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Sep 01, 2015

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VLE

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116 (de) vizualizări

VLE

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PCB2023

Dr. Mohammed Abdalla Ayoub

Lesson outcomes

to :

Equilibrium Gas & Liquid Phases.

Calculate the saturation pressure of the

mixture

2

part of reservoir management.

facility design

production to surface is a serious challenge.

3

equilibrium conditions and the phases is laboratory studies,

including compositional analysis and reservoir fluid studies.

availability.

relied upon, and these methods are called phase equilibrium or

The input data for the VLE calculations consist of the overall

conditions, and the properties of the individual components (defined

as well as pseudo-components and plus fractions).

determination of saturation pressures (bubble or dew points),

Total

Production

System

Complexity of allocation

of produced oil to supply

fields

engineer.

Multiphase behavior relative

permeability etc.

Volumes between reservoir

and surface.

Physical properties of gas and

oil in reservoir and at surface

7

Vapor-liquid equilibrium

Quick definitions:

A mole is what

6.02x1023 molecules

weigh.

MW=no. mass units

(1.6x10-24 g) a molecule

weighs

Phase diagram defines area bounded by bubble point and dew point

curves where two phases exist.

Vapor-liquid equilibrium

through the separator to the stock tank conditions, large

volumes of gas are generated from the reservoir oil.

VO

Oil formation volume factor Bo

VST

Solution gas to oil ratio

VG

RS

VST

Vapor-liquid equilibrium

liquid equilibrium calculations used for.

Reservoir calculations

Process calculations

10

The grid

block of a

simulator

can be

considered

to be the

separator of

a process

unit.

11

reservoirs and wells, surface operations, pipelines,

on refinery or pipeline outputs.

12

Ideal solutions

An ideal solution is a solution for which:

1.

2.

3.

13

Ideal Mixtures

insignificant interaction between various constituents, which is

generally the case at low pressures for simple mixtures.

Raoults and Daltons law

14

Ideal solutions

Raoults Law

Partial pressure of a given component in a multicomponent system is the

product of its mole fraction in the liquid phase and its vapor pressure.

pi X i Pvi

Xi : The mole fraction of component i in the liquid phase

Pvi : The vapor pressure of component i at the given

temperature

Daltons Law

For an ideal gas mixture, the partial pressure of a component is the

product of its mole fraction and the total system pressure

pi Yi P

Yi : The mole fraction of component i in the vapor phase

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Equilibrium ratio is the ratio of the composition in the vapor phase to

hydrocarbon mixture, the equilibrium ratio is only a function of the

system pressure and temperature.

The vapor pressure of a component is only a function of temperature

Yi

Pvi

K i Eqilibrium Ratio

Xi

P

----------(1)

equilibrium ratios for various components can be determined.

16

Equilibrium Ratio

Ki is defined at a particular pressure and

temperature

Other names: K-factors, K values, equilibrium

vapor liquid distribution coefficients

17

Concept of PT Flash

nv moles of vapor having

composition Yi and nL moles of

liquid having composition Xi.

This particular process, resulting

in the splitting of the feed or a

hydrocarbon

equilibrium

mixture

vapor

and

into

liquid

temperature, is called PT flash.

Almost all petroleum reservoir fluids undergo this type of PT flash

process either in the reservoir, production tubing, or on the surface.

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By definition, the overall material balance on the feed and the equilibrated

vapor and liquid phases lead to

n=nL+nV

----------(2)

A similar material balance equation can also be written in terms of the ith

component of the mixture:

Zi n = Xi nL + Yi nV

----------(3)

YinV : moles of component i in the equilibrium vapor phase

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Gas & Liquid Phases of an Ideal Solution

Equations (2) and (3) can be further simplified by considering the basis of

1mol of feed, that is, n = 1:

nL+nV=1

Xi nL + Yi nV = Zi

---------(5)

Xi (1 nV) + Ki Xi nV = Zi

---------(6)

So

---------(4)

Zi

Xi

1 nv K i 1

---------(7)

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Gas & Liquid Phases of an Ideal Solution

Also by definition of mole fraction

n

Zi

Xi

1 .0

i 1

i 1 1 n v K i 1

Similarly

n

---------(8)

Zi Ki

Yi

1 .0

i 1

i 1 1 n v K i 1

---------(9)

21

Gas & Liquid Phases of an Ideal Solution

On the basis of the given mole fraction of the feed Zi and the calculated

equilibrium ratio Ki from Equation 1 (from vapor pressure at a given

temperature and the system pressure), the only unknown that remains in

Equation 8 or 9 is the moles of the equilibrium phase vapor nV.

solution is required in either case.

Since the calculations are based on 1mol of feed, a trial value of nV between 0

and 1 is chosen.

the moles of equilibrium liquid phase and the compositions of all the

components in the equilibrium vapor phase and the liquid phase can then be

calculated. If the summation does not equate 1, a new iteration cycle may be

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needed.

Flash Functions

Alternatively, Equations (8) and (9) can be written as follows (called the flash

functions):

n

Zi

X i 1 0, or,

1 0

i 1

i 1 1 n v K i 1

n

----(10)

Zi Ki

Yi 1 0, or,

1 .0 0

i 1

i 1 1 n v K i 1

----(11)

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Is considered as mathematically much more robust compared to

VLE calculations:

Z i K i 1

Yi X i 0, or,

0

i 1

i 1

i 1 1 n v K i 1

n

----(12)

of nV will satisfy the condition of the right-hand side resulting in a

value of zero.

24

25

Liquid Phases of an Ideal Solution

Example:

Calculate the compositions and quantities of the gas and liquid when 1.0

lb. mole of the following mixture is brought to equilibrium at 150oF and

200 psia. Assume ideal-solution behavior.

Component

Composition, mole

fraction

Propane

0.610

n-Butane

0.280

n-Pentane

0.110

1.000

Zi Ki

Yi

1 .0

i 1

i 1 1 n v K i 1---------(8)

By trial and error, determine the value of nv which satisfies the equation

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Gas & Liquid Phases of an Ideal Solution

component

Composition of

mixture (mole

fraction), Zi

Vapor

pressure

@150oF, Pvi

Propane, c3

0.610

350

n-Butane, nC4

0.280

105

n-Pentane, nC5

0.110

37

1.000

Composition of

the gas, mole

fraction, Yi

Composition of

the liquid, mole

fraction, Xi

0.76896

0.439406

0.19493

0.371296

0.035201

1.000

0.190274

1.000

The summation equals 1 for nv =0.517651; thus there are 0.482349 moles of

liquid and 0.517651 moles of vapor for each mole of total mixture. The

compositions for vapor and liquid are given in the last two columns.

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Solution

The bubble point is the point at which the first bubble of gas is formed.

mixture.

and p=pb into equation

n

i 1

i 1

Z i X i 1 .0

---------(13)

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Solution

phase

n

Y Z K

i 1

i 1

1.0

---------(14)

n

Pvi

Zi

1 .0

Pb

i 1

Or

---------(15)

Pb Z i Pvi

---------(16)

i 1

Its a simple molar mixing rule that uses mole fractions and vapor

pressures of individual components.

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Solution

n

Z Y

i 1

i 1

1 .0

---------(17)

and thus, the equilibrium is established for the newly formed liquid phase

n

Zi

Xi

1 .0

i 1

i 1 K i

---------(18)

n

Zi

1 .0

i 1 Pvi Pd

---------(19)

Pd

1

n

Z i Pvi

i 1

---------(20)

Summary

At the end of this class students managed to :

Equilibrium Gas & Liquid Phases for ideal solutions.

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End of Chapter 5

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