPMG by PT Pindad.* [31]

Iraq* [32]

Ireland; Irish Defence Forces .* [33]

Israel: Used by the Israel Defense Forces.* [34]

Jamaica: Battalion-level re support weapon of the Jamaica Defence Force.* [35]

Jordan* [36]* [37]

Kuwait:* [25]* [38]

Latvia: The Swedish-made version known as the Ksp 58B has been adopted by the national guard as the
standard MG.* [39]

Lebanon:Used by the Lebanese Armed Forces

Lithuania: Lithuanian Armed Forces.* [40]

Luxembourg* [41]

Malaysia* [42]

Mexico* [21]

Monaco: Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince.* [43]

Morocco: MAG-60-20 Infanterie T1.* [44]

Netherlands: Used by the Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force and Army.* [45]

New Zealand: The New Zealand Defence Force originally purchased the British-made L7A2 version of
the MAG in 1976. These are now being replaced by several versions of the Belgian-made MAG-58, which
was originally introduced into service as part of the introduction of the NZLAV. The FN-made MAGs are now
used in the infantry light machine gun (LMG) role as a exible mounted machine gun on the LOV and UH-1H
and as a heavy sustained re machine gun.* [46]

Nicaragua: The Nicaraguan National Guard used the FN MAG from 1974 to 1979.

Norway* [47]

Panama* [21]

Rhodesia* [48]

Saudi Arabia* [49]

137

Singapore: In use by Singapore Armed Forces and Police Coast Guard. Licensed production carried
out by Ordnance Development and Engineering Company of Singapore, now integrated to ST Engineering.
Two versions produced, one infantry assault variant tted with a bi-pod, the other co-axial model for armored
vehicle or vehicle mountings. One MAG is issued to each rie platoon. It is always referred to as GPMG or
simply MG.* [10]
Slovenia* [50]

138

CHAPTER 13. FN MAG

South Africa* [16]

Sweden* [51]* [52]

Thailand.* [53]

Turkey* [16]

United Kingdom* [2]

United States: Used by the U.S. Military as the M240.* [53]

Uruguay* [21]

Venezuela* [21]

Vietnam

13.4 See also


Mk 48 machine gunFN Minimi in 7.62 mm NATO for United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM)
Sumitomo NTK-62an outwardly similar Japanese weapon
Heckler & Koch HK121A German derivative intended to replace the well-proven Rheinmetall MG 3
PKM
Vektor SS-77A South African weapon designed as replacement for the FN-MAG

13.5 References
Citations
[1] FN MAG Standard - FN Herstal. Retrieved 2014-01-09.
[2] Hogg, Ian (2002). Jane's Guns Recognition Guide. Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-00-712760-X.
[3] World Gun's FN MAG page. Retrieved on November 21, 2008.
[4] Modern Firearms - FN MAG. World.guns.ru. Retrieved 2012-07-30.
[5] Kokalis, Peter G. (March 1985). Belgium's MAGnicent MG. Soldier of Fortune Magazine.
[6] General Purpose Machine Gun. Army.mod.uk. Retrieved 2011-06-24.
[7]
[8] Gta Vapenhistoriska Sllskapet. March 31, 2010.
[9] MAG 7.62 being used in military training exercises in Misiones, Argentina: http://www.infobae.com/adjuntos/imagenes/
99/0079971B.jpg
[10] Multiplying the Sources. Retrieved on October 5, 2008.
[11] European arms exports to Latin America - An inventory. Retrieved on August 15, 2008.
[12]
[13] House Hansard 14 June 2005, p 209. Parlinfo.aph.gov.au. Retrieved 2011-06-24.
[14] 7,62 mm Maschinengewehr FN MAG 58. Retrieved on April 2, 2008.

13.5. REFERENCES

139

[15] BMLV - Presseabteilung - Referat Internet. "sterreichs Bundesheer - Waen und Gert - Turmdachmaschinengewehr
MAG (fr Leopard A4)" (in Dutch). Bmlv.gv.at. Retrieved 2011-06-24.
[16] Jones, Richard (2009). Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009-2010. Jane's Information Group. pp. 896898. ISBN 0-71062869-2.
[17] Landcomponent Onderwerp Bewapening MAG 7.62 mm (in Dutch). Mil.be. Retrieved 2011-06-24.
[18]
[19] TC6 GENERAL PURPOSE MACHINE-GUN. Army.forces.gc.ca. 2009-07-20. Retrieved 2011-06-24.
[20] Canadian Small Arms Automatic Ries A Visual Guide. Canadian American Strategic Review. Archived from
the original on 2011-02-07. Retrieved 2008-04-02.
[21] Gander, Terry J.; Hogg, Ian V. Jane's Infantry Weapons 1995/1996. Jane's Information Group; 21 edition (May 1995).
ISBN 978-0-7106-1241-0.
[22] Popenker, Maxim & Williams, Anthony G., page 41.
[23] http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?anno=2&depth=1&hl=en&rurl=translate.google.com.ph&sl=zh-CN&
tl=en&u=http://jczs.news.sina.com.cn/pc/2007-01-03/29/1239.html&usg=ALkJrhhryBsl-2EODvfCvbpm3nXvwqJBtQ
[24] http://danishairshow.dk/dk/aircrafts/aircraft/eh101-taktisk-troppetransport
[25] Norman Friedman (January 1997). The Naval Institute Guide to World Naval Weapons Systems, 1997-1998. Naval Institute
Press. pp. 460. ISBN 978-1-55750-268-1.
[26] G3 Defence Magazine August 2010. En.calameo.com. 2010-08-04. Retrieved 2011-06-24.
[27] Eesti Kaitsevgi - Tehnika - Kuulipilduja KSP-58 (in Estonian). Mil.ee. Retrieved 2011-06-24.
[28] FN Herstal wins French Competition for 7.62 Machine Guns. Fnherstal.com. Retrieved 2011-06-24.
[29] Greece Ministry of Public Order Press Oce: Special Anti-Terrorist Unit. http://astynomia.gr - Ocial Website of
the Hellenic Police. July 2004. Retrieved 2009-09-27.
[30] Kopassus & Kopaska - Specijalne Postrojbe Republike Indonezije(in Croatian). Hrvatski Vojnik Magazine. Retrieved
2010-06-12.
[31] Un repaso a las armas ligeras de Pindad (in Spanish). ARMAS. Archived from the original on 2013-04-02. Retrieved
2010-07-05.
[32] Jones, Richard (2009). Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009-2010. Jane's Information Group. p. 359. ISBN 0-7106-2869-2.
[33] Army Weapons - General Purpose Machine Gun. Retrieved on April 2, 2008.
[34] Modern Firearms: Negev machine gun. World.guns.ru. 2011-01-24. Retrieved 2011-06-24.
[35] ncoicinnet. Equipment - Weapons. Jdfmil.org. Retrieved 2011-06-24.
[36] Special Operations Report -Spotlight Jordan
[37] Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN
978-0-7106-2869-5.
[38] Volstad Armies of the Gulf War. Gordon L. Rottman. 1993. p. 50.
[39]
[40] Lietuvos kariuomen :: Ginkluot ir karin technika Kulkosvaidiai Kulkosvaidis FN MAG (in Lithuanian).
Kariuomene.kam.lt. 2009-04-17. Retrieved 2011-06-24.
[41] Armement (in French). Armee.lu. Retrieved 2011-06-24.
[42] http://weaponsystems.net/weapon.php?weapon=AA06%20-%20MAG
[43] Giletta, Jacques (2005). Les Gardes Personnelles des Princes de Monaco (1st ed.). Taurus Editions. ISBN 2 912976-04-9.
[44] Ezell, Eward. Small Arms Today (Stackpole, 1988).
[45] Mag, machinegeweer 7,62 mm (in Dutch). Defensie.nl. Retrieved 2011-06-24.

140

CHAPTER 13. FN MAG

[46] Machine Guns. Army.mil.nz. 2008-02-11. Retrieved 2011-06-24.


[47] Norwegian Armed Forces Adopt FN MINIMI Machine Gun. Fnherstal.com. 2011-02-08. Retrieved 2011-06-24.
[48] Cocks, Chris (2009). Fireforce: One Man's War in the Rhodesian Light Infantry. 30 South Publishers. p. 102. ISBN
0-9584890-9-2.
[49] Armor. U.S. Armor Association. 1996.
[50] 7.62 mm MAG Light Machine Gun. Slovenskavojska.si. Retrieved 2011-06-24.
[51] Medeltung kulspruta 58. Retrieved on October 9, 2008. (Swedish)
[52] Henrik Svensk. SoldF. SoldF. Retrieved 2011-06-24.
[53]

Bibliography
Popenker, Maxim & Williams, Anthony G. (2008). Machine Gun. The Development of the Machine Gun from
the Nineteenth Century to the Present Day. London: Crowood Press. ISBN 978-1-84797-030-5.

13.6 External links


FN Herstal ocial site
FNH Firearms Blog
Modern Firearms
Video of the Canadian C6 GPMG
C6 tracer re
Canadians exercise with the C6
Video of the L7A2 GPMG in British service
Video of operation on YouTube (Japanese)

Chapter 14

Glock
This article is about the semiautomatic pistol. For the engineer Gaston Glock, see Gaston Glock. For other uses, see
Glock (disambiguation).
The Glock pistol, sometimes referred to by the manufacturer as a GlockSafe ActionPistol, is a series of polymerframed, short recoil operated, locked breech semi-automatic pistols designed and produced by Glock Ges.m.b.H.,
located in Deutsch-Wagram, Austria. It entered Austrian military and police service by 1982.* [5]
Despite initial resistance from the market to accept a plastic gundue to durability and reliability concerns, and
fears that the pistol would be invisibleto metal detectors in airports, Glock pistols have become the company's
most protable line of products, commanding 65% of the market share of handguns for United States law enforcement agencies as well as supplying numerous national armed forces and security agencies worldwide.* [6] Glocks are
also popular rearms amongst civilians for recreational/competition shooting, home/self defense and concealed/open
carry.* [7]

14.1 History
The company's founder, engineer Gaston Glock, had no experience with rearm design or manufacture at the time
their rst pistol, the Glock 17, was being prototyped. Glock did, however, have extensive experience in advanced
synthetic polymers, knowledge of which was instrumental in the company's design of the rst commercially successful
line of pistols with a polymer frame.* [8] Glock introduced ferritic nitrocarburizing into the rearms industry as an
anti-corrosion surface treatment for metal gun parts.* [9]

14.1.1

Development

In 1980, the Austrian military announced that it would seek tenders for a new, modern duty pistol to replace their
World War II-era Walther P38 handguns.* [10] The Austrian Ministry of Defence formulated a list of 17 criteria for
the new generation service pistol:* [5]
1. The design has to be self-loading.
2. The pistol must re the NATO-standard 919mm Parabellum round.
3. The magazines would not require any means of assistance for loading.
4. The magazines must have a minimum capacity of 8 rounds.
5. All actions necessary to prepare the pistol for ring and any actions required after ring must be done singlehanded, either right- or left-handed.
6. The pistol must be absolutely secure against accidental discharge from shock, stroke and drops from a height
of 2 meters onto a steel plate.
141

142

CHAPTER 14. GLOCK

A rst generationGlock 17 with the slide locked back displaying its vertical barrel tilt

A second generationGlock 17, identied by the checkering on the front and rear straps of the pistol grip and trigger guard

14.1. HISTORY

143

An early third generationGlock 19, identied by the addition of thumb rests, an accessory rail, nger grooves on the front strap
of the pistol grip and a single cross pin above the trigger. Note that the frame has an indentation moulded for the 3rd cross pin,
introduced in later third generationmodels, although the pin is not tted.

7. Disassembly of the main parts for maintenance and reassembling must be possible without the use of any tools.
8. Maintenance and cleaning of the pistol must be accomplished without the use of tools.
9. The pistol's construction may not exceed 58 individual parts (equivalent of a P38).
10. Gauges, measuring and precise testing devices must not be necessary for the long-term maintenance of the
pistol.
11. The manufacturer is required to provide the Ministry of Defence with a complete set of engineering drawings
and exploded views. These must be supplied with all the relevant details for the production of the pistol.
12. All components must be fully interchangeable between pistols.
13. No more than 20 malfunctions are permitted during the rst 10,000 rounds red, not even minor jams that can
be cleared without the use of any tools.
14. After ring 15,000 rounds of standard ammunition, the pistol will be inspected for wear. The pistol will
then be used to re an overpressure test cartridge generating 5,000 bar (500 MPa; 73,000 psi). (The normal
maximum operating pressure Pmax for the 9 mm NATO is rated at 2,520 bar (252 MPa; 36,500 psi).)* [11]
The critical components must continue to function properly and be up to specications, otherwise the pistol
will be disqualied.
15. When handled properly, under no circumstances may the user be endangered by case ejection.
16. The muzzle energy must be at least 441.5 J when ring a 9mm S-round/P-08 Hirtenberger AG.
17. Pistols scoring less than 70% of the total available points will not be considered for military use.
Glock became aware of the Austrian Army's planned procurement and in 1982 assembled a team of Europe's leading
handgun experts from military, police and civilian sport shooting circles to dene the most desirable characteristics in
a combat pistol.* [5] Within three months, Glock developed a working prototype that combined proven mechanisms
and traits from previous pistol designs.* [12] The new weapon made extensive use of synthetic materials and modern

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A third generationGlock 17C, identied by the addition of an extra cross pin above the trigger and a reshaped extractor that
serves as a loaded chamber indicator

A fourth generationGlock 17, identied by an enlarged magazine release catch, modied rough texture frame grip checkering,
interchangeable backstraps and a Gen4rollmark on the slide

14.1. HISTORY

145

manufacturing technologies in its design, making it a very cost-eective candidate. Several samples of the 919mm
Glock 17 (so named because it was the 17th set of technical drawings of the company* [13]) were submitted for
assessment trials in early 1982, and after passing all of the exhaustive endurance and abuse tests, Glock emerged as
the winner with the Model 17.* [14]* [15]* [16]
The handgun was adopted into service with the Austrian military and police forces in 1982 as the P80 (Pistole
80),* [17] with an initial order for 25,000 guns.* [12] The Glock 17 outperformed 8 dierent pistols from ve other established manufacturers (Heckler & Koch of Germany oered their P7M8, P7M13 and P9S, SIG Sauer of Germany
bid with their P220 and P226 models, Beretta of Italy submitted their model 92SB-F, FN Herstal proposed an updated variant of the Browning Hi-Power and the home-grown Steyr Mannlicher entered the competition with the
GB).* [18]
The results of the Austrian trials sparked a wave of interest in Western Europe and overseas, particularly in the United
States, where a similar eort to select a service-wide replacement for the M1911 had been ongoing since the late 1970s
(known as the Joint Service Small Arms Program). In late 1983, the United States Department of Defense inquired
about the Glock pistol and received four samples of the Glock 17 for unocial evaluation.* [19] Glock was then
invited to participate in the XM9 Personal Defense Pistol Trials, but declined because the DOD specications would
require extensive retooling of production equipment and providing 35 test samples in an unrealistic time frame.* [19]
Shortly thereafter, the Glock 17 was accepted into service with the Norwegian, and Swedish Armed Forces, surpassing
all prior NATO durability standards.* [19] As a result, the Glock 17 became a standard NATO-classied sidearm and
was granted a NATO Stock Number (1005-25-133-6775).* [19]
By 1992, some 350,000 pistols had been sold in more than 45 countries, including 250,000 in the United States
alone.* [17]

14.1.2

Product evolution

Glock has updated its basic design several times throughout its production history. Commentators had long separated
the large changes into generations. Glock eventually accepted this nomenclature with their Gen4models.

Second generation models


A mid-life upgrade to the Glock pistols involved the addition of checkering on the front strap and serrations to the
back strap. These versions were introduced in 1988 and were informally referred to assecond generationmodels.
To meet American ATF regulations, a steel plate with a stamped serial number was embedded into the receiver in
front of the trigger guard.
In 1991, an integrated recoil spring assembly replaced the original two-piece recoil spring and tube design. The
magazine was slightly modied, changing the oorplate and tting the follower spring with a resistance insert at its
base.

Third generation models


In the late 1990s, the frame was further modied with an accessory rail (called the Universal Glock rail) to
allow the mounting of laser sights, tactical lights, and other accessories. Thumb rests on both sides of the frame and
nger grooves on the front strap were added. Glock pistols with these upgrades are informally referred to as (early)
third generationmodels. Later third generation models additionally featured a modied extractor that serves as a
loaded chamber indicator, and the locking block was enlarged, along with the addition of an extra cross pin to aid
the distribution of forces exerted by the locking block. This cross pin is known as the locking block pin and located
above the trigger pin.* [20]
The polymer frames of third generation models can be black, at dark earth, or olive drab. Besides that, non-ring
dummy pistols (Rmodels) have a bright red frame and Simunition-adapted practice pistols (Tmodels) a
bright blue frame for easy identication.* [21]
In 2009, the Glock 22 RTF2 (Rough Textured Frame 2) (chambered in .40 S&W) was introduced. This pistol
featured a new checkering texture around the grip and new scalloped (sh gill shaped) serrations at the rear of the
sides of the slide.* [22]* [23]

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CHAPTER 14. GLOCK

Fourth generation models

Comparison of third(left) and fourthgeneration (right) Glock 19 grip frames

Glock 17 Gen4 as issued by the British Armed Forces under the L131A1 General Service Pistol designation

14.2. DESIGN DETAILS

147

At the 2010 SHOT Show, Glock presented thefourth generation, now dubbedGen4by Glock itself. Updates
centered on ergonomics and the recoil spring assembly. Some parts of fourth generation Glock pistols cannot be
interchanged with those of the previous generations. The initial two fourth generation models announced were the
full-size Glock 17 and Glock 22, chambered for the 919mm Parabellum and .40 S&W cartridges, respectively.
The pistols were displayed with a modied rough texture frame, grip checkering, and interchangeable backstraps of
dierent sizes. Gen4is rollmarked on the slide next to the model number to identify the fourth generation pistols.
The basic grip size of the fourth generation Glock pistols is slightly smaller compared to the previous design. A punch
is provided to remove the standard trigger housing pin and replace it for the longer cross pin needed to mount the
medium or large backstrap that will increase the trigger distance by 2 mm (0.079 in) or 4 mm (0.16 in). With the
medium backstrap installed, the grip size is identical to the third generation pistols. The magazine release catches are
enlarged and reversible for left-handed use. To utilize the exchangeable magazine release feature, fourth generation
Glock magazines have two notches cut on both sides of the magazine body.* [24]
Mechanically, fourth generation Glock pistols are tted with a dual recoil spring assembly to help reduce perceived
recoil and increase service life expectancy. Earlier subcompact Glock models such as the Glock 26 and Glock 30
have already used a dual recoil spring assembly which was carried over to the fourth generation versions of those
models. The slide and barrel shelf have been resized, and the front portion of the polymer frame has been widened
and internally enlarged, in order to accommodate the dual recoil spring assembly. The trigger mechanism housing
has also been modied to t into the smaller sized grip space.* [25]* [26]* [27]* [28]* [29]
The introduction of fourth generation Glock pistols continued in July 2010 when the Glock 19 and Glock 23, the
reduced sizecompactversions of the Glock 17 and Glock 22, became available for retail.* [30] In late 2010 Glock
continued the introduction of fourth generation models with the Glock 26 and Glock 27 subcompactvariants.
In January 2013 more fourth generation Glock pistols were introduced commercially during the annual SHOT Show
including the Glock 20 Generation 4 along with other fourth generation Glock models.
2011 recoil spring assembly exchange program In September 2011 Glock announced a recoil spring exchange
program in which the manufacturer voluntarily oers to exchange the recoil spring assemblies of its fourth generation
pistols (with the exception of thesubcompactGlock 26 and Glock 27 models) sold before 22 July 2011 at no cost
in order to ensure our products perform up to GLOCKs stringent standards, according to the company.* [31]

14.2 Design details


14.2.1

Operating mechanism

The Glock 17 is a 9mm short recoiloperated locked breech semi-automatic pistol that uses a modied Browning camlock system adapted from the Hi-Power pistol.* [32] The rearm's locking mechanism utilizes a linkless, vertically
tilting barrel with a rectangular breech that locks into the ejection port cut-out in the slide. During the recoil stroke,
the barrel moves rearward initially locked together with the slide approximately 3 mm (0.12 in) until the bullet leaves
the barrel and chamber pressure drops to a safe level. A ramped lug extension at the base of the barrel then interacts
with a tapered locking block integrated into the frame, forcing the barrel down and unlocking it from the slide. This
camming action terminates the barrel's movement while the slide continues back under recoil, extracting and ejecting
the spent cartridge casing. The slide's uninterrupted rearward movement and counter-recoil cycle are characteristic
of the Browning system.* [33]

14.2.2

Features

The slide features a spring-loaded claw extractor, and the stamped sheet metal ejector is pinned to the trigger mechanism housing.* [34] Post 2002 pistols have a reshaped extractor that serves as a loaded chamber indicator. When a
cartridge is present in the chamber, a tactile metal edge protrudes slightly out immediately behind the ejection port
on the right side of the slide.* [35]
The striker ring mechanism has a spring-loaded ring pin that is cocked in two stages that the ring pin spring
powers. The factory-standard ring pin spring is rated at 24 N (5.4 lbf ), but by using a modied ring pin spring
it can be increased to 28 N (6.3 lbf ) or to 31 N (7.0 lbf ).* [24] When the pistol is charged, the ring pin is in the
half-cock position. As the trigger is pulled, the ring pin is then fully cocked. At the end of its travel, the trigger bar

148

CHAPTER 14. GLOCK

A subcompact Glock 30 eld stripped to its main parts with a .45 ACP round

is tilted downward by the connector, releasing the ring pin to re the cartridge. The connector resets the trigger bar
so that the ring pin will be captured in half-cock at the end of the ring cycle. This is known as a pre-set trigger
mechanism, referred to as the "Safe Action" trigger by the manufacturer. The connector ensures the pistol can only
re semi-automatically.
The factory-standard two-stage trigger has a trigger travel of 12.5 mm (0.49 in) and is rated at 25 N (5.6 lbf ), but by
using a modied connector it can be increased to 35 N (7.9 lbf ) or lowered to 20 N (4.5 lbf ). In response to a request
made by American law enforcement agencies for a two-stage trigger with increased trigger pull, Glock introduced
the NY1 (New York) trigger module, which features a at spring in a plastic housing that replaces the trigger bar's
standard coil spring. This trigger modication is available in two versions: NY1 and NY2 that are rated at 25 N (5.6
lbf ) to 40 N (9.0 lbf ) and 32 N (7.2 lbf ) to 50 N (11.2 lbf ) respectively, which require approximately 20 N (4.5 lbf )
to 30 N (6.7 lbf ) of force to disengage the safeties and another 10 N (2.2 lbf ) to 20 N (4.5 lbf ) in the second stage to
re a shot.
The Glock's frame, magazine body and several other components are made from a high-strength nylon-based polymer
invented by Gaston Glock and called Polymer 2.* [36] This plastic was specially formulated to provide increased
durability and is more resilient than carbon steel and most steel alloys. Polymer 2 is resistant to shock, caustic liquids
and temperature extremes where traditional steel/alloy frames would warp and become brittle.* [36] The injection
molded frame contains four hardened steel guide rails for the slide: two at the rear of the frame, and the remaining
pair above and in front of the trigger guard. The trigger guard itself is squared o at the front and checkered. The
grip has a non-slip, stippled surface on the sides and both the front and rear straps. The frame houses the locking
block, which is an investment casting that engages a 45 camming surface on the barrel's lower camming lug. It is
retained in the frame by a steel axis pin that holds the trigger and slide catch. The trigger housing is held to the frame
by means of a polymer pin. A spring-loaded sheet metal pressing serves as the slide catch, which is secured from
unintentional manipulation by a raised guard molded into the frame.
The Glock pistol has a relatively low slide prole, which holds the barrel axis close to the shooter's hand and makes the
pistol more comfortable to re by reducing muzzle rise and allows for faster aim recovery in rapid ring sequences.
The rectangular slide is milled from a single block of ordnance-grade steel using CNC machinery.* [37] The barrel
and slide undergo two hardening processes prior to treatment with a proprietary nitriding process called Tenifer. The
Tenifer treatment is applied in a 500 C (932 F) nitrate bath.* [36] The Tenifer nish is between 0.04 mm (0.0016 in)

14.2. DESIGN DETAILS

149

and 0.05 mm (0.0020 in) in thickness, and is characterized by extreme resistance to wear and corrosion; it penetrates
the metal, and treated parts have similar properties even below the surface to a certain depth.* [38]
The Tenifer process produces a matte gray-colored, non-glare surface with a 64 Rockwell C hardness rating and a
99% resistance to salt water corrosion (which meets or exceeds stainless steel specications),* [37] making the Glock
particularly suitable for individuals carrying the pistol concealed as the highly chloride-resistant nish allows the pistol
to better endure the eects of perspiration.* [38] Glock steel parts having the Tenifer treatment are more corrosionresistant than analogous gun parts having other nishes or treatments, including Teon, bluing, hard chrome plating,
or phosphates.* [38] After applying the Tenifer process, a black Parkerized decorative surface nish is applied. The
underlaying Tenifer treatment will remain protecting these parts even if the decorative surface nish were to wear
o.* [9]
A current production Glock 17 consists of 34 parts.* [24] For maintenance, the pistol disassembles into ve main
groups: the barrel, slide, frame, magazine, and recoil-spring assembly. The rearm is designed for the NATOstandard 919mm Parabellum pistol cartridge, but can use high-power (increased pressure) +P and +P+ ammunition
with either full-metal-jacket or jacketed hollow-point projectiles.

14.2.3

Barrel

The hammer-forged barrel has a female type polygonal riing with a right-hand twist. The stabilization of the round
is not by conventional riing, using lands and grooves, but rather through a polygonal prole consisting of a series of
six or eight interconnected non-circular segments (only the .45 ACP and .45 GAP have octagonal polygonal riing).
Each depressed segment within the interior of the barrel is the equivalent of a groove in a conventional barrel. Thus
the interior of the barrel consists of smooth arcs of steel rather than sharply dened slots.
The method by which Glock barrels are ried is somewhat unusual; instead of using a traditional broaching machine
to cut the riing into the bore, the Glock process involves beating a slowly rotating mandrel through the bore to
obtain the hexagonal or octagonal shape.* [39] As a result, the barrel's thickness in the area of each groove is not
compromised as with conventional square-cut barrels. This has the advantage of providing a better gas seal around
the projectile as the bore has a slightly smaller diameter, which translates into more ecient use of the combustion
gases trapped behind the bullet,* [39] slightly greater (consistency in) muzzle velocities, and increased accuracy and
ease of maintenance.* [40]

14.2.4

Safety

Glock pistols are designed with three independent safety mechanisms to prevent accidental discharge. The system,
designated "Safe Action" by Glock, consists of an external integrated trigger safety* [41] and two automatic internal
safeties: a ring pin safety* [42] and a drop safety.* [43] The external safety is a small inner lever contained in the
trigger. Pressing the lever activates the trigger bar and sheet metal connector. The ring pin safety is a solid hardened
steel pin that, in the secured state, blocks the ring pin channel (disabling the ring pin in its longitudinal axis). It is
pushed upward to release the ring pin for ring only when the trigger is actuated and the safety is pushed up through
the backward movement of the trigger bar. The drop safety guides the trigger bar in a ramp that is released only when
direct rearward pressure is applied to the trigger. The three safety mechanisms are automatically disengaged one after
the other when the trigger is squeezed, and are automatically reactivated when the trigger is released.* [17]* [44] This
passive safety system omits the manipulation of traditional on-o levers, hammers or other external safeties as found
in many other handgun designs.
In 2003, Glock announced the Internal Locking System (ILS) safety feature. The ILS is a manually activated lock
that is located in the back of the pistol's grip. It is cylindrical in design and, according to Glock, each key is unique.
When activated, the lock causes a tab to protrude from the rear of the grip giving both a visual and tactile indication
as to whether the lock is engaged or not. When activated, the ILS renders the Glock unreable as well as making it
impossible to disassemble. When disengaged, the ILS adds no further safety mechanisms to the Glock pistol. The
ILS is available as an option on most Glock pistols. Glock pistols cannot be retrotted to accommodate the ILS. The
lock must be factory built in Austria and shipped as a special order.

150

14.2.5

CHAPTER 14. GLOCK

Feeding

The Glock 17 feeds from staggered-column or double stack magazines that have a 17-round capacity (which can
be extended to 19 with an optional oor plate) or optional 33-round high capacity magazines.* [45] For jurisdictions
which restrict magazine capacity to 10 rounds, Glock oers single stack 10-round magazines. The magazines are
made of steel and are overmolded with plastic. A steel spring drives a plastic follower. After the last cartridge has
been red, the slide remains open on the slide stop. The slide stop release lever is located on the left side of the frame
directly beneath the slide and can be manipulated by the thumb of the right-handed shooter.
Glock magazines are interchangeable between models of the same caliber, meaning that a compact or subcompact
pistol will accept magazines designed for the larger pistols chambered for the same round. However, magazines
designed for compact and subcompact models will not function in larger pistols because they are not tall enough to
reach the slide and magazine release. For example, the subcompact Glock 26 will accept magazines from both the
full-size Glock 17 and the compact Glock 19, but the Glock 17 will not accept magazines from the smaller Glock 19
or the Glock 26. The magazines for the Glock 36 are unique; it cannot use magazines intended for another model
nor can its magazines be used in another model.

14.2.6

Sights

The Glock 17 has a xed polymer combat-type sighting arrangement that consists of a ramped front sight and a
notched rear sight with white contrast elements painted on for increased acquisition speed a white dot on the front
post and a rectangular border on the rear notch. The rear sight can be adjusted for windage (on certain models due to
the windage sights not coming as factory default), as it has a degree of lateral movement in the dovetail it is mounted
in. Three other factory rear sight congurations are available in addition to the standard 6.5 mm (0.26 in) height sight:
a lower impact 6.1 mm (0.24 in) sight and two higher impact versions 6.9 mm (0.27 in) and 7.3 mm (0.29 in).* [46]

14.2.7

Accessories

Glock 34 with a GTL 22 attachment featuring a dimmable xenon white light and a red laser

Polymer holster for Glock pistols


The Glock pistol accessories available from the factory include several devices for tactical illumination, such as a
series of front rail mounted Glock tactical lightsfeaturing a white tactical light and an optional visible laser sight.
An alternate version of the tactical light utilizing an invisible infrared light and laser sight is available, designed to
be used with an infrared night vision device. Another lighting accessory is an adapter to mount a ashlight onto the
bottom of a magazine.
Polymer holsters in various congurations and matching magazine pouches are available. In addition, Glock produces
optional triggers, recoil springs, slide stops, magazine release levers, and underwater spring cups.
Magazine oor plates (or "+2 baseplates), which expand the capacity of the standard magazines by 2 rounds are
available for models chambered for the 919mm Parabellum, .40 S&W, .357 SIG, and .380 ACP cartridges. In
addition to the standard non-adjustable polymer sight line, three alternative sight lines are oered by Glock. These
consist of steel, adjustable and self-illuminating tritium night rear sights and factory steel and self-illuminating tritium
contrast pointer steel front sights.

14.3. VARIANTS

151

14.3 Variants
Following the introduction of the Glock 17, numerous variants and versions have been oered. Variants that dier in
caliber, frame, and slide length are identied by dierent model numbers with the exception of the Glock 17L. Other
changes not dealing with frame and slide length are identied with suxes, such asC, which denotes compensated
models.* [47]* [48] Minor options such as frame color, sights, and included accessories are identied by a separate
model code on the box and do not appear anywhere on the rearm.
Glock pistols come in ve form factors, all modeled after the original full-size Glock 17. Standardmodels are
designed as full-size duty rearm with a large magazine capacity.Compactmodels are slightly smaller with reduced
magazine capacity and lighter weight while maintaining a usable grip length. Subcompactmodels are designed
for easier carry being lighter and shorter, are intended to be used with two ngers on the grip below the trigger guard,
and lack an accessory rail like the larger post generation two Glock models. .45 ACP and 10mm models have bigger,
wider slides and are slightly larger than the smaller chambered pistols and are available in the sub-compact models
Glock 29 (10mm) and Glock 30 (.45ACP). Glock produces a single-stackSlimline.45 ACP pistol, the Glock 36.
Competitionversions have longer barrels and slides, adjustable sights, an extended slide and magazine release.
Beginning in 2007, Glock introduced several Short Framemodels designated by the sux SF. The short
frame was originally designed to compete in the now cancelled U.S. military Joint Combat Pistol trials for a new .45
ACP pistol to replace the M9 pistol. Glock's entry featured an optional ambidextrous magazine release and MILSTD-1913 rail along with a reduction in the size of the backstrap. The Glock 21SF is currently available in three
versions: one with a Picatinny rail and ambidextrous magazine release and two with a Universal Glock rail available
with or without the ambidextrous magazine release. Current 10 mm and .45 ACP Glock magazines are manufactured
with ambidextrous magazine release cutouts. As of January 2009, the Glock 20, 21, 29, and 30 were oered in shortframed variations. These models incorporate a 2.5 mm (0.098 in) reduction in trigger reach, and full-sized models
feature a 4 mm (0.16 in) reduction in heel depth. This reduction in heel depth corresponds to an overall reduction in
length for those models.* [49]* [50]* [51]

14.3.1

919mm Parabellum

The Glock 17 is the original 919mm Parabellum model, with a standard magazine capacity of 17 rounds.
Several modied versions of the Glock 17 have been introduced.
The Glock 17C was introduced in 1996 and incorporated slots cut in the barrel and slide to compensate
for muzzle rise and recoil. Many other Glock pistols now come with this option, all with a Csux
on the slide.
The Glock 17L was introduced in 1988 and incorporates a longer slide and extended barrel. Initially, the
Glock 17L had three holes in the top of the barrel and a corresponding slot in the slide; however, later
production pistols lack the holes in the barrel. The Glock 17L is manufactured in limited quantities.
The Glock 17MB is a version with ambidextrous magazine catch. This model, along with the other MB
variants, was discontinued upon the introduction of the fourth-generation models, which features a reversible magazine catch.

The Glock 18 is a selective re variant of the Glock 17, developed at the request of the Austrian counter-terrorist
unit EKO Cobra. Originally produced in 1986, this machine pistolclass rearm has a lever-type re-control
selector switch, installed on the serrated portion of the rear left side of the slide. With the selector lever in the
bottom position, the pistol will re fully automatic, and with the selector lever in the top position, the pistol will
re semi-automatically. The rearm is typically used with an extended 33-round capacity magazine, although
other magazines from the Glock 17 will function, with available capacities of 10, 17, or 19 rounds. Early
Glock 18 models were ported to reduce muzzle rise during automatic re. Another compensated variant was
produced, known as the Glock 18C. It has a keyhole opening cut into the forward portion of the slide, similar
to the opening on the Glock long-slide models, although the Glock 18 has a standard-length slide. The keyhole
opening provides an area to allow the four, progressively larger (from back to front) compensator cuts machined
into the barrel to vent the propellant gases upwards, aording more control over the rapid-ring machine pistol.
The compensator cuts start about halfway back on the top of the barrel. The two rear cuts are narrower
than the two front cuts. The slide is hollowed, or dished-out, in a rectangular pattern between the rear

152

CHAPTER 14. GLOCK


of the ejection port and the rear sight. The rate of re in fully automatic mode is approximately 1,100
1,200 rounds per minute. Most of the other characteristics are equivalent to the Glock 17, although
the slide, frame, and certain re-control parts of the Glock 18 are not interchangeable with other Glock
models.* [52]* [53]

The Glock 19 is eectively a reduced-size Glock 17, called the Compactby the manufacturer. It was rst
produced in 1988, primarily for military and law enforcement. The Glock 19 has a barrel and pistol grip that
are shorter by approximately 12 mm (0.5 in) compared to the Glock 17 and uses a magazine with a standard
capacity of 15 rounds. The pistol is compatible with factory magazines from the Glock 17 and Glock 18,
giving the Glock 19 available capacities of: 17 rounds (standard magazine with +2 extension), 10, 17, and 19
(standard Glock 17 magazine with +2), and the 31 (standard Glock 18 magazine with +2 removed) and 33
rounds of the Glock 18. To preserve the operational reliability of the short recoil system, the mass of the slide
remains the same as in the Glock 17 from which it is derived. With the exception of the slide, frame, barrel,
locking block, recoil spring, guide rod, and slide lock spring, all of the other components are interchangeable
between the models 17 and 19.

The Glock 26 is a 919mm subcompactvariant designed for concealed carry and was introduced in 1995,
mainly for the civilian market. It features a smaller frame compared to the Glock 19, with a pistol grip that
supports only two ngers, a shorter barrel and slide, and a double-stack magazine with a standard capacity of 10
rounds. A factory magazine with a +2 extension gives a capacity of 12 rounds. In addition, factory magazines
from the Glock 17, Glock 18, and Glock 19, with capacities of 15, 17, 19, 31 and 33 rounds, will function
in the Glock 26. More than simply a shortenedGlock 19, design of the subcompact Glock 26 required
extensive rework of the frame, locking block, and spring assembly that features a dual recoil spring.
The Glock 34 is a competition version of the Glock 17. It is similar to its predecessor, the Glock 17L, but with
a slightly shorter slide and barrel, to meet the maximum size requirements for many sanctioned action pistol
sporting events. It was developed and produced in 1998, and compared to the Glock 17, features a 21 mm (0.8
in) longer barrel and slide. It has an extended magazine release, extended slide stop lever, 20 N (4.5 lbf ) trigger
pull, and an adjustable rear sight. The sides at the front of the slide are slanted instead of squared. Further the
top of the slide and parts of its inside are milled out, creating a conspicuous hole at the top designed to reduce
front-end muzzle weight to better balance the pistol and reduce the overall weight of the slide.* [54]
The Glock 43 is aslimlineversion of the subcompact Glock 26 that features an ultra-compact slide and frame.
The Glock 43 is the rst Glock pistol to be manufactured with a single-stack 919mm Parabellum magazine,
having a standard capacity of 6 rounds and being unique to the model. Unlike other subcompact Glock pistols,
the Glock 43 cannot use factory magazines from its larger relatives due to its single-stack magazine design.

14.3.2

10mm Auto

The Glock 20, introduced in 1991, was developed for the then-growing law enforcement and security forces
market for the 10mm Auto. The pistol will handle both full-power as well as reduced FBIloads that have
reduced muzzle velocity. Due to the longer cartridge and higher pressures, the pistol is slightly larger than the
Glock 17, having an approximately 2.5 mm (0.1 in) greater width and 7 mm (0.3 in) greater length. Though
many small parts interchange with the Glock 17, with a close to 50% parts commonality, the major assemblies
are scaled-up and do not interchange. The standard magazine capacity of the Glock 20 is 15 rounds. In 2009,
Glock announced they would oer a 152 mm (6.0 in) barrel as a drop-in option.* [55]
The Glock 20SF is a version of the Glock 20 that utilizes the Short Frame (SF) which is based on the
standard G20 frame (same width), but reduces the trigger reach from the back of the grip by 2.5 mm
(0.098 in) and the heel of the pistol is shortened by 4 mm (0.16 in) so the trigger can be reached and
operated better by users with relatively small hands.
The Glock 29 is a 10mm Auto equivalent of the subcompact Glock 26 introduced in 1997 along with the Glock
30 (.45 ACP). The pistol features a 96 mm (3.8 in) barrel and a standard magazine capacity of 10 rounds. Like
other subcompact Glock pistols, the Glock 29 will function with the factory magazines from its related full-size
model, giving an optional capacity of 15 rounds.

14.3. VARIANTS

153

The Glock 29SF is a version of the Glock 29 that utilizes the Short Frame (SF) which is based on the
standard G29 frame (same width), but reduces the trigger reach from the back of the grip by 2.5 mm
(0.098 in).
The Glock 40, introduced in 2015, is a 10mm Auto equivalent of the long slide Glock 17L. The Glock 40 is
only made with the Gen4frame and MOS(Modular Optic System) conguration.* [56]

14.3.3

.45 ACP

Glock pistols chambered for the .45 ACP (and the .45 GAP) feature octagonal polygonal riing rather than the
hexagonal shaped bores used for models in most other chamberings.* [57] Octagonal riing provides a better gas seal
in relatively large diameter ried bores, since an octagon resembles a circle more closely than a hexagon.* [40]
The Glock 21 is a .45 ACP version of the Glock 20 designed primarily for the American market.* [58] Compared to the Glock 20 chambered in 10mm Auto, the slide of the Glock 21 is lighter to compensate for the
lower-energy .45 ACP cartridge. The standard Glock 21 magazine is of the single-position-feed, staggeredcolumn type with a capacity of 13 rounds.
The Glock 21SF is a version of the Glock 21 that utilizes the Short Frame (SF) which is based on the
standard G21 frame (same width), but reduces the trigger reach from the back of the grip by 2.5 mm
(0.098 in) and the heel of the pistol is shortened by 4 mm (0.16 in) so the trigger can be reached and
operated better by users with relatively small hands.
The Glock 30 is a .45 ACP version of the subcompact Glock 29, with a standard magazine capacity of 10
rounds. The factory magazine from the Glock 21, with a capacity of 13 rounds, will function in the Glock 30.
The Glock 30SF is a version of the Glock 30 that utilizes the Short Frame (SF) which is based on the standard G30 frame (same width), but reduces the trigger reach from the back of the grip by 2.5 mm (0.098
in). The G30SF utilizes the same standard double-stack .45ACP magazines as the G30 and G21.* [59]
The Glock 30S is a version of the Glock 30 that features a thin slide (same slide as the G36), a Short
Frame (SF) and a double stack magazine.* [60] The magazine holds 10 rounds.* [61]
The Glock 36 is a slimlineversion of the subcompact Glock 30 that features an ultra-compact slide and
frame and is chambered for the .45 ACP cartridge. The Glock 36 is the rst Glock pistol to be manufactured
with a single-stack magazine, having a standard capacity of 6 rounds and being unique to the model. Unlike
other subcompact Glock pistols, the Glock 36 cannot use factory magazines from its larger relatives due to its
single-stack magazine design.
The Glock 41 is a competition version of the Glock 21, much like what the G34 is in relation to the G17; it
features a 5.3 inch barrel and an elongated slide to accommodate for it. The Glock 41 is only made with the
Gen4frame.* [62]

14.3.4

.40 S&W

The Glock 22 is a .40 S&W version of the full-size Glock 17 introduced in 1990. The pistol uses a modied
slide, frame, and barrel to account for the dierences in size and power of the .40 S&W cartridge. The standard
magazine capacity is 15 rounds.
The Glock 23 is a .40 S&W version of the compact Glock 19. It is dimensionally identical to the Glock 19 but
is slightly heavier and uses a modied slide, frame, .40 S&W barrel and a standard magazine capacity of 13
rounds. The factory 15-round magazine from the larger Glock 22 will function in the Glock 23.
The Glock 24 is a .40 S&W long slide variant of the Glock 22, similar in concept to the Glock 17L. Additionally,
a compensated ported-barrel version designated the 24C was also produced. The Glock 24 was introduced in
1994 and ocially dropped from the company's regular product lineup upon the release of the Glock 34 and
35.* [63] However, Glock continues to make small batch runs of the Glock 24 and 24C (as well as the similarly
sized Glock 17L) at irregular intervals to satisfy consumer demand built-up for factory-new units, as shown by
the release into the marketplace of new production of these models during the spring of 2010 and summer of
2011.

154

CHAPTER 14. GLOCK

The Glock 27 is a .40 S&W version of the subcompact Glock 26, with a standard magazine capacity of 9
rounds. The factory magazines from the larger Glock 22 and 23 will function in the Glock 27, increasing
capacity to 13 or 15 rounds. Spacers are available that t on these larger-capacity magazines themselves; they
have the eect of extendingthe magazine well of the pistol, thereby improving the ergonomic feel of the
pistol when the longer magazines are inserted.
The Glock 35 is a .40 S&W version of the competition Glock 34.
As is typical of pistols chambered in .40 S&W, each of the standard Glock models (22, 23, and 27) may be easily
converted to the corresponding .357 SIG chambering (Glock 31, 32, and 33 respectively) simply by replacing the
barrel. No other parts need to be replaced, as the .40 S&W magazines will feed the .357 SIG round.

14.3.5

.380 ACP

The rst two .380 ACP models are primarily intended for markets which prohibit civilian ownership of rearms
chambered in military calibers such as 919mm Parabellum.* [64]
Due to the relatively low bolt thrust of the .380 ACP cartridge, the locked-breech design of the Glock 19 and Glock
26 was minimally modied for the Glock 25 and Glock 28 to implement unlocked breech operation. It operates via
straight blowback of the slide. This required modication of the locking surfaces on the barrel as well as a redesign
of the former locking block. Unusual for a blowback design, the barrel is not xed to the frame. It moves rearward
in recoil until it is tilted below the slide, similar to the standard locked-breech system. The reduced size and mass of
the Glock 42 required return to the Glock-standard locked-breech design.
The Glock 25, introduced in 1995, is a blowback derivative of the compact (102 mm (4.0 in) barrel) Glock
19. The magazine capacity is 15 rounds. Standard xed sight elevation is 6.9 mm, unlike the 6.5 mm elevation
used for the 919mm models.
The Glock 28, introduced in 1997, is a blowback derivative of the subcompact (87 mm (3.4 in) barrel) Glock 26.
The standard magazine capacity is 10 rounds, but the 15-round Glock 25 magazine will function in the Glock
28. Standard xed sight elevation is 6.9 mm, unlike the 6.5 mm elevation used for the 919mm Parabellum
models.
The Glock 42, introduced in 2014, is an all-new locked-breech slimline(83 mm (3.3 in) barrel) design.
The single-stack magazine is unique to this model, with a capacity of six rounds. It is Glock's smallest model
ever made and is manufactured in the USA, which unlike the Glock 25 and 28 allows domestic sales in that
market. The Glock 42 introduced several signicant design changes relative to all prior Glock models:
Redesigned ring pin safety: Wider non-rotating ring pin safety.
Slide stop lever coil spring: Coil spring eases assembly, changes order of assembly and disassembly,
eliminates possibility of misaligning slide stop lever spring.
Recongured trigger return spring

14.3.6

.357 SIG

The Glock 31 is a .357 SIG variant of the full-sized Glock 22. The standard magazine capacity of the Glock
31 is 15 rounds.
The Glock 32 is a .357 SIG variant of the compact Glock 23. The standard magazine capacity of the Glock 32
is 13 rounds.
The Glock 33 is a .357 SIG variant of the subcompact Glock 27. The standard magazine capacity of the Glock
33 is 9 rounds.

14.3.7

.45 GAP

Glock pistols chambered for the .45 GAP (and the .45 ACP) feature octagonal polygonal riing rather than the
hexagonal shaped bores used for models in most other chamberings.* [57] Octagonal riing provides a better gas seal
in relatively large diameter ried bores, since an octagon resembles a circle more closely than a hexagon.* [40]

14.3. VARIANTS

155

The Glock 37 is a .45 GAP version of the Glock 17. It uses a wider, beveled slide, larger barrel, and dierent
magazine, but is otherwise similar to the Glock 17. The Glock 37 rst appeared in 2003. It was designed
to oer ballistic performance comparable with the .45 ACP in the frame size of the Glock 17. The concern
with the size of the Glock 20/21 has been addressed by the Glock 36, 21SF, and 30SF all of which featured
reduced-size frames. The standard magazine capacity of the Glock 37 is 10 rounds.
The Glock 38 is a .45 GAP version of the compact Glock 19.* [65] The standard magazine capacity of the
Glock 38 is 8 rounds.
The Glock 39 is a .45 GAP version of the subcompact Glock 26. The standard magazine capacity of the Glock
39 is 6 rounds.

14.3.8

Model comparison chart

14.3.9

Regional variants

The Glock Mariner and Glock Tactical are versions of various Glock pistols sold in the Philippines with an
adjustable rear sight, extended slide stop, maritime spring cups and an engraved slide with the words MARINER
or TACTICAL.* [68]
The Glock 17A is a variant produced with a 120 mm (4.7 in) extended barrel that protrudes from the slide
visibly. It is intended for the Australian market to conform to local laws regarding barrel length created after
the Monash University shooting and are supplied with 10-round magazines.* [69]* [70]
The Glock 17S is a variant with an external, frame-mounted, manual safety. Small numbers of this variant were
made for the Tasmanian, Israeli, Pakistani and perhaps several South American security forces.* [71] They are
stamped17, not17S. They resemble, but are distinguishable from, standard Glock 17 pistols that have
been tted with the after-market Cominolli safety.* [72] An additional safety variant Glock 17 that was tested
by the British Military included a frame safety similar to that found on the British service rie, the SA-80.* [73]
The Glock 17Pro is a version produced exclusively for the Finnish market.* [68] It has the following alterations
from the standard Glock 17: factory tritium night sights, an extended, threaded barrel, marine spring cups,
modied magazine release, extended slide release (factory standard in newer models), extended +2 magazine
baseplates, 15.5 N (3.5 lbf ) connector, and factory Glock pouch.* [68]
The Glock 17DK is a version for Denmark, where handguns must, by law, be at least 210 mm (8.3 in) long.
The Glock 17DK has a 122.5 mm (4.8 in) barrel, making the pistol 210 mm (8.3 in) long overall.
The Glock 17 SNF (SNF Servicio Nacional de Fronteras de Panam) is a version of the Glock 17 used by
Servicio Nacional de Fronteras in Panama with SNF Dios y Patria engraved on the slide.* [68]
The Glock 25 SDN (SDN Secretaria de la Defensa Nacional or Secretary of National Defense) is a
version of the Glock 25 for civilian and Mexican law enforcement use with S. D. N. MEXICO DF printed in
white letters on the right side of the slide. The pistol is chambered for .380 ACP (9 mm Kurz, 9mm Short,
9x17mm or 9mm Browning) and is distributed by the Weapon and Ammunition Commercialization Directive
(Direccin de Comercializacin de Armas y Municiones or DCAM) of SDN* [68]

14.3.10

Training variants

The Glock 17T is a training pistol that res paint or rubber bullets. There are two versions and they are
both easily recognizable from their bright blue frames: the Glock 17T 9 mm FX, which res Simunition FX
cartridges and the Glock 17T 7.821 AC, which res cartridges with paint and rubber bullets powered by
replaceable pressurized air cartridges.
The Glock 17P and Glock 17R are both training pistols for practicing hand-to-hand combat, loading and unloading of the pistol. The Glock 17P / Glock 17R is identical to a standard Glock 17 except for its red frame,
some models have an inert barrel (without a chamber, thus preventing the accidental chambering of a live cartridge) and no ring pin hole in the breech face (preventing someone from using a live barrel with the training
slide). Dierence between models is that to perform a 'reset' of the trigger, a cycling of the slide has to be
performed on the 17P but not on the 17R.

156

CHAPTER 14. GLOCK

14.4 Production in other countries


Aside from the original Austrian company, Glock pistols are manufactured by the Glock Inc. subsidiary division
located in the United States. Those batches are nearly the same or identical compared to the Austrian-made ones, but
they are marked as USA, instead of AUSTRIA, on the slide; and they have 7-digit serial numbers, instead
of the Austrians' 6.
Glock 17 pistols are now to be assembled locally at army workshops of Uruguay to fulll the needs of the national
military services and law enforcement organizations. These pistols are assembled initially with original Glock parts
and later with locally manufactured parts.
205th Armory in Taiwan produces a copy of the Glock 19, named as the T97. The Taiwan-made Glocks were made
to replace the Smith & Wesson Model 5906 used by the Taiwan police, but it ultimately did not enter service.
Turkish company Akdal Arms produces a pistol named Ghost TR01 which is heavily inuenced by Glock pistols in
its design.* [74]
Russian rms such as Skat,* [75] ORSIS* [76] and Izhmash assemble three models of Glock pistols locally: the Glock
17, 34 and 35.

14.5 Users
14.6 References
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[153] http://us.glock.com/news/release/glock-secures-atlanta-police-department-as-newest-law-enforcement-customer/. Missing or empty |title= (help)


[154] Glocks In Law Enforcement.
[155] Physical Requirements=BPD. Retrieved 2010-07-18.
[156] ATF Gives Agents Choice of .40-Caliber Glocks. Police Magazine. September 8, 2010. Retrieved January 24, 2015.
[157] Ayoob, Massad (December 2004). 9mm Dead?". American Handgunner. Retrieved 2009-07-24.
[158] Ayoob, Massad (July 2008). The Glock 22: America's best-selling police pistol. Guns Magazine: 1417.
[159] Florida Highway Patrol Policy Manual. Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles. March 11, 2013.
Retrieved 2014-03-15.
[160] Small Handgun Attitude. Guns magazine. May 2003. Retrieved 2009-07-24.
[161] Kentucky State Police SRT GLOCKs.
[162] General Orders. Retrieved 2013-02-26.
[163] Precincts. NYPD. Retrieved 2010-06-29.
[164] U.S. Marshals Service for Students, A Week in the Life, Wednesday
[165] VBPD=VBPD. Retrieved 2010-07-18.
[166] Uruguay to produce Glock pistols - Janes.com, 28 April 2013
[167] Williams, David (7 June 2010). Yemen arrests 'Briton with links to Al Qaeda' in anti-terror swoop. Daily Mail (United
Kingdom). Retrieved 2010-11-27.

14.7 Further reading


Boatman, Robert H. (2002). Living With Glocks: The Complete Guide to the New Standard in Combat Handguns. Boulder, Col.: Paladin Press. ISBN 1581603401.
Kasler, Peter Alan (1992). Glock: The New Wave in Combat Handguns. Boulder, Col.: Paladin Press. ISBN
9780873646499. OCLC 26280979.
Kokalis, Peter (2001). Weapons Tests and Evaluations: The Best of Soldier of Fortune. Boulder, Col.: Paladin
Press. ISBN 9781581601220.
Sweeney, Patrick (2003). The Gun Digest Book of the Glock: A Comprehensive Review: Design, History, Use.
Iola, WI: Krause Publications. ISBN 0873495586.
Taylor, Robin (2005). The Glock in Competition: A Shooter's How ToGuide (2nd ed.). Bellingham, WA:
Taylor Press. ISBN 0966251741.
Woniak, Ryszard (2001). Encyklopedia najnowszej broni palnej tom 2 G- (in Polish). Warsaw, Poland:
Bellona. ISBN 83-11-09310-5.

14.8 External links


Glock's ocial website
Glock 17 Gen4
US 4539889

162

Standard sighting arrangement of a rst generationGlock 17

CHAPTER 14. GLOCK

14.8. EXTERNAL LINKS

163

The Glock 18, chambered in 919mm Parabellum, tted with a detachable shoulder stock being red in fully automatic mode

The compact Glock 19 in 919mm Parabellum

164

The subcompact Glock 26 with tritium night sights in 919mm Parabellum

The subcompact Glock 29 in 10mm Auto

CHAPTER 14. GLOCK

14.8. EXTERNAL LINKS

The slim-frame Glock 36 in .45 ACP

Glock 22 OD in .40 S&W with olive drab frame

165

166

The competition-oriented Glock 35 in .40 S&W

The subcompact Glock 33 in .357 SIG

CHAPTER 14. GLOCK

14.8. EXTERNAL LINKS

Glock model 25 SDN pistol.

167

Chapter 15

GP-25
For the locomotive, see EMD GP30.
The GP-30 Obuvka ('Shoe'), GP-25 Kostyor ('Bonre') and BG-15 Mukha ('Fly') are Russian under barrel grenade
launchers for the AK-series of assault rie. They were rst seen by the west in 1984 during the Soviet Invasion of
Afghanistan. The initial version was designated BG-15, and was tted under the barrel of AK-74 assault ries. The
main production version, the GP-25, has a dierent sighting system. The current Izhmash-made version, the GP-34
features the following advantages:
Reliability: It is designed and tested specically for the Kalashnikov assault ries, ts such assault ries directly
without any adaptors or forearm dismantling.* [1]
Improved safety: The design prevents a round from moving within or falling out of the barrel, even if the
muzzle looks down. The GP-34 features an additional mechanism (ring pin safety lever) to improve safety
during loading.* [1]

15.1 Development

An AK-74M equipped with a GP-25 grenade launcher.

Development of a grenade launcher for the AK-47 assault rie began in 1966 at the Sporting and Hunting Arms
Central Design and Research Bureau. Development continued into the 1970s, and in 1978 it was accepted into
service. The GP-30 rst entered service in 1989, and is intended for use with the AK-100 series of assault ries.

15.2 Description
The grenade launchers are similar in appearance and re the same 40 mm diameter ammunition and use the same
High-Low System developed by Germany in late World War II to keep recoil forces low without a rocket or other
type of recoilless weapon back blast.
168

15.3. AMMUNITION

169

The GP-30 is a stripped-down model grenade launcher, consisting of a very short, 40 mm ried barrel in front of a
basic trigger mechanism with minimal hand grip. On top of the barrel is mounting gear to attach the weapon under
the barrel of an AK-series assault rie, from where it is designed to be red.
A grenade is rst muzzle loaded into the barrel, the weapon is aimed, then the self-cocking trigger is pulled to re the
weapon. This res the percussion cap at the base of the grenade which triggers the nitrocellulose propellant inside the
body of the grenade. The hot expanding gas from the propellant is forced through vents in the base of the grenade
that move the grenade along the barrel, and at the same time force the driving band to engage with the twelve riing
grooves. The riing imparts stabilizing spin to the projectile.
The barrel has a life of about 400 rounds.

15.3 Ammunition
The grenade launchers re a series of special 40 mm grenades. Originally, the main grenade was the VOG-15 (7P17)
fragmentation grenade. This was superseded by the steel-cased VOG-25 fragmentation grenade. The VOG-25 has
a lethal radius of six meters. Rounds for the muzzle-loaded GP-25 consist of a single piece containing both propellant and warhead, unlike the more traditional two piece casing-and-projectile design of the comparable American
40x46mm round used in breech-loaded grenade launchers, such as the M203.
A bouncing grenade, the VOG-25P, is also available. On impact, a small charge in the nose of the grenade is detonated; this raises the grenade 0.5 to 1.5 m in the air, before an impact delay fuse detonates it. The VOG-25P also
has a lethal radius of 6 meters.
Smoke grenades are also available. The original GRD-40 grenade has been replaced by a series of grenades designed
for use at dierent ranges; these are the GRD-50, GRD-100 and GRD-200 for use at 50, 100 and 200 meters
respectively. They are capable of producing a 20 square meter cloud of smoke that lasts for one minute in winds of
up to ve meters per second.
A CS gas grenade called the Gvozd (Nail) and a baton grenade are also available.

15.3.1

Grenades

Fuse arming range: 1040 m (33130 ft)


Fuse self-destruction time: 1419 s
VOG-25 specications:
Weight: 250 g (0.55 lb)
Warhead: 48 g of A-IX-1 explosive.
VOG-25P specications:
Weight: 278 g (0.61 lb)
Warhead: 37 g of TNT.
GRD-50/100/200 specications
Weight: 265 g
Warhead: 90 g

15.4 Users

Bulgaria: Made under license by Arsenal as the UBGL* [2] and the UBGL-1.* [3]

Georgia: Locally produced.* [4]

Lithuania: Lithuanian Armed Forces* [5]

170

CHAPTER 15. GP-25

Moldova

North Korea* [6]* [7]

Russia* [6]

Serbia

Ukraine* [6]

15.5 See also


RGM-40 Kastet grenade launcher is a stand alone version of GP-30 grenade launcher
M203 grenade launcher
List of Russian weaponry

15.6 References
[1] http://www.izhmash.ru/eng/product/gp-34.shtml |Izhmash GP-34 Specications
[2] Arsenal 40 mm Underbarrel Grenade Launcher UBGL. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
[3] Arsenal 40 mm Underbarrel Grenade Launcher UBGL-1. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
[4] Industrial Parade. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
[5] Lietuvos kariuomen :: Ginkluot ir karin technika Granatsvaidiai ir prietankiniai ginklai. Retrieved 15 November
2014.
[6] Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN
978-0-7106-2869-5.
[7] https://fas.org/nuke/guide/dprk/nkor.pdf

Koll, Christian (2009). Soviet Cannon A Comprehensive Study of Soviet Arms and Ammunition in Calibres 12.7mm
to 57mm. Austria: Koll. p. 397. ISBN 978-3-200-01445-9.

15.7 External links


Modern Firearms
Technical data, instructional images and diagrams of the GP-25 (Russian)
Dierences between GP-25, GP-30, GP-30M and GP-34 (Russian)]

Chapter 16

Heckler & Koch PSG1


The PSG1 (Przisionsschtzengewehr, German forprecision shooter rie) is a semi-automatic sniper rie designed
by the German company Heckler & Koch of Oberndorf am Neckar.

16.1 Development
This rie is said to have been developed in response to the Munich massacre at the 1972 Summer Olympics. The
West German police units could not engage the terrorists quickly enough to prevent them from killing their hostages.
H&K was then commissioned to create a high accuracy, large magazine capacity, semi-automatic rie for police and
military use.
In addition, the rie has been licensed for local production in Pakistan by Pakistan Ordnance Factories (POF) as the
PSR-90 and Mexico by SEDENA as the Morelos Bicentenario.

16.2 Design details


The PSG1 is mechanically based on the G3 rie and features a low-noise bolt closing device (similar to the forward
assist on many M16 ries). Its shot-to-shot variation is expected to be better than 1 minute of angle (MOA) with
match ammunition. Although this level of accuracy is unremarkable in modern semi-automatic ries, it was claimed
that the PSG1 was one of the most accurate semi-automatic sniper ries in the world.* [1]
PSG1s are not supplied with iron sights but come equipped with the Hensoldt ZF6x42PSG1 scope with an illuminated
reticle. The scope has a built-in range adjustment feature which can be adjusted from 100 to 600 m.
It has a heavy free-oating barrel with polygonal riing and an adjustable stock. The stock is of high impact matte
black plastic and has a high degree of adjustment. It is adjustable for length, and includes a pivoting butt cap and a
vertically-adjustable cheekpiece. The forend is tted with a T-way rail for sling swivel or tripod.
The rie also features a removable and adjustable trigger unit, for further individual tting of the rie. The trigger
pull can be modied and the whole assembly is removable from the pistol grip. The pistol grip is of a target-style
with an adjustable palm shelf.
The PSG-1's ocial silencer is from Brgger & Thomet (B and T).* [2]

16.3 Variants
16.3.1

PSG1A1

The PSG1A1 variant was introduced by Heckler & Koch in 2006, and features two major improvements. First,
the cocking handle was relocated a couple of degrees counter-clockwise. This was due to the fact that when locked
rearward, it could physically interfere with the long scopes often used on the ries. The second modication involved
171

172

CHAPTER 16. HECKLER & KOCH PSG1

the replacement of the outdated Hensoldt scope. Non-police users often found the scope's 600 m range limitation
and simple crosshairs inadequate for their needs. In addition, the rechargeable batteries are dicult to recharge and
to nd replacements. A nal fault is that Hensoldt does not service the scope in the United States. For these reasons,
the PSG1A1 has been outtted with a Schmidt & Bender 3-12x50 Police Marksman II scope, mounted on 34 mm
(1.3 in) rings. One last modication involved converting the SG 550 Sniper stock to work with the PSG1. The H&K
rie now has a completely side-folding adjustable target stock removing a solid 10 inches (250 mm) in overall length.
To remedy brass ejection a brass catcher must be installed.

16.3.2

MSG90

The MSG90 is a militarized variant of the PSG1, that is both strengthened and lightened. The PSG1 and MSG90
have dierent trigger packs. The MSG90 uses a modied version of the push pin trigger packs of H&K roller locked
select-re assault ries. The composite shoulder stock of the MSG90 is adjustable for height (cheek), length of pull
(shoulder), and is smaller and lighter than that of the PSG1. MSG90s have a slightly shorter contoured barrel to help
with harmonic stabilization and consistent whip instead of the PSG1's heavy barrel, but remain free-oating. As a
result, these particular MSG90 A1's have a threaded barrel capable of attaching a suppressor, which is an advantage
over the PSG1.
The sighting system utilizes the multipurpose Weaver rail system rather than the STANAG 2324 claw mount for
axing sighting systems which can be purchased separately. This same rail mounting system is used on the HK21E,
HK23E, and G41 (discontinued) series.
The barrel is weighted at the muzzle to aid harmonic stabilization of barrel whip to enhance accuracy. The addition
of a ash suppressor adds to the overall length.

16.4 Users
16.5 See also
DSR-50
FD-200 sniper rie
SVD

16.6 References
[1] 2008 Heckler & Koch Military and LE brochure
[2] http://www.bt-ag.ch/en/manufacturing/soundsuppressors/sniper_suppressors.php?pid=657
[3] http://www.specialoperations.com/Foreign/Albania/Default.htm
[4] Kolmoismurhaaja Mika Murasen ehdonalaishakemus hyvksyttiin. mtv..
[5] HK MSG90 (in French). French Army. 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-14.
[6] Bharat Rakshak (2008). NATIONAL SECURITY GUARDS. Bharat Rakshak. Retrieved 2009-10-02.
[7] Kopassus & Kopaska - Specijalne Postrojbe Republike Indonezije(in Croatian). Hrvatski Vojnik Magazine. Retrieved
2010-06-12.
[8] Lietuvos kariuomen :: Ginkluot ir karin technika Snaiperiniai autuvai Snaiperinis autuvas H&K MSG-90A1
. kam.lt.
[9] Unocial Pistols Page, Equipment. http://USP.lu - Unocial Website of Unit Spciale, Ocially Endorsed. Retrieved
2009-10-06.
[10] L'Unite d'Intervention de la Police Luxembourgeoise (in French). RAIDS Magazine. March 2006. Retrieved 200909-23.

16.7. EXTERNAL LINKS

173

[11] Lasterra, Juan Pablo (2004). UPS Unidad Especial de la Policia Luxembourguesa (in Spanish). ARMAS Magazine.
Retrieved 2009-09-23.
[12] Grup Gerak Khas - Malaysian Special Operations. Shadowspear.com. Retrieved 2010-03-14.
[13] Pasukan Khas Laut - Malaysian Special Operations. Shadowspear.com. Retrieved 2010-03-14.
[14] Thompson, Leroy (December 2008). Malaysian Special Forces. Special Weapons. Retrieved 2009-11-29.
[15] Administrator.Mexico Mexican army land ground forces military equipment armoured vehicle pictures information desc
- Mexico Mexican army land ground forces UK - Central America army land forces UK. armyrecognition.com.
[16] "www.arrestatieteam.nl - Scherpschutters BBE Politie. Retrieved 2010-06-18.
[17] Norwegian Armed forced. http://www.mil.no/ . Retrieved 2010-11-24.
[18] Pakistan Army.
[19] POF - Semi Automatic Precision Sniper Rie PSR 90.
[20] Special Weapons, February 2010 issue. Page 67-68.
[21] Grupo Especial de Operaciones - Fusiles de precisin. www.policia.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2009-12-10.
[22] Jones, Richard (2009). Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009-2010. Jane's Information Group. p. 903. ISBN 0-7106-2869-2.
[23] Turkish Army Land Forces military equipment and vehicles of Turkey
[24] Collins, Steve (1998). The Good Guys Wear Black. England: Arrow. p. 226. ISBN 0-09-918682-9.
[25] Anything, Anytime, AnywhereThe Unocial History of the Federal Bureau of Investigations Hostage Rescue Team
(HRT)
[26] Fred Pushies, Weapons of Delta Force (New York and London: Zenith Press, 2010), p. 48.
[27] Francotiradores: hombres pasto- Facebook. facebook.com.

16.7 External links


Heckler & Kochocial page
PSG1 on Mel's SniperCentral
HKPro
2008 Heckler & Koch Military and LE brochure
Video of operation on YouTube (Japanese)
Hk MSG90 Video

Chapter 17

IMI Galil
Galilredirects here. For the region in Israel, see Galilee.
The Galil is a family of Israeli small arms designed by Yisrael Galil and Yaacov Lior in the late 1960s and produced
by Israel Military Industries Ltd (now Israel Weapon Industries Ltd) of Ramat HaSharon. The rie design borrowed
heavily from the AK-47 and had a modied gas diversion system similar to the AK-47 to reduce the recoil of the rie
making it easier to re especially in automatic mode.* [2] The weapon system consists of a line chambered for the
intermediate 5.5645mm NATO caliber with either the M193 or SS109 ball cartridge and several models designed
for use with the 7.6251mm NATO rie round. It is named after one of its inventors, Yisrael Galil. The Galil series
of weapons is in use with military and police forces in over 25 countries.
There are four basic congurations of the Galil: the standard rie-length, a carbine variant known as the SAR , a
compact MAR version, and an ARM light machine gun.
A lighter-weight version of the Galil is currently in production, called the Galil ACE.

17.1 History
In the late 1950s, the Israeli Defense Forces adopted the FN FAL battle rie chambered for the 7.6251mm cartridge.
Two models were elded; the Alephindividual weapon and the Bethsquad automatic weapon. It rst saw
major combat with the Israelis during the Six Day War in 1967. Although Israel won decisive victories, the FAL
showed its limitations. It had poor reliability in the sandy and dusty battleelds of the Middle East. Furthermore, it
was a long and bulky weapon. Its length and malfunctions became so much of an issue that during the 1973 Yom
Kippur War, some soldiers armed themselves with an Uzi submachine gun with an extended barrel.* [3]* [4]
During the Six Day War, the Israelis captured thousands of AK-47 assault ries and evaluated them. The rie proved
far more reliable and controllable than the FAL. Because of this, the IDF began the process of procuring or designing
a new automatic rie. Several weapons were submitted for the lucrative deal of becoming the Israeli Army's standardissue assault rie. America oered the M16A1 and Stoner 63 series, Russia oered the AK-47 itself, and Germany
oered the HK 33. One indigenous design was oered by Uziel Gal, creator of the Uzi submachine gun.* [4]
Another indigenous design was oered by Yisrael Galil. His rie was based on the Finnish RK 62. While the AK-47
and RK 62 red the 7.6239mm Soviet round, Galili's rie red the smaller 5.5645mm M193 55-grain round. At
the time, the United States was replacing France as Israel's main partner and weapons supplier. The U.S. would not
supply Russian ammunition, so the design of the gun was altered to use the American cartridge. To accommodate
the smaller round, the Kalashnikov-type ries' 4.2 mm (0.17 in) gas hole was reduced to 1.8 mm (0.071 in). Tests
conducted from the end of the 1960s to the early 1970s led to Galili's rie emerging as the winner. It was named the
Galil after its designer and formally adopted as the Israeli Army's next assault rie in 1972 to replace the FN FAL.
However, issuing of the Galil was delayed by the sudden onset of the Yom Kippur War in 1973.* [3]* [4]* [5]
The Galil was mostly used by mechanized and armored units, where its folding stock made it easier to store in vehicles.
The M16A1 was more common in Israeli service in the 1970s and 1980s because Vietnam-surplus ries were sold
cheaper than it would cost to manufacture new Galils. Around 1975, M16A1s from the U.S. Military Aid Program
(MAP) arrived for Israel, which utilized them for infantry forces to allow them to carry a lighter weapon on patrols.
174

17.2. DESIGN DETAILS

175

The Galil was still kept in use by some services, including the Knesset Guard.* [3]

17.2 Design details


17.2.1

Operating mechanism

The Galil series of ries are selective re weapons operated by a Kalashnikov-pattern gas-driven piston system with
no regulator. The weapon is locked with a rotary bolt with two locking lugs that lock into recesses milled into the
receiver.
When red, a portion of the propellant gases are evacuated into the gas cylinder through a 1.8 mm (0.07 in) port,
drilled at a 30 angle in the barrel, and a channel in the gas block. The high-pressure gases drive the piston rod
(which is attached to the bolt carrier) rearward. During this rearward movement, a cam slot machined into the bolt
carrier engages a cam pin on the bolt and rotates the bolt, unlocking the action. The arrangement of parts on the bolt
carrier assembly provides for a degree of free travel, allowing gas pressure in the barrel to drop to a safe level before
unlocking. To the immediate rear of the chrome-plated piston head is a notched ring which provides a reduced bearing
surface and alleviates excess gas build-up. As the bolt carrier travels back, it compresses the return spring guided
in a hollowed section of the bolt carrier and the return energy contained in the spring drives the moving assembly
back forward, stripping a new round from the magazine and locking the action. The cocking handle is attached to the
bolt carrier on the right side of the receiver and reciprocates with each shot; the handle is bent upwards allowing for
operation with the left hand while the shooting hand remains on the pistol grip.
The ejection of spent cases from the Galil is sometimes a violent action. Cases can be dented by the ejector and be
thrown as much as 40 ft away from the rie in some cases, depending on position.* [5]

17.2.2

Features

The Galil is hammer-red and has a trigger mechanism patterned after the trigger used in the American M1 Garand.* [6]
The rie's re selector switch has three positions: S-A-R. Pushing it to the rear position R(British terminology
for repetition), provides semi-automatic re. Pushing it to the middle position Aproduces fully automatic
re. Pushing the lever fully forward to Swill activate the safety.
The Galil prototypes used a stamped and riveted sheet metal steel receiver, but due to the higher operating pressures
of the 5.56x45mm cartridge, this solution was discarded and the designers turned to a heavy milled forging. As a
testament to its heritage, early prototypes were fabricated using Valmet Rk 62 receivers manufactured in Helsinki.* [6]
All exterior metal surfaces are phosphated for corrosion resistance and then coated with a black enamel (except for
the barrel, gas block and front sight tower). The machined solid steel billet action avoided cracking problems the
AK-series had with steel stamped sheet actions, but this made the Galil heavier.* [3]
The weapon is tted with a high-impact plastic handguard and pistol grip and a side-folding (folds to the right side)
tubular steel skeleton stock. The rie can be used with a sound suppressor. The weapon features a bottle opener in
the front handguard and wire cutter built into the bipod. The bottle opener feature was included to prevent damage to
magazines being used to open bottles, due to the large civilian reservist components of the IDF. Use of magazines to
open bottles was a common source of magazine lip damage with Uzi submachine guns. Wire cutters were included
to reduce the time necessary for IDF troops to cut down wire fences common to rural areas in Israel.

17.2.3

Barrel

Early production models were supplied with barrels that had six right-hand grooves and a 305 mm (1:12 in) riing
twist (optimized for use with M193 ammunition), while recent production models feature a 178 mm (1:7 in) twist
barrel with six right-hand grooves (used to stabilize the heavier SS109/M855 projectile). The barrel has a slotted ash
suppressor with 6 ports and can be used to launch rie grenades or mount a bayonet lug attachment (it will accept the
M7 bayonet).* [6]

176

CHAPTER 17. IMI GALIL

An Estonian soldier on patrol in March 2005, during the Iraq War, with a compact Galil SAR in 5.56x45mm.

17.3. VARIANTS

17.2.4

177

Feeding

The Galil is fed from a curved, steel box magazine with a 35-round capacity (SAR and AR versions), a 50-round
capacity (ARM model) or a special color-coded 12-round magazine blocked for use exclusively with ballistite (blank)
cartridges, used to launch rie grenades. The magazine is inserted front end rst in a similar manner to the AK family.
An optional magazine adaptor enables the use of M16 type STANAG magazines.* [6]* [7] Some who have used the
Galil ARM with the 50-round magazine have noted that it is dicult to engage targets at elevated heights while ring
on the ground in the prone position due to the magazine's extended length.* [5]

17.2.5

Sights

The L-shaped rear sight has two apertures preset for ring at 0300 m and 300500 m respectively (the rear sight can
only be adjusted for elevation). The front post is fully adjustable for both windage and elevation zero and is enclosed
in a protective hood. Low-light ip-up front blade and rear sight elements have three self-luminous tritium capsules
(betalights) which are calibrated for 100 m when deployed. When the rear night sight is ipped up for use, the rear
aperture sights must be placed in an oset position intermediate between the two apertures. Certain variants have a
receiver-mounted dovetail adapter that is used to mount various optical sights.

17.2.6

Stock

All Galil variants have a folding tubular steel stock. While similar in appearance to the folding stocks on some FAL
variants, they are made from tubular aluminum. Galil stocks do not have a button latch. Although the folding stock
makes the Galil able to t in conned spaces, its steel construction, which is more durable than the FAL folding
stock's aluminum construction, further adds weight to the rie.* [5]

17.3 Variants
17.3.1

AR

The standard rie version which is tted with a high-impact plastic handguard and pistol grip, a side-folding (folds to
the right side) tubular metal skeleton stock as tted to all variants except the Galil Sniper.

17.3.2

SAR

The SAR carbine variant, generally known as Glilon, is congured with a shorter barrel (332 mm, 13.07in). Due to
the shorter barrel a corresponding shorter piston and gas tube as well as a unique gas block are found on the SAR.

17.3.3

ARM

The ARM light machine gun variant is additionally equipped with a carrying handle, folding bipod and a larger
wooden handguard. The wooden handguard remains cooler during sustained automatic re and has grooves for bipod
storage. When folded, the bipod's legs form a speed chute for rapid magazine insertion; the bipod will form a wire
cutter and the rear handguard ferrule, which retains the bipod legs, can be used to open bottles by design, in order to
prevent soldiers using magazine lips for this purpose which damaged them.* [6]

17.3.4

MAR

The most recent addition to the Galil family of weapons is the MAR compact carbine, which retains the internal
features of the original Galil with a completely new frame, operating system and an even shorter barrel. Introduced
to the public at the 2nd International Defence Industry Exhibition in Poland in 1994, the weapon was developed
for use with the army and police special units, vehicle crews, army sta, special operations personnel and airborne
infantry.

178

CHAPTER 17. IMI GALIL

The MAR, or the Micro Galil, is a reduced-size version of the Galil SAR (706 mm stock extended / 465 mm folded),
weighing 2.98 kg empty. Compared to the original carbine, the MAR has a shortened barrel (210 mm), receiver,
piston, gas tube and foregrip. The rearm is fed from a 35-round steel magazine which can be clipped together to
increase reload speed. The MAR has the same rate of re (630-750 rounds/min) as other 5.56 mm Galil models.
An optional magazine adapter inserted inside the magazine well allows the use of standard 20 and 30-round M16
magazines. The lever safety and re selector (located on both sides of the receiver) has four settings: Sweapon
is safe, Aautomatic re, B3-round burst, Rsemi-automatic mode. The barrel has a multifunction
muzzle device. The MAR is equipped with a folding tubular aluminum stock and a ip aperture sight with two
settings: 0300 m and beyond 300 m. The MAR can also be equipped with a night vision device (attached through
an adapter mounted to the left side of the receiver), a daytime optical sight (mounted via a receiver cover adapter),
low-light sights with tritium illuminated dots, a vertical forward grip with integrated laser pointer, silencer and a
nylon sling. Upon request, the weapon can be supplied with a bolt catch, plastic magazines weighing 0.164 kg or an
enlarged trigger guard for use with gloves.
The MAR has undergone several changes over time, and it is worth noting that it may also be found with a polymer
coated aluminum stock or an all polymer stock. The Model 699 is available with a 267mm barrel and optional left
side charging handle which is welded on to the left side of the bolt carrier and protrudes through a slot cut in he
receiver cover that is covered by a spring loaded cover while the bolt carrier is forward.

17.3.5

7.62mm variants

Djiboutian National Police ocers training with the 7.62mm Galil AR.

The 7.62 mm Galil is derived from the 5.56 mm base version. The rie retains the general design layout and method
of operation of the 5.56 mm variant. In 7.62mm the Galil is available in several dierent congurations including a
SAR carbine, full size AR rie and ARM light machine gun. These weapons are fed from 25-round box magazines
(previously 20-rounds). The barrel has four right-hand grooves with a 305 mm (1:12 in) riing twist rate.

17.3. VARIANTS

179

A Nepalese peacekeeper with the 7.62mm Galil SAR.

Galatz
The 7.62 mm Galil Sniper (Galil Tzalam, or "Galatz") is a derivative of the ARM that is used with high quality
7.62x51mm NATO ammunition for consistent accuracy.* [8]
The precision rie is a semi-automatic-only rie with a similar operating system to other Galil variants, but optimised
for accuracy. The rie is fed from a 25-round box magazine. It uses a heavy prole match barrel that is heavier
than that used on other variants. It is tted with a multi-functional muzzle device, which acts as a ash suppressor
and a muzzle brake. It can be replaced with a sound suppressor which requires the use of subsonic ammunition for
maximum eectiveness.
The weapon was modied with a two-stage trigger mechanism with an adjustable pull force, a wooden buttstock that
folds to the right side of the weapon and a heavy-duty bipod, mounted to the forward base of the receiver housing
that folds beneath the handguard when not in use. The buttstock is fully adjustable in length and height and features a
variable height cheek riser. The rie comes with mechanical iron sights and an adapter used to mount a telescopic day
sight (Nimrod 6x40) or a night sight. The mount is quick-detachable and capable of retaining zero after remounting.
The precision rie is stored in a rugged transport case that comes with an optical sight, mount, lters, two slings (for
carrying and ring) and a cleaning kit. Recent production models feature synthetic plastic furniture and a skeletonized
metal stock.
The Galatz was rst introduced in 1983.* [9] The SR-99 is a modernized version of the Galatz featuring an adjustable
skeleton stock instead of a wooden stock, synthetic handguard, and a synthetic pistol grip. It is somewhat less rugged,
but more ergonomic.* [10]

17.3.6

Other variants

Magal: A law enforcement carbine variant of the Galil MAR chambered in .30 Carbine. It uses the same 15and 30-round magazines as the M1 Carbine.
Marksman Assault Rie Mark 1: 5.56 mm designated marksman rie introduced in 1996. Has a scope and
padded stock.* [4]
Golani: A civilian version with a new-production milled semi-automatic receiver built in the United States.

180

CHAPTER 17. IMI GALIL


All other components are original IMI Galil production parts.

Galil ACE: The new generation of the Galil rie. It has three versions (Micro, SAR and AR) chambered for
5.56mm NATO, 7.62mm Soviet M43 and 7.62mm NATO. It has ve picatinny rails for optical devices and
accessories, and is lighter and more accurate than past generation Galils. It can be stripped without any tools.
South African variants
The Vektor R4, the SADF's version of the Galil ARM assault rie* [11]* [12] with several modications; notably,
both the stock and magazine are now made of a high-strength polymer and the stock was lengthened, adapting the
weapon for the average South African soldier.* [11]

The rst R4 manufactured in South Africa

The South African Navy, South African Air Force and South African Police Service adopted a short carbine version
of the 5.56 mm Galil SAR, which was license-manufactured as the R5. The R5, when compared to the larger R4,
has a barrel that is 130 millimeters (5.1 in) shorter, together with a shorter gas system and handguard. It also lacks a
bipod, and the ash hider does not support rie grenades.
In the 1990s, an even more compact personal defence weapon variant of the R5 was developed for armored vehicle
crews, designated the R6, which has a further reduced barrel and a shortened gas cylinder and piston assembly.
Lyttleton Ingenieurs Werke (LIW)/Denel Land Systems (DLS) also introduced a line of semi-automatic variants of
the R4, R5 and R6 called the LM4, LM5 and LM6 respectively, built for civilian and law enforcement users.

17.4 Users

Israel: Israel Defense Forces* [13] and Knesset Guard.* [14]


Brazil: The Polcia Militar do Estado do Par (PMPA; Military State Police of Par) ordered 555 Magal
Carbines in 2001.* [15]* [16]

Bolivia* [15]

Botswana* [15]

Cameroon: Issued to presidential guard units.* [17]

Democratic Republic of Congo* [15]

Colombia: Standard issue rie. Produced under license by Indumil.* [18] Also adopted the Galil ACE rie
by the middle of 2010, produced by Indumil.* [19] FARC rebels use captured examples against the Colombian
armed forces.* [20]
Costa Rica* [15]

17.4. USERS

Peruvian Marines break contact following a simulated ambush by an enemy sniper. Seen here using the 7.62mm Galil AR.

Nicaraguan Micro Galil

Dominican Republic

Djibouti* [21]

El Salvador* [22]

181

182

CHAPTER 17. IMI GALIL

Estonia: Uses 5.56mm versions of the Galil AR, SAR, ARM and the 7.62mm Galil Sniper.* [23]* [24]* [25]* [26]

Fiji* [27]

Guatemala: 3,000 ACE* [28]

Georgia: Uses GALATZ sniper and Micro-Galil assault ries * [29]

Haiti* [15]

Honduras: The Galil SAR was adopted in the late 1970s by the Honduran Army, until it was replaced
by the American-made M16A1 through U.S. military aid in the 1980s. The Galil SARs were then transferred
to the Honduran National Police, where they are still in use. In 2011, the Honduran government approved the
purchase of the Galil ACE 21 assault rie for use by the Army and Air Force. The Galil ACE made its rst
public appearance on Sept 15, 2013 in the hands of the new unit PMOP (Military Police of Public Order).
India* [15]

Indonesia: Komando Pasukan Katak (Kopaska) tactical diver group and Komando Pasukan Khusus (Kopassus) special forces group.* [30]

Italy: The Italian rearms manufacturing rm Vincenzo Bernardelli S.r.l. manufactured under licence
quantities of the Galil assault rie in two dierent models for governmental use in the 1980s.* [31] The
Bernardelli Mod.377 VB-STR assault rie was an outright clone of the Galil AR/ARM variant, while the
Bernardelli Mod.378 VB-SR assault carbine was a modied clone of the Galil SAR with a dierent magazine
well that accepted STANAG magazines, much similar in concept and look to the above-mentioned optional
magazine adapter currently available for the Israeli-made models, except that the Bernardelli VB-SR could be
manufactured with permanent STANAG magazine well modication on demand.* [32] The ries competed
to the trial for the adoption of a new 5.56x45mm NATO caliber rie, but lost to the Beretta 70/90 assault
weapons system. However, as of today, both models result by ocial schedules to be in the inventories of the
Italian National Police, and are known to be deployed with the NOCS team.* [33]

Lesotho* [15]

Mexico: Secretara de Seguridad Pblica.* [34]

Mongolia* [35]* [36]

Myanmar: Tatmadaw, Myanmar Police Force, Combat Police battalions. Produced locally in a modied
form as EMERK3.
Nepal* [15]
Nicaragua* [15]
Paraguay: Indumil-made Galils for the Fuerzas de Operaciones de Policias Especiales,SENAD (Drug
Enforcement)and main Rie of the Paraguayan Police * [37]

Peru* [15]

Philippines* [15]* [38]

Portugal: 5.56mm AR and ARM versions used by the Portuguese Army airborne infantry.* [39]

Rwanda* [15]

South Africa: Standard assault rie of the South African National Defence Force. Produced under license
in a modied form as the R4 by Denel Land Systems.* [40]

South Sudan

Swaziland* [15]

17.4. USERS

183

Knesset Guard with Galil

Tanzania: MAR version seen in use by Tanzanian special forces in the Congo.* [41]

Trinidad and Tobago.* [15] The Trinidad and Tobago Regiment uses this weapon as its standard issue.
Also used in conjunction with the FN FAL and M16. Galil ACE also used but in limited numbers.

Ukraine: Sniper variant is used by the Omegaspecial forces group. (produced under license as the
Fort-301)* [42]

184

CHAPTER 17. IMI GALIL

Vietnam: Uses Galil AR and Galil Sniper.* [43]* [44]

17.5 See also


Rk 62 - The Finnish weapon upon which the Galil is partly based.
AKM
IMI Tavor TAR-21 - Another Israeli 5.56mm assault rie
INSAS rie - Indian 5.56 mm caliber assault rie
R4 assault rie - South African licensed version
Vektor CR-21 - A South African bullpup rie based on the R4/Galil
Zastava M21 - A Serbian 5.56mm caliber rie based upon the Kalashnikov action.
List of assault ries
List of carbines
List of machine guns
List of sniper ries
PPsH-41
Mosin-Nagant

17.6 References
[1] Bishop, Chris. Guns in Combat. Chartwell Books, Inc (1998). ISBN 0-7858-0844-2.
[2] http://www.ak-47.us/Israel.php
[3] Galil Ace 5.56 - SAdefensejournal.com, 29 May 2013
[4] IMI Galil ARM/SAR - Militaryfactory.com
[5] Galil Rie History - Dnmsport.com
[6] Kokalis, Peter (2001). Weapons Tests And Evaluations: The Best Of Soldier Of Fortune. Boulder, CO: Paladin Press. p.
253. ISBN 1-58160-122-0.
[7] http://media.photobucket.com/image/galil%20m16%20magazine%20adapter/Smittyd5r/Gun%2520Stuff/ORFGalilARFG1.
jpg
[8] Galil 7.62mm semi-automatic sniper rie. Retrieved 25 October 2014.
[9] IMI Galil Sniper (Galatz) - Militaryfactory.com
[10] Galil - Weaponsystems.net
[11] Woniak, Ryszard. Encyklopedia najnowszej broni palnej - tom 4 R-Z. Bellona. 2002. pp910.
[12] John Walter (2006). Ries Of The World. Krause Publications. p. 141. ISBN 0-89689-241-7. Retrieved 2008-08-27.
[13] Hogg, Ian (2002). Jane's Guns Recognition Guide. Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-00-712760-X.
[14] Picture of the Knesset Guard on Israel's 52nd Independence Day armed with Galil, Israeli Knesset Ocial Website.
[15] Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN
978-0-7106-2869-5.
[16] "Tactical Weapons magazine The Magal .30M1: A look back at the Galils cousin thats still kicking for Brazilian and
Israeli police forces, by Ronaldo Olive.. Tactical Life. Retrieved 25 October 2014.

17.7. FURTHER READING

185

[17] Israeli arms transfers to sub-Saharan Africa


[18] INDUMIL - Industria Militar. Retrieved 25 October 2014.
[19] IWI Galil ACE 5.56 mm assault rie (Israel), Ries. Jane's Information Group. Archived from the original on August
17, 2010. Retrieved August 17, 2010.
[20] Partes de guerra - FARC-EP Bloque Martn Caballero. Retrieved 25 October 2014.
[21] http://www.navy.mil/view_single.asp?id=42208
[22] Haapiseva-Hunter, Jane (1999). Israeli foreign policy: South Africa and Central America. South End Press. p. 115. ISBN
978-0-89608-285-4.
[23] Eesti Kaitsevgi - Tehnika - Automaat Galil AR
[24] Uudised - Kaitsevgi. Retrieved 25 October 2014.
[25] Uudised - Kaitsevgi. Retrieved 25 October 2014.
[26] Uudised - Kaitsevgi. Retrieved 25 October 2014.
[27] http://www.gunpolicy.org/firearms/region/cp/fiji
[28] Haapiseva-Hunter, Jane (1999). Israeli foreign policy: South Africa and Central America. South End Press. p. 114. ISBN
978-0-89608-285-4.
[29] Armament of the Georgian Army. Retrieved 25 October 2014.
[30] Kopassus & Kopaska - Specijalne Postrojbe Republike Indonezije(in Croatian). Hrvatski Vojnik Magazine. Retrieved
2010-06-12.
[31] Original brochure of Bernardelli Galil ries -- Retrieved on January 13, 2011.. Retrieved 25 October 2014.
[32] Bernardelli VB-SR assault rie with permanent STANAG magazine well modication -- Retrieved on January 13, 2011.
[33] Italian Ministry of Interior - Decree n 559/A/1/ORG/DIP.GP/14 of March 6, 2009, concerning weapons and equipment
in use with the Italian National Police - in Italian Retrieved on August 25, 2010.
[34] Grupo SIPSE. Nuevo armamento para SSP de Cancn. sipse.com. Retrieved 25 October 2014.
[35] http://www.shuud.mn/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/352.jpg
[36] 084th division. Mongolian special task battalion. YouTube. Retrieved 25 October 2014.
[37] Galile dla Paragwaju - Altair Agencja Lotnicza. Retrieved 25 October 2014.
[38] Rice Not Guns - German Arms in the Philippines. Retrieved 25 October 2014.
[39] Walter, John (2006). Ries of the World. Krause. p. 616. ISBN 978-0-89689-241-5.
[40] home. Retrieved 25 October 2014.
[41] United Nations News Centre. UN News Service Section. 30 July 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2014.
[42] " """. YouTube. Retrieved 25 October 2014.
[43] B i Hi qun Vit Nam luyn cng v kh mi. Retrieved 25 October 2014.
[44] Israeli IWI Galil ACE 31 ACE 32 assault ries to replace Russian AK-47 in Vietnamese Army 0202146 - Army Recognition. Retrieved 25 October 2014.

17.7 Further reading


Kokalis, Peter (2001). Weapons Tests and Evaluations: The Best of Soldier of Fortune. Boulder, CO: Paladin
Press. ISBN 1-58160-122-0.

186

17.8 External links


The AK Forum Galil & Valmet Discussions
Israel Weapon Industries manufacturer's page
Operator's Manual
Israeli-Weapons.com
Galil 5.56 mm AR/ARM/SAR manual
Buddy Hinton collection
Galil rie information
Modern Firearms
REMTEK
Golani Sporter, Guns Magazine July 2007

CHAPTER 17. IMI GALIL

Chapter 18

IMI Tavor TAR-21


Tavorredirects here. For other uses, see Tavor (disambiguation).
The TAR-21 (or simply Tavor) is an Israeli bullpup assault rie chambered for 5.5645mm NATO ammunition with
a selective re system, selecting between semi-automatic mode and full automatic re mode.
Built around a long-stroke piston system (as found in the M1 Garand and AK-47), the Tavor was designed to maximise
reliability, durability, and ease-of-maintenance, particularly under adverse or battleeld conditions.* [3]
In 2009, the MTAR-21 (X-95) was selected to become the standard issued weapon of the Israeli infantry by 2018.

18.1 History and design objectives


Israel Military Industries (now Israel Weapon Industries) initiated the Tavor development team in 1995, under the
direction of gun designer Zalmen Shebs.* [4]
The objective of the project was to create an assault rie that was more reliable, durable and easier to maintain than
the M4A1 Carbine, while also being better suited to close-quarters combat and mechanized infantry roles. As a result,
they hoped that the weapon would be ocially adopted by the Israel Defense Forces.
Due to the military's close-quarters and mechanized infantry requirements, the project team selected a bullpup design,
that would allow the weapon to be compact while keeping a long barrel able to achieve ballistically favorable high
muzzle velocities.* [4]

18.1.1

Trials in Israel

Between 2001 and 2002, the Tavor was given extensive military trials for functionality and reliability against the
M4A1 Carbine. It was trialled in tests including Mean Rounds Between Failures (MRBF); reliability; ergonomics
during long marches; and ease-of-maintenance. In these military tests, it prevailed over the M4A1 Carbine.* [3]
As a result of these trials, the IDF adopted the Tavor as the future standard arm for all branches of the infantry, to
gradually enter service, with the rst weapons delivered to the infantry from 2006 onwards, and a full changeover
expected by 2018.* [4]* [5]

18.1.2

Design features and engineering

Long-stroke piston system


The rie uses a non-lubricated long-stroke piston system, as found in the M1 Garand, IMI Galil and the AK 47.* [6]
The long-stroke piston mechanism contributes to the forcefulness of the Tavor's extraction and chambering.* [5]
A long-stroke piston system may increase a weapon's reliability in extreme conditions (in comparison to the less
reliable short-stroke piston systems), as has been found to be the case in both the M1 Garand and the AK 47.* [7]
187

188

CHAPTER 18. IMI TAVOR TAR-21

The Tavor's attachment of the piston to a heavy bolt carrier, and the extension of the mainspring into the hollow stem
of the bolt carrier, bears a family resemblance to the internal mechanism of the AK 47.* [6]
Ambidexterity and modularity
The TAR-21 has ejection ports on both sides of the rie so it can easily be recongured for right or left-handed
shooters. However, this process requires partial disassembly, so it cannot be quickly recongured while the rie is in
use.* [8]
Its ambidextrous re mode selector above the pistol grip has a semi-automatic mode and a fully automatic mode.* [9]
The Tavor features a self-contained, drop-in trigger group, so that the trigger group can be changed or replaced
without the use of additional tools.
Barrel
The Tavor barrels are made from CrMoV steel and cold hammer-forged (CHF) on the premises of the IWI factory in
Ramat HaSharon. The barrel is chrome-lined for durability and corrosion resistance. The barrel features 6 grooves
in a 178 mm (1 in 7 inch) twist, or 32 calibers right hand twist rate.
The barrel is tted with a 'birdcage' style ash suppressor, which can be fully disassembled without the need of
additional tools.* [5]
Chambering, ammunition and magazines
The Tavor is primarily chambered for 5.5645mm NATO, although 919mm Parabellum models are also available.
The IDF uses both 55-grain M193 and 62-grain M855 5.5645mm rounds. M193 rounds will be used by regular
infantrymen for better terminal eects at shorter distances, while the heavier M855 will be used by sharpshooters.
The TAR-21 accepts standard STANAG magazines. It can also be mounted with the M203 grenade launcher.
Bullpup conguration
The Tavor uses a bullpup conguration, in which the bolt carrier group is placed behind the pistol grip; this shortens
the overall length but does not sacrice barrel length. As a result, the TAR-21 provides carbine length, yet achieves
rie muzzle velocities.
Last round bolt-open catch
The Tavor features a last round bolt catch, whereby the bolt holds open after the last round empties.* [10] This is a
request of modern armies, as it helps to allow soldiers to know when their magazine empties and to reduce reloading
times during combat.* [11]
Reliability, ease-of-maintenance and waterproong
The design objectives of the Tavor aimed for reliability and ease-of-maintenance, particularly under adverse or battleeld conditions.* [3] According to Russell C. Tilstra, the Tavor is easily considered more reliablethan the M16
and M4 series ries.* [12]
The Tavor is designed to be easily eld-stripped, without the need for any additional tools.* [13]
The rie is waterproof and its internal mechanism is fully sealed from outside elements.* [14]

18.2 Tavor Variants


The Tavor assault rie comes in dierent variations:* [9]

18.2. TAVOR VARIANTS

189

TAR-21 standard version intended for multirole infantry.


GTAR-21 standard version with notched barrel, to accept an M203 40 mm under-barrel grenade
launcher.
CTAR-21 compact short barrel version intended for commandos and special forces.
STAR-21 designated marksman version with folding under-barrel bipod and Trijicon ACOG 4 magnication sight.
MTAR-21 (X95) the Micro Tavor, see below.
Zittara Indian locally produced version of the MTAR-21 Micro Tavor modied to use the local
5.5630mm MINSAS cartridge manufactured by the Ordnance Factories Board (of India).
Fort-221, Fort-222, Fort-223, Fort-224 - Ukrainian made Tavors, manufactured by RPC Fort (of Ukraine)
TC-21 - the semi-automatic Tavor Carbine, see below.

18.2.1

MTAR21 (X95)

The IDF with the Micro-Tavor (X-95) on Mount Hermon

The MTAR-21 (Micro Tavor), also designated X95 and sometimes called Tavor-2, is a stand-alone extremely compact
weapon specically designed for special forces units, as well as military personnel who are normally not issued long
assault ries.
With the use of a relatively simple conversion kit, the MTAR-21 can be converted from a 5.56 mm assault rie to a
9 mm submachine gun loaded with 20, 25, and 32-round magazines. A suppressor can also be added to the weapon,
as part of the 9 mm conversion kit. An integrated grenade launcher is currently being developed for the Micro Tavor.
In November 2009, the Micro Tavor was selected as the future standard infantry weapon of the IDF.* [15]
When congured to re 9 mm rounds, the gun uses a blowback operation to eject and reload rounds, but in the same
body as the gas-operated rie reloading system. It is fed from Uzi magazines. A suppressor can be mounted that
allows for the use of standard velocity 9 mm ammunition, not specialized subsonic ammo. The barrel is the same
length as the rie version, but has a 1:10 in riing twist to stabilize heavy 9 mm bullets.* [5]

190

CHAPTER 18. IMI TAVOR TAR-21

An Israel Defense Forces soldier of the unisex Caracal Battalion armed with CTAR-21 with Meprolight 21 reex sight.

Compared to the 35 in (890 mm) long M4 with its stock extended with a 14.5 in (370 mm) barrel, the X95 is 23 in
(580 mm) long with a 13 in (330 mm) barrel.* [5]
It comes in a number of variants (including):* [16]
X95 (5.56mm, compact assault rie/carbine with 330mm/13barrel)
X95L (5.56mm, compact assault rie/carbine with 419mm/16.5barrel)
X95 SMG (9mm, SMG with 330mm/13barrel)
X95R (5.45x39mm,compact assault rie/carbine with 330mm/13barrel)* [17]
X95S (9mm, integrated suppressor with 275mm/10.8barrel, and a rate of re of ~1200 rds/min)
7.62 NATO X95
In March 2013, it was reported that IWI would be making an X95 Tavor chambered in 7.62 NATO. The American
experience in Iraq and Afghanistan and Israeli experience in Lebanon prompted the need for moving to a caliber with
greater lethality and range.* [18]
5.45 Russian X95
In April 2013, IWI introduced a conversion kit for the X95, chambered for the 5.4539mm Russian. The kit
was designed for export customers to allow for the rie to re 5.45 mm ammunition already used in their inventories* [19]* [20]

18.2.2

Semi-automatic TC-21

The semi-automatic Tavor Carbine (TC-21) was rst made available for civilian customers to purchase in Canada
from 2008.* [21] The Canadian civilian version initially shipped with the Mepro reex sight and a slightly longer barrel

18.2. TAVOR VARIANTS

Female IDF soldier with Tavor GTAR-21 with grenade launcher

191

192

CHAPTER 18. IMI TAVOR TAR-21

IDF soldiers with Micro-Tavor (X-95)

to meet the Canadian requirement for non-restricted semi-automatic centerre ries to have a barrel length of at least
470 mm. Current version are shipped with a full length Picatinny rail, without optics.
IWI started a new US subsidiary, which is manufacturing the semi-automatic Tavor for US sales, with a market date
of April 2013. Versions are for sale, with two barrel lengths (16.5and 18). The longer barrel is likely to meet
NFA requirements for overall length with the muzzle device removed.* [22]
As of 2013, the Tavor is available to civilian customers in the United States through IWI's US subsidiary,* [22] The
weapon is manufactured with a combination of Israeli and US parts. It is available in black, OD green, or at dark
earth colors and with either a 16.5or 18barrel. Also available on the 16.5variant is an integrated Mepro reex
sight. The standard versions come with a full length picatinny rail along the top in addition to the 45-degree oset
rail on the ejection side of the foregrip. These variants have an integrated backup sight system that collapses into the
rail, with a tritium equipped front post. All variants are compliant with the National Firearms Act. Also available
from IWI-US are 9mm conversion kits which accept Colt SMG style magazines, as well as left-to-right-hand, or vice
versa, conversion bolts.
The designations for the US ries are the Tavor SAR-B16, -B18, -B16L, and -B18L.
Aftermarket parts
A signicant aftermarket of spare and replacement parts has developed around the Tavor, including the development
of match grade accurizing triggers for the rie. Shlomi Sabag, Deputy CEO of IWI, says that one of the indicators of
the success of the rie in the shooting sports or civilian market, is the fact thatan aftermarket of products associated
with the Tavor rie, like triggers, has evolved very quickly.* [23]

18.3 Awards
The National Rie Association's American Rieman awarded the Tavor the 2014 Golden Bullseye Award as its rie
of the year. The NRA's prestigious award, now in its twelfth year, aims to award the best products available to civilian
shooters.* [24]* [25]

18.4. USERS

193

The Truth About Guns website awarded the Tavor with TTAG Readers Choice Award for Best Rie of 2013.* [26]

18.4 Users
18.4.1

Local users

Israel: As part of initial testing by Israel Defense Forces' infantry units, the TAR-21 was distributed to
members of the training company of the Tzabar Battalion from the Givati Brigade who were drafted in August
2001. They received their ries in November 2001 during basic training. Initial testing results were favorable
the TAR-21 was found to be signicantly more accurate and reliable (as well as more comfortable) than the
M4 carbine during extensive eld testing.* [27]
Issues with ne sand entering the Tavor's chamber, which were identied over the two years of testing,
were rectied by numerous small adjustments. A number of other improvements and changes to the
design were also made between 20012009. Tavor CTAR-21 ries saw combat service in Operation Cast
Lead, used by Givati Brigade and Golani Brigade, and the soldiers reported the Tavor ries functioned
awlessly.* [28]
In November 2009, the IDF announced that the MTAR-21 (X-95) would become the standard infantry
weapon of the IDF, with the addition of an integrated grenade-launcher.* [15]
In December 2012, the IDF announced that they would begin equipping and training their new reserve
forces with the TAR-21, starting in 2013, with the switch-over by 2018.* [29]
In 2014 the IDF announced that in the future (from as early as the end of 2014) some infantry units
could start to be issued some numbers of an improved MTAR-21, which will have a longer 38 cm
barrel (instead of the original 33 cm barrel of the X95), a lighter trigger pull, and a number of other
upgrades.* [30]

18.4.2

Foreign users

Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan: Azerbaijan purchased a number of TAR-21 for the special operations forces of the Azerbaijani
Army in August 2008.* [31]

Brazil

Brazil: Taurus, the local rearms manufacturer, produces the Tavor under license for the military.* [32]
Small numbers are issued to soldiers in the Frontier Brigade.* [33]

Cameroon

Cameroon: Issued to the Special Forces of Cameroon Army.* [34]

Chad

Chad: Issued to Chadian Ground Forces since 2006.* [35]

Chile

Chile:* [36] Investigations Police of Chile

194

CHAPTER 18. IMI TAVOR TAR-21

Members of the Azerbaijani Special Forces march with Tavor ries during a military parade in Baku

The National Police of Colombia, with the CTAR-21, while arresting drug lord Luis Hernando Gomez-Bustamante

18.4. USERS

195

Colombia

Colombia: The Colombian Army operates the TAR-21 for their special forces, in the army, marines and
in the Colombian national police.* [37]

Ethiopia

Ethiopia: Bodyguards of the Ethiopian Prime Minister were seen with the TAR-21.* [38]* [39]

Georgia

Georgia: Since 2001, the Georgian Army has entered into a USD 65 million supply agreement for approximately 20 000 TAR-21 ries (including dierent variants and grenade launchers). Uses all TAR-21
variants.* [40] The rie was rst revealed to the public during a military parade in 2005 with a Special Forces
Battalion named Gulua Group carrying it. Further arrangements like a TAR-21 production facility in Georgia
were dropped due to pressure from Russia.

Guatemala

Guatemalan Navy special forces with STAR-21 designated marksman variant.

Guatemala: Guatemala's police force or PNC (Policia Nacional Civil) operates the TAR-21.* [41]

Honduras

Honduras: Honduran army special forces use the MTAR-21.* [42]

196

CHAPTER 18. IMI TAVOR TAR-21

India

India: In late 2002, India signed an INR 880 million (about USD 17.7 million) deal with Israel Military
Industries for 3,070 manufactured Tavor assault ries to be issued to India's special forces personnel,* [43]
where its ergonomics, reliability in heat and sand might give them an edge at close-quarters and employment
from inside vehicles. By 2005, IMI had supplied 350400 Tavors to India's northern Special Frontier Force
(SFF). These were subsequently declared to beoperationally unsatisfactory. The required changes have since
been made, and tests in Israel during 2006 went well, clearing the contracted consignment for delivery. The
Tavor has now entered operational service even as India gears up for a larger competition that could feature
a 9 mm MTAR-21 version.* [44] Known as the Zittara, the rie is manufactured in India by the Ordnance
Factories Board for Indian service,* [45] the new Tavors have a modied single-piece stock and new sights,
as well as Turkish-made MKEK T-40 40 mm under-barrel grenade launchers.* [44] 5,500 have been recently
inducted and more ries are being ordered.* [46] A consignment of over 500 TAR-21 Tavor assault ries and
another 30 Galil sniper ries worth over INR 150 million (USD 3.3 million) and INR 20 million respectively
was delivered to the MARCOS (Marine Commandos) in December 2010.* [47]
India's paramilitary and counter-insurgency Central Reserve Police Force CRPF ordered 12000 Micro
Tavor (X-95) ries (designation X-95), with the ries entering service in early 2011. Following the use
of the weapon by Indian forces ghting the insurgency in Kashmir, CRPF commanders have stated that
the X-95 is a more eective assault rie than the AKM, due to its small-size, power, longer-range and
lighter-weight.* [48]

Macedonia

Macedonia: Police special forces [Unit for Fast Deployiment].* [49]

Mexico

Mexico: In service with the Ministry of Public Security since 2011.* [50]

Nigeria

Nigeria The State Security Service employ it as the primary assault rie for their close protection and
tactical units replacing the Uzi.* [51]

Peru

Peru* [36]

Philippines

Philippines Small quantities in use by special units of the Philippine Marines* [52] and Philippine Drug
Enforcement Agency* [53]

Portugal

Portugal: Small quantities of the TAR-21 are in use by eld and intervention units of the Polcia Judiciria,
like hostage negotiation teams and investigators who usually work alongside other dedicated law enforcement
intervention unitsthe Special Operations Group (GOE) and the National Republican Guard's Special Operations Company (COE); these weapons were initially intended to equip a new unit under the command of the
Polcia Judiciria resembling the GOE. The TAR-21 also participated in the competition for the new service
rie for the three branches of the Portuguese Armed Forces and the Police Special Operations Group (GOE)
a bid that also included the local production of the TAR-21 in Portugal. However, the TAR-21 was excluded
from the shortlist. The competition has meanwhile been annulled, after the other contenders and both political
and defense critics accused the competition of favoring the Heckler & Koch G36.* [54]* [55]

18.5. SEE ALSO

197

Thailand

Thailand: To replace* [56] some of its current inventory of M16A1 ries, The Royal Thai Army purchased
three batches of TAR-21 ries for USD27.77 million (THB 946.99 million* [57]) and approved delivery of a
fourth batch on 15 September 2009, bringing the total to more than 76,000 TAR-21 ries. Total 106,203 tavor
rie* [58]

Turkey

Turkey: Used by the Special Forces Command Bordo Bereliler.* [59]* [60]

Ukraine

Ukraine: Yuriy Lutsenko, then head of Ministry of Internal Aairs of Ukraine, announced on October 1,
2008 that Israel Weapon Industries and the Ukrainian research and production company RPC Fort will jointly
manufacture the Tavor TAR-21 assault rie, that will enter service with special Ukrainian military and police
special units.* [61]* [62] RPC Fort had displayed working samples of Tavors chambered to take 5.4539mm
ammo with Milkor 40mm UBGL grenade launchers to showcase to Ukrainian security forces ocers as a
means of convincing them to buy Ukrainian-made Tavors for Special forces units.* [63]

Vietnam

Vietnam: From 2012, the Tavor entered service in special units of the Vietnamese army, equipping special
forces, marines and naval units.* [64]
IWI has been awarded a $100 million contract to establish a factory in Vietnam to produce an unspecied number of Galil ACE assault ries, as well as others such as the Tavor, for the People's Army of
Vietnam.* [65]

USA

USA: In August 2013, IWI US announced that the Pennsylvania Capitol Police had adopted the Tavor
SAR, a variant specically designed for the U.S. market.* [66] In July 2014, it was announced that the Lakewood, New Jersey Police Department would begin to adopt the Tavor SAR, after the weaponmet the demands
and requirements of the Lakewood PD for reliability, ease-of-maintenance, durability and accuracy.* [67]

18.5 See also


Military equipment of Israel
List of bullpup rearms
List of assault ries

18.6 References
[1] Modern Firearms Tavor TAR-21 assault rie. World.guns.ru. Retrieved on 2010-08-31.
[2] IDF Adopts New Special Forces Weapon, David Eshel, Dec 05, 2008, aviationweek.com
[3] Decidedly Dierent: The IWI Tavor By Brian Sheetz, May 28, 2013 American Rieman
[4] TAVOR History
[5] IWI X95: A Bullpup For IDF Special Forces - SAdefensejournal.com, 21 March 2012

198

CHAPTER 18. IMI TAVOR TAR-21

[6] Future Weapons, by Kevin Dockery, (Penguin 2007)


[7] The Battle Rie: Development and Use Since World War II, By Russell C. Tilstra, (McFarland 2014) page 25-28
[8] Bullpup Forum SHOT Show Interview. Bullpup Forum. Retrieved 2012-05-17.
[9] Israel Weapon Industries (I.W.I.): TAVOR TAR-21 5.56 mm. Israel-weapon.com. Retrieved 2010-08-31.
[10] Tavor - IWI US. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
[11] The Battle Rie: Development and Use Since World War II , By Russell C. Tilstra, Russell C. Tilstra, (McFarland 2014),
page 98
[12] The Battle Rie: Development and Use Since World War II, By Russell C. Tilstra, (McFarland 2014) page 97
[13] Tavor Sar page 14
[14] The Gun Digest Book of Assault Weapons (Gun Digest Books, 26 Sep 2007), By Jack Lewis, Robert K. Campbell, David
Steele, page 246
[15] . "Dover.idf.il. Retrieved on 2010-08-31.
[16] IWI X95 brochure
[17] IWI page about X95-R. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
[18] IWI Developing A 7.62mm Tavor X95 Rie - Therearmblog.com, March 5, 2013
[19] Israel Weapon Industries Extends Capabilities Of X95 Assault Rie For Defense Agencies, Jewish Business News, Apr
28th, 2013
[20] IWI unveils conversion kit for X95 assault rie - News - Shephard. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
[21] IWI Tavor civilian semi-automatic carbine. Canadaammo.com. Retrieved 2010-08-31.
[22] IWI-US.
[23] The success of the 'Tavor' has taken us by surprise Amir Rapaport 10/3/2014
[24] The IWI US TAVOR SAR is the 2014 American Rieman Rie of the Year. AmmoLand.com. 20 December 2013.
[25] IWI US TAVOR SAR 2014 Golden Bullseye Award Rie of the Year. IWI US, Inc. 18 March 2015.
[26] IWI Accepts the TTAG Readers Choice Award for Best Rie of 2013. The Truth About Guns. 16 January 2014.
[27] Future Weapons - Tavor assault rie. Youtube.com.
[28] , : IDF Spokesperson, in Hebrew (In English the title reads: Due to its
performance during the operation: there are no further improvements required in the Tavor)
[29] Israeli Army reserve soldiers to be equipped with Tavor TAR-21 - Armyrecognition.com, December 15, 2012
[30] "" , 47 ,12 2013.
[31] Shahin Abbasov (2009-08-16).Azerbaijan Mum about Israeli Spy Plane, Satellite Projects. EurasiaNet.org. Retrieved
2010-08-26.
[32] A Taurus e o Tavor. Defesabrasil.com. Retrieved on 2010-08-31.
[33] Julio Montes. Elites of the Exrcito Brasileiro, Page 1. Small Arms Defense Journal. Retrieved 2012-05-13.
[34] On The Ground With Cameroon's Army Trying To Stop Boko Haram. YouTube. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
[35] Israeli arms transfers to sub-Saharan Africa
[36] Equiparn ms unidades con potentes fusiles israeles 30 de Marzo de 2012, El Heraldo
[37] IMI Tavor. Unmm.com. Retrieved on 2010-08-31.
[38] What kind of gun Meles Zenawi bodyguards carry?, May 23, 2010, Posted by ocean, http://ethiopiaforums.com
[39] Meles urges recognition of poll win, Barry Malone and David Clarke, May 25, 2010, ethiomedia.com
[40] Armament of the Georgian Army. Georgian Army. Retrieved 2010-08-24.

18.7. EXTERNAL LINKS

199

[41] Agentes todava no saben utilizar fusiles comprados por el Gobierno. Elperiodico.com.gt. Retrieved 2010-08-31.
[42] Equiparn ms unidades con MTAR 21. elheraldo.hn. Retrieved 2012-04-17.
[43] One FIR, Govt blacklists 7 rms, hits artillery upgrade. The Indian Express. 2009-06-05. p. 2. Retrieved 2009-06-09.
[44] Tavor-21 Rie Headed Into Service With Indian Special Forces. Defenseindustrydaily.com (2007-02-28). Retrieved on
2010-08-31.
[45] Ordnance Factory Board. Ofbindia.gov.in. Retrieved on 2010-08-31.
[46] To give 'irregulars' punch, forces go shopping for hi-tech weapons. The Times Of India. 2011-01-13.
[47] Israeli TAR-21 Tavor Assault Ries for Indian Navy Commandos, 2011-01-12, IANS, bharat-rakshak.com
[48] Israeli-made rie TAVOR better than AK-47: ocial Published: Thursday, February 3, 2011, 0:01 [IST]
[49] Macedonian Armed Forces - photo and video thread - Page 3. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
[50] Compra la polica capitalina armas israeles Excelsior, 22/08/2011 05:00 Gerardo Jimnez
[51] http://www.vanguardngr.com/epaper/2011/december/13122011/index.html
[52] Ben-David, Alon (September 23, 2009). In the Line of Fire: Infantry Weapons. Jane's Defence Weekly (ISSN:
02653818).
[53] Philstar Online PDEA acquires 120 new assault ries
[54] Substituio da G-3: Governo recorreu para o Supremo, Dirio Digital
[55] Militares vo continuar a utilizar as velhas 'G3', Dirio de Notcias (Portuguese)
[56] "". . Retrieved 5 May 2011.
[57] DefenseNews.com Thailand Plans $191.3M Arms Purchase
[58] Cabinet nod for Israeli ries
[59] http://www.dha.com.tr/fotogaleri/orj/27057_1885_03102012_4.jpg
[60] http://www.dha.com.tr/fotogaleri/orj/27057_1885_03102012_3.jpg
[61] Tavory dla Ukrainy. Altair. Retrieved on 2010-08-31.
[62] [http://videonews.com.ua/videos/comments/655> ],
02.10.2008, videonews.com.ua
[63] Ukraiskie Tavory w kalibrze 5,45 mm - Altair Agencja Lotnicza. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
[64] Sng trng uy lc ca hi qun nh b Vit Nam Th giiQun s | Cp nht th ba, ngy 07/05/13
[65] Israel's defense industry targets Vietnam 18/07/2012, 12:27, Yuval Azulai
[66] Pennsylvania State Capitol Police Adopt IWI US TAVOR SAR Rie - Therearmblog.com, 28 August 2013
[67] IWI US, Inc. Receives Contract from Township of Lakewood, New Jersey Police Department SOURCE: ISRAELI
WEAPON INDUSTRIES (IWI) US, INC. JUL 10, 2014]

18.7 External links


Israel Weapon Industries (I.W.I.): TAVOR TAR-21 5.56 mm
Israel Weapon Industries (I.W.I.): Micro TAVOR MTAR-21 5.56 mm / 919 mm
IWI Tavor Bullpup Rie on YouTube YouTube Video: Overview of the civilian semi-automatic version of the
Tavor
Water tests of the Micro Tavor on YouTube YouTube Video: Water Tests of the Micro Tavor (X-95)
Tavor Israeli Weapons: The TAR-21 Tavor assault rie
Modern Firearms
Decidedly Dierent: The IWI TAVOR, American Rieman, National Rie Association, USA

200

CHAPTER 18. IMI TAVOR TAR-21

18.7. EXTERNAL LINKS

Tavor used by Para commandos of the Indian Army

CTAR-21 produced under license by RPC Fort as Fort-221

201

Chapter 19

INSAS rie
INSASredirects here. For the Belgian lm school, see INSAS (lm school). For India's future soldier program,
see F-INSAS.
INSAS (an abbreviation of Indian Small Arms System) is a family of infantry arms consisting of an assault rie and a
light machine gun (LMG). It is manufactured by the Ordnance Factories Board at Ordnance Factory Tiruchirappalli,
Small Arms Factory Kanpur and Ichapore Arsenal. The INSAS assault rie is the standard infantry weapon of the
Indian Armed Forces.* [5]* [1]* [6]

19.1 History
Since the late 1950s, the Indian armed forces had been equipped with L1A1 self-loading ries.* [5] In mid-1980s, the
decision was taken to develop a 5.56 mm calibre rie to replace the obsolete ries. Trials on various prototypes based
on the AKM were carried out by the Armament Research and Development Establishment (ARDE) in Pune. On the
completion of the trial, The Indian Small Arms System (INSAS) was adopted in 1990. However, to phase out the
still in use bolt-action Lee Eneld ries as quickly as possible, India had to acquire 100,000 7.6239mm AKM-type
ries from Russia, Hungary, Romania and Israel in 199092.* [7]
Originally, three variants were planned in the INSAS system, a rie, a carbine and a squad automatic weapon (SAW)
or Light machine gun (LMG). In 1997, the rie and the LMG went into mass production.* [5] In 1998, the rst
INSAS ries were displayed at the republic day parade.* [1] The introduction of the rie was delayed due to the lack
of 5.56x45mm ammunition, large quantities of the same were bought from Israel Military Industries.* [5]
The rie rst saw action during the Kargil War in 1999.* [1] About, 300,000 units are in currently use by the Indian
armed forces.* [5]

19.2 Design
The INSAS is primarily based on the AKM but incorporates features from other ries. It has a chrome-plated bore.
The barrel has a six-groove riing. The basic gas operated long stroke piston and the rotating bolt are similar to the
AKM/AK-47.* [5]
It has a manual gas regulator, similar to that of FN FAL, and a gas cuto for launching grenades. The charging handle
is on the left instead of on the bolt carrier, similar in operation to the HK33.* [5] There is a change lever on the left
side of the receiver above the pistol grip. It can re a three-round burst or in semi-automatic mode. The cyclic rate
averages at 650 rpm. The transparent plastic magazine was adapted from the Steyr AUG. The rear sight lies on one
end of the breech cover and is calibrated to 400 meters. The furniture is either made for wood or polymer.* [5] The
polymer butt and forend assemblies dier from the AKM and are more similar to that of IMI Galil. Some variants
have a folding butt. A bayonet can also be attached to it.* [7] The guns take 20- or 30-round polymer magazines. The
30-round magazine is made for the LMG version, but can be also used in the rie. The ash suppressor also accepts
NATO-specication rie grenades.* [5]
202

19.3. VARIANTS

203

An Indian soldier with the INSAS rie, during a military exercise.

19.2.1

Issues

During the 1999 Kargil War, the ries were used in the high-attitudes of the Himalayas. There were complaints of
jamming, the magazine cracking due to the cold and the rie going into automatic mode when it was set for threeround bursts.* [1] There was also a problem of oil being sprayed into the eye of the operator. Some injuries during
ring practice were also reported.* [8]
Similar complaints were also received from the Nepalese Army.* [1] In August 2005, after 43 soldiers were killed in
a clash with Maoists, a Nepalese Army spokesman called the rie substandard and their counter-insurgency operation
would have been more ecient with better weapons. The Indian embassy released a statement that rejected the claim
and attributed it to improper use, it also oered training for the rie's correct use.* [9]
On 8 August 2011, Pallam Raju, then Minister of State for Defence, replying to a question in the Lok Sabha said that
all these problems had been rectied.* [8]

19.3 Variants
19.3.1

INSAS Standard Rie

It is a gas operated assault rie. It can be red in single round or three-round burst mode. A new model with black
furniture incorporating full-auto mode is also being introduced. A telescopic sight or a passive night sight can be
mounted on it. It can take NATO standard 5.56 45 mm SS109 and M193 ammunition. It comes with a bayonet.
It has a mount point for the ARDE 40 mm Under Barrel Grenade Launcher, along with a gas-block for launching
grenades and grenade iron-sights. The ash suppressor has a blank-ring adaptor.* [4] It also has a foldable butt

204

CHAPTER 19. INSAS RIFLE

INSAS Rie with the newer black furniture

Kalantak Micro Assault Rie 5.56mm

version.* [10] Current generation ries being made are outtted with black plastic furniture with some improvements
in its construction.

19.3.2

Kalantak and Excalibur

Both are lighter versions of the INSAS, Excalibur being the newer assault rie and Kalantak being designed for
close quarter combat. They both have foldable butts and picatinny rails to mount standard sights or opto-electronic
instruments.* [11]* [12]

19.4. REPLACEMENTS

205

INSAS LMG

19.3.3

LMG

The LMG diers from the AR in possessing a longer and heavier barrel with revised riing, and a bipod. The LMG
version uses 30-round magazines and can also accept the 20-round INSAS AR magazine. This model res in semi and
full-auto. Current generation LMGs being made are outtted with black plastic furniture with some improvements
in its construction.* [13] It also has a foldable-butt version.* [14]

19.4 Replacements
In November 2011, the Indian Army sent a request for proposal (RFP) to 34 vendors for 65,678 multi-calibre ries
for about 2,500 crore (400 million).* [15]* [16] The tender also included a license to manufacture about 100,000
more ries in India, with a total expenditure of the phasing out estimated at 5,500 crore (900 million).* [17] Similar
tenders for a carbine and a LMG were also issued.* [1]
The specication of the weapon is of a modular rie, with ability to re both 5.56x45 mm and 7.62x39 mm, by
changing the magazines and the barrels. The 5.56x45 mm are to be used in conventional warfare and 7.62x39 mm
in close quarters combat and in counter terrorism operations. The rie should have mount points for under-barrel
grenade launchers and reex sights. The rie's weight with an empty magazine should be less than 3.6 kg. The barrels
for both calibres should be less than 16 inches.* [1]* [18]* [16]
In the winter of 2013 in Leh, the Army was expected to begin the winter trials of the short-listed ries: Beretta
ARX 160 from Italy, CZ-805 BREN from Czech Republic, ACE 1 of Israel Weapon Industries, SIG Sauer SG 551
from Switzerland and the Colt Combat Rie from the USA, a variant of the M16A1 made for the Indian army's
requirements. The ries were to undergo summer trials in Pokran in 2014.* [19]* [16]
In February 2014, during the Defense Expo in New Delhi, it was reported that the ries would undergo trials in May.
They would be tested in diverse climatic conditions, where the rie would be likely to employed, for several months.
These would include western Rajasthan desert, high-altitude locations in the Himalayas, and high humidity areas. The

206

CHAPTER 19. INSAS RIFLE

four ries remaining in the competition were the CZ-805, ARX-160, Galil ACE, and Colt Combat Rie.* [20]
The Indian Army began the nal round of trials for its requirement for 5.56 mm carbines in June 2014. The remaining
ries are the Beretta ARX-160, Colt M4, and IWI Galil ACE, and they will continue trials until the end of July. They
will also undergo a mud test to see how they operate in poor conditions, which all three failed in the Rajasthan
desert and high-altitude regions in 2012.* [21] By October 2014, only the Galil ACE and ARX-160 were left in the
competition.* [22]
Meanwhile, an AK-47 based rie, called the Trichy Assault Rie, is being tested by the Ordnance Factory Trichy. It
was rst unveiled in May 2011.* [23] In January 2012, it was reported to be having stoppages during tests due to its
high 800 rpm ring rate. It was to be downgraded to 650 rpm to ensure smoother operation, but it also delayed its
introduction.* [24]
In December 2012, the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) announced that it was testing a
multi-calibre rie.* [25] The prototype rie named Multi Caliber Individual Weapon System (MCIWS) was unveiled
in 2014 by Armament Research and Development Establishment (ARDE).* [26]

19.5 Users

India: The assault rie and LMG variants have been adopted by the Indian Armed Forces, Central Armed
Police Forces, Indian Paramilitary Forces and police forces.* [27]* [28]* [1]* [3]

Nepal: The Nepalese Army had about 25,000 ries in 2006, supplied at a 70% subsidy by India.* [2]

Oman: In 2010, the Royal Army of Oman started using the INSAS ries sent to them as per a defence
agreement signed in 2003 between India and Oman.* [29]

Bhutan: Used in small numbers by the Royal Bhutan Army.* [30]

19.6 See also


Modern Sub Machine Carbine
Multi Caliber Individual Weapon System

19.7 References
[1] INSAS-weary army shops for new infantry arms. The New Indian Express. 16 December 2012. Retrieved 28 May
2014.
[2] Wikileaks news: Why Nepal king Gyanendra shed power. The Economic Times. 6 September 2011. Retrieved 29
May 2014.
[3] Anti-Naxal operations: CRPF prefers AK ries to INSAS, bulk purchase on cards. 4 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May
2014.
[4] Rie 5.56 mm INSAS (Fixed Butt)". Ordnance Factories Board. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
[5] Charles Q. Cutshaw (28 February 2011). Tactical Small Arms of the 21st Century: A Complete Guide to Small Arms From
Around the World. Gun Digest Books. p. 207. ISBN 1-4402-2482-X. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
[6] Manufacturing of Small Weapons. Press Information Bureau. 21 May 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
[7] John Walter (25 March 2006). Ries of the World. Krause Publications. pp. 209210. ISBN 0-89689-241-7. Retrieved
28 May 2014.
[8] INSAS ries troubled Indian Army men: Raju. Yahoo News. Indo Asian News Service. 8 August 2011. Retrieved 28
May 2014.

19.8. EXTERNAL LINKS

207

[9] India rejects claims of Nepalese army on Insas rie. Outlook India. 13 August 2005. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
[10] 5.56 mm INSAS Rie (Foldable Butt)". Ordnance Factories Board. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
[11] Rie Excalibur 5.56 mm. Ordnance Factories Board. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
[12] Kalantak Micro Assault Rie 5.56 mm. Ordnance Factories Board. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
[13] LMG 5.56 mm INSAS (Fixed Butt)". Ordnance Factories Board. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
[14] LMG 5.56 mm INSAS (Foldable Butt)". Ordnance Factories Board. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
[15] Army issues global tender for new assault ries. Zee News. 30 November 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
[16] Five cos left in race to supply multi-calibre ries to Army. Business Standard. 28 November 2012. Retrieved 28 May
2014.
[17] Guns and Butter in Billion-dollar Arms Deal. 21 September 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
[18] Rie-cramped army sets sights on ve. The Telegraph (India). 3 December 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
[19] India to put assault rie contenders through winter trials. Jane's Defence Weekly. 4 August 2013. Retrieved 28 May
2014.
[20] Defexpo 2014: Indian Army poised to conduct assault rie trials. Jane's Defence Weekly. 6 February 2014. Retrieved
28 May 2014.
[21] Indian Army kicks o nal carbine trials - Janes.com, 19 June 2014
[22] Indian Competition to Replace INSAS Begins - Therearmblog.com, 3 October 2014
[23] Tiruchi ordnance factory develops new assault rie. The Times of India. 19 May 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
[24] Indian 'AK-47' too fast for its own good. The Times of India. 14 January 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
[25] DRDO multi-calibre guns undergoing trials. The Times of India. 28 December 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
[26] Defence Modernisation: A Revolution in Indian Defence Procurement. The Economic Times. 22 April 2014. Retrieved
28 May 2014.
[27] ".303 ries replaced with INSAS: JH police. Business Standard. 11 September 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
[28] INSAS ries to give police more re power. The Times of India. 15 July 2009. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
[29] Oman army all set to use Indias INSAS ries. 22 April 2010. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
[30] Reetika Sharma, Ramvir Goria, Vivek Mishra; Sharma Reetika. India and the Dynamics of World Politics: A book on
Indian Foreign Policy, Related events and International Organizations. Pearson Education India. p. 128. ISBN 978-81317-3291-5. Retrieved 29 May 2014.

19.8 External links


Ordnance Factory Board (Product list)

Chapter 20

Ishapore 2A1 rie


The Rie 7.62mm 2A/2A1 (also known as the Ishapore 2A/2A1) is a 7.62mm NATO (7.6251) calibre bolt-action
rie adopted as a reserve arm by the Indian Armed Forces in 1963. The design of the rie - initially the Rie 7.62mm
2A - began at the Ishapore Rie Factory of the Ordnance Factories Board in India, soon after the Sino-Indian War
of 1962.
The Ishapore 2A/2A1 has the distinction of being the last bolt-action rie designed to be used by a regular military
force other than specialized sniper ries. Due to uctuating supplies of aordable .303 British ammunition, the Ishapore ries are becoming increasingly popular with civilian shooters and collectors in Australia, the United Kingdom,
and the United States.

20.1 Design
Externally the Ishapore 2A/2A1 rie is based upon (and is almost identical to) the .303 British calibre SMLE Mk
III* rie, with the exception of the distinctivesquare(10 or 12 round) magazine and the use of the buttplate from
the 1A (Indian version of the FN FAL) rie. The 2A was designed to allow the British Pattern 1907 (P'07) sword
bayonet used on the SMLE MkIII to be attached. There were other dierences to the Ishapore 2A/2A1 ries that
include the use of improved steel (to handle the increased pressures of the 7.62mm NATO round), and a redesigned
extractor to cope with the rimless round. Production of these ries started in early 1960s and is believed to have
been discontinued in 1975. The original (2A) design incorporated the Lee-Eneld rear sight which has graduations
out to 2000 yards. The re-designated Rie 7.62mm 2A1incorporated a more realistic 800 meter rear sight. The
stock is recycled from the No. 1 Mk. III armory stock, with the addition of a cross screw forward of the magazine
well. Some stocks were salvaged from existing surplus and show articer repairs where rotted or damaged wood has
been replaced. This repair is especially evident with the recoil draws that often failed over time due to the rie being
rack-stored butt down / muzzle up, which allowed oils and grease to migrate downwards into this critical area.

20.2 Additional Facts


The Ishapore 2A and 2A1 ries are often incorrectly described as ".308 conversions.In fact, the 2A/2A1 ries
are not conversions of .303 calibre SMLE Mk III* ries: they were designed and built right from the outset to
re 7.62mm NATO ammunition. Although the 7.62mm NATO and commercial .308 Winchester ammunition are
physically interchangeable, these weapons were not designed for use with commercial .308 Winchester ammunition.

20.3 References
ANSI/SAAMI Z299.4.1992; Voluntary Industry Performance Standards..., pgs. 7, 15 & 20
The Lee-Eneld Story (1993) Skennerton, Ian. Arms & Militaria Press, Gold Coast QLD (Australia) ISBN
1-85367-138-X
208

20.4. EXTERNAL LINKS

209

Wilson, Royce (September 2007). SMLE: The Short Magazine Lee-Eneld Mk III. Australian Shooter Magazine.

20.4 External links

Chapter 21

KPV heavy machine gun


The KPV-14.5 heavy machine gun (KPV is an initialism for Krupnokaliberniy Pulemyot Vladimirova, in Russian
as , or ) is a Soviet designed 14.5x114mm-caliber heavy machine
gun, which rst entered service as an infantry weapon (designated PKP) in 1949. In the 1960s the infantry version
was taken out of production because it was too big and heavy. It was later redesigned for anti-aircraft use, because it
showed excellent results as an AA gun, with a range of 3,000 meters horizontally and 2,000 meters vertically against
low ying planes.* [1] It was used in the ZPU series of anti-aircraft guns. Its size and power also made it a useful light
anti-armour weapon on the BTR series of vehicles and the BRDM-2 scout car.

21.1 KPVT
The version for use in armoured vehicles is called the KPVT (tankoviy, 'tank'). KPVT is used for armoured vehicle
installations, boats, movable and stationary mounts and various antiaircraft mounts. It features a shorter receiver
and a heavier barrel jacket. The KPVT also uses a 50-round belt instead of the original 40-round belt. KPVTs are
the primary armament of the wheeled BTR-60PB/70/80 series armoured personnel carriers and BRDM-2 armoured
reconnaissance vehicles. It is intended for ghting against light armoured targets, weapons systems and light shelters
at the distances of up to 3000 m, as well as air targets at distances up to 2000 m.

21.2 Naval armament


The naval version was called the marine tumbovaya (MTPU). It was mounted in the following turrets; 2M-5 was for
torpedo boats, the 2M-6 for patrol boats, and the 2M-7 for trawlers.
In 1964, amongst other small craft combatants, the North Vietnamese Navy had 12 P4 Motor Torpedo Boats in
their inventory. On 2 August 1964, three P4s belonging to NVN Torpedo Boat Squadron 135* [2] attacked the US
destroyer USS Maddox in the Tonkin Gulf. The Maddox red over 280 5 inch (127mm) shells at the charging boats,
thus preventing them from discharging their 550 lb TNT armed torpedoes within the necessary 1,000 yard eective
range.* [3] All six torpedoes missed. However, as the torpedo boats were moving at nearly 52 knots (96 km/h), they
commenced to duel the destroyer with their 14.5mm heavy machineguns, scoring only one hit on the US warship in
the process. At the time of the "Tonkin Gulf Incident", US identication manuals described the P4 as being equipped
with 25mm guns, thus identifying the spent projectile (as well as in after action reports) as 25mm instead of the actual
14.5mm caliber bullet.
As the duel between the destroyer and torpedo boats ended, and each departed in opposite directions, 4 F8 Crusaders
from the aircraft carrier USS Ticonderoga attacked the retreating boats. The Crusaders red Zuni rockets and 20mm
cannons, while the 3 boats replied with their 14.5mm machineguns. The jets reported leaving one boat in sinking
condition (it limped back to base), and one F8 was heavily damaged, which was reported as shot down by the NVN,
but in fact also limped back to its carrier.* [4]
The 14.5mm marine pedestal machine gun mount (14.5mm MTPU) is intended for combat against armoured surface,
coast and air targets. It is mounted on decks of boats and can defeat surface and coast targets with a range of 3,000
meters horizontally and 2,000 meters vertically against low ying planes.* [5]
210

21.3. MECHANICS

211

21.3 Mechanics
The development of the machine gun began in 1944. The 14.5x114mm M41 cartridge can be used with High
Explosive Incendiary - Tracer (HEI-T) or Armour-Piercing Incendiary (API) bullets, and they have approximately
twice the energy of a 12.7 mm (.50 BMG) projectile. The KPV is air-cooled and tted with barrel with a hard
chrome plated bore. It uses a short recoil operation system with gas assistance and a rotary bolt. It can be fed with
the 40-round metallic belt from either the left or right side. The barrel can be removed by turning the prominent latch
on the forward end of the receiver and pulling on the barrel's carrying handle.

Rear view of a captured KPV machine-gun crudely modied for use as an anti-aircraft weapon on display at the headquarters of
the 2-135 General Support Aviation Battalion at Buckley AFB, CO. It is missing its feed tray cover.

212

CHAPTER 21. KPV HEAVY MACHINE GUN

21.4 Versions
Main article: ZPU
The ZPU is a towed anti-aircraft gun based on the KPV. It entered service with the Soviet Union in 1949 and is used
by over 50 countries worldwide.
Quadruple- (ZPU-4) Double- (ZPU-2) and single-barreled (ZPU-1) versions of the weapon exist.

21.5 Gallery
ZPU-1 single barrel AAA mount
ZPU-2 twin barrel AAA mount
Bangladesh Army ZPU-4
Iraq Police Dodge Ram gun truck with adapted KPV
Shipboard ZM-5

21.6 Ammunition
B-32 - Armor-piercing incendiary full metal jacket round with a tungsten-carbide core. Projectile weight is
64.4 g and muzzle velocity is 976 m/s. Armour penetration at 500 m is 32 mm of rolled homogeneous armour
(RHA) at 0 degrees.
BZT - Armor-piercing incendiary tracer full metal jacket round with a steel core. Projectile weight is 59.56 g
and muzzle velocity is 1,005 m/s. Tracer burns to at least 2,000 m.
MDZ - High-explosive incendiary bullet of instant action. Projectile weight is 59.68 g.
Rounds are also produced by Bulgaria, China, Egypt, Poland, and Romania.
KPV heavy machine gun is used in Gaza by Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades military wing of Hamas.

21.7 Operators

Afghanistan

Albania

Algeria

Angola

Bulgaria

Cambodia

China

Cuba

Czechoslovakia (ex)

Egypt

21.7. OPERATORS

Eritrea

Estonia

Ethiopia

Finland (KPVT)

Hungary

India - Manufactured at Ordnance Factory Tiruchirappalli* [6]

Iraq

Iran

Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades

Kurdistan

Laos

Lebanon

Libya

Mali - Armed and Security Forces of Mali

Mongolia

Mozambique

Myanmar

North Korea

Nicaragua

Pakistan: Used by the Pakistan Army. * [7]

Panama

Poland

Romania

Russia

Somalia

Soviet Union (ex)

Sudan

Syria

Ukraine

Yemen

Vietnam

Zimbabwe

213

214

CHAPTER 21. KPV HEAVY MACHINE GUN

21.8 References
[1] KPVT large-calibre tank machine-gun. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
[2] Moise, p. 78
[3] Moise, p. 71
[4] Moise, p. 82, 83,
[5] MTPU 14.5mm marine pedestal machine gun mount. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
[6] OFT develops Gen-X weapons. www.oneindia.com. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
[7] KPV.

Suermondt, Jan (2004). Illustrated Guide to Combat Weapons. Kent: Grange Books. p. 104.
Koll, Christian (2009). Soviet Cannon - A Comprehensive Study of Soviet Arms and Ammunition in Calibres
12.7mm to 57mm. Austria: Koll. p. 98. ISBN 978-3-200-01445-9.
Moise, Edwin (1996). Tonkin Gulf and the Escalation of the Vietnam War. United States of America: The
University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-2300-7.

21.9 See also


List of Russian weaponry

21.10 External links


KPVT large-calibre tank machine-gun
MTPU 14.5mm marine pedestal machine-gun mount
Russian/Soviet KPV MACHINE GUN ON WHEELED MOUNT (MARKOV'S MOUNT) IN 14.5 x 114
calibre (M41/44) Walk around photos
ZPU-2 - TWIN MOUNT 14.5MM ANTI-AIRCRAFT GUNS (Twin mount anti-aircraft 14.5mm KPV machine guns) Walk around photos
Modern Firearms page on the KPV-14.5 heavy machine gun

Chapter 22

L16 81mm mortar


The United Kingdom's L16 81 mm mortar is the standard mortar used by the British armed forces. It originated
as a joint design by UK and Canada. The version produced and used by Australia is named the F2 81mm Mortar,
whilst the version used by the U.S. armed forces is known as the M252.
It was introduced in 1965/6, replacing the Ordnance ML 3 inch Mortar in UK service, where it is used by the Army,
the Royal Marines and the RAF Regiment.
In UK armoured/mechanised infantry battalions, the L16 mortar is mounted in an FV 432 AFV (six* [3] per battalion
mortar platoon). British army light role infantry battalions and the Royal Marines may transport their mortars in BvS
10 vehicles (the replacement for the Bv 206). Otherwise, it is carried dissassembled in three loads, (barrel, baseplate
and bipod with sights, each approximately 11 kg), normally carried by a vehicle or helicopter and assembled for ring
from the ground.
The weapon can be man-packed by the mortar detachment, but this is an arduous task (especially for the carrier of
the bipod) and is preferably avoided. The ammunition in this case would be carried by other soldiers of the battalion.
In addition to his normal equipment, each man would carry four bombs in a pair of two-bomb, plastic containers
(known as greenies in the British Army).
The mortar has been used by many countries' armed forces, including the Netherlands.* [4] Versions of the M113
APC are used by many countries to transport their mortars.

22.1 Gallery
View down the smoothbore barrel of the L16 mortar.
L16 baseplate.
L16 sight.
L16 mortar of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force.

22.2 References
[1] http://www.defensie.nl/english/subjects/materiel/arms/mortars/mortar_81_mm
[2] 81mm Mortar. Retrieved 4 November 2014.
[3] Richard A. Rinaldi. MODERN BRITISH TOES. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
[4] Dutch Army site on 81mm mortar. Retrieved 4 November 2014.

215

216

22.3 External links


British army site on 81 mm mortar

CHAPTER 22. L16 81MM MORTAR

Chapter 23

M16 rie
The M16 rie, ocially designated Rie, Caliber 5.56 mm, M16, is the United States military select-re adaptation
of the AR-15 rie. The rie was adapted for semi-automatic and full-automatic re.* [7]* [8] Colt purchased the
rights to the AR-15 from ArmaLite, and currently uses that designation only for semi-automatic versions of the rie.
The M16 res the 5.5645mm NATO cartridge. The rie entered United States Army service and was deployed
for jungle warfare operations in South Vietnam in 1963,* [9] becoming the U.S. military's standard service rie of
the Vietnam War by 1969,* [10] replacing the M14 rie in that role. The U.S. Army retained the M14 in CONUS,
Europe, and South Korea until 1970. In 1983 with the USMC's adoption of the M16A2 (1986 for the US Army), the
M16 rie was modied for three-round bursts,* [11] with some later variants having all modes of re and has been
the primary service rie of the U.S. armed forces.
The M16 has also been widely adopted by other militaries around the world. Total worldwide production of M16s
has been approximately 8 million, making it the most-produced rearm of its 5.56 mm caliber.* [12] As of 2010,
the U.S. Army is supplementing the M16 in combat units with the M4 carbine, which is a smaller version of the
M16.* [13]

23.1 Overview
The M16 is a lightweight, 5.56 mm, air-cooled, gas-operated, magazine-fed assault rie, with a rotating bolt, actuated
by direct impingement gas operation. The rie is made of steel, 7075 aluminum alloy, composite plastics and polymer
materials.
ArmaLite sold its rights to the AR-15 to Colt in 1959.* [14] The AR-15 was rst adopted in 1962 by the United
States Air Force, ultimately receiving the designation M16. The U.S. Army began to eld the XM16E1 en masse
in 1965 with most of them going to the Republic of Vietnam, and the newly organized and experimental Airmobile
Divisions, the 1st Air Cavalry Division in particular. The U.S. Marine Corps in South Vietnam also experimented
with the M16 rie in combat during this period. This occurred in the early 1960s, with the Army issuing it in late
1964.* [15] Commercial AR-15s were rst issued to Special Forces troops in spring of 1964.* [16]
The rst issues of the rie generated considerable controversy because the gun suered from a jamming aw known
as failure to extract, which meant that a spent cartridge case remained lodged in the chamber after a bullet was
red.* [17] According to a congressional report, the jamming was caused primarily by a change in gunpowder that was
done without adequate testing and reected a decision for which the safety of soldiers was a secondary consideration,
away from what the designer specied, as well as telling troops the rie was 'self cleaning' and at times failing to issue
cleaning kits.* [18] Due to the issue, reports of soldiers being wounded were directly linked to the M16, which many
soldiers felt was unreliable compared to its precursor, the M14, which used stick powder, varying from the M16's
utilization of ball powder.
The Army standardized an upgrade of the XM16E1 as the M16A1 in 1967. All of the early versions were chambered to re the M193/M196 cartridges in the semi-automatic and the automatic ring modes. The M16A1 version
remained the primary infantry rie of U.S. forces in South Vietnam until the end of direct U.S. ground involvement
in 1973, and remained with all U.S. military ground forces after it had replaced the M14 service rie in 1970 in
CONUS, Europe (Germany), and South Korea; when it was supplemented by the M16A2. During the early 1980s, a
roughly standardized load for this ammunition was adopted throughout NATO.
217

218

CHAPTER 23. M16 RIFLE

The XM16E1 is seen here tted with an AN/PVS-2 night vision scope.

The M16A2 rie entered service in the 1980s, being ordered in large scale by 1987, chambered to re the standard
NATO cartridge, the Belgian-designed M855/M856. The M16A2 is a select-re rie (semi-automatic re, threeround-burst re) incorporating design elements requested by the Marine Corps: an adjustable, windage rear-sight; a
stock 5 8 inch (15.9 mm) longer; heavier barrel; case deector for left-hand shooters; and cylindrical handguards.* [15]
The re mode selector is on the receiver's left side. M16A2s are still in stock with the U.S. Army and Marine Corps,
but are used primarily by reserve and National Guard units as well as by the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Coast Guard.
The M16A3 rie is an M16A2 rie with an M16A1's re control group (semi-automatic re, automatic re) that is
used only by the U.S. Navy.
The M16A4 rie was standard issue for the United States Marine Corps in Operation Iraqi Freedom after 2004 and
replaced the M16A2 in front line units.* [19] In the U.S. Army, the M16A2 rie is being supplemented with two
rie models, the M16A4 and the M4 carbine, as the standard issue assault rie. The M16A4 has a at-top receiver
developed for the M4 carbine, a handguard with four Picatinny rails for mounting a sight, laser, night vision device,
forward handgrip, M203 grenade launcher, removable handle, or a ashlight.
The M16 rie is principally manufactured by Colt and Fabrique Nationale de Herstal (under a U.S. military contract
since 1988 by FNH-USA; currently in production since 1991, primarily M16A2, A3, and A4), with variants made
elsewhere in the world. Versions for the U.S. military have also been made by H & R Firearms* [20] General Motors
Hydramatic Division* [21] and most recently by Sabre Defence.* [22] Semi-automatic versions of the AR-15 are popular recreational shooting ries, with versions manufactured by other small and large manufacturers in the U.S.* [23]
The M16 rie design, including variant or modied version of it such as the Armalite/Colt AR-15 series, AAI M15
rie; AP74; EAC J-15; SGW XM15A; any 22-caliber rimre variant, including the Mitchell M16A-1/22, Mitchell
M16/22, Mitchell CAR-15/22, and AP74 Auto Rie, is a prohibited and restricted weapon in Canada.* [24]

23.2 History
23.2.1

Project SALVO

In 1948, the U.S. Army organized the civilian Operations Research Oce, mirroring similar operations research
organizations in the United Kingdom. One of their rst eorts, Project ALCLAD, studied body armor and the

23.2. HISTORY

219

A U.S. soldier on NBC exercise, holding an M16A1 rie and wearing an M40 Field Protective Mask. Note the receiver, forward
assist and the barrel ash suppressor.

conclusion was that they would need to know more about battleeld injuries in order to make reasonable suggestions.
Over 3 million battleeld reports from World War I and World War II were analyzed and over the next few years they
released a series of reports on their ndings.* [26]
The conclusion was that most combat takes place at short range. In a highly mobile war, combat teams ran into each
other largely by surprise; and the team with the greater repower tended to win. They also found that the chance of
being hit in combat was essentially random; accurate aimingmade little dierence because the targets no longer
sat still. The number one predictor of casualties was the total number of rounds red.* [26] Other studies of behavior
in battle revealed that many U.S. infantrymen (as many as two-thirds) never actually red their ries in combat. By
contrast, soldiers armed with rapid re weapons were much more likely to have red their weapons in battle.* [27]
These conclusions suggested that infantry should be equipped with a fully automatic rie of some sort in order to
increase the actual repower of regular soldiers. It was also clear, however, that such weapons dramatically increased
ammunition use and in order for a rieman to be able to carry enough ammunition for a reght he would have to
carry something much lighter.
Existing ries met none of these criteria. Although it appeared the new 7.62 mm T44 (precursor to the M14) would
increase the rate of re, its heavy 7.62 mm NATO cartridge made carrying signicant quantities of ammunition
dicult. Moreover, the length and weight of the weapon made it unsuitable for short range combat situations often
found in jungle and urban combat or mechanized warfare, where a smaller and lighter weapon could be brought to
bear faster.
These eorts were noticed by Colonel Ren Studler, U.S. Army Ordnance's Chief of Small Arms Research and
Development. Col. Studler asked the Aberdeen Proving Ground to submit a report on the smaller caliber weapons.
A team led by Donald Hall, director of program development at Aberdeen, reported that a .22 inch (5.56 mm) round
red at a higher velocity would have performance equal to larger rounds in most combat.* [28] With the higher rate
of re possible due to lower recoil it was likely such a weapon would inict more casualties on the enemy. His team
members, notably William C. Davis, Jr. and Gerald A. Gustafson, started development of a series of experimental

220

Weapons from Vietnam and Desert Storm at the National Firearms Museum.* [25]

CHAPTER 23. M16 RIFLE

23.2. HISTORY

221

.22 (5.56 mm) cartridges. In 1955, their request for further funding was denied.
A new study, Project SALVO, was set up to try to nd a weapon design suited to real-world combat. Running between
1953 and 1957 in two phases, SALVO eventually suggested that a weapon ring four rounds into a 20-inch (508 mm)
area would double the hit probability of existing semi-automatic weapons.
In the second phase, SALVO II, several experimental weapons concepts were tested. Irwin Barr of AAI Corporation
introduced a series of echette weapons, starting with a shotgun shell containing 32 darts and ending with singleround echette ries. Winchester and Springeld Armory oered multiple barrel weapons, while ORO's own
design used two .22, .25 or .27 caliber bullets loaded into a single .308 Winchester or .30-06 cartridge.

23.2.2

Eugene Stoner

A U.S. soldier with M16A2 at Schoeld Barracks, Hawaii. The United States Army did not place a large order for the A2 model
until 1986.

Meanwhile testing of the 7.62 mm T44 continued, and Fabrique Nationale also submitted their new FN FAL via the
American rm Harrington & Richardson as the T48. The T44 was selected as the new battle rie for the U.S. Army
(rechristened the M14) despite a strong showing by the T48.* [29]
In 1954, Eugene Stoner of the newly formed ArmaLite helped develop the 7.62 mm AR-10.* [8] Springeld's T44
and similar entries were conventional ries using wood for thefurnitureand otherwise built entirely of steel using
mostly forged and machined parts. ArmaLite was founded specically to bring the latest in designs and alloys to
rearms design, and Stoner felt he could easily beat the other oerings.
The AR-10's receiver was made of forged and milled aluminum alloy instead of steel. The barrel was mated to the
receiver by a separate hardened steel extension to which the bolt locked. This allowed a lightweight aluminum receiver
to be used while still maintaining a steel-on-steel lockup. The bolt was operated by high-pressure combustion gases
taken from a hole in the middle of the barrel directly through a tube above the barrel to a cylinder created in the
bolt carrier with the bolt carrier itself acting as a piston. Traditional ries located this cylinder and piston close to
the gas vent. The stock and grips were made of a glass-reinforced plastic shell over a rigid foam plastic core. The
muzzle brake was fabricated from titanium. Over Stoner's objections, various experimental composite and 'Sullaloy'
aluminum barrels were tted to some AR-10 prototypes by ArmaLite's president, George Sullivan. The Sullaloy
barrel was made entirely of heat-treated aluminum, while the composite barrels used aluminum extruded over a thin

222

CHAPTER 23. M16 RIFLE

stainless steel liner.


Meanwhile, the layout of the weapon itself was also somewhat dierent. Previous designs generally placed the sights
directly on the barrel, using a bend in the stock to align the sights at eye level while transferring the recoil down to
the shoulder. This meant that the weapon tended to rise when red, making it very dicult to control during fully
automatic re. The ArmaLite team used a solution previously used on weapons such as the German FG 42 and
Johnson light machine gun; they located the barrel in line with the stock, well below eye level, and raised the sights
to eye level. The rear sight was built into a carrying handle over the receiver.
Despite being over 2 lb (0.91 kg) lighter than the competition, the AR-10 oered signicantly greater accuracy and
recoil control. Two prototype ries were delivered to the U.S. Army's Springeld Armory for testing late in 1956.
At this time, the U.S. armed forces were already two years into a service rie evaluation program, and the AR-10
was a newcomer with respect to older, more fully developed designs. Over Stoner's continued objections, George
Sullivan had insisted that both prototypes be tted with composite aluminum/steel barrels. Shortly after a composite
barrel burst on one prototype in 1957, the AR-10 was rejected. The AR-10 was later produced by a Dutch rm,
Artillerie Inrichtingen, and saw limited but successful military service with several foreign nations such as Sudan,
Guatemala, and Portugal. Portugal deployed a number of AR-10s for use by its airborne (Caadores Pra-quedista)
battalions, and the rie saw considerable combat service in Portugal's counter-insurgency campaigns in Angola and
Mozambique.* [30] Some AR-10 ries were still in service with airborne forces serving during the withdrawal from
Portuguese Timor in 1975.

23.2.3

CONARC

In 1957, a copy of Gustafson's funding request from 1955 found its way into the hands of General Willard G. Wyman,
commander of the U.S. Continental Army Command. He immediately put together a team to develop a .223 caliber
(5.56 mm) weapon for testing. Their nalized request called for a select-re weapon of 6 pounds (2.7 kg) when
loaded with 20 rounds of ammunition. The bullet had to penetrate a standard U.S. steel helmet, body armor, or a
steel plate of 0.135 inches (3.4 mm) and retain a velocity in excess of the speed of sound at 500 yards (460 m), while
equaling or exceeding the woundingability of the .30 Carbine.* [26]* [31]
Wyman had seen the AR-10 in an earlier demonstration, and impressed by its performance he personally suggested
that ArmaLite enter a weapon for testing using a 5.56 mm cartridge designed by Winchester.* [26] Their rst design,
using conventional layout and wooden furniture, proved to be too light. When combined with a conventional stock,
recoil was excessive in fully automatic re. Their second design was simply a scaled-down AR-10, and immediately
proved much more controllable. Winchester entered the LMR,* [32] a design based loosely on their M1 carbine, and
Earle Harvey of Springeld attempted to enter a design, but was overruled by his superiors at Springeld, who refused
to divert resources from the T44. In the end, ArmaLite's AR-15 had no competition. The lighter round allowed the
rie to be scaled down, and was smaller and lighter than the previous AR-10. The AR-15 weighed only around 5.5
pounds (2.5 kg) empty, and 6 pounds (2.7 kg) loaded (with a 20-round magazine).
During testing in March 1958, rainwater caused the barrels of both the ArmaLite and Winchester ries to burst,
causing the Army to once again press for a larger round, this time at 0.258 in (6.6 mm). Nevertheless, they suggested
continued testing for cold-weather suitability in Alaska. Stoner was later asked to y in to replace several parts, and
when he arrived he found the ries had been improperly reassembled. When he returned he was surprised to learn
that they too had rejected the design even before he had arrived; their report also endorsed the 0.258 in (6.6 mm)
round. After reading these reports, General Maxwell Taylor became dead-set against the design, and pressed for
continued production of the M14.
Not all the reports were negative. In a series of mock-combat situations testing the AR-15, M14 and AK-47, the
Army found that the AR-15's small size and light weight allowed it to be brought to bear much more quickly, just
as CONARC had suggested. Their nal conclusion was that an 8-man team equipped with the AR-15 would have
the same repower as a current 11-man team armed with the M14. U.S. troops were able to carry more than twice
as much 5.5645mm ammunition as 7.62x51mm for the same weight, which would allow them a greater advantage
against a typical NVA unit armed with AK-47s.
At this point, Fairchild had spent $1.45 million in development expenses, and wished to divest itself of its small-arms
business. Fairchild sold production rights for the AR-15 to Colt Firearms in December 1959, for only $75,000 cash
and a 4.5% royalty on subsequent sales; Robert W. MacDonald of Cooper-MacDonald got a nder's fee of $250,000
and a 1% royalty for arranging the deal.* [33] In 1960, ArmaLite was reorganized, and Stoner left the company.

23.2. HISTORY

23.2.4

223

M16 adoption

Curtis LeMay viewed a demonstration of the AR-15 in July 1960. In the summer of 1961, General LeMay had been
promoted to the position of USAF Chief of Sta, and requested an order of 80,000 AR-15s for the U.S. Air Force.
However, under the recommendation of General Maxwell D. Taylor, who advised the Commander in Chief that
having two dierent calibers within the military system at the same time would be problematic, President Kennedy
turned down the request.* [34] However, Advanced Research Projects Agency, which had been created in 1958 in
response to the Soviet Sputnik program, embarked on project AGILE in the spring of 1961. AGILE's priority mission
was to devise inventive xes to the communist problem in South Vietnam. In October 1961, William Godel, a senior
man at ARPA, sent 10 AR-15s to South Vietnam to let the allies test them. The reception was enthusiastic, and in
1962 another 1,000 AR-15s were sent to South Vietnam.* [35] Special Operations units and advisers working with
the South Vietnamese troops led battleeld reports lavishly praising the AR-15 and the stopping eectiveness of
the 5.56 mm cartridge, and pressed for its adoption. However, what no one knew, except the men directly using the
AR-15s in Vietnam, were the devastating kills made by the new rie, photographs of which, showing enemy casualties
made by the .223 (5.56 mm) bullet remained classied into the 1980s.* [36]
The damage caused by the .223 in (5.56 mm) varmint* [34] bullet was observed and originally believed to be
caused by tumblingdue to the slow 1 in 14-inch (360 mm) riing twist rate. However, this twist rate only made
the bullet less stable in air. Any pointed lead core bullet will turn base over point (tumble) after penetration in
esh, because the center of gravity is aft of the center of pressure. The large wounds observed by soldiers in Vietnam
were actually caused by projectile fragmentation, which was created by a combination of the projectile's velocity and
construction.* [37]
U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara now had two conicting views: the ARPA report favoring the AR-15
and the Pentagon's position on the M14. Even President John F. Kennedy expressed concern, so McNamara ordered
Secretary of the Army Cyrus Vance to test the M14, the AR-15 and the AK-47. The Army's test report stated that
only the M14 was suitable for Army use, but Vance wondered about the impartiality of those conducting the tests.
He ordered the Army Inspector General to investigate the testing methods used; the Inspector General conrmed that
the testers showed favor to the M14.
Secretary Robert McNamara ordered a halt to M14 production in January 1963, after receiving reports that M14
production was insucient to meet the needs of the armed forces. Secretary McNamara had long been a proponent
of weapons program consolidation among the armed services. At the time, the AR-15 was the only rie that could
fulll a requirement of a universalinfantry weapon for issue to all services. McNamara ordered the weapon be
adopted unmodied, in its current conguration, for immediate issue to all services, despite receiving reports noting
several deciencies with the M16 as a service rie, including the lack of a chrome-lined bore and chamber, the 5.56
mm projectile's instability under arctic conditions,* [38] and the fact that large quantities of 5.56 mm ammunition
required for immediate service were not available. In addition, the Army insisted on the inclusion of a forward assist
to help push the bolt into battery in the event that a cartridge failed to seat in the chamber through fouling or corrosion.
Colt had argued the rie was a self-cleaning design, requiring little or no maintenance. Colt, Eugene Stoner, and the
U.S. Air Force believed that a forward assist needlessly complicated the rie, adding about $4.50 to its procurement
cost with no real benet. As a result, the design was split into two variants: the Air Force's M16 without the forward
assist, and, for the other service branches, the XM16E1 with the forward assist.
In November 1963, McNamara approved the U.S. Army's order of 85,000 XM16E1s for jungle warfare operations;* [39] and to appease General LeMay, the Air Force was granted an order for another 19,000 M16s.* [26]* [40]
Meanwhile, the Army carried out another project, the Small Arms Weapons Systems, on general infantry rearm
needs in the immediate future. They recommended the immediate adoption of the weapon. Later that year the Air
Force ocially accepted their rst batch as the United States Rie, Caliber 5.56 mm, M16.
The Army immediately began to issue the XM16E1 to infantry units. However, the rie was initially delivered without
adequate cleaning supplies or instructions and so, when the M16 reached Vietnam with U.S. troops in March 1965,
reports of stoppages in combat began to surface. Often the rie suered from a stoppage known asfailure to extract
, which meant that a spent cartridge case remained lodged in the chamber after a bullet ew out the muzzle.* [17]
Although the M14 featured a chrome-lined barrel and chamber to resist corrosion in combat conditions, neither the
bore nor the chamber of the M16/XM16E1 was chrome-lined. Several documented accounts of troops killed by
enemy re with inoperable ries broken-down for cleaning eventually brought a Congressional investigation.* [41]
We left with 72 men in our platoon and came back with 19, Believe it or not, you know what killed
most of us? Our own rie. Practically every one of our dead was found with his [M16] torn down next
to him where he had been trying to x it.

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CHAPTER 23. M16 RIFLE

A U.S. Soldier cleans his XM16E1 during the Vietnam War in 1966.

Marine Corps Rieman, Vietnam.* [41]

The root cause of the stoppages turned out to be a problem with the powder in the ammunition. In 1964, when
the Army was informed that DuPont could not mass-produce the nitrocellulose-based IMR 4475 powder to the
specications demanded by the M16, the Olin Mathieson Company provided a high-performance ball propellant of
nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin. While the Olin WC 846 powder was capable of ring an M16 5.56 mm round at
the desired 3,300 ft (1,000 m) per second, the powder produced higher chamber and gas port pressures with the

23.2. HISTORY

225

The M16A1 Rie, illustrated by Will Eisner, was produced in the same style to Eisner's ongoing PS, The Preventive Maintenance
Monthly series for the United States Army.* [42]

unintended consequence of increasing the automatic rate of re from 850 to 1,000 rounds per minute.* [43] That

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problem was resolved by tting the M16 with a buer system, reducing the rate of re back to 850 rounds per
minute, and outtting all newly produced M16s with an anti-corrosive chrome-plated chamber.* [44] Dirty residue
left by WC 846 made the M16 more likely to have a stoppage. Some WC 846 propellant lots clogged the M16 gas
tube until concentrations of calcium carbonate stabilizers were reduced in 1970 as reformulated WC 844.* [45]
On February 28, 1967, the XM16E1 was standardized as the M16A1. Major revisions to the design followed. The
rie was given a chrome-lined chamber (later, the entire bore) to eliminate corrosion and stuck cartridges, and the
rie's recoil mechanism was re-designed to accommodate Army-issued 5.56 mm ammunition. Rie cleaning tools
and powder solvents/lubricants were issued. Intensive training programs in weapons cleaning were instituted including
a comic book-style manual in 1968 and 1969, DA PAM 750-30, to demonstrate proper maintenance.* [46]* [47] The
reliability problems of the M16 diminished quickly, although the rie's reputation continued to suer.* [26]
According to a February 1968 Department of Defense report, the M16 rie achieved widespread acceptance by U.S.
troops in Vietnam. Only 38 of 2,100 individuals queried wanted to replace the M16 with another weapon. Of those
38, 35 wanted the CAR-15 (a shorter version of the M16) instead.* [48]
SPIW

M16A1 with a 30-round magazine

The M16 and the 5.5645 mm cartridge were initially adopted by U.S. infantry forces as interim solutions to address
the weight and control issues experienced with the 7.6251mm round and M14 rie. In the late 1950s, future small
arms development was pursued through the Special Purpose Individual Weapon program. The SPIW eort sought
to replace cased bullets with echette projectiles red from sabots. Ries ring the sabots would have a muzzle
velocity of 1,200 metres per second (3,900 ft/s) to 1,500 metres per second (4,900 ft/s) to give a short ight time
and at trajectory. At those speeds, factors like range, wind drift, and target movement would no longer aect
performance. Several manufacturers oered many dierent gun designs, from traditional wooden models to ones
made of lightweight space agematerials similar to the M16, to bullpups, and even multi-barrel weapons with
drum magazines. All used similar ammunition ring a 1.8 mm diameter dart with a plastic pullersabot lling
the case mouth. While the echette ammunition had excellent armor penetration, there were doubts about their
terminal eectiveness against unprotected targets. Conventional cased ammunition was more accurate and the sabots
were expensive to produce. The SPIW program never created an infantry rie that would be combat eective, and
development was fully abandoned in the early 1970s. With the end of the program, the temporaryM16, with the
5.5645mm round, was retained as the standard U.S. infantry rie.* [49]

23.2.5

NATO standards

In March 1970, the U.S. stated that all NATO forces should eventually adopt the 5.56x45mm cartridge. This shift
represented a change in the philosophy of the military's long-held position about caliber size. By the mid-1970s,
other armies were also looking at M16-style weapons. A NATO standardization eort soon started, and tests of
various rounds were carried out starting in 1977. The U.S. oered their original 5.56x45mm design, the M193, with
no modications, but there were concerns about its penetration in the face of the wider introduction of body armor.
In the end, the Belgian 5.56x45mm SS109 round was chosen (STANAG 4172). This round was based on the U.S.
cartridge, but included a new 62 grain bullet design with a small steel tip added to improve penetration. The U.S.
Marine Corps was rst to adopt the round with the M16A2, introduced in 1982. This was to become the standard
U.S. military rie. The NATO 5.56x45mm standard ammunition produced for U.S. forces is designated M855.

23.2. HISTORY

227

German Army soldiers of the 13th Panzergrenadier Division qualify with the M16A2 at Wrzburg, as part of a partnership range
with the U.S. 1st Infantry Division.

Shortly after, in October 1980, NATO accepted the 5.56x45mm NATO rie cartridge.* [50] Draft Standardization
Agreement 4179 (STANAG 4179) was proposed to allow the military services of member nations to easily share
rie ammunition and magazines during operations, at the individual soldier level, in the interest of easing logistical
concerns. The magazine chosen to become the STANAG magazine was originally designed for the U.S. M16 rie.
Many NATO member nations, but not all, subsequently developed or purchased ries with the ability to accept this
type of magazine. However, the standard was never ratied and remains a 'Draft STANAG'.* [51]
The NATO Accessory Rail STANAG 4694, or Picatinny rail STANAG 2324, or a Tactical Railis a bracket
used on M16 type ries to provide a standardized mounting platform. The rail comprises a series of ridges with a
T-shaped cross-section interspersed with at spacing slots. Scopes are mounted either by sliding them on from
one end or the other; by means of a rail-grabberwhich is clamped to the rail with bolts, thumbscrews or levers;
or onto the slots between the raised sections. The rail was originally for scopes. However, once established, the use
of the system was expanded to other accessories, such as tactical lights, laser aiming modules, night vision devices,
reex sights, foregrips, bipods, and bayonets.
Currently, the M16 is in use by 15 NATO countries and more than 80 countries world wide.

23.2.6

Reliability

The M16 rie series has had questionable reliability performance since its introduction. Intense criticism began
in 1966, when soldiers and Marines in Vietnam reported that their ries would jam during reghts. The worst
malfunction was failure to extract, where a spent cartridge case remained lodged in the chamber after a round was
red. The only way to dislodge the case was to push a metal rod down the muzzle to force the case out, which
took valuable time away from returning re. In 1967, a then-classied Army report showed that out of 1,585 troops
questioned in a survey, 80 percent (1,268 troops) experienced a stoppage while ring. This occurred while the
Army insisted to the public that the M16 was the best rie available for ghting in Vietnam. A 1967 Congressional
subcommittee investigation found the Army failed to ensure the weapon and ammunition worked well together, failed
to train troops on the new weapon, and neglected to issue enough cleaning equipment, including a cleaning rod to
clear jammed ries. Most problems were remedied with the issuing of the M16A1.* [17]
In December 2006, the Center for Naval Analyses released a report on U.S. small arms in combat. The CNA con-

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CHAPTER 23. M16 RIFLE

ducted surveys on 2,608 troops returning from combat in Iraq and Afghanistan over the past 12 months. Only troops
who red their weapons at enemy targets were allowed to participate. 1,188 troops were armed with M16A2 or A4
ries, making up 46 percent of the survey. 75 percent of M16 users (891 troops) reported they were satised with
the weapon. 60 percent (713 troops) were satised with handling qualities such as handguards, size, and weight. Of
the 40 percent dissatised, most were with its size. Only 19 percent of M16 users (226 troops) reported a stoppage,
while 80 percent of those that experienced a stoppage said it had little impact on their ability to clear the stoppage
and re-engage their target. Half of the M16 users never experienced failures of their magazines to feed. 83 percent (986 troops) did not need their ries repaired while in theater. 71 percent (843 troops) were condent in the
M16's reliability, dened as level of soldier condence their weapon will re without malfunction, and 72 percent
(855 troops) were condent in its durability, dened as level of soldier condence their weapon will not break or
need repair. Both factors were attributed to high levels of soldiers performing their own maintenance. 60 percent of
M16 users oered recommendations for improvements. Requests included greater bullet lethality, new-built ries
instead of rebuilt, better quality magazines, decreased weight, and a collapsible stock. Some users recommended
shorter and lighter weapons similar to the M4 Carbine, or to simply be issued with the M4.* [52] Some issues have
been addressed with the issuing of the Improved STANAG magazine in March 2009,* [53]* [54] and the M855A1
Enhanced Performance Round in June 2010.* [55]
In early 2010, two journalists from the New York Times spent three months with soldiers and Marines in Afghanistan.
While there, they questioned around 100 infantrymen about the reliability of their M16 ries, as well as the M4
Carbine. Surprisingly, troops did not report to be suering reliability problems with their ries. While only 100
troops were asked, they fought at least a dozen intense engagements in Helmand Province, where the ground is
covered in ne powdered sand (calledmoon dustby troops) that can stick to rearms. Weapons were often dusty,
wet, and covered in mud. Intense reghts lasted hours with several magazines being expended. Only one soldier
reported a jam when his M16 was covered in mud after climbing out of a canal. The weapon was cleared and resumed
ring with the next chambered round. Furthermore, a Marine Chief Warrant Ocer reported that with his battalion's
350 M16s and 700 M4s, they've had no issues.* [56]

23.3 Design

Top drawing is of an A2-style rie; bottom drawing is of an A2-style rie with A1 rear sights (as with the C7)

The M16's receivers are made of 7075 aluminum alloy, its barrel, bolt, and bolt carrier of steel, and its handguards,

23.3. DESIGN

229

USMC M16A2s with the OKC-3S bayonet.

pistol grip, and buttstock of plastics. Early models were especially lightweight at 6.5 pounds (2.9 kg) without magazine
and sling. This was signicantly less than older 7.62 mm battle riesof the 1950s and 1960s. It also compares
with the 6.5 pounds (2.9 kg) AKM without magazine.* [57] M16A2 and later variants (A3 & A4) weigh more (8.5
lb (3.9 kg) loaded) because of the adoption of a thicker barrel prole. The thicker barrel is more resistant to damage
when handled roughly and is also slower to overheat during sustained re. Unlike a traditional bullbarrel that
is thick its entire length, the M16A2's barrel is only thick forward of the handguards. The barrel prole under the
handguards remained the same as the M16A1 for compatibility with the M203 grenade launcher. The rie is the
same length as the M16A1.
The riing twist of early model M16 barrels had 4 grooves, right hand twist, 1 turn in 14 inches (1:355.6 mm) bore
- as it was the same riing used by the .222 Remington sporting round. This was shown to make the light .223
Remington bullet yaw in ight at long ranges and it was soon replaced. Later models had an improved riing with 6
grooves, right hand twist, 1 turn in 12 inches (1:304.8 mm) for increased accuracy and was optimized for use with the
standard US M193 cartridge. Current models are optimized for the heavier NATO SS109 bullet and have 6 grooves,
right hand twist, 1 turn in 7 in (1:177.8 mm).* [58]* [59]* [60]* [61] Weapons designed to accept both the M193 or
SS109 rounds (like civilian market clones) have a 6-groove, right hand twist, 1 turn in 9 inches (1:228.6 mm) bore.

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CHAPTER 23. M16 RIFLE

The M16's most distinctive ergonomic feature is the carrying handle and rear sight assembly on top of the receiver.
This is a by-product of the original design, where the carry handle served to protect the charging handle.* [62] As the
line of sight is 2.5 in (63.5 mm) over the bore, the M16 has an inherent parallax problem. At closer ranges (typically
inside 1520 meters), the shooter must aim high in order to place shots where desired. The M16 has a 500 mm (19.75
inches) sight radius.* [63] The M16 uses an L-type ip, aperture rear sight and it is adjustable with two settings, 0 to
300 meters and 300 to 400 meters.* [64] The front sight is a post adjustable for elevation in the eld. The rear sight can
be adjusted in the eld for windage. The sights can be adjusted with a bullet tip and soldiers are trained to zero their
own ries. The sight picture is the same as the M14, M1 Garand, M1 Carbine and the M1917 Eneld. The M16 also
has aLow Light Level Sight System, which includes a front sight post with a small glass vial of (glow-in-the-dark)
radioactive Tritium H3 and a larger aperture rear sight.* [65] The M16A4 can mount a scope on the carrying handle.
With the advent of the M16A2, a new fully adjustable rear sight was added, allowing the rear sight to be dialed in for
specic range settings between 300 and 800 meters and to allow windage adjustments without the need of a tool or
cartridge.* [66] Modern versions of the M16 use a Picatinny rail, which allows the use of various scopes and sighting
devices. The current United States Army and Air Force issue M4 Carbine comes with the M68 Close Combat Optic
and Back-up Iron Sight.* [67]* [68] The United States Marine Corps uses the ACOG Rie Combat Optic* [69]* [70]
and the United States Navy uses EOTech Holographic Weapon Sight.* [71]
Another unique design feature is its straight-line recoil design, where the recoil spring is located in the stock directly
behind the action. This serves the dual function of operating spring and recoil buer.* [62] The stock being in line
with the bore reduces muzzle rise, especially during automatic re. Because the low recoil does not signicantly shift
the point of aim, faster follow-up shots are now much more possible and user fatigue is reduced.
The M16 utilizes direct impingement gas operation; high-pressure gas tapped from a port built near the front sight
assembly travels through a tube in the upper handguard and exerts pressure on the bolt carrier mechanism, actuating
the bolt. This reduces the number of moving parts by eliminating the need for a separate piston and cylinder and it
provides better performance in rapid re by lowering recoil through reduced mass of moving parts.* [72]
The primary criticism of direct impingement is that fouling and debris from expended gunpowder is blown directly
into the breech.* [73] As the superheated gas travels down the tube, not only does it make the handguard become
rather hot, it expands and cools. This cooling causes vaporized matter to condense depositing a much greater volume
of solids into the operating components of the weapon.* [74] The increased fouling can cause malfunctions if the rie
is not cleaned as frequently as it should be. The amount of sooting tends to vary with powder specication, caliber,
and gas port design.

23.3.1

5.56 mm cartridge

Main article: 5.5645mm NATO


Wound proles in ballistic gelatin
Note: images are not to same scale

M16 M193 5.56x45mm

23.3. DESIGN

231

M16A2 SS109/M855 5.56x45mm NATO


The 5.56x45 mm cartridge originally developed by Armalite had several advantages over the 7.62x51 mm NATO
round used in the M14 rie. Most of these reasons were due to the dense and humid jungle in which US soldiers
were ghting during the Vietnam War. The 5.56 mm cartridge was developed as a shorter range alternative to the
larger-caliber round used in M14 ries; it also enabled each soldier to carry more ammunition. The recoil was also
found easier to control during automatic or burst re, developing the M16 into variants such as the M16A3 and
M16A4.* [75] The 5.5645mm NATO cartridge can produce massive wounding eects when the bullet impacts at
high speed and yaws (tumbles) in tissue leading to fragmentation and rapid transfer of energy.* [76]* [77]* [78]
This produces wounds that were so devastating that the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and many
countries* [79] considered the M16 to be an inhumane weapon.* [80]* [81]
The M193 55-grain round was used in early M16 and M16A1 ries. The bullet tumbled and fragmented when it
hit a soft target. With the development of the M16A2, the new M855 62-grain was adopted in 1983. The heavier
bullet had more energy, and was made with a steel core to penetrate Soviet body armor. However, this caused less
fragmentation on impact and reduced eects against targets without armor, both of which lessened kinetic energy
transfer and wounding ability.* [17] Some soldiers and Marines coped with this through training, with requirements
to shoot vital areas three times to guarantee killing the target.* [82] In June 2010, the U.S. Military began issuing
the 62-grain M855A1 Enhanced Performance Round (EPR). The bullet had a solid copper core to eliminate lead
contamination, and a steel penetrator tip. The EPR has better hard target penetration than 7.62 mm NATO ball,
while also performing more consistently against soft targets than the M855. While the M855A1 was made to give
better performance out of the shorter barrel of the M4 Carbine, it gives enhanced performance from the full-length
M16 barrel.* [55]* [83]

23.3.2

Magazines

The M16's magazine was meant to be a lightweight, disposable item.* [84] As such, it was made of pressed/stamped
aluminum and was not designed to be durable.* [85] As a result, the magazine follower tended to rock or tilt, causing
malfunctions. The M16 originally used a 20-round straight magazine, which was later replaced by a bent 30-round
design.* [84]
The U.S. Military had adopted 30-round magazines with black followers, then updated magazines with green followers. In 2009, the U.S. military began elding animproved magazineidentied by a tan-colored follower.* [86]* [87]
The new follower incorporates an extended rear leg and modied bullet protrusion for improved round stacking and
orientation. The self-leveling/anti-tilt follower minimizes jamming while a wider spring coil prole creates even
force distribution. The performance gains have not added weight or cost to the magazines.* [87] Standard USGI
aluminum 30-round M16 magazines weigh 3.9 oz (110 g) empty and are 7.1 inches (180 mm) long.* [88]* [89]

23.3.3

Grips

Grips have changed through the various iterations of the M16 platform. These changes have been seen in more drastic
detail as the rie has moved into the civilian AR-15 market with its various aftermarket parts. Finger grooves as well
as angle grip have been changed to accommodate the large variance in users hands as well as position of shooting.

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CHAPTER 23. M16 RIFLE

Vietnam era 20-round magazine (left) and Current issue NATO STANAG 30-round magazine (right)

While military ries will use smaller grips in an eort to accommodate smaller hands aftermarket grips often focus
on a longer length of pull.* [90]

23.4 Accessories
23.4.1

Muzzle devices

Most M16 ries have a barrel threaded in 12-28threads to incorporate the use of a muzzle device such as a ash
suppressor or sound suppressor.* [91] The initial ash suppressor design had three tines or prongs and was designed
to preserve the shooter's night vision by disrupting the ash. Unfortunately it was prone to breakage and getting
entangled in vegetation. The design was later changed to close the end to avoid this and became known as the A1
or bird cageash suppressor on the M16A1. Eventually on the M16A2 version of the rie, the bottom port was
closed to reduce muzzle climb and prevent dust from rising when the rie was red in the prone position.* [29] For
these reasons, the US Military declared the A2 ash suppressor as a compensator or a muzzle brake; but it is more
commonly known as the GIor A2ash suppressor.* [75]

23.4. ACCESSORIES

233

The M16's Vortex Flash Hider weighs 3 ounces, is 2.25 inches long, and does not require a lock washer to attach to
barrel.* [92] It was developed in 1984, and is one of the earliest privately designed muzzle devices. The US Military
uses the Vortex Flash Hider on M4 carbines and M16 ries.* [93]* [94] A version of the Vortex has been adopted by
the Canadian Military for the Colt Canada C8 CQB rie.* [95] Other ash suppressors developed for the M16 include
the Phantom Flash Suppressor by Yankee Hill Machine (YHM) and the KX-3 by Noveske Rieworks.* [96]
The threaded barrel allows sound suppressors with the same thread pattern to be installed directly to the barrel;
however this can result in complications such as being unable to remove the suppressor from the barrel due to repeated ring on full auto or three-round burst.* [97] A number of suppressor manufacturers such as Advanced Armament Corporation, Gemtech, Smith Enterprise, SureFire and OPS Inc. have turned to designing direct-connect
sound suppressors which can be installed over an existing M16's ash suppressor as opposed to using the barrel's
threads.* [97]

23.4.2

Grenade launchers and shotguns

Loading an M203 40 mm grenade launcher attached to an M16 rie with a practice round.

All current M16 type ries are designed to re STANAG (NATO standard) 22 mm rie grenades from their integral
ash hiders without the use of an adapter. These 22 mm grenade types range from anti-tank rounds to simple nned
tubes with a fragmentation hand grenade attached to the end. They come in thestandardtype which are propelled
by a blank cartridge inserted into the chamber of the rie. They also come in thebullet trapandshoot through
types, as their names imply, they use live ammunition. The U.S. military does not generally use rie grenades;
however, they are used by other nations.* [98]
All current M16 type ries can mount under-barrel 40 mm grenade-launchers, such as the M203 and M320. Both
use the same 40 mm grenades as the older, stand-alone M79 grenade launcher. The M16 can also mount under-barrel
12 gauge shotguns such as KAC Masterkey or the M26 Modular Accessory Shotgun System.

23.4.3

Riot Control Launcher

The M234 Riot Control Launcher is an M16 series rie attachment ring a M755 blank round. The M234 mounts
on the muzzle, bayonet lug and front sight post of the M16. It res either the M734 64 mm Kinetic Riot Control

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CHAPTER 23. M16 RIFLE

M234 Riot Control Launcher

or the M742 64 mm CSI Riot Control Ring Airfoil Projectiles. The latter produces a 4 to 5 foot tear gas cloud on
impact. The main advantage to using Ring Airfoil Projectiles is that their design does not allow them be thrown back
by rioters with any real eect. The M234 is no longer used by United States forces. It has been replaced by the M203
40mm grenade launcher and nonlethal ammunition.

23.5 Variants
For more details on M16 variants, see AR-15 variants.

23.5.1

Pre-Production ArmaLite AR-15

The weapon that eventually became the M16 series was basically a scaled down AR-10 with an ambidextrous charging
handle located within the carrying handle, a narrower front sight Aframe, and no ash suppressor.* [99]

23.5.2

AR-15 (Colt Models 601 & 602)

Main article: AR-15


Colt's rst two models produced after the acquisition of the rie from ArmaLite were the 601 and 602, and these
ries were in many ways clones of the original ArmaLite rie (in fact, these ries were often found stamped Colt
ArmaLite AR-15, Property of the U.S. Government caliber .223, with no reference to them being M16s).* [100] The
601 and 602 are easily identied by their at lower receivers without raised surfaces around the magazine well and
occasionally green or brown furniture. The 601 was adopted rst of any of the ries by the USAF, and was quickly
supplemented with the XM16 (Colt Model 602) and later the M16 (Colt Model 604) as improvements were made.
There was also a limited purchase of 602s, and a number of both of these ries found their way to a number of Special
Operations units then operating in South East Asia, most notably the U.S. Navy SEALs. The only major dierence
between the 601 and 602 is the switch from the original 1:14-inch riing twist to the more common 1:12-inch twist.
These weapons were equipped with a triangular charging handle and a bolt hold open device that lacked a raised lower
engagement surface. The bolt hold open device had a slanted and serrated surface that had to be engaged with a bare
thumb, index nger, or thumb nail because of the lack of this surface.
The United States Air Force continued to use the AR-15 marked ries in various congurations into the 1990s.

23.5.3

M16

Variant originally adopted by the U.S. Air Force. This was the rst M16 adopted operationally. This variant had
triangular handguards, butt stocks without a compartment for the storage of a cleaning kit,* [101] a three-pronged
ash suppressor, and no forward assist. Bolt carriers were originally chrome plated and slick-sided, lacking forward
assist notches. Later, the chrome plated carriers were dropped in favor of Army issued notched and parkerized
carriers though the interior portion of the bolt carrier is still chrome-lined. The Air Force continued to operate these
weapons until around 2001, at which time the Air Force converted all of its M16s to the M16A2 conguration.
The M16 was also adopted by the British SAS, who used it during the Falklands War.* [102]

23.5. VARIANTS

23.5.4

235

XM16E1 and M16A1 (Colt Model 603)

An early M16 rie: note duckbillash suppressor, triangular grip, forward assist, and the lack of brass deector

The U.S. Army XM16E1 was essentially the same weapon as the M16 with the addition of a forward assist and
corresponding notches in the bolt carrier. The M16A1 was the nalized production model in 1967.
To address issues raised by the XM16E1's testing cycle, a closed, bird-cage ash suppressor replaced the XM16E1's
three-pronged ash suppressor which caught on twigs and leaves. Various other changes were made after numerous
problems in the eld. Cleaning kits were developed and issued while barrels with chrome-plated chambers and later
fully lined bores were introduced.
With these and other changes, the malfunction rate slowly declined and new soldiers were generally unfamiliar with
early problems. A rib was built into the side of the receiver on the XM16E1 to help prevent accidentally pressing the
magazine release button while closing the ejection port cover. This rib was later extended on production M16A1s
to help in preventing the magazine release from inadvertently being pressed. The hole in the bolt that accepts the
cam pin was crimped inward on one side, in such a way that the cam pin may not be inserted with the bolt installed
backwards, which would cause failures to eject until corrected. The M16A1 is no longer in service with the United
States, but is still standard issue in many world armies.

23.5.5

M16A2

M16A2

The development of the M16A2 rie was originally requested by the United States Marine Corps as a result of the
USMC's combat experience in Vietnam with the XM16E1 and M16A1. The Marines were the rst branch of the

236

CHAPTER 23. M16 RIFLE

New rear sight, brass deector and forward assist of M16A2

A U.S Marine with an M16A2 on a training exercise at Camp Baharia, Iraq, 2004

U.S. Armed Forces to adopt the M16A2 in the early/mid-1980s, with the United States Army following suit in the
late 1980s. Modications to the M16A2 were extensive. In addition to the new riing, the barrel was made with a
greater thickness in front of the front sight post, to resist bending in the eld and to allow a longer period of sustained
re without overheating. The rest of the barrel was maintained at the original thickness to enable the M203 grenade
launcher to be attached. A new adjustable rear sight was added, allowing the rear sight to be dialed in for specic range
settings between 300 and 800 meters to take full advantage of the ballistic characteristics of the new SS109 rounds
and to allow windage adjustments without the need of a tool or cartridge.* [15] The weapon's reliability allowed it to
be widely used around the United States Marine Corps special operations divisions as well. The ash suppressor was
again modied, this time to be closed on the bottom so it would not kick up dirt or snow when being red from the
prone position, and acting as a recoil compensator.* [103] The front grip was modied from the original triangular
shape to a round one, which better t smaller hands and could be tted to older models of the M16. The new
handguards were also symmetrical so that armories need not separate left and right spares. The handguard retention
ring was tapered to make it easier to install and uninstall the handguards. A notch for the middle nger was added to

23.5. VARIANTS

237

the pistol grip, as well as more texture to enhance the grip. The buttstock was lengthened by 5 8 in (15.9 mm).* [15]
The new buttstock became ten times stronger than the original due to advances in polymer technology since the early
1960s. Original M16 stocks were made from berglass-impregnated resin; the newer stocks were engineered from
DuPont Zytel glass-lled thermoset polymers. The new stock included a fully textured polymer buttplate for better
grip on the shoulder, and retained a panel for accessing a small compartment inside the stock, often used for storing a
basic cleaning kit. The heavier bullet reduces muzzle velocity from 3,200 feet per second (980 m/s), to about 3,050
feet per second (930 m/s).* [104] The A2 uses a faster twist riing to allow the use of a trajectory-matched tracer
round. It has a 1:7 twist rate. A spent case deector was incorporated into the upper receiver immediately behind the
ejection port to prevent cases from striking left-handed users.* [15]
The action was also modied, replacing the fully automatic setting with a three-round burst setting.* [15] When using
a fully automatic weapon, inexperienced troops often hold down the trigger and spraywhen under re. The U.S.
Army concluded that three-shot groups provide an optimum combination of ammunition conservation, accuracy and
repower. Several Marine units utilize modied ries that support fully automatic re capabilities. The USMC has
retired the M16A2 in favor of the newer M16A4. However, many M16A2s remain in US Army, Air Force, Navy
and Coast Guard service.

23.5.6

M16A3

The M16A3 is a select-re variant of the M16A2 adopted in small numbers around the time of the introduction of
the M16A2, primarily by the U.S. Navy for use by SEAL, Seabee, and Security units.* [105] It features the M16A1
trigger group providing safe, semi-automatic, and fully automaticmodes.

23.5.7

M16A4

United States Marine Corps M16A4 rie with Picatinny rail and foregrip.

The M16A4 is the fourth generation of the M16 series. It is equipped with a removable carrying handle and a full

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CHAPTER 23. M16 RIFLE

length quad Picatinny rail for mounting optics and other ancillary devices. The FN M16A4, using safe/semi/burst
selective re, is now the standard issue for all U.S. Marine Corps and is the current issue to Marine Corps' recruits
in both MCRD San Diego and MCRD Parris Island.* [105]
Military issue ries are also equipped with a Knight's Armament Company M5 RAS hand guard, allowing vertical
grips, lasers, tactical lights, and other accessories to be attached, coining the designation M16A4 MWS (or Modular
Weapon System) in U.S. Army eld manuals.* [106]
Colt also produces M16A4 models for international purchases, with specics selective re:
R0901 / NSN 1005-01-383-2872 (Safe/Semi/Auto)
R0905 (Safe/Semi/Burst)
The Marine Corps is considering a Product Improvement Program (PIP) for their M16A4 MWS ries. Potential
features include a modular and adjustable stock, ambidextrous re selector, heavier barrel, improved trigger, freeoating rail system, and an adjustable gas block and gas regulator to give all ries a suppression capability.* [107]
A study of signicant changes to Marine M16A4 ries released in February 2015 outlined several new features that
could be added from inexpensive and available components. Those features include: a muzzle compensator in place
of the ash suppressor to manage recoil and allow for faster follow-on shots, though at the cost of noise and ash
signature and potential overpressure in close quarters; and heavier and/or free-oating barrel to increase accuracy
from 4.5 MOA to potentially 2 MOA; changing the reticle on the Rie Combat Optic from chevron-shaped to the
semi-circle with a dot at the center used in the M27 IAR's Squad Day Optic so as not to obscure the target at long
distance; using a trigger group with a more consistent pull force, even a reconsideration of the burst capability; and
the addition of ambidextrous charging handles and bolt catch releases for easier use with left-handed shooters.* [108]

23.5.8

Summary

23.6 Derivatives
23.6.1

Colt Model 655 and 656 Snipervariants

With the expanding Vietnam War, Colt developed two ries of the M16 pattern for evaluation as possible light sniper
or designated marksman ries. The Colt Model 655 M16A1 Special High Prole was essentially a standard A1 rie
with a heavier barrel and a scope bracket that attached to the rie's carry handle. The Colt Model 656 M16A1 Special
Low Prole had a special upper receiver with no carrying handle. Instead, it had a low-prole iron sight adjustable
for windage and a Weaver base for mounting a scope, a precursor to the Colt and Picatinny rails. It also had a hooded
front iron sight in addition to the heavy barrel. Both ries came standard with either a Leatherwood/Realist scope
39 Adjustable Ranging Telescope. Some of them were tted with a Sionics noise and ash suppressor. Neither of
these ries were ever standardized.
These weapons can be seen in many ways to be predecessors of the U.S. Army's SDM-R and the USMC's SAM-R
weapons.

23.6.2

XM177

Main article: CAR-15


In Vietnam, some soldiers were issued a carbine version of the M16 called the XM177. The XM177 had a shorter
10 in (254 mm) barrel and a telescoping stock, which made it substantially more compact. It also possessed a
combination ash hider/sound moderator to reduce problems with muzzle ash and loud report. The Air Force's
GAU-5/A (XM177) and the Army's XM177E1 variants diered over the latters inclusion of a forward assist,
although some GAU-5s do have the forward assist. The nal Air Force GAU-5/A and Army XM177E2 had an 11.5
in (292 mm) barrel with a longer ash/sound suppressor. The lengthening of the barrel was to support the attachment
of Colt's own XM148 40 mm grenade launcher. These versions were also known as the Colt Commando model
commonly referenced and marketed as the CAR-15. The variants were issued in limited numbers to special forces,
helicopter crews, Air Force pilots, Air Force Security Police Military Working Dog (MWD) handlers, ocers, radio
operators, artillerymen, and troops other than front line riemen. Some USAF GAU-5A/As were later equipped with

23.6. DERIVATIVES

239

A United States Air Force GAU-5/A carbine

even longer 14.5-inch (370 mm) 1/12 ried barrels as the two shorter versions were worn out. The 14.5-inch (370
mm) barrel allowed the use of MILES gear and for bayonets to be used with the sub-machine guns (as the Air Force
described them). By 1989, the Air Force started to replace the earlier barrels with 1/7 ried models for use with the
M855 round. The weapons were given the redesignation of GUU-5/P.
These were eectively used by the British Special Air Service during the Falklands War.* [102]

23.6.3

Colt Model 733

Colt also returned to the original "Commando" idea, with its Model 733, essentially a modernized XM177E2 with
many of the features introduced on the M16A2.

23.6.4

M231 Firing Port Weapon (FPW)

M231 FPW

M231 Firing Port Weapon (FPW) is an adapted version of the M16 assault rie for ring from ports on the M2
Bradley. The infantry's normal M16s are too long for use in a buttoned upghting vehicle, so the FPW was
developed to provide a suitable weapon for this role. Designed by the Rock Island Arsenal, the M231 FPW remains
in service, although all but the rear two ring ports on the Bradley have been removed. The M231 FPW res from
the open bolt and is only congured for fully automatic re. The open bolt conguration gives the M231 a much

240

CHAPTER 23. M16 RIFLE

higher cyclic rate of re than the closed bolt operation of the M16A1. Ocial doctrine discourages deploying M231
outside of the ring port role. The weapon jams easily and is known to break the bolt without warning.

23.6.5

Mk 4 Mod 0

The Mk 4 Mod 0 was a variant of the M16A1 produced for the U.S. Navy SEALs during the Vietnam War and
adopted in April 1970. It diered from the basic M16A1 primarily in being optimized for maritime operations and
coming equipped with a sound suppressor. Most of the operating parts of the rie were coated in Kal-Guard, a hole
of 0.25 inches (6.4 mm) was drilled through the stock and buer tube for drainage, and an O-ring was added to
the end of the buer assembly. The weapon could reportedly be carried to the depth of 200 feet (60 m) in water
without damage. The initial Mk 2 Mod 0 Blast Suppressor was based on the U.S. Army's Human Engineering Lab's
(HEL) M4 noise suppressor. The HEL M4 vented gas directly from the action, requiring a modied bolt carrier.
A gas deector was added to the charging handle to prevent gas from contacting the user. Thus, the HEL M4
suppressor was permanently mounted though it allowed normal semi-automatic and automatic operation. If the HEL
M4 suppressor were removed, the weapon would have to be manually loaded after each single shot. On the other
hand, the Mk 2 Mod 0 blast suppressor was considered an integral part of the Mk 4 Mod 0 rie, but it would function
normally if the suppressor were removed. The Mk 2 Mod 0 blast suppressor also drained water much more quickly
and did not require any modication to the bolt carrier or to the charging handle. In the late 1970s, the Mk 2 Mod
0 blast suppressor was replaced by the Mk 2 blast suppressor made by Knight's Armament Company (KAC). The
KAC suppressor can be fully submerged and water will drain out in less than eight seconds. It will operate without
degradation even if the rie is red at the maximum rate of re. The U.S. Army replaced the HEL M4 with the
much simpler Studies in Operational Negation of Insurgency and Counter-Subversion (SIONICS) MAW-A1 noise
and ash suppressor.

23.6.6

Mark 12

Main article: United States Navy Mark 12 Mod X Special Purpose Rie
Developed to increase the eective range of soldiers in the designated marksman role, the US Navy developed the
Mark 12 Special Purpose Rie (SPR). Congurations in service vary, but the core of the Mark 12 SPR is an 18
heavy barrel with muzzle brake and free oat tube. This tube relieves pressure on the barrel caused by standard
handguards and greatly increases the potential accuracy of the system. Also common are higher magnication optics
ranging from the 6 power Trijicon ACOG to the Leupold Mark 4 Tactical rie scopes. Firing Mark 262 Mod 0
ammunition with a 77gr Open tip Match bullet, the system has an ocial eective range of 600+ meters. However
published reports of conrmed kills beyond 800 m from Iraq and Afghanistan are not uncommon.

23.6.7

M4 carbine

Main article: M4 carbine


The M4 carbine was developed from various outgrowths of these designs, including a number of 14.5-inch (368
mm)-barreled A1 style carbines. The XM4 (Colt Model 727) started its trials in the mid-1980s, with a barrel of 14.5
inches (370 mm). Ocially adopted as a replacement for the M3 Grease Gun (and the Beretta M9 and M16A2
for select troops) in 1994, it was used with great success in the Balkans and in more recent conicts, including the
Afghanistan and Iraq theaters. The M4 carbine has a three-round burst ring mode, while the M4A1 carbine has a
fully automatic ring mode. Both have a Picatinny rail on the upper receiver, allowing the carry handle/rear sight
assembly to be replaced with other sighting devices.

23.6.8

International derivatives

C7 and C8
Main article: Colt Canada C7 rie
The Diemaco C7 and C8 are updated variants of the M16 developed and used by the Canadian Forces and are now
manufactured by Colt Canada. The C7 is a further development of the experimental M16A1E1. Like earlier M16s, it
can be red in either single shot or automatic mode, instead of the burst function selected for the M16A2. The C7 also

23.6. DERIVATIVES

241

An M4A1 carbine (foreground) and two M16A2s (background) being red by U.S. Marines during a live re exercise: though
adopted in the 1990s and derived from the M16A2, the M4 carbine was part of a long line of short-barreled AR-15 used in the U.S.
military

Canadian Forces Reserve infantrymen train in urban operations with C7 and C8 ries.

features the structural strengthening, improved handguards, and longer stock developed for the M16A2. Diemaco
changed the trapdoor in the buttstock to make it easier to access and a spacer of 0.5 inches (13 mm) is available to
adjust stock length to user preference. The most easily noticeable external dierence between American M16A2s

242

CHAPTER 23. M16 RIFLE

and Diemaco C7s is the retention of the A1 style rear sights. Not easily apparent is Diemaco's use of hammer-forged
barrels. The Canadians originally desired to use a heavy barrel prole instead.
The C7 has been developed to the C7A1, with a Weaver rail on the upper receiver for a C79 optical sight, and to the
C7A2, with dierent furniture and internal improvements. The Diemaco produced Weaver rail on the original C7A1
variants does not meet the M1913 'Picatinny' standard, leading to some problems with mounting commercial sights.
This is easily remedied with minor modication to the upper receiver or the sight itself. Since Diemaco's acquisition
by Colt to form Colt Canada, all Canadian produced attop upper receivers are machined to the M1913 standard.
The C8 is the carbine version of the C7.* [109] The C7 and C8 are also used by Hrens Jegerkommando, Marinejegerkommandoen
and FSK (Norway), Military of Denmark (all branches), the Royal Netherlands Army and Netherlands Marine Corps
as its main infantry weapon. Following trials, variants became the weapon of choice of the British SAS.
Others
The Chinese Norinco CQ is an unlicensed derivative of the M16A1 made specically for export, with the most
obvious external dierences being in its handguard and revolver-style pistol grip.
The ARMADA rie (a copy of the Norinco CQ) and TRAILBLAZER carbine (a copy of the Norinco
CQ Type A) are manufactured by S.A.M. Shooter's Arms Manufacturing, a.k.a. Shooter's Arms Guns
& Ammo Corporation, headquartered in Metro Cebu, Republic of the Philippines.
The S-5.56 rie, a clone of the Type CQ, is manufactured by the Defense Industries Organization of Iran.
The rie itself is oered in two variants: the S-5.56 A1 with a 19.9-inch barrel and 1:12 pitch riing (1
turn in 305mm), optimized for the use of the M193 Ball cartridge; and the S-5.56 A3 with a 20-inch
barrel and a 1:7 pitch riing (1 turn in 177, 8mm), optimized for the use of the SS109 cartridge.* [110]
The KH-2002 is an Iranian bullpup conversion of the locally produced S-5.56 rie. Iran intends to replace
the standard issue weapon of its armed forces with this rie.
The Terab rie is a copy of the DIO S-5.56 manufactured by the MIC (Military Industry Corporation)
of Sudan.
The M16S1 is the M16A1 rie made under license by ST Kinetics in Singapore. It was the standard issue
weapon of the Singapore Armed Forces. It is being replaced by the newer SAR 21 in most branches. It is, in
the meantime, the standard issue weapon in the reserve forces.
The MSSR rie developed as an eective, low cost sniper rie by the Philippine Marine Corps Scout Snipers.
The Special Operations Assault Rie (SOAR) assault carbine was developed by Ferfrans based on the M16
rie. It is used by the Special Action Force of the Philippine National Police .
Taiwan uses piston-driven M16-based weapons as their standard rie. These include the T65, T86 and T91
assault ries.

23.7 Production and users


The M16 is the most commonly manufactured 5.5645 mm rie in the world. Currently, the M16 is in use by
15 NATO countries and more than 80 countries world wide. Together, numerous companies in the United States,
Canada, and China have produced more than 8,000,000 ries of all variants. Approximately 90% are still in operation.* [3] The M16 replaced the M14 and M1 carbine as standard infantry ries of the U.S. armed forces. The M14
continues to see limited service, mostly in sniper, designated marksman, and ceremonial roles.

23.7.1

Users

Afghanistan: Standard issue rie of the Afghan National Army.* [111] Colt Canada C7 variants also saw
limited service.

Argentina: Special Forces used M16A1 in the Falklands (Malvinas) War and they currently use the
M16A2.* [112]

Australia* [113] M16A1 introduced during the Vietnam War and replaced by the F88 Austeyr in 1989.

23.7. PRODUCTION AND USERS

World-wide users of the M16 (former and current)

Female soldiers of the Israel Defense Forces practice shooting

Bahrain* [114]* (pp77,236,262)

Bosnia and Herzegovina* [115]

Bangladesh: Used by the military, special forces and counter terrorism units.* [116]

Barbados* [115]

Belize* [115]

Bolivia* [115]

243

244

CHAPTER 23. M16 RIFLE

U.S. Marine ring an M16A4 equipped with an ACOG.

Malaysian Army soldier with an M16A1 equipped with an M203 grenade launcher during a CARAT Malaysia 2008.

23.7. PRODUCTION AND USERS

245

Monegasque Carabinier with M16 rie.

Brazil* [115]

Brunei* [115]

Cambodia* [117]* [118] M16A1 is used.

Cameroon* [115]

Canada: C7 and C8 variants made by Colt Canada is used by the Canadian Forces.* [119]

Chile* [115]

Costa Rica* [120]

Democratic Republic of the Congo* [117]

Denmark:* [115] C7 and C8 variants made by Colt Canada are used by all branches of the Danish Defence.

246

CHAPTER 23. M16 RIFLE

Philippine Marines using M16A1 ries with M16A2 foregrips during a military exercise.

Dominican Republic* [115]

East Timor* [121]

Ecuador* [115]

El Salvador* [115] M16A1/A2/A3/A4 is used.

Estonia* [122] Ex-US M16A1s in use.

Fiji* [115]

France* [115]

Gabon* [115]

Ghana* [115]

Greece* [115] M16A2/M4 is used by the Special forces of the Hellenic Army ISAF Forces in Afghanistan
and Hellenic Navy

Grenada* [115]

Guatemala* [117] M16A1/M16A2 is used.

Haiti* [117]

Honduras* [123]

India* [115]

Indonesia* [115]

Iraq: Used by Iraqi Army.* [124]

23.7. PRODUCTION AND USERS

247

Palestine Arab militant with M16 rie wearing a Keyeh around his head (2009).

Israel* [125] Being replaced by IMI Tavor.* [126]

Jamaica* [115]

Jordan* [115]

Republic of Korea: During the Vietnam War, the United States provided 27,000 M16 ries to the Republic
of Korea Armed Forces in Vietnam. Also, 600,000 M16A1s (Colt Model 603K) were manufactured under
license by Daewoo Precision Industries. The delivery started in 1974 and ended in 1985.* [115] Still KATUSA
(Korean Augmentation to the United States Army) soldiers who serve their military service in the United States
Army uses M16A2 with the United States Army.

Kuwait* [127]

Lebanon* [117]* [128]* [129]

Lesotho* [115]

Liberia* [117]

Lithuania: Lithuanian Armed Forces.* [130]

Malaysia* [115] Malaysian Armed Forces, Royal Malaysian Police, Malaysian Maritime Enforcement
Agency and RELA Corps.

Mauritius* [131]

Mexico:* [115] Used by Mexican Marines M16A2/A4 variants are used.

248

CHAPTER 23. M16 RIFLE

Monaco: Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince.* [132]


Morocco* [115]
Nepal* [133]
Netherlands: C7 and C8 variants are used by the Military of the Netherlands and LSW is used by
Netherlands Marine Corps.* [119]* [134]

New Zealand* [115] M16 was used and was replaced in 1988 by Steyr AUG

Nicaragua* [115]

Nigeria* [115]

North Korea : M16A1(probably Illegally Copied)is using for Special Forces. conrmed To Gangneung
Incident in 1996.* [135]

Oman* [115]

Panama* [115] M16A1 is used.

Peru* [115]

Philippines: Manufactured under license by Elisco Tool and Manufacturing.* [115] M16A1s and M653Ps
in use. Supplemented in Special Forces by the M4 carbine.

Qatar* [115]

Rhodesia: M16A1.* [136]

Senegal* [137]

Singapore: Local variant of the M16A1 (M16S1) manufactured under license by ST Kinetics.* [117]

Somalia* [115]

South Africa* [115]

Sri Lanka* [117]

South Vietnam: 6,000 M16 and 938,000 M16A1, 19661975* [138]

Sweden A small number of M16A2's are used by the Swedish Armed Forces for familiarization training* [139] (as well as a similar number of AKM's), but they are not issued to combat units. C8 used by Special
Forces

Taiwan* [140]

Thailand* [115] M16A1/A2/A4.

Tunisia* [115] M16A2/A4 variants are used.

Turkey* [115] M16A1/A2/A4 variants are used.

Uganda* [115]

United Arab Emirates* [115]

United Kingdom: C7/C8 (L119A1) variant are used by the Royal Military Police,* [141] the Pathnder
Platoon of the Parachute Regiment* [142] and the United Kingdom Special Forces* [143]

United States* [144]

Uruguay* [115]

23.8. FUTURE REPLACEMENT

249

23.8 Future replacement


23.8.1

Background

Replacement of the M16 family has been proposed at various points, and its longevity is in part due to a series of
failures in projects meant to replace it, driven largely by the requirement for a signicant improvement. Previous
attempts by the U.S. military to replace the M16 were unsuccessful or only supplemented it.
In the 1980s, the M249 was issued to infantry units, replacing some M60s and some M16A1s at the squad level. In
the 1990s the M4 carbine took over the operational role of the M3 submachine gun, some M9s, and many M16A2s.
The U.S. Air Force mostly uses M4 and GUU-5/P carbines for security squadrons and M16A2s for non-security
personnel. The USMC has retired the M16A2 in favor of the M16A4 rie which share almost all the same parts of
the A2 but has an optics rail for USMC RCO ACOG scopes. U.S. Navy has retained the M16A2 and M16A3 for its
units that use ries like the U.S. Navy Seabees. The U.S. Army has largely relegated the M16A2 to non-combat roles,
choosing instead the M4 and M4A1. Further, the M16 never entirely replaced the M14 in all roles, which continues
to be used in a number of niche applications throughout the Armed Forces, especially with the U.S. Navy. The M4
carbine will eventually replace the M16 rie in most combat units in the U.S. Army.* [13]

23.8.2

Replacement designs

Colt ACR/M16A2E2 tted with ELCAN C79 scope (second from top to bottom)

Immediately after the introduction of the M16, the Marine Corps sought to adopt the Stoner 63. Although they found
it superior in most ways, it was still at an early stage of development; the Marines chose the technically inferior but
mature M16.
In the 1980s, the Advanced Combat Rie program was run to nd a replacement for the M16. Colt entered a modied
M16A2 known as the Colt ACR, which used duplex rounds, a system that lowered recoil by 40% to improve repeating
shots, and added a 3.5x scope. This weapon, designated M16A2E2, also featured a guideof sorts as part of a
special handguard developed by the U.S. Army Human Engineering Laboratory designed to assist in snap-shooting,

250

CHAPTER 23. M16 RIFLE

and a carbine style stock very similar to the recent stock developed by the Naval Surface Warfare Center Crane
Division. The Steyr ACR used new echette ammunition that was nominally called 5.56 mm, with a very high 4,750
ft/s (1,448 m/s) muzzle velocity. Other variants experimented with caseless ammunition technologies as well. The
Advanced Combat Rie program produced weapons that were superior in some ways, but none improved upon the
M16 series enough to replace it.

Soldier with XM29 OICW

It was also potentially going to be replaced by the SABR, from the OICW project. The weapon system originally
planned by the OICW project was put on hold around the turn of century, in favor of a simpler new 5.56 mm
rie project that oered less far-reaching improvements. The resulting XM8 rie was also intended as a potential
replacement for the M16 family. However, this program too ran into problems around 200405, and was put on hold
in favor of an open competition for what became known as the OICW Increment 1. (Increment 2 was the standalone
XM25 Individual Airburst Weapon System, and Increment 3 was the XM29 OICW, a weapon that combined the
earlier two increments.) This competition was subsequently put on hold in the summer of 2005 to take into account
input from other services; then the competition was cancelled in October 2005.
A partial replacement for the M16 rie is the SOF Combat Assault Rie (SCAR), designated Mk 16. The 5.56x45
mm Mk 16 emerged as the winner of a USSOCOM competition to nd a new rie for Special Operations Forces
in 2003 and entered operational service in 2009. Most of the SCAR's basic controls (pistol grip, magazine release,
selector lever, and bolt release) share the same location and function as on the M16 and M4 they are supplementing.
Several companies have been working on and creating potential candidates for the U.S. Army's next primary weapon.
The Heckler & Koch HK416 has been in use by Delta Force since 2004. The H&K's design replaces the direct
impingement gas system with a newer piston design. The HK416 is oered as a conversion kit that can retrot
current M4 carbines. The HK416 won a testing competition for the US Marine Corps Infantry Automatic Rie
program and entered nal testing as the M27 in summer 2010.* [145] The M27 entered service in 2011, but as a
replacement for the M249 SAW, not the M16. The HK416 was also one of several designs that were competitors
in the Army's Individual Carbine competition.* [146] The reason was to produce a new, more reliable carbine for
US troops in a few years.* [146] However, in November 2011, leaders of the US Marine Corps announced they will
stay with current M4 Carbines and M16A4s and not adopt an IC competition winner. The USMC is considering
upgrading the M16A4.* [147] The Army cancelled the Individual Carbine competition in June 2013 before selecting
a winning rie. The Army instead is selecting the improved M4A1 as its standard infantry rearm.* [148]

23.9. SEE ALSO

23.8.3

251

LSAT

Throughout the 1970s, the Army experimented with various materials to replace brass in cartridge casings. Brass has
a number of qualities that make it almost ideal for a cartridge, including low friction against steel, making it easier
to extract, and the ease with which casings can be manufactured. However, brass is also dense and expensive, so
replacing it could lower both the cost and weight of the ammunition.
Aluminum and steel were popular materials for complete rounds, and AAI successfully developed a plastic blank.
Completely caseless ammunition was also studied on several occasions, notably the German 4.7 mm designs, and this
concept is now being continued with the Lightweight Small Arms Technologies Program.
Since the cancellation of the XM8 program, the LSAT rie program has been pursued for the next generation of U.S.
small arms. The program has already produced practical results. Development of the LSAT rie began in 2008.* [149]

23.8.4

Gas Piston

Complicating the Army search for higher reliability in the M4 is a number of observations of M4 gas piston alternatives
that suer unintended design problems. The rst is that many of the gas piston modications for the M4 isolate the
piston so that piston jams or related malfunction require the entire weapon be disassembled, such disassembly cannot
be performed by the end user and requires a qualied armorer to perform out of eld, whereas any malfunction with
the direct-impingement system can be xed by the end user in eld. The second is that gas piston alternatives use an
o-axis operation of the piston that can introduce carrier tilt, whereby the bolt carrier fails to enter the buer tube at
a straight angle resulting in part wearing. The third is that the use of a sound suppressor results in hot gases entering
the chamber, regardless of a direct-gas impingement or gas piston design choice.* [150]* [151]

23.9 See also


Adaptive Combat Rie
AR-15 variants list of all AR-15 and M16 variants
Colt 9mm SMG
Comparison of the AK-47 and M16
Daewoo K2, Republic of Korea Armed Forces (South Korea) assault rie
List of individual weapons of the U.S. armed forces
M203 40 mm grenade launcher
MSBS Radon
Norinco CQ, M16 clone developed by China
Robinson Arms XCR
Rubber duck (military)
T65 assault rie, AR-15 variant developed by ROC Army
Winchester LMR
Table of handgun and rie cartridges
List of assault ries

252

CHAPTER 23. M16 RIFLE

23.10 Notes
[1] Ezell, Virginia Hart (November 2001). Focus on Basics, Urges Small Arms Designer. National Defense (National
Defense Industrial Association).
[2] Hogg, Ian V.; Weeks, John S. (2000). Military Small Arms of the 20th Century (7th ed.). Iola, Wisconsin: Krause Publications. ISBN 978-0-87341-824-9., p. 291
[3] Customers / Weapon users. Colt Weapon Systems.
[4] M15 5.56mm Rie. Specications at the Wayback Machine (archived July 25, 2011). colt.com
[5] http://www.colt.com/Catalog/Military/Products/ColtM16A4Rifle.aspx#102660-technical-specifications
[6] M16/A2 - 5.56 mm Semiautomatic Rie. ArmyStudyGuide.com. Retrieved July 13, 2014.
[7] Rose p. 373, 380, 392
[8] Tilstra, Russell C. (2012). Small Arms for Urban Combat. US: McFarland. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-7864-6523-1.
[9] Rose, pp. 380 & 392.
[10] Urdang, p. 801.
[11] Venola p. 6-18
[12] Colt Weapon Systems.
[13] Small ArmsIndividual Weapons. November 3, 2010. Retrieved November 8, 2010.
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[21] The Gun Zone.
[22] Sabre Defence Industries Awarded M16 Rie Contract.
[23] AR15 Manufacturers & Builders.
[24] Regulations Prescribing Certain Firearms and other Weapons, Components and Parts of Weapons, Accessories, Cartridge
Magazines, Ammunition and Projectiles as Prohibited or Restricted, SOR/98-462. Canlii. June 29, 2010
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23.10. NOTES

253

[32] Winchester Lmr. Securityarms.com. Retrieved on September 27, 2011.


[33] M16 Rie Review Panel 1968, p. D-5
[34] Rose, p. 372.
[35] Rose, pp. 372373.
[36] Rose, p. 373.
[37] :: Ammo Oracle. Ammo.ar15.com. Retrieved on September 27, 2011.
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[39] Rose, pp. 380, 392.
[40] Rose, p. 380.
[41] Defense: Under Fire. Time Magazine, June 9, 1967.
[42] United States Department of the Army; Robert A. Sadowski (2013). The M16A1 Rie: Operation and Preventive Maintenance. Skyhorse Publishing. ISBN 9781616088644. Retrieved July 13, 2014.
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thesis. University of Nebraska. Final Report June 10, 1977. p. 34.
[49] Assault Ries and Their Ammunition: History and Prospects by Anthony G. Williams
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[57] weight without magazine of AK (1949) 3.9 kg, AK (1955) 3.5 kg, AKM (1959) 2.9 kg Field manual for AK
( 7.62- ()); Field manual for AKM and AKMS (
7.62- ( ))
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254

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Force. February 2004. Retrieved July 13, 2014.
[69] History Trijicon, Inc. Trijicon.com. Retrieved on February 9, 2012.
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[71] Colts M4A1 5.56mm Carbine. Tactical-Life.com. Retrieved on April 3, 2012.
[72] Arms, Stag (September 6, 2013).The dierence between Gas Piston and Direct Impingement technology for an AR-15
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[75] Crawford, Steve (2003). Twenty First Century Small Arms: The World's Great Infantry Weapons. Zenith Imprint. p. 85.
ISBN 978-0-7603-1503-3.
[76] American Rie: A Biography, Alexander Rose (2009) pp. 375-376.
[77] The SAS Training Manual, Chris McNab, (2002) pp. 108109
[78] Scientic Evidence for 'Hydrostatic Shock'", Michael Courtney and Amy Courtney, (2008)
[79] International Legal Initiatives to Restrict Military Small Arms Ammunition W. Hays Parks Copyright 2010 by W. Hays
Parks International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) page 1-18
[80] Hogg, Ian V.; Weeks, John (1981). Military Small Arms of the 20th Century (4th ed.). DBI Books. ISBN 0910676283.
[81] Parks, W. Hays. International Legal Initiatives to Restrict Military Small Arms Ammunition. W. Hays Parks International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) via DTIC.mil, 2010.
[82] The M-16 Argument Heats Up, Again - NYtimes.com, November 3, 2009
[83] U.S. Army Issues New M855A1 Ammo to Troops in Afghanistan - Accurateshooter.com, June 29, 2010
[84] Bartocci, Christopher R. (July 20, 2011).Feeding the Modern Semi-Automatic Rie. Americanrieman.org. Retrieved
August 23, 2012.
[85] Thomas P. Ehrhart Increasing Small Arms Lethality in Afghanistan: Taking Back the Infantry Half-Kilometer. School of
Advanced Military Studies, United States Army Command and General Sta College, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas (2009)
[86] Article includes a magazine animation. Peosoldier.armylive.dodlive.mil (December 14, 2009). Retrieved on 2011-12-24.
[87] Improved magazine increases weapons reliability | Article | The United States Army. Army.mil. Retrieved on December
24, 2011.
[88] Internet Archive Wayback Machine. Web.archive.org. June 16, 2011. Archived from the original on June 16, 2011.
Retrieved August 23, 2012.

[89] http://www.defensereview.com/dr-exclusive-surefire-60-shot-and-100-shot-ar-ar-15m16-5-56mm-nato-box-magazines-for-infantry-comb
| DR Exclusive!: SureFireQuad-StackAR Rie Magazines: SureFire 60-Shot and 100-Shot AR (AR-15/M16) 5.56mm
NATO Box Magazines for Signicantly-Increased Firepower during Infantry Combat and Tactical Engagements of All
Sorts: Meet the SureFire MAG5-60 and MAG5-100 High Capacity Magazines (HCMs). by David Crane in Featured,
New And Future Technology, Ries And Carbines, Special Operations on December 3, 2010Standard MILSPEC USGI
30-Round Magazine Specs (data provided by SureFire): Height: 7.1 in and Weight-Empty: 3.9 ounces
[90] 21 AR Grips compared. 248Shooter.com. Detroit, MI. 2014.
[91] Sweeney, Patrick (2012). Gun Digest Book of the AR-15. Iola, Wisconsin: Gun Digest Books. p. 67. ISBN 978-1-44022868-1.

23.10. NOTES

255

[92] Hansen, Denny (2005). Flash Hiders, is there a dierence?". SWAT 24 (2): 2832.
[93] NATO Stock Number of NSN 1005-01-591-5825, PN 1001V
[94] NSN 1005-01-591-5825. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
[95] Colt Canada Corporation. 212. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
[96] Sweeney, Patrick (August 11, 2010). 21. The Gun Digest Book of The AR-15. Iola, Wisconsin: Gun Digest Books.
pp. 255256. ISBN 978-1-4402-1622-0. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
[97] Walker, Robert E. (2012). Cartridges and Firearm Identication. Florence, KY: CRC Press. p. 295. ISBN 978-1-46650206-2.
[98] Mecar rie grenades. Mecar.be. August 28, 2006. Retrieved July 13, 2014.
[99] Page 744 Small Arms of the World12th revised Edition by Edward Clinton Ezell.
[100] Pages 744759 Small Arms of the World12th Revised Edition by Edward Clinton Ezell.
[101] Page 754 Small Arms of the World12th Revised Edition by Edward Clinton Ezell.
[102] Special . Operations.com
[103] Hogg & Weeks 2000, p. 292
[104] David Miller (November 2002). The Illustrated Directory of Special Forces. Zenith Imprint. p. 280. ISBN 978-0-76031419-7. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
[105] US Navy, Marines Buy M-16 Ries. Defense Industry Daily. January 2, 2008.
[106] US Army Field Manual: RIFLE MARKSMANSHIP M16A1, M16A2/3, M16A4 and M4 CARBINE. April 24, 2003.
[107] Charles Clark III (May 2012). USMC Update NDIA May 2012 (pdf). Headquarters, United States Marine Corps.
Retrieved July 13, 2014.
[108] Deadlier ries and ammo may be on the way - MarineCorpstimes.com, 16 February 2015
[109] Canadian Forces Automatic Ries. Canadian American Strategic Review. Retrieved: August 23, 2009.
[110] S-5.56 rie technical specics table. Retrieved on October 7, 2007.
[111] Afghan National Security Forces Order of Battle. Long War Journal. Retrieved November 3, 2011.
[112] Exposicin del Ejrcito Argentino en Palermo, Buenos Aires- Mayo de 2005 at the Wayback Machine (archived January
22, 2009). saorbats.com.ar
[113] Australian weapons, Viet Nam and since. Diggerhistory.info. November 11, 2002. Retrieved August 22, 2010.
[114] Report of the Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry. Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry. November
23, 2011.
[115] Jane's Special Forces Recognition Guide, Ewen Southby-Tailyour (2005) p. 446.
[116] Small Arms | Bangladesh Military Forces | BDMilitary.com The voice of the Bangladesh Armed Forces. BDMilitary.com. Retrieved August 22, 2010.
[117]Report: Proling the Small Arms Industry World Policy Institute Research Project. World Policy Institute. November
2000. Retrieved July 15, 2010.
[118] Working Papers. Small Arms Survey (May 5, 2011). Retrieved on 2011-09-27.
[119] Miller, David (2001). The Illustrated Directory of 20th Century Guns. Salamander Books Ltd. ISBN 1-84065-245-4.
[120] http://www.colt.com/mil/customers.asp. Missing or empty |title= (help)
[121] Jane's Sentinel Security Assessment Southeast Asia. Issue 20 2007. Pages 146 and 152.
[122] Eesti Kaitsevgi Tehnika Automaat M-16 A1. Mil.ee. Retrieved September 8, 2008.
[123] Gander, Terry J.; Hogg, Ian V. Jane's Infantry Weapons 1995/1996. Jane's Information Group; 21 edition (May 1995).
ISBN 978-0-7106-1241-0.

256

CHAPTER 23. M16 RIFLE

[124] First steps to arming Iraq's soldiers. BBC News. May 18, 2007. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
[125] John Pike (December 17, 2003). Israel's army phases out country's iconic Uzi submachine gun. Globalsecurity.org.
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[126] IDF Reserve Units Switching From M16 To Tavor - Therearmblog.com, December 18, 2012
[127] War in Iraq - Week One. The Age (Melbourne).
[128] McNab, Chris (2002). 20th Century Military Uniforms (2nd ed.). Kent: Grange Books. ISBN 1-84013-476-3.
[129] US, Saudi Arabia Bolster Lebanon's Weaponry. Voice of America. 12 September 2014. Retrieved 13 September
2014.
[130] Lietuvos kariuomen :: Ginkluot ir karin technika Automatiniai autuvai Automatinis autuvas M-16 (in Lithuanian). Kariuomene.kam.lt. April 17, 2009. Retrieved August 22, 2010.
[131] Sauvetage au combat de niveau 1 [SC1] lle Maurice(in French). Forces Armes de la Zone Sud de l'Ocan Indien.
December 12, 2012. Retrieved October 24, 2013.
[132] Recession? What Recession? CNN iReport. CNN.
[133] Sharma, Sushil (January 6, 2003). Nepal takes delivery of US ries. BBC News. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
[134] Bartocci, Christopher R. (2004). Black Rie II The M16 into the 21st Century. Collector Grade Publications Incorporated.
ISBN 0-88935-348-4.
[135] A Weapon Displayed From North Korea Special Forces and their Submarine. MBC News. September 25, 1996.
[136] Moorcraft, Paul L.; McLaughlin, Peter (April 2008) [1982]. The Rhodesian War: A Military History. Barnsley: Pen and
Sword Books. ISBN 978-1-84415-694-8.
[137] Army seeks Senegal ear-choppers. BBC News. May 9, 2008. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
[138] Walter, John, Ries of the World, Krause Publications, 2006, illustrated 3rd edition, ISBN 0-89689-241-7, p. 41
[139] Henrik Svensk. M16 M16a2 Kalashnikov Ak-47 - Utlndska Vapensatsen (in Swedish). SoldF.com. Retrieved July
13, 2014.
[140] Colt M16A2 Assault Rie. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
[141] Royal Military Police train for close protection
[142] Video on Pathnder Platoon showing them using the C8 Carbine alongside more standard L85A2s. http://www.youtube.
com. Retrieved May 31, 2010.
[143] SAS Weapons - C8 SFW Carbine L119A1s.
[144] M-16 Rie Fact File for the United States Army. Army.mil. Retrieved August 22, 2010.
[145] Lamothe, Dan (July 2, 2010). Conway eyes additional testing for auto-rie. Marine Corps Times. Retrieved July 2,
2010.
[146] Fuller, BG Peter N.; COL Douglas A. Tamilio (May 18, 2010). Project Manager Soldier Weapons Brieng for NDIA
. PEO Soldier. United States Army. Retrieved October 28, 2010.
[147] Marines Won't Follow Army's Lead on new Carbine. Military.com. November 17, 2011. Retrieved February 18,
2012.
[148] Army Kills Competition to Replace M4 - Military.com, June 13, 2013
[149] Bruce, Robert. LSAT The Future of Small Arms Now?". American Rieman. National Rie Association. Retrieved
September 8, 2008.
[150] 15259frcov.fm (PDF). Retrieved August 30, 2010.
[151] Mike Pannone (March 19, 2010). The Big M4 Myth: Fouling caused by the direct impingement gas system makes
the M4/M4A1 Carbine unreliable."". Defense Review. Retrieved July 27, 2011.

23.11. REFERENCES

257

23.11 References
Modern Warfare, Published by Mark Dartford, Marshall Cavendish (London) 1985
Afonso, Aniceto and Gomes, Carlos de Matos, Guerra Colonial (2000), ISBN 972-46-1192-2
Bartocci, Christopher R. Black Rie II The M16 Into the 21st Century. Cobourg, Ontario, Canada: Collector
Grade Publications Incorporated, 2004. ISBN 0-88935-348-4
Ezell, Edward Clinton (1984). The Great Rie Controversy: Search for the Ultimate Infantry Weapon from
World War II Through Vietnam and Beyond. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Halsted Press. ISBN 978-0-81170709-1.
Hughes, David R. (1990). The History and Development of the M16 Rie and its Cartridge. Oceanside, California: Armory Publications. ISBN 0-9626096-0-9.
Hutton, Robert, The .223, Guns & Ammo Annual Edition, 1971.
McNaugher, Thomas L.Marksmanship, Mcnamara and the M16 Rie: Organisations, Analysis and Weapons
Acquisition, https://www.rand.org/pubs/papers/P6306/
M16 Rie Review Panel (June 1, 1968).Report of the M16 Rie Review Panel. Chief of Sta U.S. Army.
ADA953110
Pikula, Sam (Major), The ArmaLite AR-10, 1998
Rose, Alexander. American Rie-A Biography. 2008; Bantam Dell Publishing. ISBN 978-0-553-80517-8.
Stevens, R. Blake and Edward C. Ezell. The Black Rie M16 Retrospective. Enhanced second printing.
Cobourg, Ontario, Canada: Collector Grade Publications Incorporated, 1994. ISBN 0-88935-115-5
Urdang, Laurence, Editor in Chief. The Random House Dictionary of the English Language. 1969; Random
House/New York.

23.12 External links


Colt Manufacturing: The M16A4 Rie
PEO Soldier M16 fact sheet
AR15.com, the largest M16/AR-15 Resource on the Web
The Gun Zone: A 5.56 mm Timeline
The AR-15/M16 Magazine FAQ
Combat Training with the M16 Manual (PDF)
Rie Marksmanship M16A1, M16A2/3, M16A4 and M4 Carbine (Army Field Manual)
The short lm The Armalite AR-10 is available for free download at the Internet Archive
Army Technical Manual (for M16 rie) TM9-1005-249-23P on Internet Archive
DA Pam 750-30 1969 US Army comic book for maintenance of the M16A1 rieon Internet Archive, artwork
by Will Eisner.
Operator's Manual for Rie, 5.56 mm, M16; Rie 5.56 mm, M16A1 on Internet Archive
The short lm Rie 5.56mm, XM16E1, Operation and Cycle of Functioning TF9-3663 (1966)" is available
for free download at the Internet Archive
The short lm Rie, M16A1 Part II Field Expedients (July 1, 1968)" is available for free download at the
Internet Archive

258

CHAPTER 23. M16 RIFLE

The short lm Fundamentals of Rie Marksmanship (1971)" is available for free download at the Internet
Archive
The short lm Fundamentals of Rie Marksmanship (1999)" is available for free download at the Internet
Archive
Operator's Manual for Rie, 5.56 mm, M16A2; Rie 5.56 mm, M16A3; Rie, 5.56 mm, M16A4; Carbine,
5.56 mm, M4; Carbine, 5.56 mm, M4A1
M16 in parts (German)
Early M16 ries

Chapter 24

M2 Browning
This article is about the .50 caliber M2 machine gun. For the Browning .30-06 machine gun, see M1919 Browning
machine gun.
The M2 Machine Gun or Browning .50 Caliber Machine Gun is a heavy machine gun designed towards the end
of World War I by John Browning. It is very similar in design to Browning's earlier M1919 Browning machine gun,
which was chambered for the .30-06 cartridge. The M2 uses the much larger and much more powerful .50 BMG
cartridge, which was developed alongside and takes its name from the gun itself (BMG standing for Browning Machine
Gun). It has been referred to as Ma Deuce,* [5] in reference to its M2 nomenclature. The design has had many
specic designations; the ocial designation for the current infantry type is Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2,
HB, Flexible. It is eective against infantry, unarmored or lightly armored vehicles and boats, light fortications and
low-ying aircraft. The M2 machine gun has been in production longer than any other machine gun.
The Browning .50 caliber machine gun has been used extensively as a vehicle weapon and for aircraft armament
by the United States from the 1930s to the present. It was heavily used during World War II, the Korean War, the
Vietnam War, the Falklands War, and during the Iraq War and War in Afghanistan in the 2000s and 2010s. It is
the primary heavy machine gun of NATO countries, and has been used by many other countries. The M2 has been
in use longer than any other small arm in U.S. inventory except the .45 ACP M1911 pistol, also designed by John
Browning.
The current M2HB is manufactured in the United States by General Dynamics* [6] and U.S. Ordnance* [7] for use
by the United States government, and for U.S. Foreign Allies via FMS sales. FN Herstal has manufactured the M2
machine gun since the 1930s.* [8]

24.1 History
Machine guns were heavily used in World War I, and weapons of larger than rie caliber were appearing. Both the
British and French had large caliber machine guns. The larger rounds were needed to defeat the armor that was being
introduced to the battleeld. Armor was also appearing in the skies. During World War I, the Germans introduced a
heavily armored airplane, the Junkers J.I. The armor made aircraft machine guns using conventional rie ammunition
(such as the .30-06) ineective.* [9]
Consequently, the American Expeditionary Force's commander General John J. Pershing asked for a larger caliber
machine gun.* [10] Pershing asked the Army Ordnance Department to develop a machine gun with a caliber of at
least 0.50 inches (12.7 mm) and a muzzle velocity of at least 2,700 feet per second (820 m/s).* [9] U.S. Col. John
Henry Parker, commanding a machine gun school in France, observed the eectiveness of a French 11 mm (0.43 in)
incendiary armor-piercing round. The Army Ordnance Department ordered eight experimental Colt machine guns
rechambered for the French 11-mm cartridge.* [11] The French had developed a prototype machine gun for an even
larger caliber.
The French 11-mm round was found to be unsuitable because its velocity was too low. Pershing wanted a bullet
of at least 670 gr (43 g) and a muzzle velocity of 2,700 ft/s (820 m/s). Development with the French round was
dropped.* [11]
259

260

CHAPTER 24. M2 BROWNING

Around July 1917, John M. Browning started redesigning his .30 caliber machine gun for a larger caliber. Winchester worked on the cartridge, which was a scaled up version of the .30-06. Winchester initially added a rim to the
cartridge because the company wanted to use the cartridge in an anti-tank rie, but Pershing insisted the cartridge
be rimless.* [11] The rst .50 machine gun underwent trials on 15 October 1918. It red at less than 500 rounds per
minute, and the muzzle velocity was only 2,300 ft/s (700 m/s). Cartridge improvements were promised.* [12] The gun
was heavy, dicult to control, red too slowly for anti-personnel, and was not powerful enough against armor.* [13]
While the .50 was being developed, some German anti-tank ries and ammunition were seized. The German rounds
had a muzzle velocity of 2,700 ft/s (820 m/s), an 800 gr (52 g) bullet, and could pierce 1 in (25 mm) at 250 yd
(230 m).* [14] Winchester made the .50 caliber round have similar performance. Ultimately, the muzzle velocity was
2,750 ft/s (840 m/s).* [15]
Eorts by John M. Browning and Fred T. Moore resulted in the water-cooled Browning machine gun, caliber .50,
M1921. An aircraft version was termed the Browning aircraft machine gun, caliber .50, M1921. These guns were
used experimentally from 1921 until 1937. They had light-weight barrels and the ammunition only fed from the left
side. Service trials raised doubts whether the guns would be suitable for aircraft or for anti-aircraft use. A heavy
barrel M1921 was considered for ground vehicles.* [16]
John M. Browning died in 1926. Between 1927 and 1932, Dr. S.H. Green studied the design problems of the M1921
and the needs of the armed services. The result was a single receiver design that could be turned into seven types
of .50 caliber machine guns by using dierent jackets, barrels, and other components. The new receiver allowed
right or left hand feed. In 1933, Colt manufactured several prototype Browning machine guns (including what would
be known as the M1921A1 and M1921E2). With support from the Navy, Colt started manufacturing the M2 in
1933.* [17]
A variant without a water jacket, but with a thicker-walled, air-cooled barrel was designated the M2 HB (HB for
Heavy Barrel). The added mass and surface area of the heavy barrel compensated somewhat for the loss of watercooling, while reducing bulk and weight: the M2 weighs 121 lb (55 kg) with a water jacket, but the M2 HB weighs
84 lb (38 kg). Due to the long procedure for changing the barrel, an improved system was developed called QCB
(quick change barrel). The lightweight Army/Navy prexed AN/M2light-barrelversion of the Browning M2
weighing 60 pounds (27 kg) was also developed, and became the standard aviation machine gun of the World War
II-era for American military aircraft of nearly every type.* [18]

24.2 Design details


The Browning M2 is an air-cooled, belt-fed machine gun. The M2 res from a closed bolt, operated on the short
recoil principle. The M2 res the .50 BMG cartridge, which oers long range, accuracy and immense stopping power.
The closed bolt ring cycle made the M2 usable as a synchronized machine gun on aircraft before and during World
War II, as on the early versions of the Curtiss P-40 ghter.
The M2 is a scaled-up version of John Browning's M1917 .30 caliber machine gun, even using the same timing
gauges.

24.2.1

Features

The M2 has varying cyclic rates of re, depending on the model. The M2HB (heavy barrel) air-cooled ground gun
has a cyclical rate of 450-575 rounds per minute.* [19] The early M2 water-cooled AA guns had a cyclical rate of
around 450600 rpm.* [20] The AN/M2 aircraft gun has a cyclic rate of 750850 rpm; this increases to 1,200 rpm or
more for AN/M3 aircraft guns tted with electric or mechanical feed boost mechanisms.* [4] These maximum rates
of re are generally not achieved in use, as sustained re at that rate will wear out the bore within a few thousand
rounds, necessitating replacement. In addition to full automatic, the M2HB can be selected to re single-shots or at
less than 40 rounds per minute, or rapid re for more than 40 rounds per minute. Slow and rapid ring modes use
5-7 round bursts with dierent lengths of pause between bursts.* [21]
The M2 has an eective range of 1,830 metres (2,000 yd) and a maximum eective range of 2,000 metres (2,200
yd) when red from the M3 tripod. In its ground-portable, crew-served role as the M2HB, the gun itself weighs
84 pounds (38 kg) and the assembled M3 tripod another 44 pounds (20 kg). In this conguration the V-shaped
butterytrigger is located at the very rear of the weapon with a spade handlehand-grip on either side of it
and the bolt release the center. The spade handles are gripped and the buttery trigger is depressed with one or both

24.2. DESIGN DETAILS

261

A U.S. Marine mans a .50 caliber machine gun as part of a security force during a training exercise with the 24th Marine Expeditionary Unit in November 2002.

thumbs. Recently new rear buer assemblies have used squeeze triggers mounted to the hand grips, doing away with
the buttery triggers.
When the bolt release is locked down by the bolt latch release lock on the buer tube sleeve, the gun functions in
fully automatic mode. Conversely, the bolt release can be unlocked into the up position resulting in single-shot ring
(the gunner must press the bolt latch release to send the bolt forward). Unlike virtually all other modern machine
guns, it has no safety (although a sliding safety switch has recently been elded to USMC armorers for installation
on their weapons and is standard-issue for the U.S. Army for all M2s). Troops in the eld have been known to
add an improvised safety measure against accidental ring by slipping an expended shell casing under the buttery
trigger.* [22] The upgraded M2A1 has a manual trigger block safety.
Because the M2 was intentionally designed to operate in many congurations, it can be adapted to feed from the left
or right side of the weapon by exchanging the belt-holding pawls, and the front and rear cartridge stops (three-piece
set to include link stripper), then reversing the bolt switch. The operator must also convert the top-cover belt feed
slide assembly from left to right hand feed as well as the spring and plunger in the feed arm. This will take a well
trained individual less than two minutes to perform.
The charging assembly may be changed from left to right hand charge. A right hand charging handle spring, lock wire
and a little know how are all that are required to accomplish this. The M2 can be battle ready and easily interchanged
if it is preemptively tted with a retracting slide assembly on both sides of the weapon system. This eliminates the
need to have the weapon removed from service to accomplish this task.

24.2.2

Ammunition

There are several dierent types of ammunition used in the M2HB and AN aircraft guns. From World War II through
the Vietnam War, the big Browning was used with standard ball, armor-piercing (AP), armor-piercing incendiary
(API), and armor-piercing incendiary tracer (APIT) rounds. All .50 ammunition designated armor-piercingwas
required to completely perforate 0.875 inches (22.2 mm) of hardened steel armor plate at a distance of 100 yards (91
m) and 0.75 inches (19 mm) at 547 yards (500 m).* [23] The API and APIT rounds left a ash, report, and smoke on

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Twin M2HB .50 caliber machine gun during a Pre-aimed Calibration Fire (PACFIRE) exercise in May 2005

contact, useful in detecting strikes on enemy targets; they were primarily intended to incapacitate thin-skinned and
lightly armored vehicles and aircraft, while igniting their fuel tanks.* [24]
Current ammunition types include M33 Ball (706.7 grain) for personnel and light material targets, M17 tracer, M8
API (622.5 grain), M20 API-T (619 grain), and M962 SLAP-T. The latter ammunition along with the M903 SLAP

24.3. DEPLOYMENT

263

(Saboted Light Armor Penetrator) round can perforate 1.34 inches (34 mm) of HHA (face-hardened steel plate) at
500 metres (550 yd), 0.91 inches (23 mm) at 1,200 metres (1,300 yd), and 0.75 inches (19 mm) at 1,500 metres
(1,600 yd). This is achieved by using a 0.30-inch-diameter (7.6 mm) tungsten penetrator. The SLAP-T adds a tracer
charge to the base of the ammunition. This ammunition was type classied in 1993.* [25]* [26]
When ring blanks, a large blank-ring adapter (BFA) of a special type must be used to allow the recoil operated
action to cycle. This functions on the principal of a recoil booster, to increase the recoil force acting on the short
recoil action. This is the exact antithesis of a muzzle brake. Without this adaptor, the reduced-charge blank cartridge
would develop too little recoil to cycle the action fully. The adapter is very distinctive, attaching to the muzzle with
three rods extending back to the base. The BFA can often be seen on M2s during peacetime operations.

24.3 Deployment
The M2 .50 Browning machine gun has been used for various roles:
A medium infantry support weapon
As an anti-aircraft (AA) gun in some ships; up to six M2 guns could be mounted on the same turret.
As an anti-aircraft gun on the ground. The original water-cooled version of the M2 was used on a tall AA tripod
or vehicle-mounted anti-aircraft weapon on a sturdy pedestal mount. In later variants, twin and quadruple
M2HB Brownings were used, such as the M45 Quadmount used on the US M16 half-track carrier. Twin or
quad-mount .50 M2 guns normally used alternating left-hand and right-hand feed.
Primary or secondary weapon on an armored ghting vehicle.
Primary or secondary weapon on a naval patrol boat.
Spotting for the primary weapon on some armored ghting vehicles.
Secondary weapon for anti-boat defense on large naval vessels (corvettes, frigates, destroyers, cruisers, etc.).
Coaxial gun or independent mounting in some tanks.
Fixed-mounted primary armament, with the AN/M2 light-barrel version only, in World War II-era U.S. aircraft
such as the P-47 Thunderbolt, P-51 Mustang, and the Korean-era U.S. F-86 Sabre, sometimes synchronized
to re through the propeller arc in a twin mount atop the engine, as on the P-40B Tomahawk ghter.
Turret-mount or exible-mounted defensive armament, again only with the AN/M2 light-barrel version, in
World War II-era bombers such as the B-17 Flying Fortress, and B-24 Liberator.

24.3.1

United States

At the outbreak of the Second World War the United States had versions of the M2 in service as xed aircraft guns,
anti-aircraft defensive guns (on aircraft, ships, or boats), infantry (tripod-mounted) guns, and as dual purpose antiaircraft and anti-vehicular weapons on vehicles.* [27]* [28]
The .50 AN/M2 light-barrel aircraft Browning used in planes had a rate of re of approximately 800 rounds per
minute, and was used singly or in groups of up to eight guns for aircraft ranging from the P-47 Thunderbolt to the
B-25 Mitchell bomber, which in the last J-version of the Mitchell could have upwards of fourteen M2s ring forward
for ground attack missions - eight in a solid metal-structure nose, four more mounted in a pair of conformal twingunned gun pods on the lower cockpit sides, and two more if the forward dorsal turret's pair of M2 guns were also
aimed straight forward.
In the dual-purpose vehicle mount, the M2HB (heavy barrel) proved extremely eective in U.S. service: the Browning's .50 caliber AP and API rounds could easily penetrate the engine block or fuel tanks of a German Bf 109 ghter
attacking at low altitude,* [29] or perforate the hull plates and fuel tanks of a German half-track or light armored
car.* [23]* [30]* [31] While the dual-purpose mounting was undeniably useful, it did normally require the operator
to stand when using the M2 in a ground role, exposing him to return re.* [32] Units in the eld often modied
the mountings on their vehicles, especially tanks and tank destroyers, to provide more operator protection in the
anti-vehicular and anti-personnel role.* [33] The weapon was particularly hated by the Germans, whose attacks and

264

An M2 red from a rigid-hulled inatable boat.

CHAPTER 24. M2 BROWNING

24.3. DEPLOYMENT

265

B-25H Barbie IIIshowing four M2 feeds and 75mm M5 gun

ambushes against otherwise helpless stalled motor convoys were frequently broken up by .50 caliber machine gun
re.* [34]* [35] Vehicles would frequently recon by rewith the M2 Browning, i.e. they would re continuously
at suspected points of ambush while moving through areas still containing enemy forces. One vehicle would re
exclusively to the right, the following vehicle to the left, the next one to the right, and so on in order to cover both
anks of the advancing convoy.
Besides vehicle-mounted weapons, the heavy weapons companies in a World War II U.S. Army infantry battalion or
regiment were each issued one M2 Browning with tripod (ground) mount.* [36] Mounted on a heavily sandbagged
tripod, the M2HB proved very useful in either a defensive role or to interdict or block road intersections from use
by German infantry and motorized forces.* [37] Hearing the sound of an M2 could often cause enemy infantry to
take cover.* [38] There are numerous instances of the M2 Browning being used against enemy personnel, particularly
infantry assaults* [39] or for interdiction or elimination of enemy artillery observers or snipers at distances too great
for ordinary infantry weapons.* [40]* [41]* [42]
The M2HB was not widely used in the Pacic campaign for several reasons, including the weight of the gun, the
nature of infantry jungle combat, and because road intersections were usually easily outanked.* [43] However, it
was used by fast-moving motorized forces in the Philippines to destroy Japanese blocking units on the advance to
Manila.* [37] The quad mount .50 was also used to destroy Japanese emplacements.* [44]
The M2HB was used in Korea and Vietnam, and later in both Operation Desert Storm, the Afghan theater of
Operation Enduring Freedom and in Iraq. In 2003, U.S. Army SFC Paul Ray Smith used his M2HB mounted
on an M113 armored personnel carrier to kill 20 to 50 enemies who were attacking a U.S. outpost, preventing an aid
station from being overrun and allowing wounded soldiers to be evacuated,* [45] SFC Smith was killed during the
reght and was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor.
M45 Quadmount
Main article: M45 Quadmount
The M45 Quadmount was a mounting of four .50 M2HB guns with a single gunner situated behind an armored

266

CHAPTER 24. M2 BROWNING

A U.S. soldier in Normandy stands guard with the M2HB installed on a dual-purpose mounting.

housing. This was used by U.S. AA battalions, tted either on a towed trailer or mounted in a half-track carrier
(M16 AA half-track). With 200 rounds per gun in a powered tracking mount, the guns proved very eective against
low-ying aircraft. The use of four guns adequately compensated for the fact that the individual M2HB's rate of re
(450-550 rounds per minute) was low for an eective antiaircraft weapon.* [46]
Towards the end of the war, as Luftwae attacks became less frequent, the quad .50 (nicknamed the Meat Chopper
or Krautmower* [46]) was increasingly used in an anti-personnel role, similarly to the earlier-introduced (1940) and
more powerful German 20mm Flakvierling. Snipers ring from trees were engaged by the quad gunner at trunk level
- the weapon would cut down and destroy the entire tree, and the sniper with it.* [38]* [44]
The M45 Quadmount was still in use during the Vietnam War.

24.3.2

Commonwealth and other forces

Commonwealth use of the M2 Browning .50 caliber machine gun (known as the .5 Browning in British and Commonwealth service) was limited in the Second World War, though from 1942 it was standard armament on US-built AFVs
provided under lend-lease such as the M4 Sherman, M7 Priest, M8 Greyhound, or M10 Wolverine variously used by
British, Canadian, Australian, South African and New Zealand units. Nevertheless, the heavy Browning's eectiveness was praised by many British and Commonwealth soldiers in infantry, armored, and ordnance branches.* [47]* [48]
Many commanders thought the .50 Browning the best weapon in its class, certainly the best of the American weapons,
including the M1 Garand and carbine.* [48]* [49] In North Africa, after Commonwealth units began to obtain sucient parts, manuals, gauges, and ammunition for the new weapon, the .50 Browning was increasingly used, eventually
replacing the 15 mm Besa,* [48] but in Italy was often deleted from top turret mountings because the mount exposed
the operator to low branches and enemy re.* [50] All LRDGs, and some SAS units used the aircraft (AN/M2) version of the gun, while beam/waist-mounted and turret-mounted Brownings were used later in the war in such aircraft
as the Short Sunderland and Lancaster bomber.

24.4. VARIANTS AND DERIVATIVES

267

An M2 overlooking the Korengal Valley at Firebase Phoenix, Afghanistan, in 2007

After the Second World War, the .50 Browning continued to see action in Korea and other theaters, in aircraft, tripod
(ground), ground AA (hip-ring), and vehicle mounts. One of its most notable actions in a ground role was in a erce
battle with a nine-man SAS team at the Battle of Mirbat in Oman in July 1972, where the heavy Browning and its
API ammunition was used to help repulse an assault by 250 Yemeni Adoo guerrillas, though the more famous weapon
from the battle is a 25 pounder gun.* [51]
A .50 caliber Browning was installed along with a .30 caliber Browning machine gun in each compact one-man turret
on M113 APCs used by the Royal Australian Armoured Corps in South Vietnam.
Nigerian troops have extensively deployed the 50 caliber Browning, mounted on Otokar Cobra APCs, Panhard VBL
M11s and Landcruiser gun-trucks in counterinsurgency operations in the Niger Delta, N.E Nigeria, the Jos Plateau
and in Mali

24.3.3

M2 as a sniper rie

The M2 machine gun has also been used as a long-range sniper rie, when equipped with a telescopic sight. Soldiers
during the Korean War used scoped M2s in the role of a sniper rie, but the practice was most notably used by
US Marine Corps sniper Carlos Hathcock during the Vietnam War. Using an Unertl telescopic sight and a mounting
bracket of his own design, Hathcock could quickly convert the M2 into a sniper rie, using the traversing-and-elevating
(T&E) mechanism attached to the tripod. When ring semi-automatically, Hathcock hit man-size targets beyond
1,800 metres (2,000 yd)twice the range of a standard-caliber sniper rie of the time (a .30-06 Winchester Model
70). In fact, Hathcock set the record for the longest conrmed kill at 2,250 metres (2,460 yd), a record which stood
until 2002, when it was broken in Afghanistan by Canadian Forces sniper Arron Perry.* [52]* [53]

24.4 Variants and derivatives

268

CHAPTER 24. M2 BROWNING

M16 .50 AA Quad aka the 'Meat Chopper'

24.4.1

M2 variants

The basic M2 was deployed in U.S. service in a number of subvariants, all with separate complete designations as per
the US Army system. The basic designation as mentioned in the introduction is Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50,
M2, with others as described below.
The development of the M1921 water-cooled machine gun which led to the M2, meant that the initial M2s were, in
fact, water-cooled. These weapons were designated Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, Water-Cooled, Flexible.
There was no xed water-cooled version.
Improved air-cooled heavy barrel versions came in three subtypes. The basic infantry model, Browning Machine
Gun, Cal. .50, M2, HB, Flexible, a xed developed for use on the M6 Heavy Tank designated Browning Machine
Gun, Cal. .50, M2, HB, Fixed, and a turret typewhereby FlexibleM2s were modied slightly for use in tank
turrets. The subvariant designation Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, HB, TT was only used for manufacturing,
supply, and administration identication and separation from exible M2s.
A number of additional subvariants were developed after the end of the Second World War. The Caliber .50 Machine
Gun, Browning, M2, Heavy Barrel, M48 Turret Type was developed for the commander's cupola on the M48 Patton
tank. The cupola mount on the M48A2 and M48A3 was thoroughly disliked by most tankers, as it proved unreliable
in service.* [54] An externally mounted M2 was later adopted for the commander's position on the M1 Abrams tanks.
Three subvariants were also developed for use by the U.S. Navy on a variety of ships and watercraft. These included
the Caliber .50 Machine Gun, Browning, M2, Heavy Barrel, Soft Mount (Navy) and the Caliber .50 Machine Gun,
Browning, M2, Heavy Barrel, Fixed Type (Navy). The xed types re from a solenoid trigger and come in left or
right hand feed variants for use on the Mk 56 Mod 0 dual mount and other mounts.

24.4.2

M2A1

When the M2 was rst being designed, John Browning faced two design challenges. With the machine tools available
at that time, the dimensions that established the location of the bolt face and the depth of the chamber could not be

24.4. VARIANTS AND DERIVATIVES

269

Australian M113 with twin mounted M1919 Browning and M2 Browning Quick Change Barrel machine guns.

USMC M2 tted with a Leupold CQBSS variable power scope.

held tightly enough to control the t of the cartridge in the chamber. The round can be too tight in the chamber and the
gun wouldn't shoot, or be too loose in the chamber resulting in a stoppage or ruptured cartridge. The other dimension

270

CHAPTER 24. M2 BROWNING

An M2HB in the French Foreign Legion's 2nd Infantry Regiment during an exercise.

M2HB heavy machine gun

that couldnt be held close enough was when the ring pin would fall. The solution to these problems was adjustable
timing and headspace; the operator had to screw the barrel into the barrel extension, moving the barrel toward the
bolt face to reach the proper headspace with simple gages to allow the operator to adjust to the proper dimensions.
By the late 20th century, the M2 was the only adjustable headspace weapon in the U.S. inventory. With rising reports
of injuries from improperly headspaced weapons, the U.S. Military held a competition for a quick change barrel
conversion kit with xed timing and headspace in 1997. Three companies oered kits and Saco Defense won the
competition. However, funding was lost before the design could be fully evaluated and the program ended. In 2007,
the military found money to start a new competition. Saco Defense had since been acquired by General Dynamics,
who won the competition.* [55]
On October 15, 2010, the M2A1 heavy machine gun was type classied by the U.S. Army. The M2A1, formerly
known as the M2E2, incorporates improvements to the design including a quick change barrel (QCB) with removable
carrying handle, a new ash suppressor that reduces muzzle ash by 95 percent, xed headspace and timing, a modied

24.5. AIRCRAFT GUNS

271

The M2E2 modication with quick-change barrel

bolt, and a manual trigger block safety. Headspaceis the distance between the face of the bolt and the base of the
cartridge case, fully seated in the chamber. Timingis the adjustment of the gun so that ring takes place when the
recoiling parts are in the correct position for ring. When a standard M2 had a barrel change, the headspace and timing
had to be manually set. Improper adjustment could damage the weapon and cause serious injury to the user. Fixed
headspace and timing reduces risk, and the carrying handle allows the barrel to be switched in seconds.* [56]* [57]
In June 2011, the Army began conversion of M2HB machine guns to M2A1s.* [58] In February 2012, the Army
announced that it will upgrade all 45,000 M2s to M2A1 standard.* [59] The M2A1 was named one of the greatest
Army inventions of 2011.* [60] As of November 30, 2012, 8,300 built or converted M2A1s have been elded by the
U.S. Army.* [61]

24.5 Aircraft guns


24.5.1

AN/M2

The M2 machine gun was widely used during World War II and in later postwar conicts as a remote or exible
aircraft gun. For xed (oensive) or exible (defensive) guns used in aircraft, a dedicated M2 version was developed
called the .50 Browning AN/M2. TheANstands forArmy/Navy, since the gun was developed jointly for use
by both services (unusual for the time, when the delineations between the Army and Navy were much stricter, and
relations between armed services were often cool, if not outright hostile.) The AN/M2 had a cyclic rate of 750850
rounds per minute, with the ability to be red from an electrically operated remote-mount solenoid trigger when
installed as a xed gun. Cooled by the aircraft's slip-stream, the air-cooled AN/M2 was tted with a substantially
lighter 36-inch (91 cm) length barrel, lightening the complete unit to 61 pounds (28 kg),* [62] which also had the
eect of increasing the rate of re. The ocial designation for this weapon was Browning Machine Gun, Aircraft,
Cal. .50, AN/M2 (Fixed) or (Flexible). The B-17G Flying Fortress heavy bomber was armed with up to 13 AN/M2
guns in both turreted and exible positions, with only the later versions of the B-25J Mitchell medium bomber, eldtted with solid metal noses carrying more AN/M2 guns. These could carry up to 14 to 18 M2s in total, mostly aimed
forward for attack duties, with the guns of the forward-located dorsal turret of the B-25H and J models being two of
this number.

24.5.2

M296

The XM296/M296 is a further development of the AN/M2 machine gun for the OH-58 Kiowa Warrior helicopter.
The M296 diers from previous remote ring variants in that it has adjustable ring rate (500850 rpm), while
lacking a bolt latch (allowing single-shot operation).* [63] As an air-cooled gun used aboard a relatively slow rotarywing aircraft, the M296 has a burst restriction rate of 50 rounds per minute sustained re or 150 rounds per minute

272

CHAPTER 24. M2 BROWNING

P-47 ring its eight M2 .50 machine guns during night gunnery

maximum while conducting peacetime training requirements; the combat ring rate is unrestricted but does a tenminute cooling period after prolonged ring is mandated to avoid stoppages due to overheating.* [64]

24.5.3

XM213/M213, XM218, GAU-15/A, GAU-16/A, and GAU-18/A

The XM213/M213 was a modernization and adaptation of existing .50 caliber AN/M2s in inventory for use as a
pintle mounted door gun on helicopters using the M59 armament subsystem.
The GAU-15/A, formerly identied as the XM218, is a lightweight member of the M2/M3 family. The GAU-16/A
was an improved GAU-15/A with modied grip and sight assemblies for similar applications. Both of these weapons
were used as a part of the A/A49E-11 armament subsystem (also known as the Defensive Armament System).
The GAU-18/A, is a lightweight variant of the M2/M3, and is used on the USAF's MH-53 Pave Low and HH-60 Pave
Hawk helicopters. These weapons do not use the M2HB barrel, and are typically set up as left-hand feed, right-hand
charging weapons, but on the HH-60 Pavehawks that use the EGMS (External Gun Mount System) the gun is isolated
from the shooter by a recoil absorbing cradle and all weapons are set up as right hand charge but vary between left
and right hand feed depending on what side of the aircraft it is on. A feed chute adapter is attached to the left or
right hand feed pawl bracket allowing the weapon to receive ammunition through a feed chute system connected to
externally mounted ammunition containers holding 600 rounds each.

24.5.4

AN/M3, GAU-21/A, and M3P

During World War II, a faster-ring Browning was developed for aircraft use. The AN/M3 features a mechanical or
electrically boosted feed mechanism to increase the rate of re to around 1,200 rounds per minute. The AN/M3 was
used in Korea on the F-86 Sabre, F-84 Thunderjet and F-80 Shooting Star, and in Vietnam in the XM14/SUU-12/A
gun pod. Today, it can be found on the Embraer EMB 314 Super Tucano.

24.5. AIRCRAFT GUNS

U.S. Marines man pintle-mounted M2HB machine guns

A German Army ramp gunner mans an M3M on board a CH-53 helicopter

273

274

CHAPTER 24. M2 BROWNING

The M3-series is used by the U.S. military in two versions; the M3M and M3P. The xed, remote-ring version, the
FN M3P, is employed on the Avenger Air Defense System, and is currently being used on the OH-58D; augmenting
the XM296 .50 cal. machine gun.* [65] The M3M exible machine gun has been adopted by USN under the designation GAU-21/A for use on helicopters. The GAU-21/A is also being used by the United States Marine Corps to
upgrade from the XM-218/GAU-16 .50 cal. machine gun for the CH-53E,* [66] on the UH-1Y Venom, and on the
Canadian Forces' CH-146 Grion via the INGRESS upgrade.

24.6 Users
The M2 family has been widely used abroad, primarily in its basic infantry conguration. A brief listing of designations for M2 family weapons follows:

24.7 See also


M85 machine gun, a vehicle-borne replacement for the M2 that proved unreliable and was removed from
service
FN BRG-15 extra-large caliber machine gun
KPV heavy machine gun 14.5 mm caliber machine gun
List of U.S. Army weapons by supply catalog designation
MG 131 machine gun, World War II 13 mm German aircraft-mounted gun
List of individual weapons of the U.S. Armed Forces
List of crew-served weapons of the U.S. Armed Forces
DShK, NSV & Kord 12.7 mm machine guns, Soviet/Russian equivalents.
M45 Quadmount

24.8 References
Notes
[1] M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun. GlobalSecurity.
[2] Report: Proling the Small Arms Industry - World Policy Institute - Research Project. World Policy Institute. November
2000. Retrieved 2010-07-15.
[3] FN M2HB-QCB". Retrieved 25 December 2014.
[4] Dunlap, Roy F., Ordnance Went Up Front, Samworth Press (1948), pp. 310311
[5] Rottman, Gordon (2008). The Us Army in the Vietnam War 196573. Reading: Osprey Publishing. p. 56. ISBN 1-84603239-3.
[6] Contracts for Friday, September 03, 2010. Defense.gov. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
[7] Contracts for Wednesday, July 15, 2009. Defense.gov. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
[8] Major Product Achievements. Fnherstal.com. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
[9] Chinn 1951, p. 333, statingThe Germans put a heavily armored plane into service during the closing days of World War
I. This act made obsolete for all time the rie-caliber machine gun for aerial use. Some countries were slower to accept the
fact than others but nevertheless it cannot be disputed. The United States was among the rst to come to this realization.
[10] Chinn 1951, pp. 181182

24.8. REFERENCES

275

[11] Chinn & 1951 182


[12] Chinn 1951, p. 183
[13] Chinn 1951, p. 184
[14] Chinn 1951, p. 184. Chinn states the German round was 12.7-mm anti-tank, but it may have been the 13.2mm TuF round.
The Germans were working on their MG 18 TuF heavy machine gun.
[15] Chinn 1951, p. 186
[16] Chinn 1951, pp. 333335
[17] Chinn 1951, pp. 336337
[18] Skylighters, The Web Site of the 225th AAA Searchlight Battalion: AAA Weapons in Focus - The M2 .50-Caliber
Machine Gun. Skylighters.org. Retrieved 2008-09-08.
[19] Dunlap, Roy F., Ordnance Went Up Front, Samworth Press (1948), pp. 310311: the ocial rate during WWII was
450575 rpm, but it was extremely rare to encounter a M2HB that exceeded 550 rpm.
[20] DiGiulian, Tony, USA 0.50"/90 (12.7 mm) M2 Browning Machine Gun (2007) Article
[21] FM 23-65, Browning Machine Gun Caliber .50 HB, M2 United States Department of the Army, December 2002.
[22] Crew Served Weapons lesson plan
[23] Barnes, Frank C., Cartridges of the World, U.S. Army .50 BMG Cartridge Specications, DBI Books (1989), ISBN 087349-033-9, p.432
[24] Dunlap, Roy F., Ordnance Went Up Front, Samworth Press (1948), pp. 311312.
[25] M903 Caliber .50 Saboted Light Armor Penetrator (SLAP), M962 Saboted Light Armor, GlobalSecurity.org
[26] Caliber .50 Cartridges, GlobalSecurity.org
[27] Dunlap, Roy F., Ordnance Went Up Front, Samworth Press (1948), p. 225
[28] George, John B., Shots Fired In Anger, NRA Press (1981), p. 404: By World War II, the M2HB had been designated
as a dual-purpose anti-aircraft and anti-vehicular weapon for motorized, armored, and infantry divisions; the designation
"anti-vehicular" included thin-skinned and lightly armored vehicles, as it was already recognized by 1940 that the .50 M2
AP round would not be useful against modern medium or heavy tanks.
[29] Bird, James, Recollections of James R. Bird, A Battery, 160th F.A., 45th Inf. Div., Article
[30] Green, Michael, and Green, Gladys, Weapons of Patton's Armies, Zenith Imprint Press (2000), ISBN 0-7603-0821-7, ISBN
978-0-7603-0821-9, p. 34
[31] Bishop, Chris, The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II, Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. (2002), ISBN 1-58663762-2, ISBN 978-1-58663-762-0, p. 86
[32] Green, Michael, and Green, Gladys, Weapons of Patton's Armies, Zenith Imprint Press (2000), ISBN 0-7603-0821-7, ISBN
978-0-7603-0821-9, pp. 3234
[33] Yeide, 2004. p. 185
[34] Burgett, Donald, Seven Roads To Hell, Dell Publishing (1999), ISBN 0-440-23627-4, p. 129
[35] Jarymowycz, Roman J., Tank Tactics: From Normandy to Lorraine, Lynne Rienner Publishers (2001), ISBN 1-55587-9500, ISBN 978-1-55587-950-1, p. 212
[36] Rush, Robert S., GI: The US Infantryman in World War II, Osprey Publishing Ltd. (2003), ISBN 1-84176-739-5, p. 33
[37] Dunlap, Roy F., Ordnance Went Up Front, Samworth Press (1948), pp. 225, 311-312
[38] Henry, Mark R., The US Army in World War II (2): The Mediterranean, Osprey Publishing (2000), ISBN 1-84176-085-4,
ISBN 978-1-84176-085-8, p. 20
[39] Abramski, Anthony V. (Pfc.), Eyewitness Account of Pfc. Anthony V. Abramski, Citation In Support Of Congressional
Medal of Honor Award to 2nd Lt. Audie Murphy at Holtzwihr, France, 26 January 1945
[40] Wolfe, Clarence B., I Kept My Word, AuthorHouse Press (2006), ISBN 1-4259-6951-8, ISBN 978-1-4259-6951-6, p. 68

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[41] The United States Army in World War II, Ch. XXI: Artillery & Armored Units in the ETO, Washington, D.C.: Historical
Division, U.S. Army (1993), p. 645
[42] Jarymowycz, Roman J., Tank Tactics: From Normandy to Lorraine, Lynne Rienner Publishers (2001), ISBN 1-55587950-0, ISBN 978-1-55587-950-1, p. 212: The M2HB tted to tanks and M3 half-tracks was frequently employed against
German rearguard forces including snipers and anti-tank teams, often ring into locations merely suspected of hiding such
forces (so-called speculative re).
[43] George, John B., Shots Fired In Anger, NRA Press (1981), p. 404
[44] AAA Weapons of the U.S. Army, Part I: The Quad 50Machine Gun Mount, 225th AAA Searchlight Battalion (Skylighters) Article
[45] Schmitt, Eric, Medal of Honor to Be Awarded to Soldier Killed in Iraq, a First, New York Times, 30 March 2005
[46] Rottman, Gordon L., Browning .50-Caliber Machine Guns, Osprey Publishing (2010), ISBN 978-1-84908-331-7, p. 1920
[47] Shore, C. (Capt.), With British Snipers to the Reich, Boulder: Lancer Militaria, p. 197198
[48] Dunlap, Roy F., Ordnance Went Up Front, Samworth Press (1948), p. 35, 145
[49] Shore, C. (Capt.), With British Snipers to the Reich, Boulder: Lancer Militaria, p. 197198: They especially liked thehell's
brewof AP, API, and APIT ammunition.
[50] Dunlap, Roy F., Ordnance Went Up Front, Samworth Press (1948), p. 153: The New Zealand and South African divisions
in particular loved the big Browning, and were frequently encountered trading for spare parts and gauges.
[51] Kennedy, Michael Paul, Soldier I: SAS, London: Bloomsbury Publishing PLC (1990), ISBN 0-7475-0750-3
[52] Sniper Ries. GlobalSecurity. Retrieved 2008-03-24. When a 24-year old Marine sharpshooter named Carlos Norman
Hathcock II chalked up the farthest recorded kill in the history of sniping2,500 yards (1.42 miles, a distance greater than
22 football elds) in February 1967, he red a Browning M2 .50 Cal. Machine Gun.
[53] Sgt. Grit (2006). Marine Corps Sniper Carlos N. Hathcock II. Retrieved 2008-03-24. Viet Cong shot dead by a round
red from a scope-mounted Browning M-2 .50 caliber machine gun at the unbelievable range of 2,500 yards (2,300 m).
[54] Zumbro, Ralph, Tank Sergeant, Presidio Press (1986), p. 92
[55] New .50 Cal Machine Guns, No Tanks - SAdefensejournal.com, 19 August 2011
[56] MA DEUCE version M2A1-Proven Performer gets an Upgrade - PEOSoldier.mil, January 3, 2011
[57] Ma Deuce Still Going Strong - Defenseindustrydaily.com
[58] Army to convert Browning M2 to M2A1 - Therearmblog.com, August 6, 2011
[59] M2A1 conversion - Strategypage.com, Feb 2, 2012
[60] M2A1 Among Greatest Army Inventions of 2011 - Therearmblog.com, September 21, 2012
[61] M2A1 Machine Gun Features Greater Safety, Heightened Lethality - Army.mil, November 30, 2012
[62] Aircraft Gunnery .50 Cal.. browningmgs.com. Retrieved March 9, 2013.
[63] M296 .50 cal. (12.7 mm) Machine Gun Article
[64] M296 .50 cal. (12.7 mm) Machine Gun
[65] 6-6 Cavalry aircrews eld new Kiowa Warrior weapons system. US Army.
[66] Sea Stallions Implement New Ramp Mount Weapon System. USMC
[67] Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN
978-0-7106-2869-5.
[68] Light Calibre Weapons. Adi-limited.com. Retrieved 2008-09-08.
[69] Report of the Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry (Report). Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry. 23
November 2011.
[70] Gevrer. forsvaret.dk (in Danish). Danish Defence. Retrieved 19 October 2014.

24.9. EXTERNAL LINKS

277

[71] Combat Support Wing (December 2007). Eskadrille 615 sttter Svrnet[Squadron 615 aids the Navy]. Mjlner (in
Danish): 5.
[72] Uudised - Kaitsevgi. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
[73] Puolustusvoimat - Pyrremyrsky - Puolustusvoimien sotaharjoitus 2011(in Finnish). Puolustusvoimat.. 2011-05-13.
Retrieved 2011-09-19.
[74] "Die CH-53 als Brcke in die Zukunft" (The CH-53 as a bridge to the future)
[75] Army - Defence Forces. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
[76] 12,7mm lometjs Browning M2HB-QCB (in Latvian).
[77] Lietuvos kariuomen :: Ginkluot ir karin technika Kulkosvaidiai Sunkusis 12.7 mm (50) kulkosvaidis M-2 browning (in Lithuanian). Kariuomene.kam.lt. 2009-12-15. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
[78] Armement
[79] HyperWar: Lend-Lease Shipments, World War II (Ordnance)". Retrieved 25 December 2014.
[80] Kulspruta 88 - Frsvarsmakten. Forsvarsmakten.se. 2007-08-23. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
[81] http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/1f/Independence_Day_Parade_-_Flickr_-_Kerri-Jo_%2861%
29.jpg/1024px-Independence_Day_Parade_-_Flickr_-_Kerri-Jo_%2861%29.jpg
[82] Manroy Website. Manroy.co.uk. Retrieved 2008-09-08.
[83] MOD Defence News report of M3M acquisition for CHC mod.co.uk defence news accessed 26 Sept 2010

Bibliography
Chinn, George M. (1951), The Machine Gun: History, Evolution and Development of Manually Operated, Full
Automatic, and Power Driven Aircraft Machine Guns 1, Department of the Navy, Bureau of Ordnance
Dunlap, Roy F. (1948), Ordnance Went Up Front: Some Observations and Experiences of a Sergeant of Ordnance, who served throughout World War II with the United States Army in Egypt, the Philippines and Japan,
including way stations, A Samworth Book on Firearms, Plantersville, SC: Small-Arms Technical Publishing
Co., OCLC 6081851
George, John B. (1981). Shots Fired In Anger, NRA Press, ISBN 0-935998-42-X
Gresham, John D. (December 2001). Weapons. Military Heritage. Volume 3, No. 3: 22, 24, 26, 28, 30
(John Browning's (M2) .50-caliber).
Hogg, Ian. (2001). The American Arsenal. Ian Hogg, ed. London, UK: Greenhill Books, ISBN 978-1-85367470-9
MCWP 3-15.1: Machine Guns and Machine Gun Gunnery USMC (requires client certicate). Alternative via
scribd
Yeide, Harry. (2004). The Tank Killers. Havertown, Penn.: Casemate, ISBN 978-1-932033-26-7
Zaloga, Steven J. (2002). M8 Greyhound Light Armored Car 194191. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, ISBN
978-1-84176-468-9

24.9 External links


Aircraft Gunnery_.50 cal.
M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun at Federation of American Scientists
Browning M2HB & M2HQCB (USA)
M2 .50 cal. Machine Gun at Olive-Drab.com

278

CHAPTER 24. M2 BROWNING

Quad-50 M2 .50 cal. Machine Gun at Olive-Drab.com


Browning M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun at Gary's Olive Drab Page
Browning M2 HB .50 Caliber Heavy Machine Gun, Ambush in Mogadishu, Frontline, PBS
Can you use the .50-caliber on human targets?, Stars & Stripes
Video of Operation on YouTube
U.S. Army FM 23-65 Browning Machine Gun Caliber .50 HB, M2
Browning .50 Cal. M2 Aircraft dimensions

Chapter 25

M4 carbine
M4A1and Colt M4redirect here. For other uses, see M4 (disambiguation).
The M4 carbine is a family of rearms that was derived from earlier carbine versions of the M16 rie, which was
in turn derived from the original AR-15 rie that Eugene Stoner designed and ArmaLite manufactured. The M4 is a
shorter and lighter variant of the M16A2 assault rie. It is a gas-operated, magazine-fed, selective re, shoulder-red
weapon with a telescoping stock and 14.5 in (370 mm) barrel to ease close quarters combat. Like the rest of the M16
family, it res the .223 caliber, or 5.56 mm NATO round.
The M4 has selective re options including semi-automatic and three-round burst (like the M16A2 and M16A4),
while the M4A1 has the capability to re fully automatic instead of three-round burst (like the M16A1 and M16A3).
They are also capable of mounting the M203 grenade launcher. The distinctive step in their barrel is for mounting
the M203 with the standard hardware.
The M4 carbine is heavily used by the U.S military. It will eventually replace the M16 rie for most combat units in
the United States Army.* [7] The winner of the Individual Carbine competition was planned to supplement the M4
carbine in U.S. Army service;* [8] however, the army cancelled the Individual Carbine competition without selecting
a replacement rie and instead plans to equip soldiers with the improved M4A1.* [9]

25.1 History
Following the adoption of the M16 rie, carbine variants were also adopted for close quarters operations. The CAR15 family of weapons served through the Vietnam War. However, these carbines had design issues, as the barrel
length was halvedto 10 inches whichupset the ballistics, reducing its range and accuracy andled to considerable
muzzle ash and blast, so that a large ash suppressor had to be tted.* [10]Nevertheless, as a short-range weapon
it is quite adequate and thus, (despite) its caliber, (the XM177 Commando) is classed as a submachine gun.
*
[10] In 1988, Colt began work on a new carbine design called the XM4 combining the best features of the Colt
Commando and M16A2 ries.
The XM4 was given a longer 14.5-inch barrel with the M16A2's 1:7 inch rie twist, to use the heavier 62-grain M855
rounds. The extended barrel improved the XM4's ballistics, reduced muzzle blast and gave the XM4 the ability to
mount a bayonet and the M203 grenade launcher. The XM4 was also given the M16A2's improved rear sight and
cartridge deector, as well as other minor renements. In 1994, the U.S. military ocially accepted the XM4 into
service as the M4 Carbine to replace the M16A2.* [11] The M4 carbine has also replaced most submachine guns
and selected handguns in U.S. military service,* [11] as it res more eective rie ammunition that oers superior
stopping power and is better able to penetrate modern body armor.
The United States Marine Corps has ordered its ocers (up to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel) and sta noncommissioned ocers to carry the M4 carbine instead of the M9 handgun.* [12] This is in keeping with the Marine
Corps doctrine,Every Marine a rieman.The Marine Corps, however, chose the full-sized M16A4 over the M4 as
its standard infantry rie. United States Navy corpsmen E5 and below will also be issued M4s instead of the M9.* [13]
While ordinary riemen in the Marine Corps are armed with M16A4s, M4s are elded by troops in positions where
a full-length rie would be too bulky, including vehicle operators and reteam and squad leaders. As of 2013, the
U.S. Marine Corps has 80,000 M4 Carbines in their inventory.* [14]* [15]
279

280

25.1.1

CHAPTER 25. M4 CARBINE

Improved M4

On 1 July 2009, the U.S. Army took complete ownership of the M4 design.* [16] This allowed companies other
than Colt to compete with their own M4 designs. The Army planned on elding the last of its M4 requirement
in 2010.* [16] On 30 October 2009, Army weapons ocials proposed a series of changes to the M4 to Congress.
Requested changes included an electronic round counter that records the number of shots red, a heavier barrel, and
possibly replacing the direct impingement system with a gas piston system.
The benets of this, however, have come under scrutiny from both the military and civilian rearms community.* [17]* [18]
According to a PDF detailing the M4 Carbine improvement plans released by PEO Soldier, the direct impingement
system would only be replaced after reviews were done comparing the direct impingement system to commercial
gas piston operating system to nd out and use the best available operating system in the U.S. Army's improved
M4A1.* [19]
In September 2010, the Army announced it would buy 12,000 M4A1s from Colt Firearms by the end of 2010, and
would order 25,000 more M4A1s by early 2011. The service branch planned to buy 12,000 M4A1 conversion kits
in early 2011. In late 2011 the Army bought 65,000 more conversion kits. From there the Army had to decide if it
would upgrade all of its M4s.* [20]
On 21 April 2012, the U.S. Army announced to begin purchasing over 120,000 M4A1 carbines to start reequipping
front line units from the original M4 to the new M4A1 version. The rst 24,000 were to be made by Remington
Arms Company. Remington was to produce the M4A1s from mid-2013 to mid-2014.* [21] After completion of that
contract, it was to be between Colt and Remington to produce over 100,000 more M4A1s for the U.S. Army. Because
of eorts from Colt to sue the Army to force them not to use Remington to produce M4s, the Army reworked the
original solicitation for new M4A1s to avoid legal issues from Colt.* [22] On 16 November 2012, Colt's protest of
Remington receiving the M4A1 production contract was dismissed.* [23] Instead of the contract being re-awarded
to Remington, the Army awarded the contract for 120,000 M4A1 carbines worth $77 million to FN Herstal on 22
February 2013.* [24]* [25] The order is expected to be completed by 2018.* [26]
Army upgrades
The M4 product improvement program (PIP) is the eort by the U.S. Army to modernize its eet of M4 service ries.
Phase I consists of converting and replacing regular M4s with the M4A1 version. This variant of the rie is fully
automatic and has a heavier barrel, and is given ambidextrous re controls. Phase II of the PIP explored developing a
new bolt carrier. 11 designs were submitted. The competition was scheduled to conclude in summer 2013, but ended
in April 2012. Over six months of testing revealed that the current bolt carrier assembly outperformed the competing
designs, especially in the areas of reliability, durability, and high-temp and low-temp tests. Phase II also includes a
competition for a free-oating forward rail assembly. The Army may award contracts to up to three nalists in early
2013, with the selection of a nal winner in early 2014. If the Army determines that the winning rail system should
be procured, delivery of new rail is anticipated by the summer of 2014.* [27]
In March 2015, the Army launched a market survey to see what the small-arms industry could oer to further enhance
the M4A1 to an M4A1+" standard. Several upgrade options include an extended forward rail that will allow for
a free-oated barrel for improved accuracy with a low-prole gas block that would do away with the traditional
triangular xed front sight, removable front and rear ip-up back-up iron sights, a coyote tan or neutral colorrail
for reduced visual detection, a more eective ash suppressor/muzzle brake, an improved charging handle, and a new
single-stage trigger module.* [28]

25.1.2

Replacement attempts

Main article: Individual Carbine


See also: M16 Future Replacement
The carbine variant of the XM8 rie was canceled in 2005.
On 13 November 2008, the U.S. Army hosted an Invitation-only Industry Day regarding a potential future replacement for the M4 carbine. Nineteen companies provided displays and briengs for military ocials. The weapons
displayed included the Barrett REC7 PDW, Remington ACR, FN SCAR, Heckler & Koch HK416, Heckler & Koch
XM8, LWRC M6A4, Robinson Arms XCR, SIG 556, as well as Colt's own improved version of the M4, the Colt

25.2. DESIGN

281

ACC-M. The goal of the Industry Day was to provide ocials with knowledge as to the current state of the art, which
assisted the writing of a formal requirements document.* [29]
The possible successor to the M4 carbine in the U.S. Army was the Individual Carbine.* [8] This program was to
provide a new carbine for the Army, while the USMC decided to stay with the M4 for carbine use.* [20] The original
draft solicitation for industry bids was released in February 2011, and proposals were submitted by October 2011.
Phase I began in November 2011 with no test rings. Phase II began the following spring, stressing accuracy, reliability, and long-term durability. Weapons that met requirements were to move on to Phase III.* [30] The solicitation
called for a non-developmental weapon; competitors were to submit rie designs they already had available, rather
than work with the Army to develop a new weapon.* [31]
The Defense Department's Inspector General re-evaluated the Individual Carbine program in March 2013 and launched
an audit to see if the $1.8 billion acquisition process was worth replacing the M4.* [32] On 13 June 2013, the Army
canceled the Individual Carbine competition without selecting a winning rie,* [9] as none of the Carbines tested met
the needed specications to continue.* [33] The decision means the M4A1 will remain the U.S. Army standard-issue
rie.* [9] The Army had 483,000 M4/M4A1 Carbines in inventory at the time, with a maximum authorized acquisition level of 503,000 weapons.* [34] The Army will continue to look at the developing state of small arms technology,
but with no immediate desire to engage in another competition.* [31]

25.2 Design

M4 with M68 Close Combat Optic and AN/PAQ-4

The M4 and its variants re 5.5645mm NATO ammunition (and .223 Remington ammunition) and are gas-operated,
magazine-fed, selective re rearms with either a multi-position telescoping stock or a xed A2 or LE tactical
stock.* [35]
The M4 is a shorter and lighter variant of the M16A2 rie, with 80% parts commonality.* [36] The 20% of the
parts that are not interchangeable include the buer spring and weight, barrel, and gas tube due to the shorter carbine

282

CHAPTER 25. M4 CARBINE

length. Original M4 models had a at-ended telescoping stock, but newer models are now equipped with a redesigned
telescoping stock that is slightly larger with curvature at the end.* [37] The M4 is similar to much earlier compact
M16 versions, such as the 1960s-era XM177 family. Some of those visual designs are obvious in both weapons.

The M4 with the newer, redesigned telescoping stock

As with many carbines, the M4 is handy and more convenient to carry than a full-length rie. The price is slightly
inferior ballistic performance compared to the full-size M16, with its 5.5(14 cm) longer barrel. This becomes most
apparent at ranges of 200 yards and beyond.
While the M4's maneuverability makes it a candidate for non-infantry troops (vehicle crews, clerks and sta ocers),
it also makes it ideal for close quarters battle (CQB). The M4, along with the M16A4, have mostly replaced the
M16A2 in the Army and Marines. The U.S. Air Force, for example, has transitioned completely to the M4 for
Security Forces squadrons, while other armed personnel retain the M16A2. The US Navy uses M4A1s for Special
Operations and by vehicle crews.
Some features of the M4 and M4A1 compared to a full-length M16-series rie include:
Compact size
Shortened barrel 14.5 in (370 mm), which includes the shorter carbine gas system.
Telescoping buttstock
However, there have been some criticisms of the carbine, such as lower muzzle velocities and louder report due to
the shorter barrel, additional stress on parts because of the shorter gas system, and a tendency to overheat faster than
the M16A2.

25.2. DESIGN

25.2.1

283

Accessories

An M4A1 just after ring, with an ejected case in mid-air; the M203 and M68 CCO are attached.

Like all the variants of the M16, the M4 and the M4A1 can be tted with many accessories, such as night vision
devices, suppressors, laser pointers, telescopic sights, bipods, either the M203 or M320 grenade launchers, the M26
MASS shotgun, forward hand grips, and anything else compatible with a MIL-STD-1913 Picatinny rail.
Other common accessories include the AN/PEQ-2, Advanced Combat Optical Gunsight (ACOG), and M68 CCO.
EOTech holographic weapon sights are part of the SOPMOD II package. Visible and IR (infrared) lights of various
manufacturers are also commonly attached using various mounting methods. As with all versions of the M16, the
M4 accepts a blank-ring attachment (BFA) for training purposes.

Feedramps
M4 feedramps are extended from the barrel extension into the upper receiver. This can help alleviate feeding problems
which may occur as a result of the increased pressure of the shortened gas system of the M4. This problem is primarily
seen in full-auto applications.

SOPMOD Block I
U.S. Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) developed the Special Operations Peculiar Modication (SOPMOD)
Block I kit for the carbines used by units under its jurisdiction. The kit features an M4A1, a Rail Interface System
(RIS) handguard developed by Knight's Armament Company, a shortened quick-detachable M203 grenade launcher
and leaf sight, a KAC sound suppressor, a KAC back-up rear sight, an Insight Technologies AN/PEQ-2A visible
laser/infrared designator, along with Trijicon's ACOG TA-01NSN model and Reex sights, and a night vision sight.
This kit was designed to be congurable (modular) for various missions, and the kit is currently in service with special
operations units.

284

CHAPTER 25. M4 CARBINE

SOPMOD (Special Operations Peculiar Modication) Block I

M4A1 SOPMOD Block II in Afghanistan 2012.

SOPMOD Block II
A second-generation SOPMOD kit (now known as SOPMOD II) includes innovative optics, such as the Elcan Specter
DR, Trijicon's ACOG TA-31 ECOS model, and the Eotech 553. Block II uses the RIS II rails manufactured by Daniel
Defense in both a 9.5 and 12.5 length.

25.3. VARIANTS

285

25.3 Variants
For more details on M4 carbine variants, see AR-15 variants.
Except for the very rst delivery order, all U.S. military-issue M4 and M4A1 carbines possess a at-top NATO
M1913-specication (Picatinny) rail on top of the receiver for attachment of optical sights and other aiming devices
Trijicon TA01 and TA31 Advanced Combat Optical Gunsights (ACOG), EOTech 550 series holographic sights,
and Aimpoint M68 Close Combat Optic (M68 CCO) being the favorite choices and a detachable rail-mounted
carrying handle. Standards are the Colt Model 920 (M4) and 921 (M4A1).
Variants of the carbine built by dierent manufacturers are also in service with many other foreign special forces
units, such as the Australian Special Air Service Regiment (SASR). While the SASR uses weapons of essentially
the same pattern built by Colt for export (Colt uses dierent models to separate weapons for the U.S. military and
those for commercial/export purposes), the British SAS uses a variant on the basic theme, the Colt Canada (formerly
Diemaco) C8SFW.

25.3.1

M4 MWS (Modular Weapon System)

M4 MWS (Modular Weapon System) shown with various accessories including M203 grenade launcher, RIS foregrip, removable
carry handle/rear sight assembly, AN/PEQ-4 laser system, M68 CCO reex sight, and the AN/PVS-4 night vision optics

Colt Model 925 carbines were tested and tted with the Knight's Armament Corporation (KAC) M4 RAS under the
designation M4E2, but this designation appears to have been scrapped in favor of mounting this system to existing
carbines without changing the designation. The U.S. Army Field Manual species for the Army that adding the Rail
Adapter System (RAS) turns the weapon into the M4 MWS or Modular Weapon System.

25.3.2

M4A1

The M4A1 carbine is a fully automatic variant of the basic M4 carbine intended for special operations use. The
M4A1 has aS-1-F(safe/semi-automatic/fully automatic) trigger group, while the M4 has aS-1-3(safe/semiautomatic/3-round burst) trigger group. The M4A1 is used by almost all U.S special operation units including,
but not limited to, Marine Force Recon, Army Rangers, Army Special Forces, Navy SEALs, United States Air
Force Pararescue and Air Force Combat Control Teams. The M4A1 is especially favored by counter-terrorist and
special forces units for close quarters combat and urban warfare because of the carbine's compact repower. It has
a maximum eective range of about 500 to 600 meters (550660 yd).* [6] The fully automatic trigger gives a more

286

CHAPTER 25. M4 CARBINE

consistent trigger pull, which leads to better accuracy.* [9] According to Mark A. Westrom, owner of ArmaLite, Inc.,
automatic re is better for clearing rooms than burst re.* [30]
In the last few years, M4A1 carbines have been ret or received straight from factory with barrels with a thicker
prole under the handguard. This is for a variety of reasons such as heat dissipation during full-auto, and accuracy
as a byproduct of barrel weight. These heavier barrel weapons are also tted with a heavier buer known as the H2.
Out of three sliding weights inside the buer, the H2 possesses two tungsten weights and one steel weight, versus
the standard H buer, which uses one tungsten weight and two steel weights. These weapons, known by Colt as the
Model 921HB (for Heavy Barrel), have also been designated M4A1, and as far as the government is concerned the
M4A1 represents both the 921 and 921HB.
Conversion of M4s to the M4A1 began in 2014, the start of all U.S. Army forces being equipped with the automatic
variant.* [38] Though in service with special forces, combat in Afghanistan showed the need for providing automatic
suppression res during re and movement for regular soldiers. The 101st Airborne Division began elding new-built
M4A1s in 2012, and the U.S. 1st Infantry Division became the rst unit to convert their M4s to M4A1-standard in
May 2014. Upgrades included a heavier barrel to better dissipate heat from sustained automatic ring, which also
helps the ries use the M855A1 EPR that has higher proof pressures and puts more strain on barrels. The full-auto
trigger group has a more consistent trigger pull, whereas the burst group's pull varies on where the re control group
is set, resulting in more predictable and better accuracy on semi-automatic re. Another addition is an ambidextrous
selector lever for easier use with left-handed shooters. The M4-M4A1 conversion only increases weapon weight
from 7.46 lb (3.38 kg) to 7.74 lb (3.51 kg), counting a back-up iron sight, forward pistol grip, empty magazine,
and sling. Each carbine upgrade costs $240 per rie, for a total cost of $120 million for half a million conversions.
300 conversions can be done per day to equip a brigade combat team per week, with all M4A1 conversions to be
completed by 2019.* [39]* [40]

25.3.3

Mark 18 CQBR

An M4A1 with a Close Quarter Battle Receiver. The barrel length is 10.3 inches.

Main article: Close Quarters Battle Receiver


The Mk 18 Close Quarters Battle Receiver is an M4A1 with a 10.3-inch barrel upper receiver.* [41] Current contractors
for the Mark 18 are Colt and Lewis Machine & Tool (LMT) NSN 1005-01-527-2288.

25.3.4

Enhanced M4

For the Individual Carbine competition, Colt submitted their Enhanced M4 design, also known as the Colt Advanced
Piston Carbine (APC). The weapon has a suppression-ready uted barrel, which is lighter and cools better than previous
M4 barrels. It is claimed to have markedly betteraccuracy. To improve reliability, Colt used an articulating link
piston (ALP) whichreduces the inherent stress in the piston stroke by allowing for deection and thermal expansion

25.4. PERFORMANCE

287

.* [42] In traditional gas piston operating systems, the force of the piston striking the bolt carrier can push the bolt
carrier downwards and into the wall of the buer tube, leading to accelerated wear and even chipped metal. This is
known as carrier tilt. The ALP allows the operating rod to wiggle to correct for the downward pressure on the bolt
and transfers the force straight backwards in line with the bore and buer assembly, eliminating the carrier tilt. This
relieves stress on parts and helps to increase accuracy.* [43] The Individual Carbine competition was canceled before
a winning weapon was chosen.* [9]

25.3.5

M4 Commando

Though Colt has focused its attention on carbines with 14.5-inch barrels and ries with 20-inch barrels, Colt continues to make carbines with 11.5-inch barrels, which it calls Commandos. Originally, Commandos were assembled
from whatever spare parts are available, so Model 733 Commandos could have A1-style upper receivers with case
deectors or A2-style upper receivers, and M16A1-prole 1:7 or M16A2-prole 1:7 barrels. Depending on the specic models, Commandos may have had three-position re control groups (safe/semi-automatic/three-round burst),
or four-position having both full-automatic and burst. The modern Model 933 has aattopreceiver, with a removable carrying handle and a MIL-STD-1913 Picatinny rail, with semi-automatic and automatic re. The Model 935
Commando has the features of the Model 933, but has three-round burst re instead of automatic. Though originally
called the M16A2 Commando, Colt markets them as the M4 Commando.

25.3.6

Armwest LLC M4

In 2014, American rearms designer Jim Sullivan provided a video interview regarding his contributions to the
M16/M4 family of ries when working for Armalite. A noted critic of the M4 he illustrates the deciencies found
in the rie in its current conguration. In the video, he demonstrates his Arm West LLC modied M4, with
enhancements he believes necessary to rectify the issues with the weapon. Proprietary issues aside the weapon is
said to borrow features in his prior development, the Ultimax. Sullivan has stated (without exact details as to how)
the weapon can re from the closed bolt in semi-automatic and switch to open bolt when ring in fully automatic
improving accuracy. The weight of the cyclic components of the gun have been doubled (while retaining the weapons
weight at less than 8 pounds). Compared to the standard M4 which in automatic res 750-950 rounds a minute, the
rate of re of the Arm West M4 is heavily reduced both to save ammunition and reduce barrel wear, the reduced rate
also renders the weapon more controllable and accurate in automatic ring.* [44]

25.4 Performance
The M4 Carbine has been used for close quarters operations where the M16 would be too long and bulky to use
eectively. It has been a compact, light, customizable, and accurate weapons platform. This has come at the cost
of reliability and maintainability. Failure to maintain the M4 causes malfunctions. This became apparent as it saw
continued use in the sandy environments of Iraq and Afghanistan.* [45] Despite this, in post-combat surveys, 94
percent of soldiers rated the M4 as an eective weapons system.* [46]

25.4.1

Early feedback

By late 2002, 89 percent of U.S. troops reported they were condent with the M4, but they had a range of problems.
34 percent of users said the handguards rattled and became excessively hot when ring, and 15 percent had trouble
zeroing the M68 Close Combat Optic. 35 percent added barber brushes and 24 percent added dental picks to their
cleaning kits. There were many malfunctions, including 20 percent of users experiencing a double feed, 15 percent
experiencing feeding jams, and 13 percent saying that feeding problems were due to magazines. 20 percent of users
were dissatised with weapon maintenance. Some had trouble locking the magazine into the weapon and having to
chamber a round in order to lock the magazine. Soldiers also asked for a larger round to be able to kill targets with one
shot. New optics and handguards made usage of the M4 easier, and good weapon maintenance reduced the number
of misfeeds.* [47]

288

25.4.2

CHAPTER 25. M4 CARBINE

2006 CNA report

In December 2006, the Center for Naval Analyses released a report on U.S. small arms in combat. The CNA conducted surveys on 2,608 troops returning from combat in Iraq and Afghanistan over the past 12 months. Only troops
who red their weapons at enemy targets were allowed to participate. 917 troops were armed with M4 Carbines, making up 35 percent of the survey. 89 percent of M4 users (816 troops) reported they were satised with the weapon.
90 percent (825 troops) were satised with handling qualities such as handguards, size, and weight. M4 users had the
highest levels of satisfaction with weapon performance, including 94 percent (862 troops) with accuracy, 92 percent
(844 troops) with range, and 93 percent (853 troops) with rate of re. Only 19 percent of M4 users (174 troops)
reported a stoppage, while 82 percent of those that experienced a stoppage said it had little impact on their ability to
clear the stoppage and re-engage their target. 53 percent of the M4 users (486 troops) never experienced failures of
their magazines to feed. 81 percent (743 troops) did not need their ries repaired while in theater. 80 percent (734
troops) were condent in the M4's reliability, dened as level of soldier condence their weapon will re without
malfunction, and 83 percent (761 troops) were condent in its durability, dened as level of soldier condence their
weapon will not break or need repair. Both factors were attributed to high levels of soldiers performing their own
maintenance. 54 percent of M4 users oered recommendations for improvements. 20 percent of requests were for
greater bullet lethality, and 10 percent was better quality magazines, as well as other minor recommendations. Some
M16 users expressed their desire to be issued the M4.* [48] Some issues have been addressed with the issuing of the
improved STANAG magazine in March 2009,* [49]* [50] and the M855A1 Enhanced Performance Round in June
2010.* [51]

25.4.3

2007 dust test

In the fall 2007, the Army tested the M4 against three other carbines in "sandstorm conditionsat Aberdeen Proving
Ground, Maryland: the Heckler & Koch XM8, Fabrique Nationale de Herstal SOF Combat Assault Rie (SCAR)
and the Heckler & Koch HK416. Ten of each type of rie were used to re 6,000 rounds each, for a total of 60,000
rounds per rie type.* [52] The M4 suered far more stoppages than its competitors: 882 stoppages, 19 requiring
an armorer to x. The XM8 had the fewest stoppages, 116 minor stoppages and 11 major ones, followed by the
FN SCAR with 226 stoppages and the HK416 with 233.* [53]* [54] The Army was quick to point out that even with
863 minor stoppagestermed class onestoppages which require 10 seconds or less to clear and class two
stoppages which require more than ten seconds to clearthe M4 functioned well, with over 98 percent of the 60,000
total rounds ring without a problem. The Army said it planned to improve the M4 with a new cold-hammer-forged
barrel to give longer life and more reliable magazines to reduce the stoppages. Magazine failures caused 239 of the
M4's 882 failures. Army ocials said the new magazines could be combat-ready by spring if testing went well.* [55]
The Army began issuing an improved STANAG magazine in March 2009.* [49]* [50] The Army claimed that the M4
only suered 296 stoppages, and that the high number reported could be attributed to discrepancies in the scoring
process. If a certain number of malfunctions were found to be the result of a broken part, some of the stoppages
counted could be eliminated in the nal report. Colt also claimed that the testing conditions were unfair to the M4.
Factors including the M4s used being taken from the Army inventory while the other ries were provided directly from
the manufacturers, and the carbine's burst re operation when the others had fully automatic ring modes brought
the validity of the results into question.* [56] There were three extreme dust tests performed in 2007. In the Summer
2007 test, the M4 carbine stopped 882 times. The Fall 2007 results were very dierent from the other two tests; the
M4 carbine had 148 class 1 stoppages due to rie malfunctions and 148 class 1 stoppages due to magazine stoppages.
The full-size M16 rie had a total of 61 stoppages during the same extreme dust test.* [57]

25.4.4

Reliability

In early 2010, two journalists from the New York Times spent three months with soldiers and Marines in Afghanistan.
While there, they questioned around 100 infantrymen about the reliability of their M4 Carbines, as well as the M16
rie. Troops did not report to be suering reliability problems with their ries. While only 100 troops were asked,
they fought at least a dozen intense engagements in Helmand Province, where the ground is covered in ne powdered
sand (called moon dustby troops) that can stick to rearms. Weapons were often dusty, wet, and covered in
mud. Intense reghts lasted hours with several magazines being expended. Only one soldier reported a jam when
his M16 was covered in mud after climbing out of a canal. The weapon was cleared and resumed ring with the next
chambered round. Furthermore, a Marine Chief Warrant Ocer reported that with his battalion's 700 M4s and 350
M16s, they've had no issues.* [58]

25.5. TRADEMARK ISSUES

289

The reliability of the M4 has increased as the design was upgraded. In 1990, the M4 was required to re 600 mean
rounds between stoppages using M855 ammunition. In 2013, the current M4A1 version can re 1,691 mean rounds
between stoppages using M855A1 ammunition.* [59]

25.4.5

Gas piston

Complicating the Army search for higher reliability in the M4 is a number of observations of M4 gas piston alternatives
that suer unintended design problems. The rst is that many of the gas piston modications for the M4 isolate the
piston so that piston jams or related malfunction require the entire weapon be disassembled, such disassembly cannot
be performed by the end user and requires a qualied armorer to perform out of eld, whereas any malfunction with
the direct-impingement system can be xed by the end user in eld. The second is that gas piston alternatives use
an o-axis operation of the piston that can introduce carrier tilt, whereby the bolt carrier fails to enter the buer
tube at a straight angle, resulting in part wearing. The third is that the use of a sound suppressor results in hot gases
entering the chamber, regardless of a direct-gas impingement or gas piston design choice. The gas-piston system
also causes the rearm to become proprietary to the manufacturer, making modications and changes with parts
from other manufacturers dicult.* [18]* [60] The argument for a gas piston is that it would reduce fouling; while the
argument against it is that it would increase weight and reduce accuracy. The Enhanced M4 uses an articulating link
piston operating system. An array of rearms accessory makers have oered gas piston conversion kits. The claimed
benets include superior reliability and performance and elimination of carrier tilt.

25.5 Trademark issues


The M4 was developed and produced for the United States government by Colt Firearms, which had an exclusive
contract to produce the M4 family of weapons through 2009. However, a number of other manufacturers oer M4like rearms. Colt previously held a U.S. trademark on the termM4.* [61] Many manufacturers have production
rearms that are essentially identical to a military M4, but with a 16barrel. The Bushmaster M4 Type Carbine
is a popular example. Civilian models are sometimes colloquially referred to as M4gery(/mfrdri/,* [62] a
portmanteau of M4and forgery). Colt had maintained that it retains sole rights to the M4 name and design.
Other manufacturers had long maintained that Colt had been overstating its rights, and that M4had now become
a generic term for a shortened AR-15. In April 2004, Colt led a lawsuit against Heckler & Koch and Bushmaster
Firearms, claiming acts of trademark infringement, trade dress infringement, trademark dilution, false designation
of origin, false advertising, patent infringement, unfair competition, and deceptive trade practices. Heckler & Koch
later settled out of court, changing one product's name from HK M4to HK416. However, on December
8, 2005, a District court judge in Maine granted a summary judgment in favor of Bushmaster Firearms, dismissing
all of Colt's claims except for false advertising. On the latter claim, Colt could not recover monetary damages. The
court also ruled that M4was now a generic name, and that Colt's trademark should be revoked.* [63]

25.6 Users

Albania:Used only by Albanian Land Force 2015


Afghanistan: Used only by Afghan Army commandos.* [64]* [65] M4s sold as part of a 2006 Foreign
Military Sales package.* [66] Additional M4s sold as a 2008 Foreign Military Sales package.* [67]

Australia: Used by the Special Operations Command, Clearance Divers.* [68] and Police Tactical Groups* [69]

Bosnia & Herzegovina: M4A1s used by the military and air guard units.* [67]

Bangladesh: Used by Bangladesh Paracommandos, Dhaka Metropolitan Police SWAT teams and Special
Warfare Diving And Salvage* [70]* [71]

Bahrain: M4A1s sold as a 2008 Foreign Military Sales package.* [67]

Belize: M4s/M4A1s sold as part of a 2006 Foreign Military Sales package.* [66]

Brazil: Used by Military Police of Rio de Janeiro State,* [72] the Brazilian Federal Police and Special
Forces of the Brazilian Army and Brazilian Navy.* [73]

290

CHAPTER 25. M4 CARBINE

Canada: C8 rie.* [74]

Cameroon: Sent as support against the Boko Haram

Croatia: User since 2003, several hundred purchased for Croatian ISF contingent as well as special forces
in Croatia.* [75]

Czech Republic: Bushmaster M4A3 B.M.A.S. is used by (601st Special forces group, Military police,
43rd Airborne mechanized battalion) of Czech Army.* [76]

Colombia: M4A1s as part of a 2008 Foreign Military Sales.* [67]

Ecuador: M4s sold as a 2008 Foreign Military Sales package.* [67]

El Salvador: M4s sold as part of a 2007 Foreign Military Sales package.* [77] Additional M4s sold as a
2008 Foreign Military Sales package.* [67]

Georgia: Bushmaster AR-15 and M4 for police and military. Producing own analogue variant of the
M4A1 (G5 rie) by Scientic Technical Center Delta.* [78]* [79]* [80]

Greece: Used by EKAM, All SF Army, Navy, Airforce units.* [81]

Hong Kong: KAC SR-16 by Special Duties Unit of the Hong Kong Police Force* [82]

Hungary: M4A1 SOPMOD by Hungarian MH 34th Bercsnyi Lszl special operation battalion * [83]

India: M4A1s as part of a 2008 Foreign Military Sales.* [67] M4A1 is used by the Mizoram Armed Police,
and Force One of the Mumbai Police.* [84]* [85]

Indonesia: Used by Detachment 88 Counter-terrorism Police Squad operators.* [86] Also used by Komando
Pasukan Katak (Kopaska) tactical diver group and Komando Pasukan Khusus (Kopassus) special forces group.* [87]

Iraq: Used by the Iraqi Army.* [88] Main weapon of the Iraqi National Counter-Terrorism Force.* [89]

Israel: Sold as part of a January 2001 Foreign Military Sales package to Israel.* [90]

Italy: Special Forces* [91] and Carabinieri Regiment Tuscania* [92]

Jamaica: M4s sold as part of a 2007 Foreign Military Sales package.* [77]

Japan: M4A1s as part of a 2008 Foreign Military Sales package.* [67] M4A1 SOPMOD ries are in use
by the Japanese Special Forces Group.* [93]

Jordan: M4s sold as part of a 2007 Foreign Military Sales package.* [77] Additional M4s sold as a 2008
Foreign Military Sales package.* [67]

Kenya: Kenyan special forces were observed using M4s while responding to the 2013 Westgate centre
shooting.* [94]

Kurdistan Peshmerga

Kuwait:* [95]* [96]

Lebanon: M4 components being sold to Lebanese special forces.* [97] M4/M4A1s sold as a 2008 Foreign
Military Sales package.* [67]

Libya: Newly reformed Public Security - " interior ministry forces seen with M4s in
Tripoli* [98]

Macedonia: M4s sold as a 2008 Foreign Military Sales package.* [67]


Malaysia: Made under license by SME Ordnance Sdn Bhd.* [99] Used by special forces of the Malaysian
Armed Forces, along with special forces of the Royal Malaysia Police.* [100] Standard issue rie of the Malaysian
Armed Forces

25.6. USERS

Nepal: Sold as part of a 2005 Foreign Military Sales package.* [101]

New Zealand: Used by NZSAS operators and the police Special Tactics Group.* [102]* [103]

Pakistan: M4A1 variant used by Special Services Group of the Pakistan Army.* [104]* [105]

Panama: M4A1s sold as a 2008 Foreign Military Sales package.* [67]

Philippines: M4/M4A1s sold as a 2008 Foreign Military Sales package.* [67] Two variants of the M4
carbine are made by Floro International Corporation, consisting of the M4A1 5.56mm Rie and the M4A1
Model-C 5.56mm Rie.* [106]* [107] The Philippines ordered 63,000 R4 ries from Remington Arms; these
are to be used by the Philippine Army and the Philippine Marine Corps.* [108]* [109]

Poland: Used by Wojska Specjalne military unit JW Grom.* [110]

Portugal: Used by Marines special forces DAE (Destacamento de Aces Especiais).* [111]

Serbia: Used by various police units.* [112]

Singapore: Used by the Singapore Armed Forces Commando Formation.* [113]

Taiwan: Used by Republic of China Army and National Police Agency* [114]

Thailand: M4A1s sold as part of a 2006 Foreign Military Sales package.* [66]

Tonga: M4/M4A1s sold as a 2008 Foreign Military Sales package.* [67]

Turkey: Produced under licence by Sarslmaz Arms.* [2] Used by Turkish Armed Forces* [115]

United Arab Emirates: Purchased 2,500 M4 carbines in 1993.* [116]

291

United Kingdom:Used by Special Air Service (SAS). The M4A1 SOPMOD carbines also in use by the
22nd SAS.* [117]

United States* [74]

Yemen: M4s sold as part of a 2006 Foreign Military Sales package.* [66]

25.6.1

U.S. civilian ownership

Sales of select-re or full automatic M4s by Colt are restricted to military and law enforcement agencies. Only under
special circumstances can a private citizen own an M4 in a select-re or fully automatic conguration. While many
machine guns can be legally owned with a proper tax stamp from the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and
Explosives, an amendment to the Firearm Owners Protection Act of 1986 barred the transfer to private citizens of
machine guns made or registered in the U.S. after May 19, 1986. The only exception was for Special Occupational
Taxpayers (SOT): licensed machine gun dealers with demonstration letters, manufacturers, and those dealing in exports and imports. As such, only the earliest Colt M4 prototypes built prior to May 19, 1986 would be legal to own
by civilians not in the categories mentioned. The modular nature of the AR15 design, however, makes it a relatively
simple matter to t M4-specic components to a pre-'86select-re AR15 lower receiver, producing an M4
in all but name.
Civilian replicas of the M4 typically have 16 inch barrels (or standard 14.5 inch M4 barrels with permanently attached
ash suppressors to bring the eective length to 16 inches) and are semi-automatic only to meet the legal denition of
a rie under Title I (Gun Control Act). The M4 falls under restrictions of Title II (National Firearms Act): the 14.5
inch barrel makes the M4 a Short Barrel Rie (SBR) and select re capability (semi-automatic and full automatic or
burst-automatic) makes the M4 a machinegun. Civilian-legal M4s are also popular with police as a patrol carbine.

292

CHAPTER 25. M4 CARBINE

25.7 See also


Comparison of the AK-47 and M16
Heckler & Koch HK416, a competing M4-based weapon
SIG SG 516, an M16-based rie
LWRC M6, a competing M4-based weapon
Brown Enhanced Automatic Rie, a competing M16/M4-based weapon
R5 RGP, an AR-15 variant

25.8 References
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294

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[104] Pakistan Army.
[105] U.S. Army Weapon Systems Handbook 2012. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
[106] M4A1 5.56MM RIFLE. Floro International Corporation. Retrieved 2011-03-08.
[107] M4A1 Model-C 5.56MM RIFLE. Floro International Corporation. Retrieved 2011-03-08.
[108] Philippine Army acquires R4 carbines. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
[109] US-based Remington wins bid to supply 50,000 M4 ries for AFP, company rep says. Interaksyon.com. Retrieved
May 4, 2013.
[110] Sebastian Miernik. "//- Strona powicona Wojskowej Formacji Specjalnej GROM -//". Grom.mil.pl. Retrieved 2010-0830.
[111] Portugal Destacamento de Aes Especiais (DAE)". Tropaselite.t35.com. Retrieved 2010-08-30.
[112] Kalibar | Tekst. Kalibar.rs. Retrieved 2010-08-30.
[113] Singapurske Specijalne Postrojbe (in Croatian). Hrvatski Vojnik Magazine. Retrieved 2009-10-25.
[114] . Ptpolice.gov.tw (2007-01-29). Retrieved on 2011-09-27.
[115] Colt M4 Carbine - Assault Carbine - History, Specs and Pictures - Military, Security and Civilian Guns and Equipment
. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
[116] Daniel Watters. The 5.56 X 45mm: 19901994. Retrieved 2009-03-25.
[117] Writer, Sta (December 20, 2014). SAS Weapons (Special Air Service)". Military Factory. Retrieved 2015-02-18.

25.9 External links


Colt M4's Law Enforcement page and Colt M4's Military page
US Army M4 fact le
The AR-15/M16 Magazine FAQ
U.S. Army Won't Field Rie Deemed Superior to M4
Online Army Study Guide

Chapter 26

M40 recoilless rie


The M40 recoilless rie is a lightweight,* [3] portable, crew-served 105 mm weapon intended primarily as an antitank weapon made in the United States. The weapon is commonly described as being 106 mm, but it is in fact 105
mm; the 106 mm designation was designed to prevent confusion with the incompatible 105 mm ammunition from the
failed M27.* [4] It could also be employed in an antipersonnel role with the use of the antipersonnel-tracer echette
round. It can be red primarily from a wheeled ground mount. The air-cooled, breech-loaded, single-shot rie red
xed ammunition. It was designed for direct ring only, and sighting equipment for this purpose was furnished with
each weapon.
The M27 recoilless rie was a 105-mm weapon developed in the early 1950s and elded in the Korean War. Although
a recoilless rie of this caliber had been a concept since the Second World War, the weapon was hurriedly produced
with the onset of the Korean War. The speed with which it was developed and elded resulted in problems with
reliability caused by trunnions that were mounted too far to the rear. The M27 was also considered too heavy by the
U.S. Army and had a disappointing eective range due to the lack of a spotting rie. Taking the M27 as a the basis
for a new design, the Army developed an improved version of the M27 that was in 1955 type-designated the M40
106-mm recoilless rie.* [5] Originally along with its type-designation it was also given the ocial name BAT for
Battalion Anti-Tank gun, but that was soon dropped.* [6] Although unsuitable for military purposes, M27 recoilless
ries were used to trigger controlled avalanches at ski resorts and mountain passes in the United States.* [7]
The M40 primarily saw action during the Vietnam War and was later replaced by the BGM-71 TOW anti-tank missile
system. The weapon was also used by anti-communist forces in Angola mounted on Land Rovers.

26.1 Description
The M40 is shaped like a long tube with an M8 0.50 cal spotting rie above. The spotting rie res a round whose
trajectory closely matches that of the 106 mm round and gives o a pu of smoke on impact with the target. On the
left hand side, there is an elevating wheel, in the centre of which is the trigger wheel used to ne adjust the elevation
and at the same time ring the spotting rie when pulled, and the gun when pushed. The mounting is a tripod, but
the front leg has a castoring wheel. On top of the mount is a traverse wheel. On the centre of the traverse wheel is a
locking wheel, when the wheel is down, the rie is locked in traverse, and can only be moved right and left with the
traverse wheel. When the wheel is raised, the rie can be traversed by hand. Austria produced a two-wheeled mount
for the M40.
The whole mounting can be placed on an M151 Jeep for mobile use. It has also been mounted on Willys Jeep M
38A1 Land Rover Defenders, M113s, Mercedes-Benz G-Wagen, HMMWVs, Toyota Land Cruisers, AIL Storms
and M274 Mechanical Mules. They were also used on US Navy minesweepers (MSO) during Operation Market
Time in Vietnam.
A special vehicle called Ontos carried six M40s. A version specic to the T195E5 mount, the M40A1C, was used.
It was used only by the U.S. Marine Corps. Japan produced a self-propelled gun called the Type 60 which carried
two side by side. Some Pakistani M113s have a dual mounting.
The M40 was a very successful export item and continues to be used by South Korea (ROK), Ecuador, Egypt, Estonia,
Greece, Honduras, Iran, Israel, Lebanon, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, the Philippines, Taiwan (Republic of China
Marine Corps), Turkey, Colombia, Cambodia, Vietnam, Venezuela and many others, as well as anti-government
296

26.2. AMMUNITION

297

forces in the Libyan Civil War and Syrian civil war.* [8]
In the period 1958 - 1990 the antitank companies of the Swiss Army Infantry Regiments were equipped with 12 M40
guns.
It is manufactured in Iran by Defense Industries Organization as the ANTI-TANK GUN 106.* [9]

26.2 Ammunition
Ammunition for the 105 mm rie was issued as one-piece xed cartridges. The termxedmeans that the projectile
and the cartridge case are crimped together. This ensures correct alignment of the projectile and the cartridge case.
It also permits faster loading because the projectile and the cartridge case are loaded as one unit. The rear end of
the cartridge case is perforated, to allow the propellant gas to escape through the vented breech, thus neutralizing
recoil. Most projectiles (except HEAT) used are pre-engraved, that is, the rotating bands are cut to engage the ried
bore.* [10] If the round was not rotated slightly when loading the M40 it could result in jamming in the breach.
Types of ammunition included HEAT, High Explosive Plastic-Tracer (HEP-T), canister, High Explosive Anti Personnel, and the M368 dummy round which could not be red and was used for crew drill. The original U.S. HEAT
round penetrated more than 400 mm of armor. Near the end of the M40's service life, both Austria and Sweden
produced HEAT rounds for the weapon capable of penetrating more than 700 mm of armor.* [11]
The ammunition for the 0.50 cal spotting rie is not .50 BMG. The round used is a special round designed to simulate
the ight path of the 105 mm ammunition.
Although the spotting rie could conceivably be used in an antipersonnel role, historical U.S. military doctrine strongly
discouraged this use. This limitation was entirely tactical in nature, having been intended to help conceal the vulnerable M40 and its crew from the enemy before the main anti-tank gun could be red; however, this restriction
is believed to be the source of a long-standing misconception that the laws of war restrict the use of .50-caliber
projectiles against enemy personnel more generally.* [15]

26.3 Users

Australia

Austria

Bangladesh

Brazil

Cambodia

Canada

Chile

Colombia

Cyprus

Denmark

Djibouti

Dominican Republic

Egypt

Ecuador

El Salvador* [16]

Estonia* [17]

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CHAPTER 26. M40 RECOILLESS RIFLE

Greece

Honduras

India

Iran

Israel

Italy (former operator)

Japan

Jordan

Lebanon

Libya

Luxembourg

Malaysia

Mexico

Morocco

Myanmar Used for bunker busting and anti-personnel/infantry support role in counter-insurgency campaigns.

New Zealand

Nicaragua

Pakistan

Philippines

Portugal

Rhodesia

South Africa: South African National Defence Force.* [1]

South Korea

Switzerland

Syria: Videos show Syrian rebels (Free Syrian Army) operating and ring M40 Recoilless Ries.

Taiwan

Thailand

Tunisia

Turkey

Uruguay

United States

Venezuela

Vietnam

26.4. GALLERY

299

26.4 Gallery
Greek Mercedes 240G M40 carrier. Note the metal guard to protect the engine from the gun blast.
Firing the gun from a Mercedes 240G
An ex-Australian Army M40 recoilless rie mounted on a Land Rover on display in the grounds of the Australian War Memorial
A rather uncommon use of the M40 on a Greek fast patrol boat, circa 1982
The same Greek fast patrol boat
U.S. Marines manning an M40 during the Battle of Hu in the Vietnam War.

26.5 See also


List of U.S. Army weapons by supply catalog designation (SNL C-93)

26.6 References
26.6.1

Notes

[1] Anti Tank weapons. ocial web site of the South African army. Retrieved 2011-05-08.
[2] U.S. Army Technical Manual 43-0001-28, p. 5-27, April 1994.
[3] Bob Stoner GMCM (SW) Ret. (2005). "M40A1 106MM Recoilless Rie with M8C Spotting Rie".
[4] M40 106mm Recoilless Rie. globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2012-09-20.
[5] John Weeks, Men against tanks, New York: Mason/Charter, 1975.
[6] Antitank Rie Mounted On Jeep Popular Mechanics, March 1955, p. 147.
[7] Comment by Ken Estes at tanknet.org.
[8] McNally, Brendan (May 31, 2013). Ancient U.S. Weapon Makes a Surprise Reappearance in Syria. Wired.
[9] ANTI-TANK GUN 106
[10] M40 106mm recoilless Rie. M40 106mm Recoilless Rie. Global Security. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
[11] JAH, pp. 140-141.
[12] Probably defeats ~ 200 mm of armor.
[13] JIW.
[14] After penetrating explosive reactive armor.
[15] Parks, Maj W. Hays (January 1988). Killing A Myth. Marine Corps Gazette. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
[16] Army Recognition Alain Servaes. Index of military army equipment from Salvadoran Army of El Salvador Index des
quipements militaires de l'arme du Salvador Salvadorienne. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
[17] sodur.com. Retrieved 13 February 2015.

26.6.2

Bibliography

(JAH) Terry Gander and Ian Hogg (ed.), Jane's Ammunition Handbook 1994, Coulsdon: Jane's Information
Group Ltd., 1993.
(JIW) Richard Jones and Leland Ness (ed.), Jane's Infantry Weapons 20072008, Coulsdon: Jane's Information
Group Ltd., 2007.

300

26.7 External links


globalsecurity.org
M40 repair manual
BRL report on M40 accuracy
M40 in Canadian service

CHAPTER 26. M40 RECOILLESS RIFLE

Chapter 27

Mauser
For other uses, see Mauser (disambiguation).
Mauser is a German arms manufacturer of a line of bolt action ries and semi-automatic pistols since the 1870s.
Mauser designs were built for the German armed forces. Since the late 19th and early 20th centuries, military Mauser
designs were also exported and licensed to a number of countries, as well as being a popular civilian rearm.
Mauser continued to make sporting and hunting ries in the late 20th century. In 1995 the company became a
subsidiary of Rheinmetall called Mauser-Werke Oberndorf Waensysteme GmbH, before being acquired in 2000
from Luke & Ortmeier Group.
A division of the original company, Mauser Jagdwaen GmbH, was split o and, in 2000, sold to Luke & Ortmeier
Group. Mauser Jagdwaen continues making bolt action ries. The Mauser name has historically also been licensed
by other companies on intermittent occasions.

27.1 History
27.1.1

Early years

Peter Paul Mauser, often referred to as Paul Mauser, was born on 27 June 1838, in Oberndorf am Neckar, Wrttemberg.
His brother Wilhelm was four years older. Their father, Franz Andreas Mauser, was a gunsmith at the Wrttemberg
Royal Armory. The factory was built in an Augustinian cloister, a stout building ideal for arms production.* [1] Another son, Franz Mauser, travelled to America in 1853 with his sister and worked at E. Remington & Sons.* [2] Peter
Paul was conscripted in 1859 as an artilleryman at the Ludwigsburg arsenal, where he worked as a gunsmith. Based
on the Dreyse needle gun (Zndnadelgewehr), he developed a rie with a turn-bolt mechanism that cocked the gun
as it was manipulated by the user. The rie initially used a ring needle; a later version used a ring pin and a rearignition cartridge.* [3] The rie was shown to the Austrian War Ministry by Samuel Norris of E. Remington & Sons.
Norris believed the design could be adapted to convert Chassepot needle guns to re metallic cartridges. Shortly
thereafter, a partnership was formed in Oberndorf between Norris and the Mauser brothers.* [4] The partners went
to Lige in 1867, but when the French government showed no interest in a Chassepot conversion, the partnership was
dissolved. Paul Mauser returned to Oberndorf in December 1869, and Wilhelm arrived in April 1870.* [5]
Peter Paul and Wilhelm Mauser continued development of their new rie in Paul's father-in-law's home.* [5] The
Mauser rie was accepted by the Prussian government on 2 December 1871, and was accepted for service until 14
February 1872, after a requested design change to the safety lock.* [5] The Mauser brothers received an order for
3,000 rie sights, but actual production of the rie was given to government arsenals and large rms. The sights were
produced at the Xaver Jauch house starting 1 May 1872. After an order for 100,000 rie sights was received from
the Bavarian Rie Factory at Amberg, the Mauser brothers began negotiations to purchase the Wrttemberg Royal
Armoury. A delay in the purchase forced them to buy real estate overlooking the Neckar River Valley, where the
upper works was built that same year. A house in Oberndorf was also rented to fulll the Bavarian order.* [5]
301

302

CHAPTER 27. MAUSER

Acquisition of the Kniglich Wrttembergische Gewehrfabrik


The Kniglich Wrttembergische Gewehrfabrik was acquired on May 23, 1874, after an agreement between the
Wrttemberg government and the Mausers to produce 100,000 Model 71 ries. The partnership of Mauser Brothers
and Company was formed between the Wrttemberg Vereinsbank of Stuttgart and Paul and Wilhelm Mauser on
February 5, 1874. By 23 May 1874, the Mauser partnership had three factories in Oberndorf.* [6]
Wilhelm Mauser suered from health problems throughout his life, which were aggravated by his frequent business
travels. A combination of these led to his death on 13 January 1882.* [7] The partnership became a stock company
with the name of Waenfabrik Mauser on 1 April 1884.* [8] The shares held by the Wrttemberg Vereinsbank and
Paul Mauser were sold to Ludwig Lwe & Company on 28 December 1887, and Paul Mauser stayed as the technical leader.* [8] Ludwig Lwe & Company was fty per cent owner of Fabrique Nationale d'Armes de Guerre, a
company formed in 1889 to manufacture Mauser ries for the Belgian government.* [8] Deutsche Waen und Munitionsfabriken A.G. (DWM) was formed on 7 November 1896, as a merger of Ludwig Lwe & Company A.G.,
Deutsche Metallpatronenfabrik A.G., Rheinisch-Westflischen Powder Company, and Rottweil-Hamburg Powder
Company.* [9] Mauser A.G. was formed on 23 April 1897. After World War II, DWM was renamed IndustrieWerke Karlsruhe A.G. (IWK).* [9]

27.1.2

After 1940

In 1940 the Mauser Company was invited to take part in a competition to re-equip the German Army with a semiautomatic rie, the Gewehr 41. A number of impractical requirements were specied, including that the design should
not use holes drilled into the barrel to take o gas for the operating mechanism, thereby requiring mechanisms that
proved unreliable. Two designs were submitted, and the Mauser version, the G 41(M), failed miserably in testing.
It was canceled after a short production run. The resulting design did not see real success before it was switched
to a simpler gas-operated system in the Gewehr 43. During World War II, the Mauser factory in Oberndorf was
strategically bombed by the Allies, resulting in the deaths of 26 workers and the destruction of the company's power
plant. French forces entered Oberndorf (which they subsequently occupied for some time) on 20 April 1945 when
the town's mayor and planning committee surrendered without any resistance; no blood was shed there on that day.
After the war in Europe, the factory was briey put back in order to produce weapons for the now under-equipped
and exhausted French military. The plant was dismantled by the occupying forces for the purpose of war reparations,
most factory buildings (approximately 60% in total) were demolished and the records destroyed on orders of the local
French Army commander. For a number of years, Mauser Werke manufactured precision measurement instruments
and tools, such as micrometers. Edmund Heckler, Theodor Koch, and Alex Seidel, former Mauser engineers, saved
what they could and founded Heckler & Koch, which has since become Germany's main small-arms manufacturer.
Mauser continued to make hunting and sporting ries. In 1994, it became a subsidiary of Rheinmetall, a manufacturer
of autocannons such as the Mauser BK-27 and other munitions until 2004, when it was merged into Rheinmetall
Wae Munition GmbH. In 1999 the civilian manufacture of hunting, defense, and sporting ries were split o from
Rheinmetall.

27.2 Civilian market


Mausers were readily adapted as hunting ries; in Africa, safari ries were often made from Mausers. These ries were often rechambered in larger rounds up to and including .50 caliber (12.7 mm). The adaptations usually
consisted of shortening the foregrip and barrel, rechambering to accommodate popular British rounds, and minor
alterations to the action. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, companies that made alterations were generally Commonwealth-based. Several proprietary big game rounds were specically for hunting large and dangerous
game. Today, large and small bore Mauser-derived ries are made all over the world for the civilian market and are
popular with hunters.
Surplus military Mausers, many in mint condition, have also entered the civilian market, to be purchased by collectors
and gun owners. A considerable number of surplus Karabiner 98ks were available after World War II, and some were
used by Schultz & Larsen in Denmark as the basis for target ries. Some of these are still in competitive use, although
with the benet of new barrels.
The strong following enjoyed by surplus military Mausers is partly a testament to their reliability and quality of
manufacture. Additionally, the widespread availability and comparative low cost of surplus military ammunition has

27.2. CIVILIAN MARKET

303

Mauser K98K Stripper clip with 8x57mm rounds.

served to continue their use by shooting enthusiasts. That being said, vintage surplus ammunition usually requires
specialized cleaning regimens to prevent aggressive and rapid metal oxidation caused by corrosive salts (moisture
attracting) contained in their priming compounds. Care must be taken to thoroughly and promptly clean and neutralize
these salts after ring corrosive ammunition, lest the weapon suer metal and mechanical damage.
The rst Western-made handguns introduced into South Asia were made by the Mauser company, and the term has
entered the lexicon in India and the surrounding regions, to mean any heavy pistol.

27.2.1

Manufacturers

John Rigby & Company developed four distinct rounds for its Mauser safari big-game ries (.275 Rigby, .350
Rigby, .416 Rigby, and the .450 Rigby).
esk Zbrojovka manufactures various Mauser 98 variants, the most notable being the CZ 550 Safari Magnum,
the .375 H&H Magnum, and the .458 Lott.
SIG Sauer makes a Mauser M98 rie chambered in several medium and magnum chamberings and a M98
Safari rie, chambered in .416 Rigby, .450 Dakota, .458 Lott, and .500 Jery.
Zastava Arms manufactures several 98 Mauser variants, the best known of these being the LK M70 and M85
series, in various popular calibers ranging from .22250 to .458 Winchester Magnum. A number of the LK
M70 slightly modied versions have been widely sold in other countries.
Carl Gustav Sweden national armory took over the manufacturing of the M94/96 and the famous target ries
CG63 and CG68.
Husqvarna Vapenfabrik made M94-96, variant M38, M38-96, and many other civilian variations; Model 46
(46A,46B, and 46AN) in cal. 6.5X55, 9.3X57 and 9.3X62; Model 640 (646 6.5X55, 648 8X57IS, 649
9.3X62) without the thumb notch. They used FN action for later models 640 and 140 series. The cross-over

304

CHAPTER 27. MAUSER


model 1640 Improved Mauser (over the M96) is a cross between the M98 and M96. They also produced the
1900 actions.

Fabrique Nationale de Herstal made a M98 series, the early production being small ring and later large ring
of C(early) and H(late) design. The FN actions were also used by Sako of Finland as their Hi-Power
ries, by Browning on the early Medallions, as Husqvarna small ring model 146 and large ring late model 640,
and by Kodiak Arms, Connecticut. Many other arms manufacturers used the FN action.

27.3 Mauser rearms pre-1945


27.3.1

Ries

Mauser-Norris Model 67/69 rie


Between 1867 and 1869, the Mauser brothers and Samuel Norris developed a single shot bolt-action rie. The caliber
and number produced are not known. Ludwig Olson wrote that an example had at one time been on display at the
Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.* [10] The rie was patented in Austria by Samuel Norris on 24 December
1867. The bolt head did not rotate, a feature chosen by Paul Mauser to protect the heads of paper cartridges from
friction and possible damage while locking the bolt, and to provide a non-rotary seat for the extractor when metallic
cartridges were used.* [10]
An improved version of the rie used a coil spring wrapped around the ring pin and a safety and a cocking piece
attached to the rear of the ring pin.* [10]* [11] This rie was shown to the Prussian government, and after some
design changes to the safety, was accepted for service as the Infantry Rie Model 71 on 14 February 1872.* [10]
Often considered a close relative of the Chassepot rie, and borrowing Dreyse's turning-bolt action lock, still the
most innovative features of the new weapon were the work of Peter Paul Mauser.* [12]
Model 1871 and derivatives
The Mauser Model 1871 was the Mauser brothers' rst rie. It was adopted by the German Empire (except for the
Kingdom of Bavaria) as the Gewehr 71 or Infanterie-Gewehr 71 (I.G.Mod.71 was engraved on the ries). Production
began at the Oberndorf factory for the infantry version, which red a black powder 1160mm round from a long
850mm barrel. Shorter versions were introduced with the 700mm barreled jger and 500mm cavalry carbine.
Slightly modied versions were widely sold to other countries, ring bullets that would today be considered very
large, typically 9.5mm to 11.5mm. Such large bullets were necessary due to the limitations of black powder, which
hindered velocities. Serbia designed an improved version of the Model 71 in 10.15mm, made in Germany and called
the Mauser-Milovanovic M1878/80. In 1884 an 8-shot tubular magazine was added by Mauser to the Model 71/84.
The Turkish model 1887 rie was the rst of a series of ries produced for the Turkish Army. Its design echoed that
of the German Gewehr 71/84 service rie: a bolt-action weapon with a tubular magazine beneath the barrel. The
Turkish contract specied that if any other nation ordered Mauser ries with more advanced technology, that design
would be substituted for the Model 1887 to ll the remainder of the Turkish order. This clause was utilized after
Belgium adopted the Model 1889 rie.
857mm I and IS or JS cartridge
In 1886 the French Army introduced the Lebel Model 1886 rie, which used a smokeless powder cartridge. Smokeless
powder allowed smaller diameter bullets to be propelled at higher velocities, with accuracy to 1,000 yards (910 m),
making most other military ries obsolete. Like the Mauser 71/84, its disadvantage was a slow-to-load eight-round
tube magazine.
The German Army adopted the best features of the Lebel for the Gewehr 88, also known as the "Model 1888 commission rie", along with a modied Mauser action and a Mannlicher-style box magazine. The Karabiner 88 was the
carbine version. Both would be updated in the early 20th century and saw limited use in World War I. The Gewehr
88 was not actually a Mauser designed and engineered rie.
The Gewehr 88 was built for the new 857mm I with a 0.318-inch bullet. The I and IS designations are used to
dierentiate the two bullets used with the same basic cartridge. The actual diameter of the 8.1mm is 0.318898

27.3. MAUSER FIREARMS PRE-1945

305

inches. Commonly known today as the 8 mm Mauser I, it was used for later Mauser rie models. This was
not a Mauser designed and engineered cartridge. The 857mm I incorporated the advantages of smokeless powder
and higher velocity found in the Lebel. It was rimless, which allowed smoother feeding for both ries and machine
guns. The original bullet had a round nose and was relatively heavy by modern standards but was typical of early
smokeless powder small bore military designs. Several redesigns, including the adoption of the spitzer bullet of 196
grains weight, led to a change in the riing groove depth from .10mm to .15mm to solve problems brought about
by the greater velocity and the 857mm IS or 857mm JS 8.2mm or 0.323-inch bullet. This bullet, with a sharp
point and boat tail, brought the cartridge to its eventual potency. Only later .323 caliber versions of Gewehr 98 or
converted Gewehr 88 and Gewehr 98 ries could safely re the larger 8x57mm JS rounds.
The Mauser 857mm JS or JSR (8.2mm or 0.323-inch) cartridge cannot safely be red out of a rie designed for
857mm I (8.1mm or 0.318-inch). The increased pressure from the larger cartridge may cause a catastrophic failure
of the rearm. A qualied gunsmith can verify the correct chambering by slugging the barrel. The mark and caliber
applied by the proong house may also be utilized to properly identify the correct caliber of the rie.
The R included in this style of designations indicates a cartridge with a rim, which functions better in some types of
ries, especially drillings and other types of combination guns. These often have slightly lower power to match the
weaker actions present in some of these ries. Many such guns continued to use the smaller 0.318 diameter bullet
until this practice was outlawed by Hermann Gring in the early 1940s in his role as chief huntsman of the Third
Reich. Particular care is often taken to determine the actual caliber of such guns before ring them.

Models 1889/90/91 and Experimental Model 92


Main article: Mauser Model 1889
After the Mauser brothers nished work on the Model 71/84 in 1880, the design team set out to create a small caliber

Mauser Experimental Model 92 in caliber 8x58R. This rie took part in the rie trials that led to the Swedish Mauser.

repeater that used smokeless powder. Because of setbacks brought on by Wilhelm Mauser's death, they failed to have
the design completed by 1882, and the German Rie Test Commission (Gewehr-Prfungskommission) was formed.
The commission preferred to create their own design. Paul Mauser created two dierent variations of the same rie,
one with a stock strengthened with a barrel shroud and a traditional design following the layout of the 71 series in hope
he might be able to overturn the commission's decision, or at least sell his design to the Kingdom of Bavaria, which
adopted its own arms. The two ries became known as the 89 Belgian (with a barrel shroud) and the 91 Argentine
(with a 71 layout) Mausers, identical in their function and feed system. The main features were the ability to use
stripper clips to feed the magazine (a revolution in rate of re), and its rimless cartridge (7.65 Argentine), advanced
for the time.
The system proved impressive at the 1884 Bavarian Arms Trials. Both rearms were a success, but decision-makers
were not convinced that the stripper feed was superior to the en-bloc system employed by Mannlicher. In response,

306

CHAPTER 27. MAUSER

Mauser started small-scale production of the design in an eort to interest foreign nations, but failed to convince any
of the European major powers.
The Belgian attache, however, urged his government to contact Mauser, hoping the design might give them a chance
to found a domestic arms industry. The heavy-barreled Mauser with the barrel shroud resulted in the founding of
arms manufacturer FN Herstal. FN could not keep up with orders, so they outsourced production to the Birmingham
Small Arms Company in England.
The Belgians' talks with Mauser prompted the Ottoman Empire to consider the design. In the end they ordered
their own simpler variation of the 91 Argentine Mauser known as the 90 Turkish. While this was taking place, the
Argentine Small Arms Commission contacted Mauser in 1886 to replace their Model 71s; since they wished to keep
retraining of their armed forces to a minimum, they went for the Mauser 91. As with other early Mausers, most such
arms were made by the Ludwig Loewe company, who in 1896 joined with other manufactures to form Deutsche
Waen und Munitionsfabriken.
All variations used the same 7.65 mm round-nosed cartridge. Many parts were interchangeable, with the exception
of the bayonets of the 89 and 90/91; the barrel shroud made the bayonet ring too wide. The 89 Mauser rejected
by Germany in 1884 entered service in 1940 with the second-line units of Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, and
Belgium.
A non-rotating Mauser claw extractor was introduced in the Model 92. Several variations of this model participated
in rie trials for the U.S. Army of that year; the Norwegian Krag-Jrgensen rie was ultimately chosen.
Spanish M93
The Spanish Model M1893 is commonly referred to as the Spanish Mauser, though the model was adopted by
other countries in other calibers, most notably the Ottoman Empire. The M93 introduced a short staggered-column
box magazine as standard, holding ve smokeless 757mm Mauser rounds ush with the bottom of the rie, which
could be reloaded quickly by pushing a strip of rounds from the top of the open bolt. It still had only two locking
lugs.
The new 757mm round, which used a 173 gr (11.2 g) full metal jacket bullet developing 700 m/s (2,300 ft/s) from
a 29 inches (74 cm) barrel, became the standard infantry arm for the Spanish armed forces, as well as for the military
of several Latin-American nations. It is known as the 7mm Mauser.
The 1893 Mauser was used by the Spanish Army in Cuba against U.S. and Cuban insurrectionist forces. It gained
a deadly reputation particularly from the legendary Battle of San Juan Hill (1898), where only 750 Spanish regulars
signicantly delayed (but did not halt) the advance of 15,000 U.S. troops armed with a mix of outclassed .30-40
Krag-Jrgensen bolt-action ries and older single-shot, breech-loading Trapdoor Springeld ries, inicting 1,400
U.S. casualties in a matter of minutes. The Mauser's 7mm cartridge gave some 300 ft/s (91 m/s) higher velocity
and a resultant atter trajectory over the .30 Army cartridge used in the U.S. Krag-Jrgensen rie. This extended
the eective range of Spanish defensive re. The use of smokeless powder gave the Spanish a major advantage over
the single-shot, black powder Springeld that was issued to many U.S. troops.* [13] The M93's stripper clip system
allowed the Spaniards to reload far more quickly than could be done with the Krag, whose magazine had to be loaded
one round at a time.* [13] A U.S. Army board of investigation was commissioned as a direct result of this battle. They
recommended replacement of the Krag. By 1903, U.S. authorities had adopted the M1903 Springeld, which copied
the 1898 Mauser's bolt and magazine systems, along with a higher-velocity .30 caliber cartridge, the .30-03 (later the
more potent .30-06 Springeld).
The 1893 Mauser was also used by the Spanish Army in the Philippines against the Philippine Revolutionary Army
and U.S. forces.The main weapon of the new Filipino Army was the Spanish M93, also the standard infantry arm of
the Spanish, and the Remington Spanish rie.* [14]
During the 1899 Battle of Paye, U.S. Army major-general, Henry Ware Lawton, known for leading the expedition that
captured Geronimo, was in the midst of the ghting. A team of elite Filipino sharpshooters known as theTiradores
de la Muerte(marksmen of death) using Spanish M93 ries, set up position 300 yards (270 m) away, under
the command of a general named Licerio Gernimo. Having shrugged o cautionary warnings from his ocers,
Lawton walked up and down the line, rallying his men. Marcelo Bonifacio, a Filipino sharpshooter, shot Lawton and
killed him instantly. He was the highest ranking American ocer to fall in battle in either the Spanish-American or
Philippine-American wars.
The Serbian Mauser M1899 in 757mm is a variant of the M93, it was produced by Deutsche Waen und Munitionsfabriken from 1899 to 1906 and later by .W.G. from 1906 to 1910.* [15]

27.3. MAUSER FIREARMS PRE-1945

307

1893-95 Mauser rear sights

Serbian Mauser M1889 from the Swedish Army Museum.

Ottoman variant When the Ottoman Army learned about the new Spanish model of 1893, it ordered some
200,000 ries in the same conguration. Their ries were chambered for the 7.6553mm Argentine cartridge and
were identical to the Spanish model, except for a unique cartridge feed interruptor or magazine cuto, which permitted the feeding of single cartridges while keeping the magazine fully loaded. What distinguished the original
1893 and subsequent 1903 Ottoman Mauser was its tangent rear sight calibrated from 200 to 2,000 meters, which
was represented not by Arabic numerals like virtually all other ries, but instead by Eastern Arabic numerals; these
numerals would also be used on future Persian Mauser ries and carbines. Later (and most manufactured throughout
the decades of production) Turkish Mauser ries produced were tted with rear sights calibrated in standard Arabic
numerals. By the late 1930s, most all of these original ries still in Turkish hands were re-barreled and converted
to re the far more common and powerful 8mm Mauser. Even so, this remains a distinguishing feature of the few

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authentic 1893/1903 Ottoman Mauser riesthe ones still chambered in 7.65mm Argentinestill in existence from
that period.
Spanish M1916 rie The M1916 rie was introduced in 1916. It was a shortened version of the M1893 rie with
a straight stock chambered in 7mm Mauser which was a common round in use by the Spanish military. Many were
also converted into FR7 ries at the end of the 1950s by re-barreling them to accept the 7.6251mm CETME and
7.62x51mm NATO rounds * [16]* [17]* [18] for military training and Guardia Civil use.

Swedish carbine Model 1894

Model 1894 rie

Main article: Swedish Mauser

The armies of Brazil and Sweden were issued the Model 94. The similar Model 1895 was sold to Mexico, Chile,
Uruguay, China, Persia, and the South African states of Transvaal and the Orange Free State (Boers). A safety feature
oered by the Model 1895 was a low shoulder at the rear of the receiver, just behind the base of the bolt handle, which
would contain the bolt in the unlikely event that the front locking lugs sheared o due to excessive pressure. South
African Mausers were highly eective against the British during the Second Boer War;* [19] these proved deadly at
long ranges, prompting the British to design their own Mauser-inspired high-velocity cartridge and rie. These rare
Mauser carbines and riesespecially the Model 1895can be easily identied by the letters OVS(OranjeVrijstaat [Dutch forOrange Free State"]) either marked on the weapons' receiver ring and the stock directly below,
or otherwise carved into the right side of the buttstock. The British Pattern 1914 Eneld with a Mauser-style lug
might have replaced the Lee-Eneld, but the exigencies of World War I prevented this from happening. The LeeEneld continued to see service until it was replaced by a semi-automatic weapon after World War II. The Germans
had faced the U.S. M1917 rie during World War I, which was the Pattern 14 rie adapted to re the U.S. .30-06
cartridge of the American M1903 Springeld rie.
Model 1896
Main article: Swedish Mauser
On 3 November 1893, the United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway adopted the 6.555 mm cartridge. As a result,
the Swedes chambered their new service weapons, the m/94 carbine and m/96 rie, in this round. The rie action
was manufactured relatively unchanged from 1896 to 1944, and the m/94 Carbine, m/96 Rie, m/38 Short Rie, and
m/41 Sharpshooter models are known by collectors as Swedish Mausers. They are still sought after by military
service rie shooters and hunters. Initial production of the weapons was in Germany by Waenfabrik Mauser, with
the remainder being manufactured under license by Sweden's state-operated Bofors Carl Gustaf factory. The m/38
short rie was produced by Husqvarna; additional m/38s were converted from Model 96 ries.

27.3. MAUSER FIREARMS PRE-1945

309

Swedish rie Model 1896

Swedish steelis a term for the steel used by the German Mauser, and later by Swedish manufacturing facilities, to
make the m/96 ries. Swedish iron ore contains the proper percentages of trace elements to make good alloy steel.
Thus, though lacking the industrial base necessary for mass-producing steel and iron, the Swedish steel industry
developed a niche market for specialty high-strength steel alloys containing nickel, copper, and vanadium. Swedish
steels were noted for their strength and corrosion resistance and were especially suited for use in toolmaking, cutlery,
and rearms. When Mauser was contracted to fabricate the initial production runs of Swedish Mausers in Germany
due to production delays, Sweden required the use of Swedish steel in the manufacturing process. The Swedish
Ordnance Oce continued to specify the same Swedish steel alloy in Swedish-made Mausers until the last newproduction m/38 barrelled actions were completed in 1944.
Model 1898

Mauser Model 98

Main article: Gewehr 98


In 1898 the German Army purchased a Mauser design, the Model 98, which incorporated improvements introduced
in earlier models. The weapon ocially entered German service as the Gew. 98 on April 5, 1898. This remains by
far the most successful of the Mauser designs, helped by the onset of two world wars that demanded vast numbers of
ries.

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CHAPTER 27. MAUSER

Noticeable changes from previous Mauser rie models included better ruptured case gas venting, better receiver
metallurgy, and larger receiver ring dimensions for handling the pressures of the 8x57 cartridge. Mauser incorporated
a third safetylug on the bolt body to protect the shooter in the event that one or more of the forward locking
lugs failed. In 1905 the spitzer(pointed) round was introduced. This was in response to the French adoption of
a pointed and boat-tail bullet, which oered better ballistic performance. The bullet diameter was increased from
0.318 inches (8.1 mm) to 0.323 inches (8.2 mm). This improved round copied the pointed tip design instead of the
previous rounded nose prole. Pointed rounds give bullets a better ballistic coecient, improving the eective range
of the cartridge by decreasing aerodynamic drag.
Most existing Model 98s and many Model 88s were modied to take the new round, designated8x57 IS. Modied
Model 88s can be identied by an Son the receiver. Due to the possibility for overpressure from the undersize
barrel, the spitzer round cannot safely be used in unmodied guns, particularly with Model 88 ries.
Paul Mauser died on 29 May 1914, before the start of World War I that August. The war caused a spike in demand
for the company's ries. The 98 carbines were sold, as well as an experimental version with a twenty round, rather
than ve round, box magazine. The extended magazine was not well received, however.
A number of carbine versions known as Karabiner 98s were introduced and used in World War I. Some of these were
even shorter than the later K.98k. These carbines were originally only distributed to cavalry troops, but later in the
war to the special storm troop units as well.
G98 derivatives
Many military ries derive from the M98 design. Some of these were German-made by various contractors other
than Mauser:* [20]
M1902, M1924 & M1936 Mexican in 757mm
M1904 Brazilian in 757mm
M1904 Chilean in 757mm
M1904 Portuguese in 6.558mm Vergueiro
M1905 Turkish in 7.6553mm
M1906 Swedish in 6.555mm
M1909 Argentine in 7.6553mm
M1910 Serbian in 7x57mm
M1924 Chinese in 7.9257mm
M1943 Spanish short (not to be confused with the M93 Spanish Mauser) in 7.92x57mm manufactured in the
Spanish arsenals. Will have La Corunaor the Spanish Air Force Eagle stamped on the top of the receiver.
Virtually identical to the K98k.
The Mauser 1918 T-Gewehr was the world's rst anti-tank riethe rst rie designed for the sole purpose of
destroying armored targets. The weapon, essentially an enlarged G98, red 1392mm (.525-caliber) TuF (Tank und
Flieger,tanks and aeroplanes) semi-rimmed cartridges. In May 1918, the Mauser Company began mass-producing
the Mauser 13mm Tank Abwehr Gewehr Mod. 18 in Oberndorf am Neckar.
Following the collapse of the German Empire after World War I, many countries that were using Mauser models chose
to develop, assemble, or modify their own G98-action rie designs. The most prolic of them were the Czechoslovak
M1922 CZ 98 and M1924 CZ vz.24 and the Belgian Fabrique Nationale M1924 and M1930, all in 857mm.
The Belgians and Czechs produced and widely exported their Mausersin various calibers throughout the 1920s
and 1930s, before their production facilities were absorbed by Nazi Germany to make parts or whole ries for the
German Army. Strictly speaking, these were not Mauserries, as they were not engineered or produced by the
German company.
To take advantage of the widespread and popular German single-shot 8.1546mmR cartridge for use in a military
rearm, a modied Gewehr 98 referred to as a "Wehrmannsgewehr" was designed. These were made primarily as

27.3. MAUSER FIREARMS PRE-1945

311

single shots; some only had a wood block in the magazine space. These became the 1936 Olympic team ries for the
Germans.
An 8.1546R Mauser Wehrmannsgewehr
The top of the receiver on an 8.15x46r Wehrmannsgewehr
An 8x57mm JS Mauser standard model rie
As the restrictions on production were increasingly ignored by the Germans in the 1930s, a new Mauser, the Mauser
standard model, was developed from the rie-length Karabiner 98b. It was nominally intended for export and civilian
sales. While many standard model ries were indeed exported, it was meant primarily for use by the revived German
military. It rapidly evolved into the Karabiner 98 Kurz, which was adopted by Nazi Germany as the standard infantry
rie in 1935 and saw service until the end of World War II.
Type A, Model B, Model K, Armee-Model C, Africa Model
A series of very successful hunting ries were developed in the rst decades of the 20th century. The Special Rie
Type A was the top-of-the-line sporting rie of the early 20th century. The Model B (B for Bchse) and Model K
were sport ries oered in many congurations. The Model C, made from 1903 to 1930, was a cheap rie made to
accommodate a range of cartridges for hunting. The Mauser Africa Model, introduced around 1904 or 1905, was
used mainly by settlers in Africa.
Model M and model S
The Model M was introduced in 1914. A Model S (S for stutzen or short) was also oered.
Mauser 1925 Special range rie
The 1925 Special range rie was a commercial product introduced in 1925 and sold in the United States. It was
intended for high accuracy range shooting. The company also produced a .22 caliber training rie during this time
frame.
Karabiner 98k

Karabiner 98k in mint condition, made in 1940. From the collections of the Swedish Army Museum

312

CHAPTER 27. MAUSER

Main article: Karabiner 98k


The Karabiner 98kMauser(often abbreviatedK98korKar98k), adopted in the mid- 1930s, became the
most common infantry rie in service in the German Army during World War II. The design was developed from the
Karabiner 98b, one of the carbines developed from the Model 1898. The K98k was rst adopted by the Wehrmacht
in 1935 as their standard issue rie, with many older versions being converted and shortened.

Mauser M1916
The Mauser M1916, or Mauser selbstlade-karabiner (self-loading carbine), was a semi-automatic rie that used
a delayed blowback mechanism and fed from 25-round detachable magazine. The process of developing a semiautomatic rie cost Paul Mauser an eye when a prototype suered an out-of-battery detonation. The mechanism
was quite delicate, working reliably only when completely clean, which made the rie unsuitable for infantry use.
However, the Imperial German Flying Corps adopted the rie for its aircraft crews in 1915, and more generally
in 1916. Aerial combat provided the clean environment the rie required and its semi-automatic capability was an
advancement over bolt-action ries.
However, the rie had another aw; it was expensive to make. The air service turned to the Swiss-produced Mondragn
rie, which was tested by the army and though less accurate than Mauser's design, the rie was approximately three
times cheaper. The widespread adoption of machine guns then made all self-loading ries obsolete in the air service.

Gewehr 41

Gewehr 41 (Mauser version) semi-automatic rie

Main article: Gewehr 41


The Gewehr 41 ries, commonly known as the G41(W)" or G41(M)", were semi-automatic ries used by Nazi
Germany during World War II. By 1940 the Wehrmacht issued a specication to various manufacturers, and Mauser
and Walther submitted prototypes that were very similar. Both Gewehr 41 models used a mechanism known as the
Bangsystem (named after the designer of the M1922 Bang rie). In this system, gases from the bullet were trapped
near the muzzle in a ring-shaped cone, which in turn pulled on a long piston rod that opened the breech and re-loaded
the gun. Both models also included inbuilt 10-round magazines that were loaded using two of the stripper clips from
the Karabiner 98k, utilizing 7.9257mm Mauser rounds. This in turn made reloading relatively slow. The Mauser
design, the G41(M), failed as it, along with its G41(W) counterpart, suered from gas system fouling problems. Only
6,673 G41(M) ries were produced before production was halted, and of these, 1,673 were returned as unusable.

27.3. MAUSER FIREARMS PRE-1945

27.3.2

313

Pistols

C1896 Pistol
Main article: Mauser C96
Mauser branched out into pistol design in 1896, producing the C96, commonly known asbroomhandle,designed
by the three brothers Fidel, Friedrich, and Josef Feederle* [21] (often erroneously spelled Federle). All versions
used detachable shoulder stock holsters. Over a million C96s were produced between 1896 and the late 1930s.

Mauser 1910 and 1914 pocket pistols

Mauser factory, 1910

The 1910 was a small self-loading pistol chambered for .25 ACP (6.35 mm). It was introduced in 1910; an updated
model chambered for .32 ACP (7.65 mm) came out in 1914. Most of these were used by the Wehrmacht and the
Kriegsmarine. They were also sold commercially.

Mauser Model 1934 pocket pistol


This was a small pocket pistol chambered for .32 ACP (7.65mm) based on the earlier Model 1910/14. Model 1934
is virtually identical to the 1914 except for the grip, which has a more curved back. It was used by the Kriegsmarine
and was also sold commercially.

Mauser HSc
Main article: Mauser HSc
The Mauser HSc was a self-loading handgun introduced in the 1940s. It was a compact double action blowback
design in .32 ACP. Production ran from 1940 until the end of World War II, and in the 1960s and early 1970s. The
post-war models were also available in .380 ACP.

314

Mauser 1910

left: 7.65mm 1934 Model pocket pistol, right: Browning 9mm (for comparison)

CHAPTER 27. MAUSER

27.4. MAUSER FIREARMS AFTER THE SECOND WORLD WAR

315

27.4 Mauser rearms after the Second World War


Mauser was formally re-established in the 1950s.

27.4.1

1960s

A rie design by Walter Gehmann was purchased, and went into production in 1965 as the model 66. Some selfloading pistols were also oered, such as the Mauser HSc.
Model 66
Model 66 S
Model 66 P

27.4.2

1970s1990

Mauser SP66 sniper rie

Model 77
Model 86
Mauser SP66 a sniper rie based on the Model 66. A further upgraded model was the Mauser 86 SR.
Mauser Parabellum

27.4.3

19902004

In the 1990s Mauser was bought by Rheinmetall Berlin AG; the sale was completed in 1996. Rheinmetall Berlin AG
was renamed Rheinmetall AG in the same year. In 2000 the civilian gun maker was split o from the Rheinmetall
and sold to Luke & Ortmeier Group. The Mauser name was divided between the traditional civilian rie company
and a division of Rheinmetall.
Mauser SR 93 sniper rie

316

CHAPTER 27. MAUSER

Model 94
Model 96 / model 96 S a straight pull action rie
Mauser SR 97
In 2004 Mauser-Werke Oberndorf Waensysteme GmbH was incorporated into Rheinmetall Wae Munition GmbH,
along with several other companies.

27.5 Autocannons
Pre-World War II 20 mm FlaK 30/38 cannon
20 mm MG FF cannon - derivative in 1936 by Ikaria Werke Berlin of Swiss Oerlikon FF
20 mm MG 151 cannon/20
20 mm MG 213 cannon - developed during war but not put into production
30 mm MK 108 cannon developed in 1940v by Rheinmetall-Borsig
Post-World War II 27 mm BK-27 cannon
30 mm RMK30 cannon

27.6 See also


7.6553mm Argentine
757mm Mauser
9.3x62mm
Antique gun
Heym Express Magnum

27.7 Citations
[1] Smith 1990, pp. 1213.
[2] Olson 1976, pp. 13.
[3] Olson 1976, p. 3.
[4] Olson 1976, p. 4.
[5] Olson 1976, p. 5.
[6] Olson 1976, pp. 57.
[7] Smith 1990, p. 14.
[8] Olson 1976, p. 9.
[9] Olson 1976, p. 10.
[10] Olson 1976, p. 22.
[11] Smith 1990, pp. 5455.
[12] Smith 1990, p. 17.

27.8. SOURCES

317

[13] Sams 1898.


[14] Philippine-American War, 1899-1902. Retrieved 2012-01-28.
[15] Manowar. Serbian Mauser Rie M1899 Captured by Austro-Hungary. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
[16] Unmarked Model 1916's
[17] FR-7 and FR-8 rie (Spain)". Modern Firearms & Ammunition: Encyclopedia of rearms and ammunition of the XX
and XXI centuries. world.guns.ru.
[18] http://masterton.us/Gammo
[19] Venola 2010.
[20] Johnson, Melvin M., Jr. (1944). Ries and Machine Guns. New York: William Morrow & Company. p. 89.
[21] MauserGuns.com.

27.8 Sources
C96 Broomhandle. mauserguns.com. Retrieved May 7, 2012.
Olson, Ludwig Elmer (1976) [1950]. Mauser Bolt Ries (3rd ed.). Montezuma, Iowa: F. Brownell & Son.
ISBN 978-0-9767409-4-0.
Sams, Stanhope (August 1, 1898).The Krag-Jorgensen Gun: It Is Inferior In Many Respects To The Mauser
Used By The Spaniards. The New York Times. Retrieved May 8, 2012.
Smith, W.H.B. (1990) [1946]. Mauser Ries and Pistols. Prescott, Arizona: Wolfe Publishing Company.
ISBN 978-0-935632-94-1.
Venola, Richard (September 23, 2010). Plezier Mauser. Retrieved May 8, 2012.
Folleto descriptivo del Mosquetn Mauser 7,62, trasformado de 7 mm. 2nd ed. Madrid. 1969.

27.9 External links


The Model 1893/95 Boer ModelMauser, Paul Scarlata, shootingtimes.com
The formally Mauser branded autocannons and products
Persian Mauser
Zastava Arms
The Mauser Bolt Ries FAQ
M1878/80 Mauser Milovanovic
Luger Artillery and Mauser Parabellum
The website from Mauser-Waldeck Safes
Paul Mauser Archive web site by Mauro Baudino and Gerben van Vlimmeren.
Nazarian's Gun's Recognition Guide: A member of NZR Para (PMC) with a somewhat modied K98k
Nazarian's Gun's Recognition Guide FN 98 Manual (.pdf)

Chapter 28

Modern Sub Machine Carbine


The Modern Sub Machine Carbine (MSMC) is an Indian submachine gun designed by the Armament Research
and Development Establishment and manufactured by Ordnance Factory Tiruchirappalli of the Ordnance Factories
Board.* [2]* [3] It is also known as Joint Venture Protective Carbine (JVPC).* [4] It was developed for the Indian
Army, based on previous experience from the INSAS family of rearms.* [5] The gun is very lightweight and compact
compared to other Indian-designed weapons. It is chambered for the 5.5630mm MINSAS cartridge.* [6]
The MSMC was designed after the Indian Army's disappointment with the progress of a carbine version of the
INSAS rie. A variant called Excalibur was developed, but did not meet the requirements. The MSMC was designed
to rectify the shortcomings of the previous developments. Through various trials and improvements, the ARDE came
out with a grip-feeding, Uzi-like design that shortened the length of the weapon, making it more suitable for CQC
purposes. Later its ergonomics were improved, boosting its export potential. The weapon is said to be capable of
penetrating bullet-proof jackets.* [1] It was created as an o-shoot of the INSAS small arms program.* [2]

28.1 History
The MSMC originates from a project to develop a carbine weapon based on the INSAS rie. An INSAS carbine
did not materialize, however, as the powerful rounds used in the INSAS rie created excessive recoil for the smaller
carbine.* [7] It was decided to develop a new lightweight carbine that can t the requirement of various Indian security
forces.* [8] The rst trial was held in June 2006,* [9] another in late 2007 and nally one in January 2009.* [5] The
MSMC was showcased during the defense exhibition Defexpo 2010. The weapon underwent further trials between
April and June 2010.* [1] Among its major competitors is the IMI Tavor TAR-21,* [8] which is in service with some
Indian special forces units including the MARCOS and the Garud Commando Force.* [10]
There had been numerous delays in testing the MSMC for Indian Army trials, mostly due to the unclear requirements
needed.* [11] The nal version was provided to the Indian army for trials in August 2011 and the tests are supposed
to last 78 months before induction into service.* [12]

28.2 Design details


Following design from machine pistols like the Uzi, the MSMC has a pistol grip which allows the user to re it even
with one hand. This allows the insertion of 30-round MSMC magazines on the pistol grip. It has a retractable buttstock
and ambidextrous cocking levers on both sides of the MSMC,* [7] alongside the re selectors to suit individuals who
prefer to re the weapon from either the left or right shoulder located above the trigger.* [7] It has a picatinny railing
on the receiver to allow the installations of weapon sights like reex sights with iron sights built into the railing.* [7]
The weapon res in a gas operated mode, utilizing rotary bolt locking and a gas piston.* [7]
Like the Uzi, the MSMC is made up of stamped sheet metal while having polymer housing.* [7] An unusual element
in the design is the placement of the bayonet lug, located above the barrel just at the front of the receiver.* [7]
318

28.3. REFERENCES

319

28.3 References
[1] IANS (2010-02-17). New sub-machinegun can pierce bullet-proof jackets: DRDO. The Indian. Archived from the
original on 2012-01-21. Retrieved 2011-03-20.
[2] DRDO develops close-quarter combat guns for Army. Brahmand.com. 2009-10-13. Retrieved 2011-03-20.
[3] http://www.claws.in/1244/why-india-does-not-manufacture-carbines-its-soldiers-need-sanjay-sethi.html
[4] http://www.business-standard.com/article/news-ians/india-made-automatic-rifle-production-stuck-in-red-tape-115011100435_
1.html
[5] Ranjani Raghavan and Oinam Anand (2009-08-21). City institute ready with new gun for Army. Indian Express.
Retrieved 2011-03-20.
[6] Indian Army to Get Two New Ries. Army-Technology.com. 2010-12-07. Retrieved 2011-03-20.
[7] Max Popenker (2010). MSMC. Retrieved 2011-03-20.
[8] DRDO to display sub-machine carbine at Defexpo 2010. Defense World. Retrieved 2010-03-20.
[9] Daniel Watters (2011). The 5.56 X 45mm: 2006. Retrieved 2011-03-20.
[10] Israeli TAR-21 Tavor Assault Ries for Indian Navy Commandos. Bharat-Rakshak. 2011-01-12. Retrieved 201103-20.
[11] The Ghost Guns. Sandeep Unnithan. 2010-08-20. Retrieved 2011-03-20.
[12] Prasad Kulkarni (2011-08-27).ARDE develops nal version of modern carbine. Times of India. Retrieved 2012-01-21.

28.4 External links


Modern rearms - Modern Sub Machine Carbine / MSMC submachine gun (India)

Chapter 29

Multi Caliber Individual Weapon System


Multi Caliber Individual Weapon System (MCIWS) is the new assault rie developed by ARDE Pune of DRDO* [1]
and likely to be manufactured by OFT Trichy of OFB, India. It was rst seen at the DEFEXPO 2014 exhibition.* [2]
They are currently undergoing small arms trials* [1] with three prototype ries made for testing* [3] as a future replace
to the INSAS rie.* [4] Trials are expected to last for six to eight months in 2013.* [5]

29.1 Design
The assault rie is congured to re in 5.56 NATO, 7.62x39 and in 6.8 Remington SPC.* [2] Its design is inuenced
by both the AR-15 and the FN FNC.* [2] The barrel assembly appears to be based on the AK-47.* [6] The design
would allow soldiers to congure it according to the needs of the missions by changing rie barrels.* [3] The MCIWS
uses a gas operated short stroke piston design.* [6]
The rie would use 30-round plastic-type magazines.* [4] It would also be ambidextrous features, such as the charging
lever and magazine release.* [4]
The MCIWS would include an underbarrel grenade launcher to re airburst-type grenades.* [2] Various sights can be
mounted on the picatinny railing on the upper receiver.* [4]

29.2 References
[1] http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/DRDO-multi-calibre-guns-undergoing-trials/articleshow/17800129.cms?referral=
PM
[2] http://www.thefirearmblog.com/blog/2014/02/18/indias-prototype-mciws-rifle-detail/
[3] http://www.sakaaltimes.com/NewsDetails.aspx?NewsId=4995872956374916711
[4] http://ibnlive.in.com/blogs/sauravjha/2976/65064/a-new-year-for-drdo.html
[5] http://www.business-standard.com/article/news-ians/india-made-automatic-rifle-production-stuck-in-red-tape-115011100435_
1.html
[6] http://21stcenturyasianarmsrace.com/2014/03/01/the-assault-rifles-of-the-near-future-2-updated/

320

Chapter 30

NSV machine gun


For other uses, see NSV (disambiguation).
The NSV (Russian --) is a 12.7 mm caliber heavy machine gun of Soviet
origin, named after the designers, G. I. Nikitin (. . ), Y. S. Sokolov (. . ) and V. I. Volkov
(. . ). It was designed to replace the DShK machine gun and was adopted by the Soviet Army in 1971.
It is no longer being manufactured in Russia; the manufacturing license for the NSV ended up in Kazakhstan after
the break-up of the Soviet Union, but the new Kord machine gun has been developed instead and is used to replace
worn-out units. The NSV has been manufactured in Bulgaria, India, Poland and Yugoslavia under license.
The NSV weighs 25 kg, has a rate of re of 13 rounds per second, and an eective range of 1,500 meters. A fully
loaded ammunition belt with 50 rounds weighs 11 kg.
The NSVT version is used on the T-72, T-64 and T-80 tanks.

30.1 History
The Soviet Army began looking for a new heavy machine gun to replace its older SGM and DShK machine guns in
the early 1950s. The Soviet Army liked the idea behind the German MG-42; a versatile weapon used on a variety
of mounts to perform many dierent roles. Two Soviet weapon designers were asked to design one weapon each
utilizing the same principle.
Testing approved Mikhail Kalashnikov's solution; it was found to be more reliable and cheaper to manufacture than
the design of Grigory Nikitin and Yuri Sokolov. Kalashnikov's machine gun became the new standard machine gun,
and was named PK.
Nikitin's and Sokolov's design was however not forgotten. It was developed into the heavy NSV machine gun about
10 years later and selected in 1969 as the successor to the DShK/DShKM machine gun. It was accepted in service by
the Soviet Army in 1971. The machine gun was also license-manufactured in Bulgaria, India, Yugoslavia and Poland.
The Yugoslavian version of the NSVT is called the M87.
Production of the NSV has ended in Russia, and it is currently being replaced by the Kord heavy machine gun. The
Russian Army needed a more accurate heavy machine gun, and it has also been increasingly dicult to get hold of
spare parts. NSV production was located in Ukraine and in Kazakhstan and was disrupted by the end of the Soviet
Union.

30.2 Use in Finland


The NSV is called 12,7 Itkk 96 or 12,7 ilmatorjuntakonekivri 96 (and, in military slang, the itko) in Finland. It
is often used as a vehicle mounted machine gun, and can be seen on the Pasi armoured personnel carrier, the Nasu
transport vehicle and the Leopard 2R tank.
Due to its high rate of re, the NSV is intended to be used as a close-range anti-aircraft weapon against helicopters,
321

322

CHAPTER 30. NSV MACHINE GUN

UAVs and aircraft. In dismounted ground combat it is placed on a special mount.


The Finnish Navy also uses the NSV in the anti-aircraft role, where it complements other unguided anti-aircraft
weapons like the 23 ITK 95, Bofors 40 Mk3 or Bofors 57 Mk2 and Mk3.

30.3 Variants
12,7 Itkk 96: Finnish version, license built.
M87 NSVT: Serbian license built version by Zastava Arms. The M87 has seen use with the armies of the
former Yugoslav states.
NSW: Polish version, license built NSV.
WKM-B: Polish version adapted for NATO-standard .50 BMG ammunition.
KT-12,7: Ukrainian version.
MG-U: Bulgarian version

Polish NSV on an anti-aircraft mount

30.4 Users

Armenia

Bosnia & Herzegovina:

Bulgaria: Produced by Arsenal * [1]

Cyprus: Mounted and used on T-80U tanks.

Egypt: Mounted and used on T-80U tanks.

Finland* [2]

30.5. SEE ALSO

Georgia* [3]

India: Manufactured at Ordnance Factory Tiruchirappalli of the Ordnance Factories Board.* [4]* [5]

Iraq* [6]

Kazakhstan* [7]

Kuwait: Mounted and used on M-84 tanks* [8]

Macedonia: Used by Army of the Republic of Macedonia

Mauritius: Used on patrol craft.

Mongolia* [9]

Poland* [10]

Russia* [11]

Serbia: Manufactured at Zastava Arms. Copies were produced as the M02 Coyote* [12]

Soviet Union* [11]

Syria* [13]

Ukraine* [7]

Vietnam: Produced locally.* [14]

323

30.5 See also


List of rearms
List of Russian weaponry

30.6 References
Koll, Christian (2009). Soviet Cannon - A Comprehensive Study of Soviet Arms and Ammunition in Calibres
12.7mm to 57mm. Austria: Koll. p. 67. ISBN 978-3-200-01445-9.
[1] 12,7 mm Arsenal Multi-purpose Machine Gun MG-U. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
[2] Jane's armour and artillery, Volume 23, p. 450
[3] Georgian Army. Georgian Army. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
[4] OFT develops Gen-X weapons. www.oneindia.com. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
[5] Indian army seeks new heavy machine gun upi.com
[6] Bro strzelecka w WP na pocztku XXI wieku. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
[7] NSV - Weaponsystems.net. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
[8] http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/87/Kuwaiti_M-84.JPEG
[9] bmpd 72 70. Bmpd.livejournal.com (2012-09-23). Retrieved on
2013-06-04.
[10] Jane's armour and artillery, Volume 23, p. 450
[11] NSV-12,7 'Utes' world.guns.ru

324

CHAPTER 30. NSV MACHINE GUN

[12] Machine Gun M02 Coyote - 12.7x108 mm /.50 Browning. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
[13] | At the border of Jobar and Zamalka. 16 January 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
[14] http://quocphong.baodatviet.vn/Home/QPCN/Suc-manh-T5455-Viet-Nam-tang-dang-ke/20123/197418.datviet

Chapter 31

Pistol Auto 9mm 1A

Pistol Auto 9mm 1A manufactured in RFI, India.

Pistol Auto 9mm 1A* [1] is a semi-automatic pistol currently manufactured by Rie Factory Ishapore, one of 41
production facilities of Ordnance Factories Board of the Indian Ministry of Defence.

31.1 History
In 1971,* [2] preliminary works were established to make Pistol Auto 9mm 1A. The rst specimen was manufactured
in 1977,* [3] while large-scale manufacturing began in 1981.* [2] The Rie Factory Ishapore manufactures this pistol
using stamping dies for the Browning Hi-Power pistol from the former John Inglis manufacturing facility in Toronto,
Canada. The pistol is an exact copy of Browning Hi-Power. It is unknown how India obtained the license and why it
chose this model.
325

326

CHAPTER 31. PISTOL AUTO 9MM 1A

31.2 Design Features


It is a recoil operated, magazine-fed, self-loading, semi-automatic pistol that uses 919mm Parabellum ammunition.
The magazine has a 13-round capacity.

31.3 Specications
Calibre: 9 mm
Sights: Iron Sights, Front sight: blade dovetailed on the slide; rear sight: notched bar integrated into slide
Weight: With magazine empty: 0.935 kg, with magazine loaded: 1.075 kg
Length overall: 205 mm
Barrel length: 120 mm
Magazine Capacity: 13 rounds
Ammunition used: Cartridge SA Ball 9 mm MK.2z(Parabellum)
Riing: 6 grooves, 1 turn in 254 mm, R.H.
Muzzle Velocity: 396.23 m/s.
Number of components: 54
Range: 50 m

31.4 Cartridge
Any standard 919mm Parabellum ammunition can be used. (CARTRIDGE SA 9 mm BALL) for this pistol is
manufactured by the Ordnance Factories Board.* [4] The specications of the ammunition is:

31.4.1

Physical Characteristics

Total length of round: H-29.69 mm, L-28.91 mm


Total mass of round: 11.94 g 0.65 g
Maximum diameter: 9.96 mm
Explosive lling in case: 0.450 g (approx) propellant SPA-2 or propellant NC-688
Cap Composition: 23 mg VH2 compo E1 compo

31.4.2

Performance Characteristics

Mean velocity at 18 m from muzzle: 397 15 m/s


Accuracy: 75.2 mm Mean Figure of Merit at 45 m
Pressure Mean: 201 MPa, Individual 215 MPa; no single round should exceed 216 MPa.

31.5 Users
31.5.1

Law Enforcement and Military use

India - Widely used by Indian Armed Forces, Central Armed Police Forces and other Law enforcement
agencies such as State Police forces, as a service weapon.* [5]

31.6. REFERENCES

31.5.2

327

Civilian use

According to The Arms Act of India, 1959, this weapon comes under the Prohibited Bore (PB)" category, and
possession by civilians is illegal.
OFB still exports few pistols to other countries, however, where gun possession policy is more liberal.* [6]

31.6 References
[1] About Pistol Auto 9mm 1A. r.gov.in. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
[2] Milestones. r.gov.in. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
[3] History. r.nic.in. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
[4] Products - Ammunition. ofbindia.gov.in. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
[5] Indian Army Equipments. defence.pk. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
[6] Anyone here of Indian Ord ?". www.thehighroad.org. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
Indian Ordnance MK1A from Dan's. falles.com. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
Indian Ordnance Made MkA1 9mm Hi-Power Type Pistols. forums.gunboards.com. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
India Ordnance Factories P-35. www.thehighroad.org. Retrieved 19 November 2013.

Chapter 32

Pistol Mitralier model 1963/1965


The Pistol Mitralier model 1963 (abbreviated PM md. 63 or simply md. 63) is an assault rie patterned after the
AKM, and chambered in the 7.6239mm cartridge. It is exported as the AIM.
The Pistol Mitralier model 1965 (abbreviated PM md. 65 or simply md. 65) is the underfolding stock version of the
md. 63, and is exported as the AIMS.

32.1 History
In the early 1960s, the Romanian Army used mostly PPSh-41, Oria submachine guns and imported AK-47 ries.
With the development of the stamped Type 4 AKM receiver, and the Soviet Union's call to each of the Warsaw Pact's
nations to produce their own assault ries chambered in 7.62mm, be they AK-47 pattern or not, the Romanian State
Arsenal developed an AKM clone featuring a forward-pointing front handgrip molded into the lower handguard,
called the Pistol Mitralier model 1963 (literally 'machine pistol' model 1963). The underfolding stock version is
designated the Pistol Mitralier model 1965, and features a rear-pointing front handgrip, allowing the underfolding
stock to be completely retracted.

32.2 Features
The PM md. 63/65 is almost identical to the AKM/AKMS, and thus is simple, inexpensive to manufacture, and
easy to clean and maintain. The bore and chamber, as well as the gas piston and the interior of the gas cylinder, are
generally chromium-plated. This plating dramatically increases the life of these parts by resisting corrosion and wear.
Most md. 63/65 ries lack a muzzle brake, but instead use a muzzle nut, as muzzle brakes entered production only
in the late 1970s. The navy is the only remaining large scale operator of the md. 65 because of the weight of the
metal underfolding stock.
The re selector markings are as follows, from top to bottom: DomesticS, FA, FF. ExportS, A, R.

32.2.1

Operating Cycle

To re, the operator inserts a loaded magazine, moves the selector lever to the lowest position, pulls back and releases
the charging handle, and then pulls the trigger. In this setting, the gun res once, requiring the trigger be released and
depressed again for the next shot until the magazine is exhausted. With the selector in the middle position, the rie
continues to re, automatically cycling fresh rounds into the chamber, until the magazine is exhausted or pressure is
released from the trigger.

32.2.2

Disassembly

Dismantling the md. 63/65 is identical to dismantling the AK-47 and it involves the operator depressing the magazine
catch and removing the magazine. The charging handle is pulled to the rear and the operator inspects the chamber to
328

32.2. FEATURES

A Romanian soldier armed with a PM md. 63/65 in 1989.

329

330

CHAPTER 32. PISTOL MITRALIER MODEL 1963/1965

verify the weapon is unloaded. The operator presses forward on the retainer button at the rear of the receiver cover
while simultaneously lifting up on the rear of the cover to remove it. The operator then pushes the spring assembly
forward and lifts it from its raceway, withdrawing it out of the bolt carrier and to the rear. The operator must then
pull the carrier assembly all the way to the rear, lift it, and then pull it away. The operator removes the bolt by pushing
it to the rear of the bolt carrier; rotating the bolt so the camming lug clears the raceway on the underside of the bolt
carrier and then pulls it forward and free. When cleaning, the operator will pay special attention to the barrel, bolt
face, and gas piston, then oil lightly and reassemble.

32.3 Patriotic Guards version


The most-produced civilian export variation of this rie is that of the 'Gard' designation, produced for the Romanian
Patriotic Guards. These ries have a letter 'G' engraved on the left side of the rear sight block. The civil guard versions
are modied by the removal of the sear and the modication of the disconnector to be semi-automatic only. Tens
of thousands of these have been imported into the United States and sold as 'parts kits' (the receiver is destroyed by
torch-cutting per BATF regulations without the receiver, the kit is no longer legally considered a rearm). They are
colloquially known among rearms enthusiasts as Romy G's.

32.3.1

Other civilian versions

Other civilian 7.62mm Romanian AK clones are: SAR 1, WASR 10 (including WASR 10/63), Romak 991, Romak
1, and WUM 1. The Wieger rie lookalikes known as the STG-2000 and STG-2003 are based on WASR 10 ries,
which are the only ones still in production.
A version of the PM md. 90 carbine is also available in the United States, known as the Dracoit has the folding
stock removed and thus the BATF sees it as a pistol and legal to import.

32.4 PM md. 80

Romanian Revolution, the AK on the left is a PM md. 80 with the stock folded

The Pistol Mitralier model 1980 is a short barreled AK variant, and the rst side-folding stock version produced

32.5. PM MD. 90

331

in Romania. It featured a shorter gas block and usually used 20 round magazines. The front sight post is combined
with the gas-block to provide an overall short length. The side folder is straight and folds to the left. There are two
types of muzzle brakes used: a cylindrical one, and more commonly a slightly conical one. It is also known as the
AIMR.

32.5 PM md. 90

PM md. 90 carbine

The Pistol Mitralier model 1990 is the 7.62mm response to the 5.45mm Puc Automat model 1986. It is
internally identical to a PM md. 63/65, and outwardly diers in that it has a wire folding stock identical to the PA
md. 86 stock, and that all of the ries are tted with slant brakes. It was extensively used in the Romanian Revolution
of 1989 along with the md. 63 and md. 65

32.5.1

Short barrel version

The carbine version of the model 90, called simply PM md. 90 cu eav scurt (short barreled PM md. 90), was
designed for tank crews and special forces. Apart from the stock, it features the same modications as the PM md.
80.

32.6 7.62 mm RPK


The RPK version of the md. 63 is called the md. 64. It is essentially identical to the Soviet RPK.

332

Saudi Security Forces with PM md. 90.

CHAPTER 32. PISTOL MITRALIER MODEL 1963/1965

32.7. USERS

333

32.7 Users

Afghanistan

Angola

Bangladesh - Small numbers in use in the Bangladesh Army.* [1]

Democratic Republic of Congo

Georgia* [2]

Iraq - Used by insurgents, and also military and police.

Iran

India

Liberia

Lebanon

Libya

Mozambique

Moldova - Mainly Regular Army and Police.* [3]

Morocco

Nicaragua

Sierra Leone

Syria

Saudi Arabia

Palestinian National Authority

Socialist Republic of Romania/


troops.

32.7.1

Romania: Used by Navy personnel, border guards, tank crews, reserve

Nonstate users

Free Syrian Army

Provisional Irish Republican Army: During the eighties Libya supplied hundreds of PM md. 1963's to
the PIRA.

32.8 See also


Puc Automat model 1986
List of assault ries

334

CHAPTER 32. PISTOL MITRALIER MODEL 1963/1965

32.9 References
[1] http://www.bdmilitary.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=204&Itemid=95
[2] CSAT (SCND) has covered up Romania's scam involving weapons trade - Ziare.com
[3] https://www.flickr.com/photos/army_md/15005453216/

Romanian Export Kalashnikov versions at Romanian Kalashnikov Ries


Kalashnikov guns website (confuses the md. 63 designation for the md. 65)
WASR-10.com - Information on the Export Version of the md. 63/65
SC Fabrica de Arme Cugir SA - Arms Factory - md. 63 Assault Rie
SC Fabrica de Arme Cugir SA - Arms Factory - md. 65 Assault Rie
SC Fabrica de Arme Cugir SA - Arms Factory - md. 90 Assault Rie
SC Fabrica de Arme Cugir SA - Arms Factory - md. 90 Carbine

Chapter 33

PK machine gun
PKTredirects here. For other uses, see PKT (disambiguation).
The PK is a 7.62 mm general-purpose machine gun designed in the Soviet Union and currently in production in
Russia.* [7] The original PK machine gun was introduced in 1961 and then the improved PKM in 1969 to replace
the SGM and RP-46 machine guns in Soviet service. It remains in use as a front-line infantry and vehicle-mounted
weapon with Russia's armed forces. The PK has been exported extensively and produced in several other countries
under license.

33.1 Design details


The original PK ( : Pulemyot Kalashnikova, or Kalashnikov's Machinegun) was a development of Kalashnikov's AK47 automatic rie design, ring the 7.62x54mmR Eastern Bloc standard ammunition
originally from the MosinNagant. The bolt and carrier design are similar to the AK, as is the stripping procedure
performed to remove those mechanisms from the gun for cleaning. The bolt and bolt carrier are oriented upside down
compared to the AK, with the piston and gas system being underneath the barrel. The long stroke piston is hinged
o the bolt carrier group to make it possible to bend the group in and out of the receiver for maintenance. The gun
uses a non-reciprocating charge handle on the right side of the receiver to charge the gun, and the gun res from an
open bolt, which improves cooling compared to a closed bolt design, and prevents the gun from being able to cook
o if extremely overheated. The barrel is a quick detach type with a carry handle that sits to the left of the receiver.
The rear sight is identical in design to the AK and MosinNagant, except that it is oriented backwards with the notch
forward and the hinge behind. It also features full windage adjustment in the form of small dials on either side of the
notch, a feature not seen on the guns that preceded it.
The gun is equipped with a simple bipod and is designed as a squad-level support weapon; it is also suitable for
installation and vehicle mounting. The PK machine gun can be used as a light anti-aircraft weapon when it is put
on an AA mount. Most are belt-fed, using 25 round non-disintegrating belts which have links that wrap around the
case shoulder all the way around, and are linked by a coiling wire on each side. These 25-round belts can be linked
to any length necessary. Typical of Soviet machine guns, the standard model feeds from the right and ejects its spent
cases via an ejection port on the left side of the weapon, contrary to the right side ejection port seen in most Western
machine guns. For the light machine gun role, the PKM is used as the standard squad automatic weapon of the
Russian Army, and uses a 100-round non-disintegrating belt contained in a metal can that can be attached under the
gun. All openings on the gun, particularly the ejector port on the left and the belt feed entrance, are covered with
spring loaded dust covers so that the openings are only exposed when they need to be.
The rimmed 7.62x54mm cartridges are set in the belt, held against the shoulder inside the full looped links, leaving
the rim exposed at the rear. Rimless cartridges can be fed forward through the link with semi-looped links. The PK
series of guns uses a mechanism to pull the rounds out of the belt from the back and drops it down into the feed way,
allowing the bolt to strip it and feed it into the chamber upon ring.
335

336

CHAPTER 33. PK MACHINE GUN

33.2 Variants

PKM

33.2.1

PKM

The PKM ( : Kalashnikov's Machine-gun Modernized), was adopted into service


in 1969. It is a modernized, product-improved version of the PK weighing only 7.5 kg without ammunition.

33.2.2

PKMN

The PKMN ( : PKM Night-Vision) is a variant that can mount a night sight. The PKMN-1 can
thus mount the multi-model NSPU-3 (1PN51) night vision scope* [8] while the PKMN2 can mount the multi-model
NSPUM (1PN58) night vision scope.* [9]

33.2.3

PKMS

For heavier employment, the PKMS ( : PKM Mounted) is based on the Stepanov's tripod
mount and weighs 12 kg.

33.2.4

PKMSN

The PKMSN ( : PKMS Night-Vision) is similarly to the PKMN a special model of the tripodmounted variant that can mount night sights for low-visibility operations. The PKMSN-1 model uses the multi-model
NSPU-3 (1PN51) night vision scope* [8] and the PKMSN2 uses the multi-model NSPUM (1PN58) night vision
scope.* [9]

33.2.5

PKT

The PKT ( , PK Tank) is a further development of the PK to replace the SGMT Goryunov vehiclemounted machine gun. Modications include the removal of the stock, a longer and heavier barrel, a gas regulator
and an electric solenoid trigger.

33.2.6

PKP Pecheneg

The PKP Pecheneg is a new General-purpose machine gun based on the PKM. It has a heavy xed barrel encased in
a radial cooling sleeve that uses forced-air cooling, much like the Lewis Gun of World War I. Its design incorporates
lessons learned in the Soviet Union's campaign in Afghanistan, where the RPK was found to be lacking in sustainable
suppressive repower.

33.3. FOREIGN VARIANTS

337

33.3 Foreign Variants


33.3.1

HCP PKM-"NATO(Poland)

In the early 1990s, as part of the preparations to join NATO, the Polish armed forces were looking for a replacement
for the PK-series machine guns then in service. The H. Cegielski - Pozna S.A. Works in Pozna modied the
PK/PKS to feed standard 7.62x51mm NATO cartridges and use NATO standard ammo belts. The new model
received the code-name PKM-NATO. The modications included a heavier barrel, a larger chamber, and a redesign
of the lock, extractor, and the entire feeding mechanism. The prototype was tested from 1997 to 1999, but was
rejected. The Polish Army adopted the UKM-2000 machine gun instead which was also based on the PKM.

33.3.2

Zastava M84/M86 (Serbia)

The Zastava M84 is a Serbian-made licensed copy of the PK / PKS. The Zastava M86 is a copy of the solenoidtriggered PKT.

33.3.3

Norinco Type 80 (People's Republic of China)

The Type 80 is a Chinese-made copy of the PKM / PKMS.

33.3.4

Arsenal MG-1 & MG-1M (Bulgaria)

The MG-1 is a licensed copy of the PKM and has synthetic buttstock and pistol grip. The MG-1M, an improved
Squad Automatic Weapon variant, has improved features, such as a redesigned barrel that allows for better cooling.

33.3.5

Cugir Mitraliera md. 66 (Romania)

The Mitraliera md. 66 is a Romanian-made copy of the PKM.

33.3.6

KGK general purpose machine gun (Hungary)

the KGK universal (general purpose) machine gun was produced in Hungary during the 1960s and 1970s. It was
used by Hungarian army on a limited scale and was later replaced by domestically produced copy of the Kalashnikov
PKM machine gun.

33.4 Production status


The PKM and other variants are in production in Russia and are currently exported to many nations. Additionally,
various models are manufactured locally around the globe. Zastava Arms produces the PK under license as the M84
(along with the PKT as the M86), and it remains in use with many of the former Yugoslav successor states. The most
recent modication is the Russian Pecheneg, which features a forced air cooling barrel that cannot be removed in
the eld for quick replacement, unusual for a modern machine gun.

33.5 Users

Afghanistan* [10]

Albania

Armenia* [10] PK/PKM

Azerbaijan* [10]

338

CHAPTER 33. PK MACHINE GUN

Ukrainian soldier training with a PKM machine gun.

A U.S. Marine ring the PKM machine gun.

Belarus* [10]

Bosnia-Herzegovina* [10]

33.5. USERS

Finnish peacekeeper in Chad armed with PKM machine gun.

339

340

CHAPTER 33. PK MACHINE GUN

Hungarian soldier armed with a PKM machine gun.

Polish soldier with a PKM machine gun.

Bulgaria: PK/PKM copies were produced as the MG-1 & MG-1M.* [10]* [11]

Cambodia* [12]

Cape Verde* [10]

33.5. USERS

Iraqi Army soldier ring a PKS machine gun as part of the School of Infantry.

Syrian soldier with a PKM machine gun.

Chad* [10]

People's Republic of China: PK/PKM copies were produced as the Type 80.* [13]

341

342

CHAPTER 33. PK MACHINE GUN

Mongolian soldier with a PKM machine gun with a telescopic sight (Polish PCS-5).

Croatia* [10]

Cuba* [10]

Czech Republic* [14]

Egypt

Eritrea* [10]

Estonia* [10]

Finland: Designated as 7.62 KK PKM.* [15]

Georgia* [10]

Guinea* [10]

Guinea-Bissau* [10]

Hungary* [10]

India Manufactured at Ordnance Factory Tiruchirappalli of the Ordnance Factories Board* [16]

Iran* [10]

Iraq* [10]

Israel

Kazakhstan* [10]

Kyrgyzstan* [10]

Laos* [10]

33.5. USERS

Latvia* [10]

Lebanon

Libya

Lithuania* [10]

Macedonia* [10]

Mali* [10] Armed and Security Forces of Mali

Moldova* [10]

Mongolia* [10]

Morocco

Mozambique* [10]

Nigeria

North Korea* [10]

Panama* [17]

Poland: PK/PKM copies were produced.* [10]* [11]

Romania: PK/PKM copies were produced as the Mitraliera md. 66.* [10]* [11]

Russia* [10]

Sao Tome and Principe* [10]

Sudan manufacture locally as Mokhtar

South Sudan

Serbia: Made under license as the M84/M86.* [10]

Sri Lanka

Syria* [10]

Tajikistan* [10]

Turkmenistan* [10]

Turkey* [18]

Uganda* [10]

Ukraine* [10] PKT locally produce under KT-7.62

United States

Uzbekistan* [10]

Vietnam* [19] Used from the Vietnam War to the present

Zambia* [10]

343

344

CHAPTER 33. PK MACHINE GUN

33.5.1

Former users

Soviet Union

East Germany

Sweden: Swedish designation Kulspruta 95. Used as vehicle mounted machine guns only, mounted
on former East German MT-LBs acquired during the early 1990s. When the MT-LBs were retired then so
were the PKMs.* [20]

Yugoslavia: PK/PKM copies were produced.* [11]

33.6 See also


2B-P-10
AEK-999
RP-46
PKP Pecheneg
Type 67
Type 73, North Korean derivative.
SS-77
AA-52
FN MAG
MG3
MG51
MG710
M240
HK21
Mk 48
NTK-62
HK21
HK121
Uirapuru
M60
List of Russian weaponry

33.7. NOTES

345

33.7 Notes
[1] http://www.zid.ru/eng/products/47/detail/225
[2] http://www.zid.ru/eng/products/47/detail/224
[3] http://www.zid.ru/eng/products/47/detail/222
[4] http://www.zid.ru/eng/products/47/detail/223
[5] Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies Russian Arms
[6]Sights. Russian Close Combat Weapon. Moscow: AssociationDefense Enterprises Assistance League. 2010. ISBN
978-5-904540-04-3.
[7] 7.62mm PKM Kalashnikov modernized machine gun. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
[8] 151 [PRODUCT 1PN51
TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION AND OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS] (in Russian). January 1992. pp. 11,16.
[9] 158 [PRODUCT 1PN58
TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION AND OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS] (in Russian). February 1991. pp. 5,13.
[10] Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN
978-0-7106-2869-5.
[11] G3 Defence Magazine August 2010. calameo.com. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
[12] Small Arms Survey - Working Papers. 8 November 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
[13] Type 80 7.62mm General Purpose Machine Gun. Retrieved on September 11, 2008.
[14] Mikulka, Zdenk (19 February 2010). Stelby z palubnch zbran vrtulnk Mi-171 v Afghnistnu. Zahranin mise.
Ministerstvo obrany. Retrieved 16 May 2013.
[15] Puolustusvoimat. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
[16] http://news.oneindia.in/2007/03/19/oft-develops-gen-x-weapons-1174286532.html[]
[17]
[18] SLAHLAR. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
[19] NVA. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
[20] Frsvarsmakten - Avvecklade materielsystem (Swedish Defence Forces)

33.8 External links


Original producer website
Modern Firearms
Modern FirearmsPecheneg
http://www.kalashnikov.ru/upload/medialibrary/637/nazvalsya-gruzdem.pdf
http://www.kalashnikov.ru/upload/medialibrary/32b/ot-PK-kPKM.pdf
Technical data, instructional images and diagrams of the PK machine gun (Russian)
Video of operation on YouTube
http://www.forgottenweapons.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/PK-Series-manual-English-2005.pdf

Chapter 34

RPO-A Shmel
The RPO-A Shmel (Russian - "") (RPO-A "Bumblebee") is a man-portable rocket launcher although it is classied as a amethrower (Russian / Reaktivnyy Pekhotnyy Ognemet,
Reactive Infantry Flamethrower) by the manufacturer, KBP, Tula.
The Shmelis designed, produced and exported by the Russian Federation and previously by the Soviet Union. It
entered service with the Soviet Armed Forces at the end of the 1980s as the successor for the RPO Rys.

34.1 Description
The RPO-A is a single-shot, self-contained tube shaped launcher which operates much like some RPG and LAW
rocket launchers. The launcher is a sealed tube, carried in a man-pack in pairs. The same person can remove the
tube, place it in ring position, and launch the weapon without assistance. After launch, the tube is discarded. All
models are externally similar.

34.2 Ammunition
Each weapon contains a single rocket, of which there are three varieties. The basic rocket is the RPO-A, which has a
thermobaric warhead and is designed for attacking soft targets under moderate cover. The RPO-Z is the incendiary
warhead (Rus. / Zazhigatel'nyy, orIncendiary) designed to spread re and ignite targets. Finally,
there is a smoke-producing warhead (Rus. / Dymovoy, or Smoke) oered, the RPO-D.

34.3 Specications
Specications provided by Jane's:* [1]
Calibre: 93 mm
Length:
Launcher: 920 mm
Rocket: 700 mm
Weight:
Single weapon: 11 kg
Transit pack of two: 22 kg
Sighting range: 600 m
Range:
346

34.4. VARIANTS

347

RPO-A Shmel (fourth from the bottom) with comparable Soviet/Russian rocket launchers

Minimum: 20 m
Maximum: 1,000 m
Initial velocity: 125 5 m/s
Warhead:
RPO-A: 2.1 kg thermobaric
RPO-Z: 2.1 kg incendiary
RPO-D: 2.3 kg smoke
Operational temperature range: 50 to +50 C
Shelf life: 10 years

34.4 Variants
A recent development is the improved RPO-M Shmel-M that was shown for the rst time at Eurosatory 2006.
This version is quite similar to the original weapon, but has a calibre of 90 mm and a weight of 8.8 kg. Its launcher
is reusable. The system has better ergonomics and uses an improved rocket with better ballistics and terminal eect
and with a maximum range of 1,700 m. The Shmel-Mis also known as RPO PDM-A (Rus.
/ Povyshennoy Dal'nosti i Moshchnosti enhanced range and lethality) and is produced
for the local and export markets. Adopted in 24 December, 2003.* [2]* [3]* [4]* [5]* [6]
MGK Bur (Rus. "" / Malogabaritnyy Granatomotnyy Kompleks
Bur Compact Grenade-launching System Auger) is a 62 mm variant with reusable launch tube.* [7]* [8]
Maximum range is 950 meters, sighting (with day telescopic sights) - 650 meters. The system weighs less than 5 kg
and the reusable tube is good for at least 500 rounds. As of October 2014 it has been accepted into service and its
serial production has been started.* [9]

348

CHAPTER 34. RPO-A SHMEL

34.5 Service history


RPO weapons have seen use by the Soviet Army in Afghanistan and by both the Russian and the separatist forces in
the First and Second Chechen Wars. On 9 August 2014, during the Donbass War, the Ukrainian border checkpoint
of Milove was attacked using RPO amethrowers. The main building was hit by ve incendiary rockets.* [10]

34.6 Users

Russia

Belarus

Democratic People's Republic of Korea

Kazakhstan

Georgia* [11]

India

Serbia

Sri Lanka

Ukraine

Vietnam

Former

USSR

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

34.7 See also


FHJ 84 an over/under two-shot variant from China
M202A1 FLASH a similar weapon developed by the US Army
List of Russian weaponry

34.8 References
[1] Gander, Terry (2001-01-05). RPO-A Shmel rocket infantry ame-thrower. Land Forces. Jane's.
[2] http://kbptula.ru/eng/atgw/shmelm.htm
[3] Modern Firearms. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
[4] David Crane (19 July 2006). New RPO Shmel-M Infantry Rocket Flamethrower Man-Packable Thermobaric Weapon
. DefenseReview.com (DR): An online tactical technology and military defense technology magazine with particular focus on
the latest and greatest tactical rearms news (tactical gun news), tactical gear news and tactical shooting news. Retrieved 26
November 2014.
[5] Rocket Flamethrower Shmel-M ( -)". YouTube. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
[6] " - - -". Retrieved 26 November 2014.
[7] (English) http://kbptula.ru/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=309&Itemid=653&lang=en#spoiler_0

34.9. EXTERNAL LINKS

349

[8] " IDEX-2013 -".


(in Russian). Moscow: Centre for Analysis of World Arms Trade. 18 February 2013. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
[9] ": - """. . Retrieved 26 November
2014.
[10] " ". Liga News. 9 August 2014.
[11] Armament of the Georgian Army. Georgian Army. Retrieved 2007-06-25.

34.9 External links

350

RPO PDM-A Shmel-M

CHAPTER 34. RPO-A SHMEL

Chapter 35

Sterling submachine gun


L2A1redirects here. For the link classied as L2a1 in mathematical knot theory, see Hopf link.
The Sterling submachine gun is a British submachine gun. It was trialled with the British Army in 19441945 as
a replacement for the Sten, but it did not start to replace it until 1953. It remained in use until 1994, when it was
phased out with the introduction of the L85A1 assault rie.

35.1 History
In 1944, the British General Sta issued a specication for a new submachine gun. It stated that the weapon should
not weigh more than six pounds (2.7 kg), should re 919mm Parabellum ammunition, have a rate of re of no more
than 500 rounds per minute and be suciently accurate to allow ve single shots to be red into a one-foot-square
target at 100 yd (91 m).
To meet the new requirement, George William Patchett, the chief designer at the Sterling Armaments Company
of Dagenham, submitted a sample weapon of new design in early 1944. The army quickly recognised its potential
(i.e. signicantly increased accuracy and reliability when compared to the Sten) and ordered 120 examples for trials.
Towards the end of the Second World War, some of these trial samples were used in combat by airborne troops at
the battle of Arnhem and elsewhere, where it was known as the Patchett submachine gun. As the Patchett/Sterling
can use straight Sten submachine gun magazines as well as the curved Sterling design, there were no interoperability
problems.
After the war, with large numbers of Sten guns in the inventory, there was little interest in replacing them with a
superior design. However, in 1947, a competitive trial between the Patchett, an Eneld design, a new BSA design
and an experimental Australian design was held, with the Sten for comparison. The trial was inconclusive, but was
followed by further development and more trials. Eventually, the Patchett design won and the decision was made in
1951 for the British Army to adopt it. It started to replace the Sten in 1953 as the Sub-Machine Gun L2A1. Its
last non-suppressed variation was the L2A3, but the model changes were minimal throughout its development life.
Sterling submachine guns with minor cosmetic alterations were used in the production of the Star Wars movies as
blaster rie props.

35.2 Design details


The Sterling submachine gun is constructed entirely of steel and plastic and has a shoulder stock, which folds underneath the weapon. Although of conventional blowback design ring from an open bolt, there are some unusual
features: for example, the bolt has helical grooves cut into the surface to remove dirt and fouling from the inside of the
receiver to increase reliability. The Sterling uses a much-improved (over the Sten) 34-round curved double-column
feed box magazine, which is inserted into the left side of the receiver. The magazine follower, which pushes the
cartridges into the feed port, is equipped with rollers to reduce friction and the ring pin is designed so that it does
not line up with the primer in the cartridge until the cartridge has entered the chamber.* [1]
351

352

CHAPTER 35. STERLING SUBMACHINE GUN

A Sterling submachine gun in the Imperial War Museum

An example of the L34A1 suppressed variant

The suppressed version of the Sterling (L34A1/Mk.5) was developed for covert operations. This version uses a ported
barrel surrounded by a cylinder with expansion chambers to reduce the velocity of the bullet so that it doesn't break
the sound barrier and thus cause a sonic boom, along with decreasing the muzzle blast and ash. This is so eective
that the only sounds during ring are from the bolt reciprocating and the barely audible explosive discharge.* [2] The
Australian and New Zealand SAS regiments used the suppressed version of the Sterling during the Vietnam War.* [3]
It is notable for having been used by both Argentinian and British Special Forces during the Falklands War. It was
also the weapon used by Libyan agents to kill WPC Yvonne Fletcher outside the Libyan Embassy in London, which
sparked the 1984 siege of the building.
The Sterling has a reputation for excellent reliability under adverse conditions and, even though it res from an open
bolt, good accuracy. With some practice, it was very accurate when red in short bursts. While it has been reported
that the weapon poses no problems for left-handed users to operate,* [4] it is not recommended without the wearing
of ballistic eye protection. The path of the ejected cartridge cases is slightly down and backward, so mild burns can
occasionally be incurred by left-handed shooters.
A bayonet of a similar design as that for the L1A1 SLR was produced and issued in British Army service, but was
rarely employed except for ceremonial duties. Both bayonets were derived from the version issued with the Rie No.
5 Mk I Jungle Carbine, the main dierence being a smaller ring on the SLR bayonet to t the rie's muzzle.

35.3. MANUFACTURE

353

Side view showing ejection port and cocking handle

When mounted, the Sterling bayonet was oset to the left of the weapon's vertical line, which gave a more natural
balance when used for bayonet-ghting.
For a right-handed shooter, the correct position for the left hand while ring is on the ventilated barrel-casing, but not
on the magazine, as the pressure from holding the magazine can increase the risk of stoppages, and a loose magazine
can lead to dropping the weapon. The barrel-casing hold provides greater control of the weapon, so the right-hand can
intermittently be used for other tasks. A semi-circular protrusion on the right hand side of the weapon, approximately
two inches from the muzzle, serves to prevent the supporting hand from moving too far forward and over the muzzle.
The primary user complaint with the Sterling series is that there are projections in all directions, and carrying it on a
sling frequently results in the weapon catching on clothing, load-bearing equipment, foliage, and doorways/hatches,
as well as annoying (sometimes painful) poking of the user.

35.3 Manufacture
A total of over 400,000 were manufactured. Sterling built them for the British armed forces and for overseas sales,
whilst the Royal Ordnance Factories at Fazakerley near Liverpool constructed them exclusively for the British military.
ROF no longer makes full weapons, but still manufactures spare parts for certied end users.
A Chilean variant was made by FAMAE as the PAF submachine gun but was dierent externally as it had a shorter
receiver lacking the barrel shroud.* [5]
Canada also manufactured a variant under licence, called the Submachine Gun 9 mm C1 made by Canadian Arsenals
Limited.* [6] It replaced the later versions of the Sten submachine gun from 1953 onwards.
A similar weapon, the Sub-Machine Gun Carbine 9 mm 1A1, is manufactured under license by the Indian Ordnance
Factory at Kanpur, along with a Sub-Machine Gun Carbine 9 mm 2A1 which is a copy of the L34A1 integrally
silenced version. At the beginning of the 21st century, these two weapons were still being manufactured by Ordnance
Factories Board and used by the Indian Armed Forces.

35.4 Variants
British Army
Unassigned: Patchett Machine Carbine Mark 1 (trials commenced in 1944)
Unassigned: Patchett Machine Carbine Mark 1 & Folding Bayonet (same as above but with folding
bayonet, never accepted)
L2A1: (Patchett Machine Carbine Mark 2) Adopted in 1953.
L2A2: (Sterling Mark 3) Adopted in 1955.
L2A3: (Sterling Mark 4) Adopted in 1956. Last regular version in service with the British Army.
L34A1: Suppressed version (Sterling-Patchett Mark 5). Held in reserve by the British Army.

354

CHAPTER 35. STERLING SUBMACHINE GUN

British paratroopers with Sterling submachine guns, June 1982

Sterling Mark 6 Police": a semi-automatic-only closed-bolt version for police forces and private sales. A
US export version had a longer barrel (16 inches) to comply with Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and
Explosives (BATF) regulations. Beginning in 2009, Century Arms International (CAI) began marketing a
similar semi-auto only carbine manufactured by Wiselite Arms. These too have a 16-inch barrel. They are
assembled using a mix of newly made US parts, and parts from demilitarized Sterling Mark 4 parts kits. This
is often marketed as the Sterling Sporter.* [7]
Sterling Mark 7Para-pistol": Special machine pistol variant issued to commando and plainclothes intelligence
units. It had a shortened 4/ 108mm barrel, xed vertical foregrip, and weighed 4.84 lb (2.20 kg). If used
with a short 10- or 15-round magazine, it could be stowed in a special holster. It also could be used as a Close
Quarters Battle weapon with the addition of an optional solid stock.
Canadian Army
C1 Submachine