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GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN

NATIONAL HIGHWAY AUTHORITY

RTSPCCIFICRTIONS
GNCR
(DECEMBER- 1998)

Prepared& PresentedBy:

5F|':T1 FFIF<
INTERNATIONAL (PVT) LTD.
Engineering Design, Supervisionand ManagementConsultants

G-568,JoharTown,
Lahore,Pakistan.

FOREWORD

Review and updating of General Specificationsof National Highway Authority (1991)


became essential in light of new responsibilities entrusted by the Honorable Prime
Ministerof Pakistanon this Agency to Construct Motorways and other important highways
on internationalstandards.
In order to assess the new requirementsof General Specifications we arranged series of
meetings with other consultants of the Authority, besides getting the opinions of major
contractors in Highway Industry. We also consulted different Directoratesof the Authority
to know the problems felt by them during execution of highway projects. A seminar was
also arranged to discuss various maters, which attracted representatives of various
clients, consultants and contractors of highway industry in Pakistan.
We have carried out amendments in the current General Specifications looking to the
causes of disputes and reasons of failure of certain roads constructed in various parts of
the country. Addition of new items has also been made in the existing specifications to
cater for future needs of NationalHighway Authority.
Our sincere thanks are due to several agencies, which contributed in compilation of this
important document, however special attention of Contracts and SpecificationsSection of
NationalHighwayAuthority under the guidanceof GhairmanNHA, helped us to complete
the assignment successfully. We hope that this document will iontribute effectively in
improvingthe workmanshipand qualityof highwayconstructionin Pakistan.

For SAMPAK International(Pvt) Ltd.,


(S.M.A.Shirazi)

HIGEWAY

NAIIONAI,

AI]THOnITY

GEi\TERAI SPECII{CAIIONS
Table of Contents
Description

Item No.

Page
G-1- G-39

General
EARTITVYORKAND ALLIED ACTIVITIES

101

Clearingand Grubbing. . .

100-1- 100-4
101-1- 101-2

102

Removalof Trees

102-1

103

Stripping

103-1

104

Compactionof NaturalGround

105

Roadway and Borrow Excavation

106

Excavationof Unsuitableor SurplusMaterial

104-1
105-1- 1054
106-1- 106-2

Item-100

. 107

General

107-1- 107-7
108-1- 108-7
109-1- 109.4

StructuralExcavationand Backfill

108

Formationof Embankment

109

SubgradePreparation

110

lmprovedsubgrade

111

Soil Cement StabilizedSubgrade

112

Lime StabilizedSubgrade

'113 BitumenStabilizedSubgrade

110-1-',t104
- 111-5
111-1

.. . . .

114

Dressingand Compactionof Berms

115

Reinstatementof Shouldersfrom Brick Kiln Material

-'t12-4
112-1
1 1 3 - -1 1 1 3 - 3
114-1- 114-2
1 1 5 - -1 1 1 5 - 3

SUBBASEANp B.{SE
Item -200

General

200-1- 200-3
201-1- 201-5
202-1- 2024

201

GranularSubbase

202

AggregateBase Course

203

AsphalticBase CoursePlant Mix . .

204

SoilCementStabilizedSubbaseand Base

205

Crack-ReliefLayer

203-1- 203-13
204-1- 204-6
205-1- 205-3

206

Water Bound MacadamBase .

206-1- 206-4

207

Deep Patching

207-'l

Item No.

Description

208-1- 2Og-2

208

Reinstatementof Road Surface

209

Scarification
of ExistingRoad/ Breakingof RoadPavement
Structure

210

Page

PavementWidening

211 LimeStabilizedAggregateBaseCourse

209-1
210-1- 210-2
211-1- 211-4

212-1- 215-5
zt5
ColdRecycling
of RoadPavementStructure
/ SoilStabilization
..... 213-1- 213-4
2 1 4 AsphalticConcreteBinderCourse
2 1 4 - 1- 2 1 4 - 4
2 1 2 BitumenStabilizedSub-Baseor Base

215-1- 215-6
216-1'216-2

215 Geotextiles
216

SolingStone .

2 1 7 Interlocking
ConcretePavingBlocks

2 1 7 - 1- 2 1 7 - 5

SURFACECOURSESAND PAVEIVIENT

Item-300

General

300-1
3 0 1 - 1- 3 0 1 - 3 d
302-1- 302-4

301 AsphalticMaterials
302 BituminousPrimeCoat
,303 BituminousTack Coat
304

BituminousSurfaceTreatmentand Seal Coat

305 AsphalticConcreteWearingCoursePlantMix

306-1- 306-3
307-1- 307-5
308-1- 308-2

306

ShoulderTreatment

307

Bit - Mac

308

Hot Recyclingof AsphaltConcrete

309

ColdMilling

?1n

ConcretePavements

? 11

AsphaltConcreteWearingCourse(PlantMix)with

312

303-1- 303-2
304-1- 304-7
305-1- 305-6

...:.

309-1- 309-2
3 1 0 - 1- 3 1 0 - 2 6

CelluloseFibre

3 ' t1 - 1- 3 11 - 8

ProofRolling

312-1

STRUCTURES
Item -400

General

400(4)Bridgesand Cutverts

4OO-1- 4OO_2
400(z\)_1-400(A)_3

401

Concrete

401_j- 401_33

402

Falsework and Centeringfor Bridges

402..1- 402-4

403

Form work

403-1- 403_4

404

SteelReinforcement

404-1- 104-5

105

PrestressedConcreteStructures

4 0 5 - 1- 4 0 5 - 1 0

Item No.

Description

406

JointsandBearingDevicesfor concreteStructures

407

Piling .

408

Sheet Piling .

409

Well Foundation

410

BrickMasonry...

411

Randomand DressedUncoursedStone Masonry

412

DressedCoursedStone Masonry

413

SteelStructures
.

Page
406-1- 406-8
407-1- 407-23
408-1- 4A8-3
409-1- 409-6
410-1- 410-3
411-1- 411-3
412-1- 412-6
413-1- 413-21

DRAINAGEANDEROSIONWORKS
Item-500

General

500-1

501

ReinforcedConcretePipe Culverts

502

Beddingor Encasement
of ConcretepipeCulverts

5 0 1 - 1- 5 0 1 - 7
502-1- 502-2

503

UnderDrain .

503-1- 503-2

504

Headwalls,
WingWalls,Parapets,
ApproachSlabs,Aprons
andSiphonInlets/ Ouflets

505

Manholes

s06

DroplnletsandCatchBasins

507

Gabions

508

BrickPaving

509

RipRapandReinforced
ConcreteSlopeprotection

5 1 0 Dismantling
of Structures
andStonepitching
5 1 1 StonePitching
512

DitchLiningandWashChecks

504-'1- 504-3
505-1- 5054
506-1- 506-3
507-1- 507-g
508-1- 508-2
509-1- 509-5
5 1 0 - 1- 5 1 0 - 3
5 11 - 1- 5 11 - 3
512-1- 512-3

ANCILLARY WORKS
Item-600

General

600-1

601

ConcreteKerbs,GuttersandChannels. . .

602

AsphaltConcrete
andCementConcrete
SideWalk

601-1- 601-6
602-1- 602-4

603

BrickEdging

603-1

604

MetalBeamGuardRail

605

ConcreteBeamGuardRail .

604-1- 604-3
605-1- 605-2

606

BridgeRailing

607

TrafficRoadSignsandSafetyDevices

606-1- 606-2
607-1- 607-10

'

Item No.

DescriPtion

Page
608-1- 608-13

608

PavementMarking

609

Reflectorized Pavement Studs

610

PrecastConcretePosts and Markers

611

Fencing

612

Furnishingand PlantingTrees,Shrubsand GroundCover

613

Spriggingand Sodding. . .

609-1 - 609-4
610-1- 610-2
6 1 1 - 1' 6 1 1 - 2
612-1 - 612-9
6 1 3 - 1- 6 1 3 - 4

MISCELLANEOUS

Item -701
702

Provrsionof SurveyTeams and Instruments

701-1

Provide,Equipand MaintainOfficeFacilityand Residence


for the Engineer(BaseCamp Facility)

703

for the Project


Provide,Equipand MaintainLaboratory

704

Maintenanceof Works for one year after Completion

703-1 '703-2

704-1

(Periodof Maintenance). . '

705 T e m p o r a r y R o a d W o r k s

702-1 - 702-2

.'''

706

of Traffic
Controland Protection

707

of Utilities.
Removal/Relocation
Equipments
MajorConstruction
Recommended

705-1'705-2
706-1' 706-2
707-1
M-1- M-4

GENERAL
l.
1.1

Introduction
Preamble
have been producedfor NationalHighwayAuthority,
GeneralSpecifications
keepingin consideration
that followingtypes of activitiesare being carried
out in this organization:
i) Construction
of Motorways,new Highways,Bridgesand alliedworks.
and lmprovementof existingroad network.
ii) Rehabilitation
iii) Maintenance
of existingroadsand structures.
and maintenance
All the abovethree aspectsof construction,rehabilitation
chapters
Specifications.
Subsequent
in
General
have been covered these
probable
of
with
indication
their
give
of
work
an
would
a list of such items
of
works.
use, in case of the above three categories

t.2

Standards
These Specifications describe the requirements and procedures for
executionof work items to achieve requiredworkmanshipand quality.The
materialsto be used shall conform to specificationsand testing procedures
as per AmericanAssociationof State Highwayand Transpo:'tationOfficials
(AASHTO), the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) or
British Standard(B.S.) as indicatedin their latest editions.Samples of
materialsfor laboratorytests and their subsequentapprovalshall be utilized
accordingto these references.

1.3

ManDower
Contractorshall also provideskilled manpowerin adequatenumber,who
can perform executionwith quality and workmanshipcontrol in accordance
with the requirementsof the work item.

1.4

Equipment
Nunrberand kind of Equipmentrequiredfor differentitems of work shall be
planned by the contractor keeping in view the workmanshiprequired by a
particularitem and the quantityof finrsheditem requiredto be carried out in
eighthoursshift.The Engineershall approvesuch planningor any cnanges
shall be proposedfor guidance of the Contractor.However this procedure
shall not relieve the Contractor of his contractualobligationspertainingto
performanceand maintenanceof project.
G-1

1.5

AlternativeEquipment
while few of these specifications
may providethat equipmentof a particular
size and type is to be used to perform portionsof the work, it is to be
understoodthat the deploymentand use of new or improvedequipmentis to
be encouraged.
The contractormay request,in writing,permissionfrom the Engineerto use
equipmentof a differentsize or type in place of the equipmentspecifiedor
recommendedin thesechapters.
The Engineer,beforeconsideringor grantingsuch request,may requirethe
contractorto furnish,at his expense,evidenceto satisfythe Engineerthat
the equipmentproposedfor use by the contractoris capableof producing
work equal to or betterin qualitythan, that which can be producedby the
equipmentspecified.
lf such permissionis grantedby the Engineer,it shall be understoodthat
such permissionis grantedfor the purposeof testing the qualityof work
actually produced by such equipment and is subject to continuous
attainmentof resultswhich,in the opinionof the Engineer,are equalto, or
betterthan, that which can be obtainedwith the equipmentspecified. The
Engineershall have the rightto withdrawsuch permissionat any time when
he determinesthat the alternativeequipmentis not producingwork of equal
quality in all respects,to that which can be produced by the equipment
specified. Upon withdrawalof such permission by the Engineer, the
contractor will be requiredto use the equipmentoriginallyspecifiedand
shall,in accordancewith the directionsof the Engineer,removeand dispose
off or othena/seremedy,at his expense,any defectiveor unsatisfactorywork
producedwith the alternative
equipment.
Neitherthe Employernor the contractorshall have any claim againstthe
other for either the withholdingor the granting of permissionto use
alternativeequipment,or for the withdrawalof such permission.
Nothingin this clause shall relievethe contractor of his responsibility
for
furnishingmaterialsor producingfinishedwork of the qualityspecifiedin
thesespecifications.

1.6

Storageof Materials
Articles or materialsto be incorporatedin the work shall be stored in such a
manner as to ensure the preservationof their quality and fitness for the
work,and to facilitateinspection.

t.7

DefectiveMaterials
All materialswhich the Engineerhas determinedas not conformingto the
requirementsof the drawingsand specifications
will be rejectedwhetherin
placeor not. They shall be removedimmediatelyfrom the site of the work,
unless otherwise permitted by the Engineer. No rejected material,the
defects of which have been subsequenilycorrected,shall be used in the
v-z

work, unless approvalin writing has been given by the Engineer.Upon


failureof the Contractorto complypromptlywith any order of the Engineer
made underthe provisionsin this clause,the Engineershallhaveauthorityto
cause the removalof rejectedmaterialand to deductthe cost thereoffrom
any paymentsdue or to becomedue to the Contractor.
1.8

Ouarry Materials
Quarrymaterialts rock, sand gravel,earth,or other mineralmaterial,other
than local borrow or selected material,obtainedon the project. Quarry
materialdoes not includematerialssuch as cement, lime, marble powder
etc. obtainedfrom establishedcommercialsources.
QuarryMaterialsshall be furnishedby the Contractorfrom any source he
may select,exceptthat when mandatorylocal sourcesof certainmaterials
are designatedin the Special Provisions,the Contractor shall furnish
materialfrom such designatedmandatorysources.
The furnishing of quarry materialsfrom any source is subject to the
and item of Work".
of drawings,Specifications,
provisionsof "Examination
Unlessapprovedin writing by the Engineer,materialSourcesshall not be
excavatedat locationswhere the resultingscars will presentan unsightly
appearancefrom any highway. No payment will be made for material
obtainedin violationof this provision.
The Contractorshall,at his expense,make any arrangementsnecessaryfor
haulingover localpublicand privateroadsfrom any source.
Full compensationfor furnishingall labour,materials,tools,equipment,and
incidentals,and for doing all the work involved in conformingto the
provisionsin this clause,for furnishingand producingmaterialsfrom any
sourceshallbe consideredas includedin the pricepaid for the contractitem
of work involvingsuch materialand no additionalcompensationwill be
allowedtherefor.

1.9

TradeNamesand Alternatives
certain
For conveniencein designationon the plansor in the specifications,
under
be
designated
may
work
in
the
incorporated
be
articlesor materialsto
information.
catalogue
the
and
manufacturer
of
a
a trade name or the name
The use of an alternativearticleor materialthat is of equalqualityand of the
for the purposeintendedwill be permitted,subjectto
requiredcharacteristics
the followingrequirements:
of proofas to qualityand suitabilityof alternativesshallbe
The responsibility
uoon the Contractorand he shall furnrsh all informationnecessaryas
requiredby the Engineer. The Engineershall be the sole judge as to the
of alternativearticlesor materialsand his decisionshall
qualityand suitability
be final.

G-3

Wheneverthe specifications
permitthe substitution
of a similaror equivalent
material or article, no tests or action relating to the approvalof such
substitutematerialwill be made untilthe requestfor the substitution
is made
in writingby the contractoraccompaniedby completedata as to the equality
of the materialor articleproposed.such requestshall be made well in time
to permitapprovalwithoutdelayingthe work.
1.10

Frequencyof Tests& TestDesisnation


Frequency of tests for the items of constructionhas been given in
subsequentchapters.Test designationand procedurewill be used ls given
in the latestversionof relativepublication.

l.1l

Testing
Unlessotheruvise
specified,all tests shall be performedin accordancewith
the methodsused by AASHTO/ASTMand shall be made by the contractor
underthe supervisionof the Engineeror his designatedrepresentative.
whenever the specificationsprovidean option between two or more tests,
the Engineerwill determinethe test to be used.
whenever a reference is made in the specificationsto a specification
manual,or a test designationeitherof the AmericanSocietyFor Testingand
Materials,the AmericanAssociationof state Highwayand rransportation
officials, FederalHighwayspecification,or any othei recognizednational
organization,
and the numberor otheridentification
representing
the year of
adoptionor latestrevisionis omitted,it shall mean the specificaiion,
manual
or test designation in effect on the day 30 days prior to the date for
submissionof bids.whenever said specification
manualor test designation
provides for test reports (such as certified mill test reports) from
the
manufacturer,copiesof such reports,identifiedas to the lot of material,shall
be furnishedto the Engineer.when materialthat cannot be identifiedwith
specifictest reportsis proposedfor use,the Engineermay, at his discretion,
select random samplesfrom the lot for testing.Test specimensfrom the
random samples,includingthose requiredfor retest,shall be preparedin
accordance with the referenced specification and furnished by the
contractorat his expense.The numberof such samplesand test specimens
shall be entirely at the discretionof the Engineer. Unidentifiedmetal
products such as sheet plate, hardware,etc. shall be subject to
the test
requirements
prescribedby the Engineer.
when desiredby the Engineer,the contractorshall furnish,withoutcharge,
samplesof all materialsenteringintothe work and no materialshallbe used
prior to approvalby the Engineer.samples of materialfrom local
sources
shall be taken by or in the presenceof the Engineer,otherurrise
the samples
will not be consideredfor testing.

t.L2

ConstructionStakes.Linesand Grades
The Engineer will furnish design survey data and joinfly locate with
contractor,all pointsof intersection
and of tangentsand basic benchmarks.
The plans indicatethe propertiesof horizontaland vertical curves,together
with rates of superelevationwhere required. The contractor shall set

G-4

constructionstakes establishinglines,slopes,and continuousprofile-grade


in roadwork, and centerlineand benchmarksfor bridgework, culvertwork,
protectiveand accessorystructuresand appurtenancesand will furnish the
Engineerwith the originalcopy of the field notestogetherwith all necessary
informationrelatingto lines, slopes and grades.These stakes and marks
shall constitutethe field control by and in accordancewith which the
contractorshallestablishothernecessarycontrolsand performthe work.
lf, in the opinion of the Engineer,modificationof the line or grade is
advisable, before or after stakeout, the Engineer will issue detailed
instructionsto the Contractorfor such modificationand the Contractorwill
revisethe stakeoutfor furtherapproval.No change in bid unit pricewill be
madefor such modifications.
The profilesand cross sectionson the plansindicatethe elevationof the top
of road surface or as otherwisenoted on the plans. The contractorshall be
responsiblefor the preservationof all stakes and marks, and if any of the
constructionstakes or marks has been destroyed or disturbed, the
Contractorwill replacethem at his own expense.
The Contractorshall be responsiblefor the accuracyof all lines, slopes,
grades,and othersurveywork.
1.13

As-Built Drawinss/ShonDrawinss
During construction,the Contractorshall keep an accurate record of all
deviationsof work as actuallyinstalledfrom that shown or indicatedon the
ContractDrawingsor revisedduring construction.Upon completionof the
Works,the Contractorshalldeliverall "As Built"drawingsto the Engineer.
All shop drawings/fabrication
drawingsshall be prepared by the Contractor
and submittedto the Engineerbeforethe start of the work. The Engineer
shall check and approve or return the same to the Contractor for
correction/modification.
All works are to be executed in accordancewith
shop drawings,approvedbefore the commencementof the works. Shop
drawingsshouldtruly reflectthe provisionsof typicaldrawings.Any deviation
from the provisionof contractdrawings,Shallnot be allowedunlesswritten
approvalis issuedby the Engineer.

L.t4

Utilitv Lines
The Contractorshallconducthis operations,make necessaryarrangements,
take suitableprecautionsand performall requiredworks incidentalto the
protection of and avoidance of interference with power transmission,
telegraph,telephoneand naturalgas lines, oil lines water and sewerage
mainsand otherutilitieswithinthe areasof his operationsin connectionwith
his contract and the Contractorshall save harrnlessand indemnifythe
Employerin respect of all claims, demands,proceedings,costs, charges
and expenses whatsoever arising out of or in relation to any such
interference.

G-5

1.15

SafetrPrecautions.
The contractorshalladequatelyprovidefor the safety,healthand welfareof
persons and for the preventionof damage to works, materials and
equipmentfor the purposeof or in connectionwith the Contract.

l.l6

Inspection
The Engineershall, at all times, have safe access to the work during its
construction,and shall be furnished with every reasonablefacility for
ascertainingthat the materialsand the workmanshipare in accordancewith
the requirementsand intentions of these specifications,the special
Provisions,and the plans/drawings.All works done and all maierials
furnishedshall be subjectto inspectionby Engineer.
The inspectionof the work or materialsshall not relievethe Contractorof
any of his obligations
to fulfillhis contractas prescribed.Work and materials
not meetingsuch requirements
shall be made good and unsuitablework or
materialsmay be rejected,not withstanding
that such work or materialshave
been previouslyinspectedby the Engineeror that paymenttherefor has
been includedin a progressestimate.

t.t7

Removal
of Reiected
and Unauthorized
Work
All works, which have been rejected,shall be remedied,or removedand
replacedby the contractorin an acceptablemanner and no compensation
will be allowedto him for such removal,replacement,or remedialwork.
Any work done beyond the lines and grades shown on the plans or
establishedby the Engineer,or any extrawork done withoutwrittenauthority
will be consideredas unauthorized
work and will not be paidfor.
Upon orderof the Engineer,unauthorized
work shall be remedied,removed.
or replacedat the Contractor's
expenses.
Upon failure of the contractorto comply prompflywith any order of the
Engineer made under this ltem, the Emproyermay cause rejected or
unauthorized
work tq be remedied,removed,or replacedand to deductthe
costsfrom any paymentdue or to becomedue to the contractor.

l.l8

AlternativeMethodsof Construction
wheneverthe plansor specifications
providethat more than one specified
methods of constructionor more than one specifiedtype of construction
equrpmentmay be use to perform portions of the work and leave the
selectionof the methodof construction
or the type of equipmentto be used
up to the contractor,it is understood
that the Employerdoes not guarantee
that everysuch methodof construction
or type of equipmentcan be used
successfullythroughoutall or any part of any project.lt shall be the
Contractor'sresponsibility
to select and use the alternativeor alternatives,
whichwill satisfactorily
performthe work underthe conditionsencountered.
Lr-O

are not feasibleor it is necessaryto use


ln the eventsome of the alternatives
on
more than one of the alternatives any project,full compensationfor any
additionalcost involvedshall be consideredas includedin the contractprice
paid for the item of work involved and no additionalcompensationwill be
allowedthereof.
1.19

Conformitvrn'ithContractDocumentsand AllowableDeviations.
Work and materialsshall conform to the lines, grades, cross sections,
dimensionsand materialrequirements,includingtolerances,shown on the
plans or indicatedin the specifications.Althoughmeasurement,sampling
and testingmay be consideredevidenceas to such conformity,the Engineer
shallbe the solejudge as to whetherthe work or materialsdeviatefrom the
plans and specifications,and his decision relating to any allowable
deviationstherefromshallbe final.

r.20

Trial Section
Contractorshall submit completemethodologyof trial sectionfor approvalof
the Engineer.Trial sections shall be prepared for each type of road
pavement layer. Inspite of the approval of Engineer for trial section,
contractorshall be responsiblefor the qualityof work. Contractorwill provide
in the methodology.
minimumof followinginformations
i) Equipmentto be used.
rr,1LayerthrcknessadoPted
iii) Per day production.
iv) Resultsof tests.

2.

Scope
The Stand.ardSpecificationsis a part of contractdocumentswhich shall be
read in conjunctionwith the followingcontractdocumentswhich are mutually
explanatoryto one another and mentionedhereunder,with the order of
precedenceas givenin the Conditionof Contract.
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
(viii)
(ix)
(x)
(xi)

ContractAgreement.
to bidders.
Instruction
Addenda.
Letterof accePtance.
conditions.
SupplementarY
SpecialProvisions.
Conditionsof ContractPart- ll.
Conditionsof ContractPart- l.
Drawings.
GeneralSpecifications.
The bid and Appendices"A to L"

3. Abbreviationsand Definitions
Wherever in these specificationsor in other contract documents the
and termsor pronounsin placeof them are used,the
followingabbreviations
as follows:
intentand meaningshallbe interpreted
G-7

3.1

Abbreviations

AASHTO

AmericanAssociationof State Highwayand


TransportationOfficials.

ASTM

AmericanSocietyfor Testingand Material

AWG

AmericanWire Gauge

AWPA

AmericanWood PreserversAssociation

BS

BritishStandardCode of Practice

ACr

AmericanConcreteInstitute

FHWA

U.S.FederalHighwayAdministration

PCA

PortlandCementAssociation

wt.

Weight

Lb.

Pound

AWS

AmericanWeldingSociety

Gallon

U.S.Gallon

In.

Inch

Ft.

Foot

Yd.

Yard

Ltr.

Litre

mm

Millimeter

cm.

Centimeter

Meter

Km

Kilometer

SM

SquareMeter
degree

Sq. cm.

SquareCentimeter

CM

CubicMeter

ha

Hectare

Kg

Kilogram

Ton

MetricTon (1000Kg)

oc

DegreeCentigrade

oF

DegreeFahrenheit

G-8

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s5tEE.i5,5V
oql u! slopuaf
,,lelapuol ol uollsnJlsul,,
Jo uorssruqnslo] autl pue olep leuryotll ol rot-tds;epplq ol ponssl
sueld .ro sluourncoplcelluoC all] o] uolslnolJo luaulpuaue ua]lllm V -tunFfrsFpy
s,reeutbu3oL.llol ua]l )lom oql1o uotleldruo3
uotloe1stles
F-aTd555V
:sMollolse paloloJolulaq
'pasn ele uleq} eceld ut sunouoldJo sulJal
pue
al{i
lo
lualut
lleqs Oulueeu
asaql ul lanalaqM
aq] luauncop ]selluocloulo ul lo suollecrylcads
6urmo11o1

sEbiftuso

!r

Barrage
A low dam or weir across a river equippedwith a series of gates to
regulatethe water surface level above the weir.
BaseCourse
The layerof specifiedmaterialand thicknessplacedimmediatelybelow
the surfacing.
Batten

Beam,structural
member.
Beldar
Unskilledlabour employed on maintenance gangs for canals or roads.
Bid/Tender Price
The sum of the products of the quantities of work with the quoted prices
in the Tender by the Contractor.
Bill of Ouantities and Iist of Prices

A listshowing
workquantities
and specifying
unitpriceand/orlumpsum
for specificitemsof work.
Blindins Layer

A layerof concreteor othermaterial(Generally


thin)coveringthe surface
groundor fill,forminga stablesurfaceon whichfurtherwork
of excavated
maybe constructed.
Boulder

A rock fragment,usuallyroundedby weathering


or abrasion,with an
average
dimension
of 10centimeters
or more.
Boundary
Limitof right-of-wayor other zones.
Bridse
Any structure other than a culveft, which carries a utility, facility, or
railroad highway, pedestrian,or other traffic over a water course,
over, under or around any obstructionand with a clear span of more
than6.50M.

G-10

Bund
-

A continuous embankment, dike or levee (generally associated with


training or containing the flow of rivers).

Catchment
The watershed or area which contributes runoff to a drain or other
channel.
Contractor

for
withthe Employer/Client
contracting
firm or corporation
The individual
work.
performance
of the prescribed
Contract Price

The sum of the productsof the quantitieswith the agreed prices


appearing in the 'agreement'between the Contractor and the
Engineer/Employer.
Construction Limit

limitof a projectis area betweenleft & rightside of catch


Construction
thislimit
whereas in caseof Structures
pointsof roadunderconstruction,
permanent
structure
of
willextendto areawhichis requiredfor execution
Cubic Meter

to 1.0M x 1.0M x 1.0M.


A volumeequivalent
Cuboid

Crushedstoneparticleswith eachface fracturedand in roughlycuboid


shape.
Culvert
otherthan a bridgewhichprovidesan openingundera
Any structure,
proposesand with a clearspanof 6'5
roadwayfor drainageor irrigation
M or less.

ry
'Railroad-cum-road' bridge.
With or associated with - for example,
Cusec

A rateof flowof onecubicfootpersecond.

G-11

Daywork
Work to be paidfor on the basisof actuallabour,material,and plantused
- Forceaccount.
Detour(Diversion)
A temporaryroadway,which leavesthe main,routeand rejoinit later,for
the uninterrupted
flow of traffic.
Drarvings
The approvedplans(drawings),
profiles,typical cross-sections,revised
drawings and supplementaldrawings,or exact reproductionthereof,
whichshowthe location,character,dimensionsand detailsof the work.
Earth
sediments or other unconsolidatedaccumulationsof solid particles,
producedby the physicaland chemicaldisintegration
of rock, and which
may or may not containorganicmatter.
Engineer
The duly authorizedrepresentative
of the client/Employerfor controlling
the project site, acting directly or through his duly authorized
representatives,
who is responsiblefor engineeringsupervisionof the
work.
Ettuipment
All machineryand equipment,togetherwiththe necessarysuppliesfor up
keep and maintenanceand also tools and apparatusnecessaryfor the
properconstruction
and acceptablecompletionof the work.
Fir
Any item of construction
which requiresspecialplacementin the works.
FlexitrlePavementStructure
Any combinationof improved subgrade,subbase, base and asphalt
surfacingplacedon the subgradeto supportthe trafficload and reduce
its intensityat the subgradesurface.
Formsor Formvvork
-

Shutteringincludingsupportsand falsework.

G-12

Frustrationof a Contract
Rendered impossibleof performanceby external cause beyond the
of the Parties.
contemplation
Gang Header

Experiencedworkmanor labourinchargeof small groupsof workmenor


labour.
Gasoline
Motorspirit,petrol.
Godown
Warehouse,storeroomor storageshed'
Grade
the top surfaceof the proposed
The trace of a verttcalplaneintersecting
center-lineof the roadbed.
longitudinal
the
along
usually
wearingsurface,
gradient
of such trace according
or
either
elevation
Profilegrade means
to the context.
Gravel
small sized stone,shingleor rock fragmentsusuallyroundedin shape
formedfrom rocksor bouldersby glacialor weatheringaction
GuideBank (for Bund)
A protectiveand trainingembankmentor leveefor directingriverflow.
Highway

A general term denotingpublic way for purposes of vehiculartravel,


includingthe entirearea withinthe right-of-way.(RecommendedUsage:
or road)'
or street;in ruralareas-highway
in urbanareas-highway
Install
To place in special position any hardware, equipmentor fixture for
completinga job.
Kilometer
A distanceequalto1000meters.

G-13

Laboratory

A testinglaboratoryapprovedby NHA or any testihglaboratory,


which
maybe designated
bythe Engineer.
Levelins Course
The layer of specifiedmaterialof variablethickness placed generallyon
an existingroad surface to compensatefor depressionsand undulations
in order to conect grades and cross falls accordingto design.
Materials
Any substancespecifiedfor use in the constructionof the project and its
appurtenances.
Metalled(roadwav)
Surfaced, paved (roadway).
Mile
Distanceof 5,280feet. (1,610M)
Monsoon

The rainy season associated with the south-west monsoon.


Motor Spirit

Octroi
-

A municipalfeefor municipalservices.

Pe$od of Mqintenance
Periodof maintenanceshall mean the periodof contractor,smaintenance
named in the contract,calculatedfrom the date of completionof the work
as certified by the Hand-over committee.
Pitchins or Rin-Ran
Brokenstone, brickworkor other materialsplaced usuallyon side slopes
of Embankmentsfor protectionof the earth surface, dry or in cement
mortaras specified.

G-14

Prime Cost
A net sum enteredin the Bill of Quantitiesby the employeras the sum
providedto coverthe cost of or to be paid by the Contractorto merchants
or others for specificarticles or materialsto be suppliedafter deducting
all trade discountsand any discountfor cash'
Provide
To make availablean item for a certainperiod/timeor indefinitetime as
the case maYbe.
ProvisionalSum
Any sum of money fixed by the Employerand includedin the Bill of
Quantitiesto provide for work not otherwise included thereln. A
provisionalsum is onlyto be expended,eitherwhollyor in part underthe
or the Enginee/s directionin accordance
Lmployer'sRepresentatives
with Contract.This sum may or may not be utilisedin full or partially
throughthe contractor'
Regulator
A canal structure,usuallyequippedwith gates, for control,or checking,of
flow in the canalor an off takingchannel.
Return
Report
Revetment(Material)
-

Rock.

Rieht-of-wav (ROW)
A general-termdenotingland, property,or interesttherein,usuallyin a
strip, acquiredfor or devotedto transportationpurposes'
Roadside
A general term denoting the area adjoining the outer edge of the
roadway. Extensiveareas between the roadwaysof a divided highway
may also be consideredroadside'
Roadwav
The portionof a highwaywithin limitsof construction'

G-15

Scaffoldine
Arrangementof struts/columns/pipes
to support shuttering or other
platforms.
Settingout
Layingout or staking out-establishing
on the site the lines, levels and
gradesto whichthe construction
worksare to be carriedout.
Shinsle
See Aggregates.
Shoulders
The portion of the roadway contiguous with the traveled way for
accommodation
of stoppedvehicles,for emergencyuse, and for lateral
supportof baseand surfacecourses.
Sidewalk
That portion of the roadway primarily constructedfor the use of
pedestrians.
SleeDers
Crossties, railroadties.
SoilBinder
Portionof Soil passing0.425mm (# 40) sieve.
SpecialProvisions
Additions and revisionsto the standard specificationsand General
conditions of contract, coveringconditionsparticularto an individual
contract.
Spoil-Banb
Disposalareafor excessexcavation,
spoiltip or wastedump.
Structures
Bridges,culverts,catch basins,drop inlets retainingwalls, manholes,
headwalls,service pipes causewayslrish bridges and other"features
whichmay be encounteredin the work and not otherwiseclassedherein.
Subbase
- The layer of specifiedmaterialand thicknessplaced
betweenthe base
courseand subgrade.
G-16

Lt-9
'salclLlaA
Aennpa;enerle Jo uoluodleql
Jo ourl al6urse Jo luouanoul aLl]Duhnolle
ffiTffirrr'repuel e butptuuqns
lo tuJUV
lenplnlpul
rSlmue;plB
lesodo.td
isFEeI
'slseq
luaueulad uo uteltIue lonllepo16ulueau A;ueutt.t6
I-Iildn$
'IUOtUAAeO

'aslnoc acepns ala:cuoo


alaJcuoc Jo
lleqdse 1o (6utssalp oce1.lns
'raplnoLls
1oq) luauleaJl ocelns Jo lstsuoc Ieu Outce;lnsJo sad^f
lsotueddn aqf
ro {ennpalaneJlaq} uo paceldletJa}eupetltcads1o rer(e1

;umrn-S
',,eslnoo6uttea14,,
pallecosle :]uauaned
palilcads
;eAel
ssau)ctlll
lsoLueddn eq1
alarcuoo lleqdse ue lo
1o
Ssrno-5@nS

']uoro
ro ourocutJo lanol utepaoe anoqe;t;o;d .to aulocul uo xe] luelsl)ed V
IEt;itdnS
'sauer] pt6t.t
's;;enn
to 'sueds
6unn'sllemIceq 6ulpn;cut
snonurluocpue alduts ;o s6utleaqelll Molaqornlcnrlse jo ued lelll ]o llv
SrIuinilsqES
'uorlezrltqels
paqpeolJo uollec4lpoy\1
Aq ;ettaleLu
trlelu-rea'iJ;pP'J;quS
'paceldaq ol seq
'Lo)
uo (]ueuu>lueqLua peqpeolaq] lo la^alleql
lprlaleuipeol laqlo LlctL.lM
i5^fllTiE.q-flS
palcnllsuooale sqlnc 6ulpnlcutsloplnoqs
puE soJnlcnJls]uouja^Bdeq1qcrqnn
uodn peqpeoi e Jo acepns dol aq1
tF-Br5.qnS

Unmetalled(Roadwav)
Unsurfaced,unpaved(roadway)/dirt
road.
Variation Order
A documentcompiledto includechanges,substitutionsand additional
work items not coveredin the B.o.e, for the sanctionof the competent
Authorityand shall includeincreaseor decreasein quantitiesor rates
also.
Work
The work shall mean the furnishingof all labour, materials,equipment
and other incidentals necessary. or convenient to the successful
completionof the projectand carryingout of all the dutiesand obligations
imposedby the contract.
. Wason (railway)
A railroadfreightcar.
Wavleave
Permissionto cross land,rightof entryas definedin the land acquisition
act of the Governmentof Pakistan.
Well
A concreteor masonrycaissonincorporated
in foundations.
Working Drawings
Stress sheets,shop drawings,erectionplans,falseworkplans,form work
plans, cofferdam plans, bending diagrams for reinforcingsteel, or any
other supplementaryplansor similardata which the contractoris required
to submitto the Engineerfor approval.
Written Undertakins
A written promise.

G-18

TABLE FOR SAMPLING


ANI)
TESTING FREQUENCY

SC]HEDL]LEFOR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF EIVIBANKMEN'TAND SUBGRADE


fiTEtVINO. 108TO 113)
Test

Material

Soil

Designation

Sam;llingand Testing
Frequencv

Reference

Classification.

AASHTOM-,I45

1/2.000
cM

As per ltem
108.2,
109.2.5,
110.2etc.

CBR

AASHTOT-193

M.
1/2,000

As per ltem
1 0 8 . 2a n d
1 1 0 . 2e t c .

Swelling

AASHTOT.193

1 / 2 , 0 0c0M .

As per ltem
1 0 8 . 2( c )

MoistureDensity
(Lab) or
RelativeDensity.

AASHTOT-180

1t2,000
M.

ASTM D-4254-83

' t 1 1 , 0 0M0.

As per ltem
1 0 83 ,
109.2.2etc
ref. Density

FieldDensity.

AASHTOT-191

1/200M.

As per ltem
'108.3,
109.2.2etc.

SCHEDULE F'OR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF'GRANULAR SUBBASE


(rTEM NO. 201)
Test

Material

Aggregate

Designation

Sampling and Testing


Frequency

Reference

Gradation

AASHTO T.27

plus1/1000CM
3/Source

PlasticityIndex.

AASHTO T-89
and T-90

3/Source plus as required


baseon visualobservation.

-do-

MSHTO T-193

3/Source plus as required


based on variation in
gradationor 1/'1000
CM

-do-

CBR

As per ltem
No.201.2

Abrasion

AASHTO T-96

3/Sourceplus 1/500CM

-do-

Moisture
Density.

AASHTO T-180

1 / 1 0 0 0c M

-do-

FieldDensity

AASHTO T-191,
T-238 and f -239

4llayerl400 M
laid, 3 As per ltem
Minimum/layerif less than N o . 2 0 1 . 3 . 4 .
400 M laid.

Sand Equivalent

AASHTO T-176

3/source plus as required As per ltem


basedon visualobservation. N o .2 0 1 . 2

SCHEDULEFOR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF AGGREGATE BASE COURSE


(rTEM NO.202)
Test

Material

Aggregate

Designation

Sampling and Testing


Frequencv

Reference

As perltem
202.2(a)

Gradation

AASHTO T-27

3/Sourceplus 1/'1000M

PlasticityIndex.

AASHTO T-89
and T-90

3/Sourceplus as required
As perltem
basedon visualobservatron. 202.2(e)

CBR

AASHTO T-193

pileplusas
3/Source/stock
requiredbase on variationin
gradation.

Abrasion

AASHTO T-96

3/Sourceplus 1/5,000CM

As perltem
202.2(c)

Sodium
Sulphate
Soundness

AASHTO T-104

plus1/5,000
3/Source
CM

As per ltem
202.2(d)

Fracturedfaces.

Visual

plusas required As per ltem


3/Source
basedon visualobservation.202.2(b)

MoistureDensity.

AASHTO T-180

1 / 1 0 0 c0M

As perltem
203.3.3.

FieldDensity.

AASHTO T-191or
T-238 and T-239.

M laid3
4llayerl400
minimum/layer
if lessthan
400M laid.

As peritem
202.3.3.

Sand Equivalent

AASHTO T-176

As per ltem
3/sourceplusas required
basedon visualobservation.202.2(e)

G-21

As perltem
202.2(f)

SCHEDULE FOR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF ASPHALTIC BASE COURSE


PLANT NIIX (ITEM NO. 203)
ilIaterial
Coarse
Aggregate

Fine
Aggregate

Asphalt
Cement

Mixture

Designatiou

Sampling and Testing

Reference

Gradation

AASHTO T-27

1 1 1 0 0c0M

Abrasion

AASHTO T_96

pileplus
3/Source/stock
1/5000cM

As per ltem
2 0 3 . 2 . 1( a )

SodiumSulphate
Soundness

AASHTO T-104

3/Sourceplus'l15000
CM

As per ltem
2 0 3 . 2 . 1( b )

Stripping

AASHTO T_-I82

3/Sourceplus2/5000CM

Fracturedfaces

Visual

3/Sourceplusas required
As per ltem
basedon visualobservation 203.2.1

Flatand Elongated Visual


Particle.

As per ltem
243.2.1(e)

SpecificGravity.
and Absorption

AASHTO T-85

4/Sourcefor each size in Hot


binsof AsphaltPlant

Sand Equivalent
or
Plasticity
Index.

AASHTO T - 1 7 6
AASHTO T-89
andT-90.

3iSourceplusas required
As per ltem
basedon visualobservation. 203.2.1(c)
2/1000cM
As per ltem
2 0 3 . 2 . 1( d )

SpecificGravity.

AASHTO T-84

4/Source.

FriableParticles

AASHTO T - 1 1 2

2/5000cM

SpecificGravity.

AASHTO T-228

2/Shipment.

Penetration

AASHTO T-49

3/Weekof plantoperation
As per ltem
Samplestakenfromheating 203.2.2.
tank at staggered
intervals.

Extraction
Gradation
B u l kS p G r .

AASHTO T - 1 6 4
T-30
AASHTO T - 1 6 6
l/lethodB

M a x r m u mS p
Air Voids

(Jr

AASHTO T-209
AASHTO T-269

v-tz

For use in
preparation
of Jl\4F

For use in
preparation
ofJMF.

For use in
preparation
ofJMF.

2lday'sproduction.

As per ltem
203.2.3.

SCHEDULE FOR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF ASPHALTIC BASE COURSE


(ITEM NO. 203)
PLANT MIX
Material

Test

Thickness
Mixture
Compacted
in place.
Compaction

Sampling and Testing


Frequency.

Reference

AASHTO T-230

lllayer @ 100 M interval


per lane.

As per item
203.3.11.

AASHTOT-230
ASTMD2950

lllayer @ 100 M interval


per lane.

As per item
203.3.9

Designation

Notes:
Test locationswill be selectedat random

G-23

SCHEDULB FOR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF SOIL-CEMENT BASE COURSE


(ITEM NO. 204)
Vlaterial

Test

Designation

Sampling and Testing


Freguencv.

Reference

Soil

Classification.

AASHTO T-27 and


T-89.

3/Borrow
Sourceplus
1 / 1 0 0c0M

SoilClass
must be A-3
orA-4.

Mixture

Moisture-Densitv.

AASHTOT-134

1/SoilClass.

As per ltem
204.3.4for
ref. Density

Pulverization.

Note(a)

1/300m strip

FieldDensity.

AASHTOT-,I91
T-238& T-205.

1/300m strip
1/300m strip

As per ltem
204.3.5.

Compressive
Strength

ASTM D-1633

1/SoilClass

As per ltem
204.2.4

Wetting& Drying

AASHTOT-135

'1lSoil
Class

Note:
a)

Screening
of Soilthroughone inchand No.4
sievespriorto mixingwith cement.

G-24

For mix
design.

SCHEDULE FOR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF CRACK-RELIEF LAYER


(ITEM NO. 205)
Material

Test

Designation

Sampling and Testing


Frequency

Reference

Gradation

AASHTO T-27

Same as for ftem2A2.

Aggregate
Gradation
(Asphaltic
open-graded
plantmix)

AASHTO T-27

Same as for coarse


As per item
aggregateunderitem203. 2 0 5 . 2 . 1 .

Aggregate
(Crushed)

Asphalt
Cement
Mixture

Sameas for ltem203

AsphaltCoating.

AASHTO

'195

1/day'sproduction
or as
requiredbasedon visual
observation.

As per ltem
205.2.1.

As per ltem
203.2.2.

SCHBDULE FOR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF WEARING COURSE


PLANT MIX (ITBM NO. 305)
Material

Test

Designation

Coarse
Aggregate

Gradation

AASHTO T-27

1 i 1 0 0 0c M

Abrasion.

AASHTO T-96

3/Sourceplus 1/5000CM

As per ltem
3 0 5 . 2 . 1( a )

SodiumSulphate
Soundness

AASHTO T-104

3/Sourceplus 1/5000CM

As per ltem
305.21 (b)

AASHTO I-182

3/Source plus '115000


CM

Stripping
Fracturedfaces

Visual

Sampling and Testing


Frequency

3iSource plus as required As per ltem


baseon visualobservation. 305.2.1

Flatand Elongated
Particle.
Visual

Fine
Aggregate

Asphalt
Cement.

Premix
Asphalt

Reference

-do-

As per ltem
305.2.1(e)

SpecificGravity
and Absorption.

AASHTO T-85

4/Sourcefor each size in Hot


binsof AsphaltPlant.

SandEquivalent
or
PlasticityIndex.

AASHTO T-176

plusas required
3/Source
As per ltem
baseon visualobservation. 305.2.1(c)
1 / 1 0 0 c0M
As per ltem

AASHTO T-89 &


T-90.

For use in
preparation
of JMF.

305.21 (d)

SpecificGravity.

AASHTO T-84

2/Source

FriableParticles

AASHTO T-112

1/5000cM

SpecificGravity.

AASHTO T-228

2/shipment.

Penetration.

AASHTO T-49

3iweekof plantoperation.
As per
Samplestakenfrom heating clause
tank at staggeredintervals. 305.2.2

Extraction
Gradation

AASHTO T-164
AASHTO T-30

Flow

AASHTO T-245

Stability

AASHTO T-245

BulkSp. Gravity

AASHTO T-166

LossStability

AASHTO T-245

2lday'sproduction.

For use in
preparation
of JMF.

For use in
preparation
of JMF.

As per
Clause
305.2.3.

SCTIEDULE FOR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF WEARING COURSE


PLANT MrX (ITBM NO. 30s)
Material

Mixture
compactedin
prace.

Test

Designation

Sampling and Testing


Frequency

Rel'erence

Thickness

AASHTO T-230

lllayer @ 100 M intervalPer


lane.

As per item
305.3.2.

Compaction

AASHTO T.230
ASTM D2950

lllayer @ 100 M intervalPer


lane.

As per ltem
305.3.2.

Notes
Test locationswill be selectedat random.

SCHEDULE FOR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF'CONCRETE


(rTEM NO. 401)
Sampling and Testing

Coarse
Aggregate

AASHTO T.27

2/Stockpile
plus 1/1000CM

As perltem
401.2.3

AASHTO T-19

1/Sourceplus1/1000CM

Forusein
preparation
of
mixdesign.

AASHTO T-85

2/Source
plus1 / 1 0 0c0M

-do-

AASHTO T-85

1/Source
plus1/500cM

_oo_

AASHTO T-96

1/Source
plus1/5000cM

As perltem
401.2.3

AASHTO r-104

1/Sourceplus 1/5000CM

As perltem
401.2.3

AASHTO M-BO

1/Sourceplus 1/5000CM

As perltem
401.2.3

2/Source
plus1/1000CM

As perltem
401.2.2

4/Source
plus1/800CM

Forusein
preparation
of
mixdesign.

AASHTO T-84

4/Source
plus1/1000
CM

-do-

AASHTO T-84

'1lSource
plus1/1000
CM

-do-

AASHTO T-21

1/Source
plus'l/1000
CM

AASHTOT-104

1/Source
plus1/5000CM

AASHTO M-6

1/Source
plus1/1000
CM

As perltem
401.2.2

AASHTO M-6

1/Source
plus1/5000CM

As perltem
401.2.2

Fine
Aggregate

1/Source
plus1/5000CM

G-28

As perltem
4 0 1 . 3 .a9n d
401.2.2

SCHEDULE FOR SAMPLING AND TESTING OF CONCRETE

(rrEM NO. 401)


Material

Cement

Water

Concrete
mix

Test

Designation

Sampling and Testing


Freouencv.

Acceptance
Limit.

YieldTest for
CementContent

AASHTO T-121

1/Lotor 1000Bags

As per ltem
310.3.3

SettingTime

AASHTO T-131

1/Lotor 1000Bags

As per ltem
401.2.1

MortarStrength

AASHTO T,132

1/Lotor 1000Bags

As per ltem
401.2.1

ChemicalTests AASHTO T-26

1/Source

As per ltem
401.2.7

AASHTO T-22
Compression
(Cubeor Cylinder)

6/Shiftor 50 CM (2 setsof 3
each)

As per ltem
4 0 1 . 1 .t1a b l e
401-1

Slump

2/shiftor 50 CM

AASHTO T-119

G-29

-do-

TABLE FOR ALLOWABLE TOLERANCES


(EARTTTWORKS, PAVBMENT COURSES AND CONCRETE)
Thickness

Level

(mm)

(mm)

Description

5M Straightedge
(mm)

Cross-fall
(%)

LongitudinalGrade
in30M
f/"\

Sub-grade

+zv

+0
-40

2n

+ 0.5

fu.

Subbase(Granular
or
Stabilized)

+10
-20

+0
-25

20

t 0.3

+ 0.1

BaseCourse(Granular + 5
- 10
or Stabilized)

+5
-10

+ 0.2

10.1

!0.2

+ 0.1

+<

!0.2

+ 0.1

+'1n

+ 0.2

10.1

AsphalticBase Course.

+?

-10
AsphalticWearing
Course..

+3

Concretefor
Pavements.

+10
-5

Concrete
for structures + 5

Note:

4n

110

Materialfor stabilization
of soil may be cement,lime or bitumen.

2.

Accumulative
toleranceshallnot be morethanthat as specifiedagainst
the finallaver.

G-30

ALLOWABLE TOLERANCE FROM THEORETICAL WEIGHTS


(REINFORCEMENT)
AS PER AASHTO M-31

Diarneterof Bars

Atl

Lot under

Individual Bar under

3.5%

6%

The term"Lot"meansall barsof the samenominalweightper linearmetercontainedin an


shippingreleaseor shippingorder.
individual
Notei

bars are evaluatedon the basis of nominalweights.ln no case shall the


Reinforcing
overweightof any bar or lot of barsbe causeof rejection.

u-J

TABLE FOR ALLOWABLE TOLERANCE


(REINFORCED CONCRETE pIpES OF, CLASS _ II AND Iv)
AS PER AASHTO M-170

Internal diameter
variation
("h\

Description

Wall Thickness

PermissibleVariation in the
Position of Reinforcement

Pipesof internal
diameterof 300 mm to
6 1 0m m

+ 1.5

-5mmor
- 5 percent
Whicheveris less

+ 10 percentof wallthickness
or + 12 mm. whicheveris less

Pipesof internal
diameterof 690 mm to
2750mm

t 1.0

-5mmor
- 5 percent
Whichever
is less

+ 10 percentof wall thickness


or + 12 mm. whicheveris less

Notes:

1.

Pipe having localized variations in wall thickness exceeding those


specifiedabove shall be accepted,if the three-edgebearingstrengthand
minimumsteelcoverrequirements
are met.

2.

Pipes having variationsin the positionof the reinforcementexceeding


thosespecifiedaboveshallbe acceptedif the three-edgebearingstrength
requirements
on a representative
sampleare met.

SECTION-I
EARTH WORK AND ALLIE

Descriotion

Item No

Nelr.Construction

'100

General,EarthWork.

10'l

Clearingand Grubbing.

102

Removalof Trees.

103

Stripping.

104

Compactionof NaturalGround.

105

Roadwayand BorrowExcavation.

106

Excavationof Unsuitablesurplus
material.

107

StructuralExcavationand Backfill.

108

of Embankment.
Formation

109

SubgradePreparation.

110

ImprovedSubgrade.

111

Soil CementStabilizedSubgrade.

112

Lime StabilizedSubgrade.

113

BitumenStabilizedSubgrade.

114

Dressingand Compactionof
Berms.

1'15

Reinstatement
of shouldersfrom
BrickKilnmaterial.

Rehabilitation

Maintenance

SECTION-II

SUBBASEAND BASE.
ltem No

Descriotion

Nerv Construction

Rehabilitation

Maintenance

200

General.

201

GranularSubbase.

202

AggregateBaseCourse.

203

Aspiraltic
BaseCoursePlantMix.

204

SoilCementStabilized
Subbase
and Base.

205

CrackRelieflayer.

206

WaterBoundMacadamBase.

207

DeepPatching.

208

Reinstatement
of RoadSurface.

209

Scarification
of ExistingRoad/
Breakingof RoadPavement
Structure.

210

PavementWideningand Grooving
of existingsurface.

211

Lime Stabilized
AggregateBase
Course.

212

BitumenStabilized
Subbaseor
Base.

zt3

ColdRecycling
of RoadPavement
Structure/Soil
Stabilisation.

214

AsphalticBase/ BinderCourse

ztc

Geotextiles

SECTION-III
SURFACE COURSES AN
Item \o

Nelv Construction

DescriPtion

Rehabilitation Maintenance

300

General.

301

AsphalticMaterials.

302

PrimeCoat.
Bituminous

303

TackCoat.
Bituminous

304

and
SurfaceTreatment
Bituminous
SealCoat.

305

AsphalticConcreteWearingCourse,
PlantMix.

306

ShoulderTreatment.

307

Bit-Mac.

308

Hot Recyclingof AsPhaltConcrete

309

C o l dM i l l i n g

310

ConcretePavements.

o
o

o
o

G-35

SECTION-TV

STRUqTURTS
Nerv Construction

400

General - Structures.

400A

Bridgesand Culverts.

401

Concrete.

402

Falsework& Centringfor Bridges

403

Formwork.

404

SteelReinforcement.

405

PrestressedConcreteStructures.

406

Joints& BearingDevicesfor Concrete

407

Piling.

408

SheetPiling.

409

Well Foundation

410

BrickMasonry

411

Randomand.DressedUncoursed
StoneMasonry.

412

DressedCoursedStoneMasonry.

413

SteelStructures.

SECTION-V
DRAINAGE AND EROSIO
TTEMNO

DESCRIPTION

New Construction

Rehabilitation

Maintenance

500

General-Drainage& ErosionWorks.

501

ReinforcedConcretePipeCulverts

502

Bed to ConcretePipeCulverts.

503

Underdrain.

504

Headwalls,
Wingwalls,
Parapets,
ApproachSlabs,Apronsand siphon
inlets/ outlets.

505

Manholes.

506

DropInletsand CatchBasins.

Gabions

508

BrickPaving.

509

Riprapand ReinforcedConcrete
SlopeProtection.

61n

Dismantlingof Structuresand
Obstructions.

511

StonePitching.

512

DitchLiningand Wash Checks.

SECTION-VI
ANCILLARY WORKS.
Item No

Description

New Construction I Rehabilitation Maintenance

600

General- Ancillary
Works.

601

ConcreteKerbs,Guttersand
Channels.

602

AsphaltConcreteand Cement
ConcreteSideWalk.

603

BrickEdging.

604

MetalBeamGuard-rail.

605

ConcreteBeamGuard-rail.

606

BridgeRailing.

607

TrafficSignsand SafetyDevices.

608

PavementMarking.

609

Reflectorized
PavementStuds.

6'10

PrecastConcretePosts& Markers.

6'11

Fencing.

otz

Furnishing
and PlantingTrees,
Shrubsand Groundcover.
Sprigging
and Sodding.

613

o
n

SECTION-VII

NIISCETLANSQIIS
Item No

701

7O2

703

704

DescriPtion

| Provisionof SurveyTeams and


I lnstruments.
I
Office
| Provide,Equipand Maintain
to the Engineer.
I Facility
I (ease CAmPFacilitY)

| Provide,EquiPand Maintain
for the Project.
I LaboratorY

of Works for One Year


| Vtaintenance
(Periodof
I aftercomPletion
I Maintenance
)
I
RoadWorks for Traffic
| f"tporary
I Diversion.
I

705

7OG

I Controland Protectionof Traffic.

New Construction

Rehabilitation

Maintenance

EARTHWORK
ANI)
ALLIED ACTIVITIES

EARTHWORK
TTEM 1OO G E N E R A L
100.1

DESCRIPTION
Earthworkwill consistof all necessarywork for the excavationand placingin
embankmentor backfillor disposal by dumping of earth, rock or other
materialfrom or to the roadwayor adjacenttheretoor from borrowareas,
includingthe excavationof side and interceptionditches,the removal of
unsuitadlesubgradematerial,the formationof laybyes,the wideningof cuts
and the flatteningof cut slopeswhetherto obtain materialfor embankments
or backfill,or tolncrease the stabilityof the slopes,clearingand grubbing,
the selective removal of trees, stripping and the removal of existing
obstructionswithinthe approvedcross sectionfor excavation,in accordance
and in conformitywith the lines,grades,sections'
with these specifications
and dimensionsshownon the drawingsor as directedby the Engineer.

100.2

SOIL INFORMATION
Any informationconcerningthe propertiesof the soil or sub Soiland other
geotechnicalinformationshown on the drawingor otherdocumentsforming
is obligedto make
[art of the contractis for informationonly. The contractor
his own assessmentof site conditionsprevailing. No claim for extra cost or
time extensionwill be entertainedbasedon the informationprovided.
The Contractorshall be deemedto have visitedthe site priorto makinghis
bid and shall ascertainthe nature of the earth and rock, its quantity,
locationsand suitabilityto meet the specifiedrequirements,and he shall
base his bid estimatessolelyon his own soil investigation.Aftef the award
of the contractno claimfor a revisionof bid pricesdependingon the sources
will be entertained.
of soil information

100.3

EXPLOSIVES
Where explosivesare usedthe Contractorshall providOsuitablebuildingsor
warehousesin approvedpositionsfor the storageof explosives,which shall
be stored in the mannerand quantityapprovedby the Engineeror as per
relativelaws of government.Such storageplacesshallbe accessibleonly to
authorizedpersonnel.They shall be properlymarked,all doors or accesses
thereto shall be constructedof materialsas directedby the Engineerand
providedwith secure locks and all necessarymeans for preventingaccess
by unauthorizedpersons.The Contractorshall be responsiblefor the
pieventionof any unauthorizedissue or improperuse of any explosives.
The handlingof explosivesshall be entrusted only to experiencedand
responsiblemen, to the satisfactionof the Engineer,and in conformitywith
the statutorYregulations.

100-1

7,-OOL
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pue uorpnJlsuoc6uunp rJo/vllo uorpal0.rdJoJsleuec Jo sal{cltp eoeujerp
'papedxa
gcns
sr urpJ oJoreqeoeurerp :ado.rd pe#e ol ,t.ressaceueq
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eql Aq perrnbaraJaq/'A
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fuessaceu uaq/v\ses,nocJele^ Ourpenrp.ro 6urure;prcj pue 6r,r.1"*"p ,o1
sonrloe; fuesseceu apnoJd lleqs Jolce4uoCaql .Uo/rru{Uea
tol secud p1q
,6uuaaqs
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s'00r
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:eaul6u3

pequcsa:d

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jrrro^r\ otrlpueApado.rd
rol'ieu oriisBiq
1o

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orll ,leeur0u3eq} Aq pjparlp aJaLlM

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lo; JolceJluoC
aqr ^q 1de>1
eq ileL{s'slunoruBpue suorl'3orbuinnoqs'pesn'senrsoldxlle
Jo plocarV 'aloq qceo ut pesn eq llerls eDleqcaleJepoue A;uopue
'peddec
pue papeolApedo.rd
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Ourlselq;;e 6ur.rnprolcelluoCaLll Iq ualel aq lleqs eJBcgsaleajOeq1
'suotsueulpJosuoDces-ssoJc
penorddeeLll eprsno eoelearq {q pauorsecco
rJo/v\e.rya roi lueurr{ed
ol urep ou oneqllBrlsoq/v\JolcerluoSeql Jo {lrlqrsuodseJ
pue rsrJ sJrlua
oq1le paulo;.tedeq lleqspoqleu .raq1o
{ue Jo ,sleuunl'seloLllltJplo sueeu
{q Durlselg 'ece1dur ual aq ol leuoleueq1elqrssodsi driiirsB qrnlsrp
o] pue 'suotlsasssoJcpeJtnbelaql 01 elqrssodse esolc sp uorlBnecxs
aq16uuqol se reuueure qcns ut auopaq llpLls6urlse;qpue Ouilgup
;;y

The contractorshallalsoprovide,fix, maintainand operatesuchengines,


pu*p., hoses,chutesand otherappliancesas are necessaryto keepthe
waterat a level requiredfor the safetyof the structuresas
accumulated
by theEngineer,
directed
100.6

DITCIIES
ditches,and inlet
The Contractorshallconstructside ditches,interception
where
or
Drawings
and outlet ditchesas shown on the
.orderedby the
In orderto keep
permanent
drainage.
or
E"gin""r, whetherfor temporary
pavement
during
and/or
subgrade,
*"i", ,*"v from the embankment,
by
drainage
adequate
ensure
times
all
at
shall
the contractor
construction,
is
work
before
operative
is
drainage
the
that
so
outlet
ano
ditcn
scr'eourlng
trim
and
or pavement.He shallclean
subgrade
statedon the embankment,
time,so thattheremay be a freeflow
to
from
time
ditches
drainage
sucn
aiL
the wholeperiodof the Contract.Ditchesshallfirst be
oi *rt", inrouglnout
and finaltrimming,including
to approvedcross-sections,
trimmedaccording
duringthe construction
done
been
have.
in" r"p"ii of anyl"m"bb that may
work
construction
other
the
of
completion
the
work,shallbe c-ariedoi,t
"ft"r.
acceptance'
and
approval
for
final
andshallbe a condition
specifiedno separatepaymentwill be .made for the
Unlessothenrvise
ditches,inletand outletditchesbut
of sideOitcnes,interception
excavation
applicable.
rr.n p.vr"nt willbe madeunderitem105or 106whichever
where indicatedon the drawingsor wlren requiredby the Engineer,the
of existingstreamchannels,and in
Contractorshall take cross-seciions
them with detailsof the excavation
mark
with the Engineer,
collaboration
channel.work shallnot proceed
stream
the
of
requireofor the relocation
by the Engineer.
withoutwrittenapprovalof the markedcross-sections

100.7

EXCAVATIONFORCULVERTS
and
Exceptwhereotherwisespecifiedexcavationand backfillfor culvert
paid
for
not
be
will
drains,
to
under
granular
backfill
drainagepipes,except
the
of
obligation
subsidiary
a
as
."frr."t"ty,' nui snatt 5e considered
coveredunderthe contractpricefor the variousclassesof pipe
Contractor
in ltem501'
culvertas Provided

100.8

The Engineermay orderthe removalof materialresultingfrom landslides'


tne conitructionoi benchesin or abovethe cut slopeor in the embankment
the
rtop" or where in his opinionthe .slopeshows signs of instability,
prices
at
contract
be
shall
work
sucti
all
of
Payment
Raleningof the slope.
in ltem106or 108as thecasemaYbe'
r00.9

SURVEYANDLEVELINGPRIORTO
OF EARTr{woRK
COMMENCEMENT
in
The contractorshall be responsiblefor the settingout of the work
Contract'
of
Conditions
General
the
accordancewith Clause 17 of
that projectdrawingshavebeenissuedto the contractor'
Notwithstanding
100-3

the contractorshallalso be responsiblefor takingjoint cross-sections


on the
proposedalignmentof the road,submittingthreecopiesof the plottedcrosssectionsand longitudinalprofileto the Engineerand obtainingthe approval
of the Engineerto such cross-sectionand longitudinalprofitebefore any
work in connectionwith Earthworkis commenced. These cross-sections
and longitudinalprofileshall be in the form and manner as instructedin
writingby the Engineer.

r00.10

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT
The quantitiesof the variousclassesof excavationor embankmentto be
measuredfor paymentunder the contractshall be limitedto the lines and
level as taken under clause 100.9 above. However if the levels so taken
differappreciablyfrom designlevelsthe matershall be referredto the client.
Excavationand filling beyondthe lines and level shown on the drawings,
approvedprofilesand cross-sections
will not be paid for. The Engineerwill
decidethe angle of the slope of cuts and fills as the work proceedson the
basis of evaluationof the soil characteristics.The actual lines of the cuts
and fills as made will be duly measuredand recordedby the contractor.
The Engineerwill checkthese recordsand will approvethe measurements,
if correct,as a basis of payment. Excessof excavationshall be backfilled,
as directedby the Engineer,with subbasematerialswithoutextra payment
to the contractor;excess of fill may be either left in place or removedas
required by the Engineer. The quantities of excavation,backfill and
earthworkto be paid for in ltems 103, 106, 107 and 10g respectivelvshall
be the number of cubic metersof materialmeasuredby the averageendarea method,exceptwherethe errormay exceedplus or minusfive bercent
as comparedwith the prismoidalformula in which case the Engineerwill
authorizethe use of the more accuratemethod. However,the contractor
shall requestsuch authoritybeforehe submits his quantitiesfor approval.
Quantitiesmeasuredon the averageend-areabasis,once they have been
submittedand approved,shall not be subjectto review for the purposeof
applyinga more accuratemethod.

100-4

ITEM 101

101.1

CLEARING AND GRUBBING


DESCRIPTION
This work shall consistof removalto the specifieddepth, grubbingand
disposalof all sudace objects, as and where directed in writing by the
Engineer,stumps,roots,bushesand trees with less than 150 mm girth,
vegetation,logs, rubbish and other objectionablematerial except such
objectsas are designatedto remainor are to be removed in accordance
with othersectionof specification.

101.2

CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREi\{ENTS

101.2.1

Clearins/Grubbing
in roadwaycut areas,all surfaceobjectsor any objectto the depthof 30 Cm
below subgradelevel such as stumps,roots, vegetation,bushes,logs,
rubbishshall be clearedand/orgrubbedas directedby the Engineer.In
roadwayfill areaswhere clearingand grubbingis required,same shall be
carriedout to the depth of 30 Cm belownaturalsurfacelevel as described
above.
Operationof clearingand grubbingshall in no way be deemedto effectany
levelor volumechangeof the area.
Afterclearingand grubbing,the compactionof the area will be restoredto its
originalvalue withoutany extra payment.HoweverEngineermay directin
writingto the Contractorfor stripping(if so required)under item 103 or for
compactionunderitem 104, Compactionof NaturalGround,if the original
compactionis less than the requiredfor respectivezone. Paymentof these
items will be made separatelyunder the relative items used for such
purpose.
Before bottom layer of embankmentis placed,contractorwill grub up and
removewithout extra payment,any vegetationthat may, in the meantime
havegrownon surfacepreviouslyclearedand grubbed.
All trees having girth less than 150 mm measured at (600) mm above
groundand fallingwithinthe constructionlimitsshall be felled& removedby
the contractor.The excavationand removal of trees, roots and stumps
includingbackfillingand compactingof holes and restoringthe natural
of the contractorfor
groundto the originalconditionshall be responsibility
which no extra paymentshall be made to him. The trees, stumps & roots
remains the propefty of the Employer, which shall be delivered at
designatedplaceas directedby the Engineer.

r0r.2.2

Protectionand Restoration
The Contractorshall preventdamageto all pipes,conduits,wires,cablesor
structureaboveor belowground.No land monuments,propertymarkers,or
official datum points shall be damaged or removed until the
has witnessedor otherwisereferencedtheir locations
Employer/Engineer
101-1

and approvedtheir removal.The contractorshall so controlhis operations


as to preventdamageto shrubs,which are to be preserved.protectionmay
include fences and boards latched to shrubs, to prevent damage from
machineoperations.Any damageas a resultof contractor'soperationshall
immediatelybe rectifiedby him at his own expense.
101.3

M EASUR.EMENT
AND PAYMENT

10r.3.1

Measurement
clearing and grubbingwill be measuredfor payment only on areas so
designatedin writing by the Engineeror shown on the drawings. The
quantityto be paid for shall be the number of square meters satisfactorily
clearedand grubbed.Any tree havinggirth of less than 150 mm (measured
600 mm abovegroundlevel)shall be measuredto be underthis item.
Engineershall ensure that a minimumof 500 sM area is designatedfor
clearing and grubbing in any stretch of roadway for the sake of ease to
construction
activities.
clearing and grubbingcarriedout by the contractorin roadwaycut areas
and borrowpitsshallnot be measuredfor payment

101.3.2

Payment
The quantitiesdeterminedas providedabovewill be paid for at the contract
unit price for the pay item mentionedbelow and shown in the Bill of
Quantities,which priceand paymentshall be full compensation
for clearing
and grubbingand restoration
of area,to its originalcondition.
Pay ltem
No.

101

Description

Clearingand Grubbing

101-2

Unitof
Measurement
SM

ITEM 102
102.1

REMOVAL OF TREES
DESCRIPTION
This work shall consistof the removalof trees and stumps alongwiththeir
rootsto a depth,to ensurecompleteremovalof roots and stumpsand their
disposalas providedin SpecialProvisionor as directedin writing by the
Engineer.

rcz.2

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS
Such individualtrees as the Engineermay designateand mark in white
paintshall be left standinguninjured.All othertrees to be removedshall be
countedand an inventorypreparedshowinggirthof the tree stem.
When necessaryto preventinjuryto other trees or structuresor to minimise
dangerto traffic,trees shall be cut in sectionsfrom top downwards.
Hole or loose earth resultingfrom the removalof trees shall be filled and
recompacted to a degree of compaction of -adjoining area. Any extra
materialrequiredfor such purposeshallnot be measuredfor payment.

102.3

GENERAL REOUIREMENTS
Contractorshall preventdamageto all under-groundutilities,such as pipes
cablesor conduitsetc. For this purposeif so required,removalof trees shall
be carried out manually. Any under-groundor over-ground property
damaged by the contractorshall be immediatelyrepaired by the contractor
at his own expense.

102.4

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

102.4.1

Measurement
Engineerand Contractorshalljointlymeasurethe girth and numberof trees
to be removedunderthis item.Anytree havinga girth of lessthan 150 mm
measuredsix hundred(600)mm abovegroundlevel shall not be measured
under this item, as the same shall be removed under item "Clearingand
Grubbing".

102.4.2

Payment
The quantitiesdeterminedas provided above shall be paid for at the
contractunit pricefor the pay item mentionedbelowand shownin the Bill of
Quantitieswhich price shall be deemed to include all cost of labour
equipmentand incidentalrelatedto the item.

Pay ltem
No.

Description

Unitof
Measurement

Each
102a Removalof trees,150-300mm girth
Each
of vees,301-600mm girth
102b Removal
girth
Each
mm
or
over
of
601
102c Removal trees,
102-1

TTEM 103

103.1

STRIPPING

DESCRIPTION
This work shall consist of removing unsuitabletopsoil, transportingand
depositingin stockpilesor spreadingwhere indicatedon the Drawingsor as
directedby the Engineer.Engineershall give instructionin writing,stating
area and depthto be stripped.

103.2

CONSTRUCTIONREQUI REMENTs
The areasfrom whichstrippingof topsoilis requiredshallbe as indicatedon
the Drawingsor as directedby the Engineer.The Contractorshall remove
topsoil from these areas to depth as directed by Engineer.Strippingof
topsoil in any case shall be not less than 10 cm. in depth. The removed
topsoilshall be transported,depositedin stock pilesat locationsdesignated
by the Engineerand/or spread where indicatedon the drawings or as
directed by the Engineer. Engineer shall, however identify the soil as
unsuitablethroughlaboratorytests
The top soil shall be placedseparatelyfrom other excavatedmaterialsand
be completelyremovedto the requireddepth from the area prior to the
beginningof regular excavationor embankmentwork in that area. No
payment will be made for topsoil removed from places other than that
directed by the Engineer. Engineer shall, however identify the soil as
unsuitablethroughlaboratorytests,beforesuch a decision.

103.3

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT

103.3.1

Measurement
Measurementshall be made by multiplyingthe length,breadthand depth of
layer approvedby the Engineerin cubic meter of materialremoved and
disposedas directedby the Engineer.Howeverspacethus createdshall be
filledby the materialas directedby the Engineerand paid separatelyunder
relativeitem.

103.3.2

Payment
The paymentunderthis item shallbe made for at the contractunit price per
cubic meter of strippingmeasuredas above, for removalof materialto a
depth approvedby the Engineerincludingits disposaiat designatedplace
and in the manneras directedby the Engineer.

Pay ltem
No.

Descnption

103

Stripping.

103-1

Unitof
Measurement
CM

ITEM 104
104.1

COMPACTION OF NATURAL GROUND.


DESCRIPTION.
The naturalgroundor surfacereadyfor constructionpurposesafter clearing
and grubbing or stripping,(if required) will be consideredas (natural)
Groundfor the purposeof this item.The compactionof naturalgroundshall
be carriedout througha writtenorder by the Engineer.

104.2

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS.
Up to a depth of twenty (20) cm below the naturalground, all sods and
vegetablemattersshallbe removedand clear surfaceshall be brokenup by
ploughingand scarifyingto compactto the degreeas definedbelow:For heightof Embankment
below sub qrade level.

Percentof MaximumDry Density


as determinedbv AASHTOT-180..

0to30cm
30 to 75 cm
Over 75 cm
Belowthe foundationof structures
t04.2.1

q6
YJ

on
95

Compaction of original ground surface in areas of high water levels and


salinity.
Compaction of the natural ground surface in such areas will be difficult if not

impossible.See ltems 108, etc. under Formation of Embankmentfor


constructionrequirementsunder these conditions,where compactionof
NaturalGroundshallnot be carriedout.
104.3

MEASUREMENTAI.IDPAYMENT.

104.3.1

Measurement.
The measurementshall be made by multiplyingthe length and breadthof
the area approvedin writingby the Engineerto be paid underthis item.The
measurementof the item shall be in Squaremeter.
Any subsidenceof levelsof NaturalGround due to compactionunder this
item shall not be measuredfor payment,the contractoris expectedto take
care of suchfactorswhilebidding.

rc43.2

Payment.
The paymentunderthis item shall be made for at the contractunit pricefor
Square meter of compactionof (natural)ground measuredas above and
watering,mixing,leveling,
shall be deemedto includecost of scarification,
to completethis
necessary
and
incidentals
tools,
rolling,labour,equipment,
item.
Pay ltem
No.
104

Description
of Natural
Compaction
Ground
104-1

Unitof
Measurement
SM

ITEM 105

105.1

ROADWAY AND BORROW EXCAVATION FOR


EMBANKMENT
DESCRIPTION

The work shall consist of excavatingthe roadway and borrowpits,removal


and satisfactorydisposalof all materialstaken from withinthe limitsof the
work, also Suchexcavationas is necessaryfor inlet and outlet ditchesof
structuresand shall include all excavation,shaping and sloping for the
construction, preparation of all embankment, subgrade, shoulders,
and approachesas directedand in conformityto the alignment,
intersections
grade, level and cross-sections
shown on the plans or establishedby the
Engineer.
t05.2

CLASSIFICATIONOF EXCAVATION

105.2.1

RoadWav Excavation
RoadwayExcavationshall compriseall excavationthat is not classifiedas
structural excavation carried out within the limits of roadway including
permanentdrainageditchesand side slopesin cut.
Roadway Excavationshall further, be classifiedas "Common Excavation",
(commonexcavationshall includeall the materialsof
or "Rock Excavation",
whatevernaiure encounteredbut not includingrock excavation).
a) CommonExcavation
Commonexcavationshallconsistof the removaland satisfactorydisposalof
all eolian,alluvialandresidualmaterials,inplaceunalteredand unweathered
of
strata,which are not firm or rigidenoughto possessall the characteristics
'"Rock
Excavation". Bouldersof less than one quarter (1/4) cubic meter
volume shall also be classifiedas "Common Excavation". Eolian and
alluvialmaterialsconsistof $ravel,shale, volcanicash, loess, dunes and,
loams,sands and clays or any combinationof these materials,and termed
as CommonExcavation.
b) Rock Excavation
This inbludesfirm and rigid igneous,metamorphicand sedimentaryrocks.
Boulders larger than quarter (1/4) cubic meter in volume will also be
providedtheseare firm and stablelyingin
consideredas "Rock Excavation",
continuousbed and constitutemore than 50% by volume as comparedto
othertype of materialsin the totalmass.
of Hard,Mediumor Soft Rock shall be same as described
The classification
underitem 106.2of GeneralSpecifications.

105-1

ro5.2.2

Borrow Excavation

Borrow Excavationshall comprise all excavationtaken from borrow pits.


Material from borrow pits shall normally be used for the constructionof
embankmentor for the backfillwhen there is no materialavailablefrom
roadway excavaiion or structural excavation. Permission to use material
from borrowpit shall first be obtained in writing from the Engineer.
Neverthelessthe total quantity of material from roadway excavation and
structuralexcavationafter deductionof the materialdeclared unsuitableby
the Engineer,shall be consideredavailablefor use in the work and any
material used from borrow pits for formation of embankment shall not be
measuredfor payment.
In m6king his bid, the Contractorshall inspectthe site and prepare his
estimateof the haulagecost on the basisof his own surveyof the possible
natureand locationsof the borrow pits.Their distancefrom the work sites
shall not be groundsfor extra paymentor revisionof the contractprice.
The consentof the landowneror tenantfor excavatingthe borrow material
and'haulingalong privateaccessroads shall be securedby the Contractor
who shall,if required,pay for such concession.Borrowpits shall be left in a
conditionacceptableto the landownerand/ortenantand the Engineer.
105.2.3

Structural Excavation
The descriptionmethodof measurementand paymentof this sectionshall
conformto as specifiedin item 107.

105.3

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS
All material removed from excavation shall be used in the formation of
embankment,subgrade, shoulders,and at such other places as directed,
unless it is declared unsuitableand ordered to waste by the Engineer. No
excavated material shall be wasted without written permission from the
Engineer,and when such materialis to be wasted,it shall be so placedthat
it will present a neat appearanceand not offer any danger to abutting
property.
The materialshall be declaredunsuitableif the soaked CBR (96 hours) is
less than five (5) percent or if falls under ,4-6 or A-7 of AASHTO soil
classification.
During constructionof the roadway,the road bed shall be maintainedin
such a conditionthat it will be well drainedat alltimes.
All slopes,exceptin solid rock or other materialshall be trimmed precisely
as per cross-sections,and care must be exercisedthat no materialshall be
loosenedbeyondthe requiredslopes. In blastingrock slopes,a reasonably
uniform face shall be left, regardlessof whether or not the excavation is
carried beyond the specified side slope. All breakage and slides shall be
removedby the contractorand disposedof as directedby the Engineer.

105-2

Rock, shale and other unsuitableroad bed materialencounteredin cuts


shall be excavatedto requiredwidth and depth indicatedon the plansor as
otherwisedirected.Any overbreakagebelowthe depth shown on the plans
will not be paid for. Backfillof the overcut shall be of approved earth
as specifiedon the
materialand shallhavethe same densityrequirements
olansand shall be at the expenseof contractor,
Borrowpitsshall be locatedso that the nearestedge of the pit is at least
thirty (30) metersfrom the roadwaytoe of slope unless otherwisedirected
by the Engineer.
shall be
Permissionto use any borrow material,includingits suitability,
obtained in writing from the Engineer before execution of work. lt is
responsibiiityof the contractor to submit a requestfor test at least
fifteen (15) working days prior to the day the contractorintendsto begin
takingmaterialfrom the borrowarea.
In no case shall borrow material be obtained from downstreamof any
hydraulicstructure. However the borrowpitmay be establishedat five
hundred(500) metersupstreamof the hydraulicstructure. The side slopes
of the pits or channelsshall be constructedas shown on the plans or
directedby the Engineer.In no casethe side slopesof borrowpit be steeper
t h a na s l o p e ;1 : 5( V : H ) .
Upon abandonmentof borrowpit or quarryarea,the contractorshall,at his
own expense,cleanand trim the borrowpit or quarryarea,the rightof way,
and adjoiningpropertieswhich were occupiedduringexecutionof work, all
of the Engineer.
to the satisfaction
All drillingand blastingshallbe done in such a manneras will most nearly
completethe excavationto the requiredgrade line, and producethe least
disturbanceof the materialto be left in place. Blastingby means of drill
holes or any other methods shall be performedat the entire risk and
of the contractor.Care shall be taken to ensurethat no injury
responsibility
be done to personsor propertiesor to the finishedwork. Blastingshall be
restrictedto the hoursprescribedby the localauthoritiesor the Engineer.
of the road,the propertiesof
Where betweentwo successivecross-sections
rock boulders,in sizes largerthan a one quarter(114)of a cubic meter,to
earthis morethan 50%,the excavationwill be consideredwhollyas rock.
Rock materialabove groundlevel such as stones,boulders,pilesof stone,
and dry stoneswallingwhose individualsizes are greaterthan one quarter
of a cubic meter shall be removedand disposedof if directedin writingby
the Engineerand shall be paid under relevantitem of work in the Bill of
Quantities.
105.4

MBASUREMENTAND PAYMENT

105.,1.1

Measurement
When the Bill of Quantitiesspecifiesfor "Common Excavation","Rock
Excavation"and "BorrowExcavation'!
the quantitiesof the differentclasses
of excavationshallbe computedas follows:
1nq_?

a) CommonExcqvation
The unit of measurementfor common excavationshall be in cubic meter
and be computedby average end area method based on cross-sections
duly approvedby the Engineerprior to commencementand completionof
requiredexcavation.
The excavated material approvedfor fill under any item of the Bill of
Quantitiesshallbe used in the manneras describedunderthe relevantitem
of haulagedistance.
of work, irrespective
b) Rock Excavation
Authorized"Rock Excavation"to be measuredin cubic metersshall consist
of area that is necessaryto providethe design section and grade or as
directedby the Engineer. Any over breakagebeyond the lines shown on
the plansand outsideof the tolerancesset for subgradein cuts shall not be
paid for. The Engineershall define the beginningand ending points of
areas classified as "Rock Excavation". Any area over excavated in the
subgradeshall be reinstatedat the cost of contractoras directedby the
Engineer.
The pay quantityfor "Rock Excavation"shall be computed by means of
averageend area methodfrom approvedcross-sectionsbased on original
groundelevationsafter the authorizedremovalof unsuitableor overburden
materials,if required.
For disposalof excavatedrock material,same procedureshall be followed
as describedabove for the "Common Excavation"specifiedin sub item
N o . 1 0 5 . 4 .(1a ) .
c) Borrow Excavjltion
No measurementshall be made for any Borrow Excavation,howeverthis
materialif used in any of the Bill items, shall be measuredand paid as
providedunderthe relativeitemsof work.

r05.4.2

Payment
No paymentfor Roadwayor Borrow Excavationshall be made under this
item as the same is deemedto be includedunder relativeitem of Formation
of Embankment.

105-4

ITEM 106

106.I

EXCAVATION OF UNSUITABLE OR SURPLUS


MATERIAL
DESCRIPTION
The work shall consistof excavationand disposalof unsuitableor surplus
materialarisingfrom roadwayexcavation,which is declaredin writingby the
Engineerto be unsuitablefor use or surplus to the requirementsof the
project. When excavationof unsuitablematerialrequiresspecialattention
for a known conditionon a specificproject,constructionrequirementsand
paymentshallbe coveredunderrelevantprovisions.

106.2

CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTS
All suitablematerialexcavatedwithin the limits and scope of the project
shall be used in the most effective manner for the formation of the
embankment,for wideningof roadway,for backfill,or for otherwork included
in the contract.
Any materialsurplusto these requirementor any materialdeclaredin writing
by the Engineerto be unsuitableshall be disposedof and leveledin thin
layers by the contractor outsidethe right of way within 7 Km of excavation.
The Engineershall decide regardingthe unsuitabilityof the material by
conductingappropriatelaboratorytests.
when unsuitablematerialsare orderedto be removedand replaced,the soil
left in place shall be compactedto a depth of twenty (20) cm to the density
prescribedunder ltem 108.3.1. Payment for such compactionshall be
includedin the contractpricesfor the excavationmaterials.
lf the unsuitablematerial,which is to be removed,is below standingwater
level and the replacementmaterial is gravel or a similar self-draining
material of at least thirty (30) cm in depth, the compaction may be
dispensedwith if approvedby the Engineer.
Rock excavationshallbe classifiedas under:
a) Hard Rock
Any rock whichcan not be removedwith Ripperof a2oo H.p. Bulldozerand
constitutesa firm and continuousbed of rock onlv.
b) Medium Rock
Any rock which can not be removedwith the blade of 200 H.p. Buldozerbut
can be removedby the ripper,will be termed as Medium Rock, irrespective
of the fact that it is removedby blasting.
c) Soft Rock
Any rock whichcan be removedwith the bladeof a 200 H.p. Bulldozer.This
item will be termed as soft Rock, irrespectiveof the fact that it is removed
by blasting.

106-1

106.3

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT

106.3.1

Measurement
When the contractoris directedto excavateunsuitablematerialbelow the
surfaceof originalgroundin fill areas,the depth to which these unsuitable
materialsare to be removed will be determinedby the Engineer.The
contractorshall schedulehis work in a such a way that authorizedcross
sectionscan be taken beforeand afterthe materialhas been removed.Only
materialwhich is surplusto the requirementsof the projector is declaredin
writingby the Engineerto be unsuitablewill qualifyfor paymentsunder pay
I t e mN o . 1 0 6a , 1 0 6b , 1 0 6c , a n d 1 0 6d a s t h e c a s em a y b e .
The cost of excavationof materialwhich is used anywherein the project
shall be deemed to be includedin the pay ltem relatingto the part of the
work wherethe materialis used.
The undermentionedPay ltem Nos. 106 a, 106 b, 106 c, and 106 d shall
includethe cost of obtainingthe consentof the owner or tenantof the land
wherethe disposalof surplusor unsuitablematerialis made.
Unsuitableor surplusmaterialshall be measuredin its originalpositionand
its volumeshallbe calculatedin cubicmetersusingend area method.

106.3.2

Payment
The quantitiesdeterminedas provided above shall be paid for at the
contractunit price respectivelyfor each of the particularpay ltems listed
below and shown in the Bill of Quantitieswhich prices and paymentshall
for all costsinvolvedin the propercompletionof
constitutefull compensation
the work prescribedin this item.
Pay ltem
No.

106a

106b

106c

106d

Description

Unitof
Measurement

ExcavateUnsuitableCommon
Material

CM

ExcavateUnsuitableRock
Material.
i. HardRock
ii. MediumRock
iii. Soft Rock

CM
CM
CM

ExcavateSurplusCommon
Material

CM

ExcavateSurplusRockMaterial
i. HardRock
ii. MediumRock
iii. Soft Rock
lvo-z

CM
CM

ITEM 107

r07.1

STRUCTURAL EXCAVATION AND BACKFILL


DESCRIPTION
structural excavationshall include the removal of all material of whatever
nature, necessaryfor the constructionof foundationsof bridges, culverts,
retainingwalls, headwalls,wing walls, catch basins,manholes,inlets and
other structures not otherwise provided for in these specificationsand in
accordancewith the plans or as directedby the Engineer. lt shall include
the furnishingof all riecessaryequipmentand constructionof all cribs,
cofferdams,caissons,dewatering,sheeting,shoring etc., which may be
necessaryfor the executionof the work. lt shallalso includethe subsequent
removalof cofferdamsand cribs and the placementof all necessarybackfill
as hereinafterspecified. lt shall also include the disposing of eicavated
material,which is not requiredfor backfill,in a mannerand in locationsso as
not to affectthe carryingcapacityof any channeland not to be unsighfly.

107.2

to7.2.r

Backfill aroundstructure
Backfillaround structureshall be made with the followingmaterial.
a. Granularbackfillof selectedmaterialas specifiedhere under
b. common backfill shall be carried out from excavated material or any
other borrow materialapprovedby the Engineer.

t07.2.2

Granular ba,ckfill
Granularbackfillmaterialshall meet the followingrequirements.
a) GradinsRequirement

mm
25
19
4.75
2.4
0.425
0.075

Inch.
1"
314"
No.4
N o .1 0
NO.40
No.200

100
60-100
50-85
40-70
2545
0-15

100
75-100
55-100
40-100
20-50
5-15

b) Materialsatisfyingthe requirements
of coarsesand fallingurider soil
classification
A-3 (AASHTo).In case,coarsesandis utilisedfor granular
fill it shallbe ensuredthat the sameis confinedproperlywith af,proved
material.
c) The materialshall-have
a Plasticity
Indexof not morethansize (6) as
determined
by AASHTOT-89andT-90.
107-1

t07.2.3

Commonbackfill
Use of excavatedmaterialas backfillmay be allowedunderthis item. Use of
borrow materialfor common backfillshall be allowed subjectto approvalof
borrow materialby the Engineer.

107.2.4

Rock backlill
Rock materialof smallsize shall be permittedin the backfillingof structures
or wallssubjectto the approvalof methodologyby the Engineer.

107.3

CONSTRUCTIONR-E,OUIREMENTS

107.3.1

Structuralexcavation
a) General
All substructures,where practicable, shall be constructed in open
excavationand, where necessary,the excavationshall be shored,braced,
or protected by cofferdamsin accordancewith approved methods. When
footings can be placed in the dry without the use of cribs or cofferdams,
backformsmay be omittedwith the approvalof the Engineer,and the entire
excavationfilled with lean concreteto the requiredelevationof the top of the
footing.The additionalconcreteshall be at the expenseof the Contractor.
In case the contractor has excavated additional volumes than specified
thereunder,the contractorshall at his own expense backfillthe volume with
approvedmaterialas directedby Engineer.
The classificationof Hard, Medium or Soft Rock shall be same as described
under item 106.2of GeneralSpecifications.
b) Preservationof channel
Unless otherwise soecified. no excavation shall be made outside of
caissons,cribs, cofferdams,piling, or sheeting,and the natural stream bed
adjacentto the structureshall not be disturbedwithout permissionfrom the
Engineer.lf any excavationor dredging is made at the site of the structure
before caissons, cribs or cofferdams are in place, the Contractor shall,
without extra charge, after the foundationbase is in place, backfill all such
excavationto the originalground surfaceor river bed with nraterialapproved
by the Engineer.Materialdepositedwithin the stream area from foundation
or other excavationor from filling of cofferdamsshall be removed and the
stream bed freed from obstructionthereby.
dpjefF,otllg:
The elevationof the bottomsof footings,as shown on the drawings,shall be
consideredas approximateonly and the Engineer may order, in writing,
such changesin dimensionsor elevationof footingsas may be necessaryto
securea satisfactoryfoundation.

107-2

d) Preparation
of Foundations
of Footings
i) All rock or otherhardfoundation
materialshallbe freedfrom all loose
material,cleanedand cut to a firm surface,eitherleveled,stepped,or
roughened,
as maybe directed
by the Engineer.
ii) when masonryis to rest on an excavatedsurfaceother than rock
special,careshallbe takennotto disturbthe bottomof the excavation,
andthe finalleveling
of the gradeshallnot be madeuntiljust beforethe
masonryis to be placed.
e)Cofferdams
andCribs
i) For substructure
work, the contractorshall submit, upon request,
drawingsshowinghis proposedmethodof cofferdamsconstruction
and
otherdetailsleftopento his choiceor notfullyshownon the Enginee/s
drawings.The contractorshall not start work until the Engineerhas
approved
suchdrawings.
ii) cofferdamsand cribs for foundationconstructionshall be carriedto
adequatedepthsand heights,be safelydesignedand constructed,
and
be madeas watertightas is necessary
for the properperformance
of the
workwhichmustbe doneinsidethem.In general,
the interior
dimensions
of cofferdamsand cribsshallbe suchas to give sufficientclearancefor
the construction
of formsand the inspection'of
their exteriors,
and to
permitpumpingoutsidethe forms.cofferdamsor cribs,whichare tilted
or movedlaterally
duringthe processof sinking,shallbe righted,reset,
or enlargedso as to providethe necessary
clearanceandthis shallbe
solelyat the expenseof the Contractor.
iii) when conditions
are encountered
which,in the opinionof the Engineer,
renderit impracticable
to dewaterthe foundationbeforeplacingmasonry,
he may requirethe construction
of a concretefoundationseal of suih
dimensions
as may be necessary.
The foundation
watershallthen be
pumpedout and the balanceof the masonryplacedin the dry. \Men
weightedcribs are employedand the weight is utilizedto partially
overcomethe hydrostaticpressureacting againstthe bottomof the
foundation
seal,specialanchoragesuch as dowelsor keys shall be
providedto transferthe entireweightof the crib intothe foundation
seal.
Duringthe placingof a foundation
seal,the elevation
of thewaterinside
the cofferdamshall be controlledto preventany flow throughthe seal,
and if the cofferdamis to remainin place,it shallbe ventedor portedat
lowwaterlevel.
iv) cofferdamsor cribsshallbe constructed
so as to protectgreenconcrete
againstdamagefrom a suddenrisingof the streamor river and to
preventdamageto thefoundation
by erosion.No timberor bracingshall
be left in cofferdamsor cribs in such a way as to extend inio the
substructure
masonry
withoutwrittenpermission
fromthe Engineer.
v) Unlessothenviseprovided,cofferdams
of cribswith all sheetingand
bracingshall be removedafterthe completionof the substructure,
care
beingtakennotto disturbor otherwiseinjurethe finishedmasonry.
107-3

f) Pumpine
sha|| be done in
i) Pumpingfrom the interiorof any foundationenc|osure
of water
movement
the
of
possibility
such a manneras to precludethe
ttrrougrranyfreshconcrete.Nopumpingofwaterwil|bepermitted
four (24).
durin! the placing of concreteor for a period of at least twenty
pit
separated
sump
suitable
a
from
done
is
it
hours thereafter, unless
from the concretework by a watertightwall or other effectivemeans'
i i ) P u m'fraJ
pingtounwaterasea|edcofferdamsha||notcommenceunti|the
set sufficientlyto with standthe hydrostaticpressure'
seal
g) Inspection
the Engineer,
After each excavationis completedthe Contractorshall notify
has approved
and no concreteor masonryshallbe placeduntilthe Engineer
material'
the depthof the excavationand the characterof the foundation
the
In case if an existing structure is to be replaced with a new.structure
510
item
paid
under
shall
be
quantitiesfor dismJntlingthe structure
excavation required shall be
{bismanttingof structure-s)and additional
carriedout underthis item.
h) Classificationof Excavation
of excavationshall be made as describedunder items 106'2
Classification
of this SPecification.
107.3.2

Excavationin Embankments
approvalof
unless otherwisespecified,the contractor may choose with the
pipe culvertsafier the
the Engineerto excavatefor structures, culverts,and
placing of
emban-kmenthas been placed. Any space remaining after the
by the
such structures or culverts s[all be fiiteC witfr material approved
Engineerand comPactedas follows:
placed and
Layers of not more than 20 cm in loose thickness shall be
or
plate.compactors
tampers,
compacteo in succession,with mechanical
densities
the
to
rgldway'
the
to
hand guided rollers operaied transversely
in the item tb3.g.t. Moisturecontentshall be adjustedas directed
specin"eO
bonding of
ni, tn" Engineer. proper benching sha.llbe made to ensure
eiirting and n6w materialwithoutany extra payment'
purposes
The excavationin embankmentand the placing of backfillfor the
sand or
if
payment.
also
for
describedabove shall not constituteany claim
extra
no
convenience,
for
his
granular backflll is used by the contractor
paymentwill be made.

107-4

107.3.3

Backfill
a) Granularbackfillwhere-everdirectedshall be placedin the positionand
to the requireddepth,shown on the drawingsor where and as required
in writing by the Engineerand it shall be well compactedin rayersnot
exceedingtwenty(20)cm in thicknessto 100 perceniof Max. dry density
as per AASHTO r-180 (D). In case of water ioggedareasttrethicrnesi
9f th.elayer shall not exceed fifty (50) centimeteis or as directed by the
Engineer.Volume of granularfi'llaround structuresshall be calculated
within the verticallimits of approved-excavation
for such a structure,
whereas the horizontallimitsshallbe those as specifiedon drawings.
b) common backfillshall consistof earth free from large lumps,wood
and
other organic materialsand of a quality acceptableto the Engineer.lt
shall be placedin the positionand to the requireddepthsshown on
the
Drawingsand/or as requiredin writing by the Engineerand it shall
be
well compactedin layers not to exceed twenty (20) cms in depth to the
density,95 percentof maximumdry density,as per AASHTOr-180 (D).
c) The rock backfillmaterialwhose individualsizes are not more than
30
cm shall be placedin the positionto the requireddepthas specified
and
the voids shail be fiiled in layer of fine material apprwed by
the
Engineer.The compactingefforts shall be made so as to achieve
the
desiredcompactionapprovedvisuallyby the Engineer.The depth of
the
layer in any case shail not exceed sixty (60) centimeters.However
in
water loggedareas,the thicknessmay be increasedas directedby
the
Engineer. Rock backfill will not be placed within two meters from
concreteface of any structure.
d) All spaces excavated and not occupied by abutments, piers or
other
permanentwork shall be refilledwith earth or granularfill
as approvedby
the Engineer up to the surface of the surroundingground, with
a
sufficientallowancefor setflement.All such backfill shall be thoroughly
compactedand, in general,its top surface shall be neaflygraded.
e) The fill behindabutmentsand wing wails of ail bridgestructures
shail be
depositedin well-compacted,horizontallayers not to exceed twenty (20)
cm. in thickness.The common backfillin front of such units shall
be
placedfirst to preventthe possibilityof fon,uardmovement.
special precautions
shallbe takento preventany wedgingactionagainst
the masonry,and the slope boundingthe excavationfor abutments
and
wingwails shail be destroyed by stepping or roughening to prevent
wedge action.Jettingof the fill behindabutmentsand wingwallswill
not
be permitted.

107-5

Fill placedaroundculvertsand piersshall be depositedon both sidesto


approximatelythe same elevatron at the same time. where the
Contractordoes not have proper equipmentsto ensure compactionin
restricted areas, Engineer may allow backfill with sand saturation
method,at no extracostto the Client.
g ) Adequateprovisionshall be madefor the throughdrainageof all backfill.
Frenchdrainsshallbe placedas weep holes.
h ) No backfillshall be placedagainstconcreteor masonrystructurebefore

fourteen(14) days of placementand backfillingshall be carriedout on


both sidesof the structuresimultaneously.
t07.4

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

107.4.1

Measurement
a) Structural Excavation

to be paidfor shallbe the numberof


excavation
of structural
The quantities
in its originalpositioncomputedby the
cubicmetersof materialmeasured
average end-area method, and excavatedto the satisfactionof the
Engineer.
StructuralExcavationwill be classifiedfor measurementand paymentas
in CommOn
"struCtural
Excavation
in CommonMaterial",
"structuralExcavation
and
Material"
Rock
in
"structural
Excavation
Level",
MaterialBelow Water
whether
to
according
rock
or
and
in
is
eadh
excavation
the
to
whether
according
is aboveor belowthe waterlevelwhichis the constantlevelto
the excavation
pit.
risesin a foundation
whichthewaternaturally
shall
excavation
for structural
The volumeof earthor rockto be measured
planes:by thefollowing
bounded
consistof a prismoid
1)

will be vertical
The verticallimitsfor computingpay quantities
outsideof the neat linesof footingsor
planes50 centimeters
as shownon the Drawingsor as directedby the
foundations
Engineer.

2)

shallbe the
excavation
The upperlimitfor paymentof structural
groundsurfaceas it existedprior to the start of construction
operations,except where structuralexcavationis performed
areas,the upper
or ditchexcavation
withinroadwayexcavation
limitshallbe the planesof the bottomand sideslopesof said
areas.
excavated

3)

The lower limits for computingpay quantitiesof structural


or structurebackfillshallbe a planeat the bottomof
excavation
or leanconcrete.
structures
foundations,
footings,
thecompleted
107-6

Measurementfor structuralexcavationshall not includematerialremoved


below the footing grade and beyond specific limits to compensatefor
anticipatedswell or as a result of effectiveswell during pile driving, or
additionalmaterialresultingfrom slides,slips, cave-ins,siiting or fillings,
whether due to the action of the elements or to carelessnessof the
contractor. The depths of the footings shown on the drawings are
approximate only and any variation found to be necessary during
construction
shall be paid for at the contractunit price.
b) GranularBack{ill
The quantitiesof GranularBackfillto be paid for shall be the number of
cubic meters of materiallaid and compactedin place within the line of
structureand limits defined in ltem 107.4.1 (a) above, iomputed and
acceptedby the Engineer.
c) CommonBackfill
The quantitiesof common Backfillto be paid for shall be the number of
cubic meters of materiallaid and compacted,placed within the lines of
structureand limits definedin ltem 107.4.1(a)above and acceptedby the
Engineer.
107.4.2

Payment
The quantitiesdeterminedas provided above shall be paid for at the
contractunit price respectivelyfor each of the particularpay item listed
belowthat is shown in the Bill of euantities,which priceand pLymentshall
be full compensationfor all the costs involvedin the proper completionof
the work prescribedin this item.

Description

Pay ltem
No.

1O7a

107b

107c

Unitof
Measurement

StructuralExcavationin
CommonMaterial

CM

StructuralExcavationin
CommonMaterialBelow
Water Level

CM

StructuralExcavationin
RockMaterial
i.
ii.
iii.

Hard Rock
MediumRock
Soft Rock

CM
CM
CM

107d

GranularBackfitttype--

CM

107e

CommonBackfill

CM

107-7

FORMATTONoF EMBAr{4IvrpNr

ITEM 108

108.1

DESCRIPTION
preparationof
This work shallconsistof formationof embankment,including
of embankmentmaterialin layers and in
area for placingand co.mpaction
in accordance
holes, piis anO other depressionswithin the roadwayarea
grades,
thickness
lines,
the
and in conformitywith
*itn 11.ispecifications
andtypica|cross-sectionshownontheplansorestab|ishedbythe
Engineer.

108.2

MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
from
Materialfor embankmentshall consistof suitablematerialexcavated
all
include
shall
and
excavation
borrow,roadwayexcavationor structural
from
obtained
material
when
only
lead and lift. Borrowmaterialwill be used
roadwayorstructura|excavationisnotsuitab|eorisdeficientfor
embankmentformationand shallincludeall leadand lift'
The materialunderthis item shallconformto the followingspecification'
a)ContractorshalluseAASHTOClassA-1,A-2'A-3'A-4orA-5
soil as specifiedin AASHTO M-145 or other materialapproved
by the Engineer.
b)

108.3

cBR of the material shall not be less than five (5) percent,
determinedin accordancewith AASHTOT-193.CBR value shall
beobtainedatadensitycorrespondingtothedegreeof
layer'
compactionrequiredfor the corresponding

c)

swell value of the materialfor embankmentformation shall not


exceedfive tenth (0.5) percent. However,while establishingthe
swell value, surchargeweights representingthe overburdenwill
sandy-material is used for embankment
be used. in
f o r m a t i o n , i t s"a."
hallbeproperlyconfinedatnoextrapaymentwith.
a materiil and to the exteni as approved by the Engineer and
sandymateria|shalInotbeusedons|opesofembankment.

d)

In areas subject to flood and prolonged inundation of the


embankment,such as at bridge sites, the material used in
embankment,unlessrock,shallbeAASHTOClassAl(a)'A1
(b)andA-z.a,soils.othersoilsmaybeusedon|ywiththe
writtenconsentof Engineer.

CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS

108.3.1

as providedabove,shall
obtainedand approved
for embankment,
Material
with
Oe ptaceOin horizontallayers of uniformthicknessandin conformity
108-1

the lines, grades,sectionsand dimensionsshown on the Drawingsor


as
requiredby the Engineer.The layersof loose materialother than rock
shall
be not more than 20 cm. thick, unlessotherwiseallowed by the Engineer
aftera trialsectionis preparedand approved.
The materialplacedin layersand that scarifiedto the designated
depthfor
formation of embankmentshall be compactedto the d?nsity
specified
below:

Depthin centimeters
belowsubqradeLevel
0to30
30 to 75
Over75

Percentof MaximumDry Density.


95
93
90

* Method'B' or 'D'
whicheveris appricabre,
or corresponding
Relative
Densityin caseof sandfill.
In-placedensitydeterminations
of the compacted
layersshallbe madein
accordance
withAASHTOr-191 or otherapprovedmethods.For all soils,
withthe exception
of rockfill materials,
containing
morethan 10%oversize
particles(retainedon 3r4 inch/ 19 mm sieve),1hein-placedensity
thus
obtainedshall be adjustedto aecountfor suChoversizeparticlesor
as
directed.
by the Engineer. subsequentrayersshail not be pracedand
compacted
unlessthe previouslayerhas been properlycompactedand
accepted
by the Engineer.
Materialfor embankment
at locationsinaccessible
to normalcompacting
equipment
shallbe placedin horizontal
layersof loosematerialnot more
than15centimeters
thickandcompacted
to thedensities
speciRed
aboveby
theuseof mechanical
tempers,
or otherappropriate
equipment.
The compaction
of the embankment
shallbe carriedout at the designated
moisture
contentconsistent
withtheavailable
compacting
equipment.
Embankment
materialthat doesnot containsufficientmoistureto obtainthe
requiredcompactionshail be given additionarmoistur" 6y means
of
approved
sprinklers
and mixing.Material
containing
morethanihe optimum
moisturemay not,withoutwrittenapprovalof the dngineer,be incorporated
in the embankment
untitit has beensufflcienfly
driedout.in" oryingof wet
materialmay be expeditedby scarification,
diskingor other approved
methods.
when materialsof wide_ly
divergentcharacteristics,
suchas clay and chalk
or sand,drawnfrom differentsources,are to be used in the emoankment
theyshallbe depositedin alternatelayersof the samematerialoverthe
full
widthof theembankment
to depthsapproved
by the EngineerRock,crayor
othermaterial
shallbe brokenup,andno accumulation
6f tumpsor boulders
in theembankment
willbe permitted.
No surplusmaterial
snaitbe permitted
to be leftat thetoeof embankment
or at thetopof cutsections.
108-2

Side slopesshall be neatlytrimmedto the lines and slopes shown on the


drawingsor as directedby the Engineer,and the finishedwork shall be left
in a neatand acceptablecondition.
108.3.2

Formationof EmbankmentWith RockMaterial


Embankmentformed of materialconsistingpredominantlyof rock fragment
of such size that the materialcannot be placed in layers of the thickness
prescribedwithoutcrushing,pulverizingor furtherbreakingdown the pieces,
such materialmay be placed in layersnot exceedingin thicknessthan the
approximateaverage size of the rocks except that no layer shall exceed
eighty(80)centimetersof loose measurementand compactedby a vibratory
rollerwith the minimummass as shownin the followingtable.

Massper metrewidth of
Vibiatinqroll(Kq/M)

Depth of fill layer


(mm)

2300- 2900
2900- 3600
2600- 4300
4300- 500
>5000

400
500
600
700
800

Numberof passesof
the ioller on eachlaver
6

5
5
A
A

The materialshall be carefullyplacedin layers,so that all largerstoneswill


be well distributedand voids completelyfilled with smaller stones, clean
small spells,shale, earth,sand, gravel,to form a solid mass. After placing
rock material,surface shall be covered with a layer of fine material having
thicknessless than twenty (20) centimeters. Such fine.materialshall be
reservedfrom roadwayexcavationby the Contractor. Should such material
be available but not reserved, Contractor will supply and place borrow
materialforformingsmoothgradewithoutextrapayment.
Each layershall be bladedor leveledwith motorgrader,bulldozeror similar
equipmentcapable of shiftingand formingthe layer into a neat and orderly
condition. No rock largerthan eight (8) centimetersin any dimensionshall
be placed in the top fifteen (15) centimetersof embankment unless
otherwiseallowed by the Engineer.
Materialfor each layer should be consolidatedwith heavy weight vibratory
roller until settlernentas checked betweentwo consecutivepasses of roller
is less that one (1) percent of the layer thickness. ln evaluation of
settlement,survey pointsshould be establishedand rollingcontinueduntil
differenceof levels as checked after two consecutive passes is less than
one (1) percent of the total layer thickness.More over initial rolling of
overlaidfine materialshall be done withoutwateringto ensuretheir intrusion
in voids of rock layer beneath.Watering shall be done when voids are
properlyfilled.

Embankments,
whichare formedof materialthat containrock but also
containsufficientcompactablematerialother than rock or other hard
materialto make rollingfeasible,shall be placedand compactedin the
mannerprescribed
aboveand to the pointwhensettlementis withinabove
mentionedrequirement.Compactiontest will be made wheneverthe
Engineerdetermines
they are feasibleand necessary.Eachlayermust be
approvedby the Engineerbeforethe nextlayeris placed.
108-3

When rock to be incorporatedin fill is composedlargelyof weak or friable


material,the rock shall be reducedto a maximumsize not exceedingfifty
(50) percentof the thicknessof the layerbeingplaced.
108.3.3

Formationof Embankmenton SteepSlopes


Where embankmentsare to be constructedon steep slope, hill sides or
where new fill is to be placedand compactedagainstexistingpavementor
where embankmentis to be built along one half the width at a time, the
originalslope of the hill side,of existingpavementor adjacent to half width
of embankmentshall be cut in steps of twenty (20) centimetersdepth.
Benching shall be of sufficientwidth to permit operation of equipment
possibleduringplacingand compactionof material.
Cut materialshall be incorporatedwith the new embankmentmaterialand
compactedin horizontallayers.No extra paymentwill be allowedfor such
an ooeration.

108.3.4

Formationof Embankmenton ExistingRoads


Before fill is placed and compactedon an existingroadway,the existing
embankment and/or pavement may be leveled by cutting, rooting or
scarifyingby approvedmechanicalmeansto a levelto be determinedby the
Engineer.The earth,old asphaltor other materialarisingas a resultof this
operationwill be declared either suitable or unsuitable,for use in the
embankmentor other items, by the Engineer.lf the materialis declared
suitable it will be measured under relative item and if it is declared
unsuitable,
it will be measuredunderitem 106a.

108.3.5

Formationof Embankmentin Water LoggedAreas


Where embankmentsare to be placedin water loggedareas and which are
inaccessibleto heavy constructionequipment,a special working platform
shall be first established,
consistingof a blanketof fill materialplacedon top
of the soft layer.The materialof the workingtable shall consistof normalor
processedgranularfill,obtainedfrom borrowexcavation.This materialshall
conformto the followingspecifications:

SieveDescription
3 inch (75 mm)

Percentageof Weight Passing


Mesh Sieve.AASHTO T-27

100

The remaininggradingshall be such as to avoid intrusioninto the working


ptatform material of subgrade or natural ground surface material.For this
conditionto be met it will be requiredthat the ratio.
D 15(Working
PlatformMaterial)
is lessthan5.
D65(NaturalGroundMaterial)
Du5and D15mean the particlediameterscorrespondingto 85% and 1So/o,
passing(by weight)in a grainsize analysis.
respectively,
Constructionof this workingtable shall proceedfrom one edge of the soft
area by usingthe fill as a rampfor furthermaterialtransport.
'108-4

The thickness of the working table as prescribed above shall be


0.5 meter unlessdirectedotherwiseby the Engineer,and the
approximatelV
wiOtnsnatt n6 tnat of the embankment.The placementand compactionof
the workingtable shall be carriedout by use of light equipment,as directed
by the Engineer.
No density requirementsare specifiedfor the wor.king.pla.tform,however,
subsequentlayersabove it shail be compactedto the densitiesspecifiedin
I t e m1 0 8 . 3 . 1 .
108.3.6

GeneralRequirements
To avoid interferencewith the constructionof bridge abutmentsand wing
walls, the Contractorshall at pointsdeterminedby the Engineer,suspend
work on embankmentsand/orin cuts formingthe approachesto any such
structure until such time as the constructionof the later is sufficiently
advancedto permit the completionof the approacheswithout the risk of
interferenceor damageto the bridgeworks.The cost of such suspensionof
work shall be included in the contract unit prtces for embankment.In
carryingembankmentsup to or over bridges,culvertsor pipe drainage,care
shall be taken by the Contractorto have the embankmentsbroughtto
equally on both sides and over the top of any such structure.Contractor
shall make specialarrangementsto ensurepropercompactionin restricted
spaces and around structures.No compensationshall be made to the
Contractorfor working in narrowor otherwiserestrictedareas.
When as a result of settlement,an embankmentrequiresthe additionof
materialup to 30 cm in thicknessto bring it up to the requiredgrade level,
the top of the embankment shall be thoroughly scarified before the
additionalmaterialis being placed,withoutextra paymentto Contractorfor
the scarification.
The Contractorshall be responsiblefor the stabilityof all embankmentsand
shall replace any portionsthat in the opinion of the Engineerhave been
damaged or displaceddue to carelessnessor neglecton the part of the
Contractor.Embankmentmaterialwhichmay be lost or displacedas a result
of naturalcausessuch as storms,cloud-burstor as a resultof unavoidable
movement or settlementof the ground or foundation upon which the
embankment is constructedshall be replaced by the Contractorwith
acceptablematerialfrom excavationor borrow.No additionalcompensation
will be allowedfor the replacement.
the roadwayshall be kept in shape and drainedout at
Duringconstruction,
all times. When unsuitablematerialhas been placedin the embankmentby
the Contractor,he shall removeit withoutextra payment.

108.4

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

108.4.1

Measurement
The quantitiesto be paid for shall be the numberof cubic meterscalculated
on theoretical designed lines and grades and the ground levels as
establishedunder clause 100.9, compacted in place, accepted by the
Engineerformedwith materialresultingfrom:
108-5

D Formation of Embankment from Borrow Excavation


Measurement shall be made as under:-

Formationfrom Borrow =

Total Embankment Quantity (minus)


Roadway excavationQuantity (minus)
structuralexcavationQuantity.

ii) Formationfrom structuralExcavation


This quantityshall be the same as calculatedfor structuralexcavation
irrespectiveof its haulage distance except that declared unsuitable by
the Engineer.
iii) F.o,fm?tion
from RoadwayExcavation.
This quantityshall be the same as calculatedfor RoadwayExcavation.
The contractor will be supposed to use material from Roadway
Excavationirrespectiveof haulagedistance,Howeverif contractor,for
his own convenience,uses the materialfrom borrow,the paymentwill
stillbe madeunderthis item 108 (a) & 108(b).
In the measurementof "Formationof Embankmenton steep slopes"no
allowancewill be made for the benchingor volume of materialcut out
from the hill side or from the first half width fill to accommodatethe
compactingequipmentbut will be calculatedonly on the net volumeof fill
placedagainstthe originalhill sides,the old embankmentor the first half
widthfill.
108.4.2

Payment.
a) Formationfrom Borrow Excavation.
The quantityto be paid for shall be the number of cubic meters placed in
embankment,measured as provided above for material from borrow
excavation and such a payment will be deemed to include cost of
excavation,paymentof royalty,levies and taxes of Local, provincialand
FederalGovernment,cost of haulingincludingall lead and lift, spreading,
watering, rolling, labour, equipment,tools and incidentalnecessary to
completethisitem.
b) Formationfrom StructuralExcavation.
The quantityto be paid for shall be the number of cubic meters placed in
embankmentand measuredas providedabove for materialfrom structural
excavationand such paymentwill be deemedto includecost of excavation,
hauling,dumping,spreading,watering,rolling,labour,equipment,tools and
ineidentalnecessaryto completethis item.

108-6

c) Formationfrom RoadwayExcavation
The quantityto be paid for shall be the number of cubic meters placed in
embankmentand measuredas providedabove for materialform roadway
excavationand such paymentwill be deemedto includecost of excavation,
hauling,dumping,spreading,
watering,rolling,labour,equipment,
toolsand
incidentalnecessaryto completethis item.
Pay ltem
No.

108a

108b

Description

Unit of
Measurement

Formation
of Embankment
form RoadwayExcavation
in CommonMaterial

CM

Formation
of Embankment
from RoadwayExcavation
in RockMaterial.
i. Hard Rock
ii. MediumRock
iii. Soft Rock

CM
CM
CM

Formationof Embankment
from BorrowExcavation
in CommonMaterial.

CM

1OBd Formation
of Embankment
from StructuralExcavation
in CommonMaterial.

CM

'108c

108e

Formation
of Embankment
from StructuralExcavation
in RockMaterial
i. HardRock
ii. MediumRock
iii. Soft Rock

108-7

CM
CM
CM

TTEM109

109.1

SUBGRADEPREPARATION
DESCRIPTION
The subgradepreparationshall be that part of the work on which,the
subbaseis placedor, in the absenceof subbase,act as the base of the
pavementstructure.lt shallextendto the fullwidthof the roadbed including
the shouldersand laybyesas indicatedon the Drawingsor as specified
herein.

109.2

REOUIREMENT
CONSTRUCTION

109.2.1

PriorWork
Beforecommencingthe work all culverts,drains,ditchesincludingfully
compactedbackfilloverthem outlbtsfor drainage,headwalls/wingwallsof
culvertsand any other minor structurebelow thirty (30) centimetersof
existingsubgradelevel or all structureswhich will be below thirty (30)
centimetersof newly placedsubgradelevel, shall be in such operative
conditions
as to ensurepromptandeffectivedrainageandto avoiddamage
to subgradeby surfacewater. No work of subgradepreparationwill be
startedbeforethe priorwork hereindescribedhave beenapprovedby the
Engineer.

109.2.2

Compaction Requirement

All materialsdownto a depthof 30 cm belowthe subgradelevelin earthcut


to at least95 percentof the maximum
or embankmentshallbe compacted
to AASHTOT-180Method'B' or'D'
according
dry densityas determined
or correspondingRelative Density as per Dwhicheveris applicable,
4254-83(ASTM).

tog.2.3

Subsrade Preparation,in Earth Cut

In case bottomof subgradelevel is withinthirty (30) cm of the natural


ground,the surfaceshall be scarified,brokenup, adjustedto moisture
to minimumdensityof ninetyflve (95)percentof the
contentand compacted
maximumdry densityas determinedby AASHTO T-180 Method D.
to ensurethat
layerof approvedmaterialshallbe incorporated
Subsequent
the depthof subgradelayeris thirty(30)cm.
ln case,the bottomof subgradeis belowthe naturalgroundby morethan
Thirty(30)cm,the materialabovethe top of subgradeshallbe removedand
subsequent
layerof thirty(30)cm shallbe scarified,brokenup, adjustedto
moisturecontentand compactedto the same degreeof compactionas
describedabove.

109-1

at the sub gradelevelwithina


ln case,unsuitablematerialis encountered
in total1n{ replacedbyremoved
be
shall
the
same
(30)
cm,
O"ptnoi tnirty 'miterial.
paid for removal of
be
shall
contractor
The
ih"
of approved
replacement
for
"pproueb
materialas per pay ltem 106aand
unsuitbbte
pay
108c'
ltem
under
made
willbe
the payment
material,
1o9.2.4

in RockCut
PreParation
Suberade
in rockshallextendto the subgradelevelas shownon drawings'
Excavation
Rockshallbe undercutnearlyto requiredelevationand sectionsshownon
the plans or as directedby the Engineer'Transverseand longitudinal
requirement'Cuts
frofiies checkedby templateshall be accurateto the
materialand
subbase
withselected
betowsubgradelevelshallbe backfilled
dry
maximum
t!9
percent
(9S)
qf
compactei to minimumninety eight
'D'. No compensation
method
T-180,
by AASHTo
o"nditvas determined
shall be made to the Contractorfor over-cutor remedialmeasuresas
describedabove.
abovethe undercut section
No rockshallbe higherthantwo (2) centimeters
or
elevation. The under cut materialshall be placedin embankment
of Engineer.
of at thedirection
disposed

109.2.5

in Embankment
Subsrade
its width shall be the full
\Men the subgradeis formedin embankment,
placed
in the YPperpart of
material
and
embankment
o1
width of top
belowsubgrade
(30)
centimeters
of
thirty
a
depth
to
down
embankment
Soilshavinga minimum
of 109.2.2.
requirement
levelshallmeetcompaction
valueof c.B.R of seven(7) percentand swellvalueof not morethan0.3
percentshallbe used.C.A.Riessthanseven(7)%maybe 999din case,the
withinthe eiisting
designallowsfor it. Unsuitablematerialif encountered
disposed
removed,
be
shall
test,
formationlayeras per laboratoryspecified
the
of
which
Engineer
per
of
the
direction
as
one
of andreplaledby suitable
of
work'
items
relevant
under
made
paymentwill be
Rollersand otherequipmentsof approvedsize and type, acceptedby the
Watershall be addedto obtain
shallbe usedfor compaction.
Engineer,
moisturecontent; if necessary.Contractorshall ensureproper
opti-mum
and rollers'No
in restrictedareasby use of specialequipments
compaction
space.
restricted
to
work
due
shallbe madefor extra
compensation
of this itemof workshallnot be paidfor underthis sectionbut
Performance
shall be deemedto be coveredby the contractpricefor pay item 108a,
of Embankment'
through108e,Formation

r09.2.6

Subgrade Level in Existing Road

Whereindicatedon the Drawingsor directedby the Engineerthat the


the correctelevationon
existingroadsurfaceis to be usedas the subgrade,
wherenecessary,
obtained,
shall
be
laid
whichthe baseor subbaseis to be
levelingcourse
The
by
excavation.
or
eitherby meansof levelingcourse
paidfor under
and
Engineer
of
the
iequirements
to
shallbe constructed the
109-2

the appropriatePay ltem involved. Excavationshall includedisposalof any


surplusmaterialin the adjacentembankmentor elsewhereas directedby
the Engineer.
ln case, the design level of subgrade is within 30 cm of the existing
ground/roadthen the item shallbe measuredand paid accordingly.
109.2.7

Subgradereinforcement
\Men the width of the existing pavement, either to be scarified or not, is
insufficientto contain the subbase or base to be placed upon it, the
Engineermay orderto strengthenand supportthe subbaseor base on one
or both sides of the existing pavement. This work shall consist of the
removaland disposalof any unsuitablematerialand its replacementswith
suitablematerialtosuchwidthand depthas requiredby the Engineer.
The excavatedmaterialshall, if declaredsuitablefor use elsewherein the
embankmentby the Engineerbe so used,and paymentfor its removalshall
be covered under the contract price of pay ltem No. 10ga; if declared
unsuitableit shall be disposedof and paid as providedin ltem 106a. The
finishedcompactedsurfaceof the subgradeshall be as specifiedin ltem
109.2.3.

109.2.8

Protectionof Completed
Work
Any part.of the subgradethat has been completedshall be protectedand
kept well drained. Any damage resulting from carelessnessof the
contractorshall be repairedas directedby the Engineerwithoutadditional
payment.
The contractor shall be responsiblefor all the consequencesof traffic being
admitted{o the subgrade. iie shall repairany ruts or ridgesoccasionedb!
his own traffic or that of others by reshapingdnd compactingwith rollers of
the size and type necessaryfoi such repiir. He shall tiriit tne area of
subgrade preparationto an area easily maintainedwith the equipment
available. subgrade preparationand subbase or base placing shall be
arrangedto follow each other closely. The subgrade,when preparedtoo
soon in relationto the placingof the subbase,is liableto deteriorate,and in
such case the contractorshall,withoutadditionalpayment,repair,reroll,or
recompact the subgrade as may be necessary to restore it to the state
specifiedherein.

109.2.9

Templates
and Straightedges
The contractor shall provide for the use of the Engineer,satisfactory
templatesand straightedges
in sufficientnumbersto check the accuracyoi
the work, as providedin these specifications
and no subsequentwork shall
be permitteduntilthe subgradelevelshave been checkedand approvedby
the Engineer. For tolerances,referred to the, "Table for Allowable
Tolerances"in these specifications.

109.3

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

109.3.r

Measurement
The quantityto be paid for shall be the number of square meters of
subgradepreparedas hereinbeforeprescribedand accepted. subgradein
rock cuts and on embankmentnot consistingof the existingroad surfacein
fill area shallnot be measuredfor directpayment.
subgrade preparationon "Existingsurface" shall only be measuredfor
paymentwhen orderedby the Engineer.

109.J.2

Pavment
The quantities,determinedas providedabove, shall be paid for at the
contractunit price respectively,for each of the particularpay items listed
belowthat is shown in the Bill of Quantitieswhich pricesand paymentshall
be full compensationfor furnishingof material,water, equipment,tools,
labour,and all otheritems necessaryfor completionof work.

Pay ltem
No.

109a
109b

Description

Unit of
Measurement

preparation
Subgrade
in
EarthCut

SM

preparation
Subgrade
in
Existing
Road
i,
ii.

Withoutany fill
With fill lessthan 30 cms

109-4

SM
SM

ITEM 110

110.1

IMPROVED SUBGRADE
DESCRIPTION
This work shall consist of the formation of the roadbed, under subbase or
base course as the case may be, with an approved blend of materials,
uniformlymixed, compacted,shaped and finished to the lines, grades and
typicalcross-sectionsshown on the Drawings,or in thicknessas directed by
the Engineer.
lmproved subgrade as herein referred to may be defined as material
suitable for embankmentto which better quality of material is blended in
properproportionto improveits strengthpropertiesor performance.

110.2

MATERHL REQUIREMENTS
The major component of improved subgrade shall consist of material
conformingto ltem 108.2- "Materialrequirementsfor embankment."
The blending materialshall be any soilthat classifiesas A-1(a),A-1(b),Az-aor A-3arcordingto AASHTO M-145 with Pl of not more than 6.
The blended mixture when compacted to ninety five (95) percent of the
maximumdry densitydeterminedby AASHTO T 180-D Method,shall exhibit
a laboratorysoaked CBR (96 hours) of not less than 20, or as specified in
the drawings.

110.3

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS

110.3.1

Preparation
The surface of the roadbed on which the improved subgrade is to be
constructedshall be compactedto the densityspecifiedunder ltem 108.3.1.

t10.3.2

Proportioninq of Materials
Prior to start of construction, the proportion of each material to be
incorporatedfor improvedsubgradeshall be establishedas approved by the
Engineer.The Engineershall specifya single percentageof each materialto
be blended and shall establish the gradation of the resulting mixtures
alongwith the ranges of permissible gradation tolerances to obtain the
requiredCBR for the improvedsubgrade.
The blend proportionsthus establishedshall apply only when each material
to be used is obtained from same source. Should a change in source of
material be made, a new proportion shall be established. When
unsatisfactoryresults or other conditions make it necessary,the Engineer
may requireadditionallaboratorytests.

110-1

110.3.3

Mixins andSnreading
of machines
with any combination
lmprovedsubgrademay be constructed
specifications.
these
yield
meeting
results
will
that
or equipment
a) StationarvPlantMethod
and watershallbe mixedin an approvedmixingplant
The soil ingredients
devices
plant
shallbe equippedwithfeedingand metering
The
(pug Mill).
quantities.
Water
specified
in
the
blended
be
to
materials
the
add
that will
quantity
for
required
the
in
operation
mixing
the
during
be
added
shall
optimummoisturecontentplus
whichis approximately
propercompaction.
or minustwo (2) percent.The mixingtime shallbe thatwhichis requiredto
secure a uniformmixture.After mixing,the blendedmaterialshall be
to the job sitewhileit containsthe sufficientmoistureand shall
transported
spreader.
plaeed
on
the ioadbcdby meansof an approvedmechanical
be
compacted
produce
a
uniform
will
rate
that
at
be
spread
shall
The mixture
Compaction
to the requiredgradeand cross-Section.
thicknessconforming
untilthe
continue
shall
and
possible
spreading
after
as
as
soon
shallstart
is
achieved.
compaction
specifiedrelative
b) TravelinePlantMethod
The travelingplantshallbe eithera flat transverseshafttype or a windrow
type pugmill.After the materialshave been placed by a mechanical
spreaderor windrowsizingdevicethe materialsshallbe uniformlymixedby
watershallbe added
the travelingmixingplant.Duringthe mixingoperation,
to the percentage
the
mixture
of
content
moisture
to bringthe
as necessary
proper
compaction.
suitablefor
c) RoadMix Method
to the site and spreadin layerson the
The materialsshall be transported
quantities
to
required producethe specifiedblend.Afterthe
roadbedin the
materialsfor each lift have beenspread,the materialsshall be mixedby
motorgradersand otherapprovedequipmentuntilthe mixtureis uniform
throughout.
Duringmixingoperation,watershall be addedas ne@ssaryto bringthe
moisturecontentto the properpercentage.

110.3.4

Comoaction

Unlessotherwisepermittedby the Engineerbased on the performanceof


from the trialsection,each
equipmentusedas determined
the compacting
layer of improvedsubgradeshall-beplacedin horizontallayersof uniform
loosethicknessnot exceedingtwenty(20) centimdters.Eachlayershall be
compactedto the densityconformingto the requirementsspecifiedin ltem
108.3.1
of the compactedlayersshallLremadein
In-pacedensitydeterminations
a@ordancewithAASHTOT-191,T-238or otherapprovedmethods.

fia=2

110.3.5

Trial Sections

Prior to the formation of the improved subgrade, the contractor shall


constructthree trial sectionsof 200 meter lengthone (1) for each blend of
improvedmaterialproposedto be incorporated
for improvedsubgrade,or as
directedby the Engineer.The compactingequipmentto be used in the trial
sectionsshall be the same equipmentthat the contractorintendsto use for
mainwork,acceptedby the Engineer.
The object of these trials is to determinethe proper moisturecontent,the
relationshipbetween the number
.of passes of compacting equipment,
densityobtainedfor the blendedmaterial,and to estabiishthe optimum lift
thicknessthat can be effectivelycompactedwith the equipmentused. No
separatepaymentwill be made for this work, which will be regardedas a
subsidiaryobligationof the Contractorunderpay ltem No. 110.
| 10.3.6

Protectionof CompletedWork
Any part of the completedimprovedsubgradeshall be protectedand well
drained and any damage shall be repairedas directed by.the Engineer
withoutadditionalpayment.
The contractorshall be responsiblefor allthe consequencesof trafficbeing
admittedto the improved subgrade.He shall repair any ruts or ridgei
occasionedby his own traffic or that of others by reshapingand compactlng
with rollersof the size and type necessaryfor such repair.-Heshall limitthe
improved subgrade preparationto an area easily maihtainedwith the
equipmentavailable.subgrade preparationand placementof succeeding
layer to follow each other closely.The improvedsubgrade,when prepared
too soon in relation to the placing of the layer ibove it, is liable to
deteriorate,and in such case the contractor shall, without additional
payment,repair, rero.ll,or recompactthe improvedsubgrade as may
be
necessaryto restoreit to the state specifiedherein.

110.3.7

Temolatesand Straiehtedses
The contractor shall provide for the use of the Engineer, satisfactory
templatesand straightedgesin sufficientnumbersto check the accuracyof
the work, as providedin these specifications
and no subsequentwork shall
be permitted until the improved subgrade level have been checked and
approvedby the Engineer.

110.3.8

Tolerance
The allowabletolerancesfor the finishedimprovedsubgradesurfacepnor to
placingthe overlyingsubbase,base or asphalticconcretecourseare given
in the relevant,"Tablefor AllowableTolerances"in thesespecifications.

110-3

110.4

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

110.4.1

Measurement
The quantityof improvedsubgradeto be paid for shall be measuredin
square meter by the theoreticalarea covered in place as shown on the
Drawings, completed and acceptedimprovedsubgradein a thicknessof
30 cms.

ttO.4.2

Pavment
The acceptedquantitiesmeasuredas providedabove shall be paid for at
the contractunit price per cubic meter of improvedsubgradefor the pay
item listed below and shown in the Bill of Quantities,which price and
payment shall constitutefull compensationfor furnishing all materials,
hauling, mixing, piacing in layers, watering and compacting, labour,
equipment,toolsand incidentalsnecessaryto completethe item.

Pay ltem
No.

110

Description

lmprovedSubgrade

110-4

Unit of
Measurement

CM

ITEM IlI

111.1

SOIL CEMENT STABILIZED ST]BGR,ADE


DESCRIPTION
The work shallconsistof performingall operationsin connectionwith the
formation of soil cement stabilizedsubgrade and all incidentalsin
accordance
withthe specifications
and in conformity
withthe linesand level,
grade and typicalcross-sections
shown on the plans or directedby the
Engineer.

ttr.2

MATERIALREOUIREMENTS

l.tt.2.l

General

The mix in placemethodof construction


shallonly be appliedto siteswith
naturallyoccurringsand, gravel or sand and gravel mixture. For the
stationaryplant methodof constructionthe materialsshall complywith the
specifications
or materialsfromanyothersourceselectedby the Contractor
shallbe subjectto the Engineer's
approval.
ttl.2.2

Soil

Soil usedfor cementstabilization


shall be either"Siltyor ClayeySoils"or
sandyandgravelysoilswiththefollowingcharacteristics
a) Siltv and Clavey Soils

\Mten this type of soil is usedfor cementstabilization


it shallfulfillthe
followingrequirements.
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)

LiquidLimit(Max).
PlasticLimit (Max).
P.H.Value
SolubleSulphateContentmax:
SolubleChlorideContentmax:

45%
20o/o
Not less lhan 12
4o/o
8%

lf the soil at site does not have P.H.value specifiedabove,it shall be


improvedby addingcalciumchlorideupto two (2) percentby rirreight
of
thedrysoil,
Soils, wtrich don't meet above requirement,shall be subjectto the
approvalof Engineer.
b) Sandv an4 qravely soils

Sandy and gravely soils used for cement stabilizationshall fulfill the
followingrequirements:

'111-1

i)
ii)
iii)
ili
ui

100%
Passingmaximumsizefifty(50)mm sieve
50%
above
sieve
(\9:
4)
(5)
mm
Passin!five
above15%
pissin60.4;m (No.'36)
sieve.'
below 5%
Passin!0.075mm (No'200)sieve
below3%
Finerthan0.002mm (Clay)

shallbe subjectto the approval


soil whichdo not meetaboverequirements
results'
testing
laboratory
the
oifngin""r. afterreviewing
ttl.2.3

Cement

Portlandcement or
The cement to be used for stabilizationshall be
accordingto the
Engineer
the
sulphateresistantcemlnt as directedby
of
to requirement
pot1"nd
conform
shall
Cement
t"itt.
resultsof laboratory
to
conform
shall
cement
resistant
AASIITO M-85 whil; sulphate
of AASHTOM-74'
requirement
weather
uponarrivaltosite,thecementbagsshallbestoredin
lmmediately
time of
the
At
platform.
proofbuildingto protectfrom dampnesson raiied
normal
Under
lumps.
use, all cementsnati ne free flowingand free of
four
than
period
longer
a
for
cementshall not be stored
circumstances
of
period
excess
in
a
for
store
in
months. Any cemenithat has remained
retested
be
quality,
shall
its
to
as
doubt
fourmonths,or of wntfr inereis any
requirements.Noiuch cementshallbe usedin the works
for specification
of Engineer'
withoutthe aPProval
Ltl.2.4

walcr
quantities,
of oil' alkali,
water to be used shall be free from injurious
v e g e t a b l e m a t t e r a n d s a l t s . l t s h a | | n o t c o n t a i n m o r e t h a extent
n1000partsper
to the
millionsof sulphates.tn no case,watershallcontainimpurities
twentyfive
that will causecnangein settingtime of cementby more-than
(14)
fourteen
after
mortar
of
strength
ilga9|i noi reductioi in "otpt"-tsive
with
obtained
results
to
compared
when
percent
["v, nv morethan rive ts)
distilledwater.

111.2,5

in Laboratorv
Mix DesienRequirement
the proposedmix designshowing
Beforestartingthe work of stabilization,
a mixture'
-iact percentigeof cementandwaterto be usedso as to obtain The mix
of
Engineer'
for the approval
shallbe submittedov tre contractor
proportions
shallbe iuch so as to satisfythefollowingrequirements.
Mixturesample,storedin box,with maximumhumidityof ninety

four(24)hoursandsubmerged
nu"tgsl%fortwenty
ilY?l:ll?:
a minimumcompresslve
two lrours beforecrushing,shallhave
strengthof 17 kilogrampersquarecentimeter'

ii)

swellingof volumeshallbe two (2) %


The maximumpermissive
eignt (g) % when tested in
weight
in
and maximumloss
T-135'
AASHTO
with
accordance
111-2

iii)

Maximum permissibretoreranceof cement and water content


duringconstruction
shall be as under:_
cement content:Toreranceof + 1.g percentof that given in
the mix
design.
WaterContent:0 to (+)2%of that given in the mix design.

ttt.2.6

Composition
of Mixture at Site
soil shall be mixed with sufficientcement to obtain required
crushing
strength. The cementcontentshall be determinedat the laboratory
so that
minimumcompressivestrengthof mixtureis thirty(ao) xglsqu;re
centimeter
-the
at seven (7) days. The moisture content of
hii
stabirized
materialshall not be.lessthan the optimumas determined
"en'ent
by AASHTO r_
134 Method and not more than rwo (2) percent above
the optimum as
determinedby this test or sucn nigner.varue ,"y
be agreeo by the
Engineeron basisof preliminary
".
trial.

111.3

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS

111.3.1

Mix in PlaceMethod
The field equipmentsused for pulverizingand mixingthe
stabilizeomaterial
shall be approved by the engineer on tne basis'of pr"iirin"rv
triars to
ensurethat the plant is capableof producingthe required
oegreeor mixing
and uniformityof stabilizedmaterialto the full thickness
or tayer nein!
processed. The mixersshall be equippedwith
a devicefor contiollingth6
depth of processingand the mixing'bladesshalr be
maintaineoso that
correctdepthof mixingis obtainedaiall times. The cement
shall be spread
ahead of mixer by means of a cement spreader, fitted
with a device to
ensure a uniform and controllable rate of spread
of cement both
transverselyand longitudinally.
water shall be addedto adjustmoisturecontentof material
to optimumfor
compactionusing water sprayerin uniform and controllable
manner both
transverselyand longitudinally.
The mixing machineshail be set so that, it srighflycuts
edge of adjoining
rane processed previousryto ensure proper processing
6f ail material
throughoutthe depth of.rayer. The output br tnb mixing
.t,"tt not be
less than twenty five rinear meters per hour r""rrrEo [t"nt
tongituoinailyor
completedstabilizedlayerin orderto achievesatisfactory
comfiction.

I I 1.3.2

StationarvPlant Method
The stationary prant shail be of the power driven paddre
or pan type and
may be of the batchor continuoustype. In case the batch
mixes are used,
the appropriatemeasuredquantity-ofmaterial and cement
shall first be
placed in the.mixer and then water be added
n"""rr"ry1o bring the
moisturecontentof the resurtingmixturewith in the
"" range .p"tiilo above.

111-3

Care shall be takenwith batchtype paddlemixersto ensurethat the cement


is spread uniformlyin the loadingskip so that it is fed evenly along the
mixing trough and that with both paddle and pan mixers, the cement is
proportioned
devicefrom
accuratelyby a separateweighingor proportioning
that used for the materialbeing stabilized. Mixing shall be continueduntil
the mixturehas the uniformityand mixingtime will not be less than one (1)
minute.
111.3.3

Compaction
Any modificationto meet the specificationshall be completedtogetherwith
'/2)
hoursafter mixing,or makinggood
compaction,withinone and a half (1
to deficientareas at contractor'sexpense. Thicknessshall be as shown on
the drawingsor as directedby the Engineerand shall complythe following
reouirements.
lmmediatelyafter spreadingand shaping operation,the mixture shall be
thoroughlyand uniformlycompactedwith approved rollers. Rolling shall
continueuntil entiredepth and width of subgradeis uniformlycompactedto
maximum density of Ninety five (95) % as tested in accordancewith
modifiedAASHTO I-134. Compactionshall be completedas soon as
possibleafter mixing, normallywithin three hours, dependingmainly on
settingtime of cementand weatherconditions.
Compactionshall not be carriedout after cement hydrationand any soils
material,which has been mixed or depositedafter cement hydration,shall
be removedand replacedwith fresh mixedmaterial.
After compaction,stabilizedsubgradeshall be protectedagainstdryingout
damp or wet for a periodof at leastthree (3) days
by keepingit continuously
or by coatingwith approvedcuringmaterial.Surfaceshall be maintainin an
acceptableconditionat all times priorto the constructionof sub-base.
No vehiculartrafficshall run on the stabilizedsubgradewithin a minimum
curing periodof seven days.

ttt.3.4

Tolerance
Tolerancein the thicknessof compactedlayersshall conformto as specified
in the relevant,"Tablefor AllowableTolerances"in thesespecifications.

ttt.4

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT

111.4.1

Measurement
The unit of measurementfor paymentshall be cubic meterof completedand
acceptedsubgradeas measuredin place. Measurementshall not include
any areas in excess of that shown on the drawings,except the areas
authorizedby the Engineerin writing. Measurementof cementcontentused
shall be the numberof metricTon used to stabilizesubgrade. This quantity
of Cement consumed shall not exceed the theoretical percentage
establishedin the laboratory.

111-4

ttt.4.2

Payment

as aboveshqllbe
The measuredquantityof stabilizedsubgradedetermined
paidfor at the contractunit priceper cubicmeterfor a particularitemlisted
below and shown on the bill of quantities,which paymentshall be full
for furnishingall labour,material,tool, plant,equipment,
compensation
placing,shaping,compacting,including
handling,mixing manipulating,
rolling,finishing;correctingunsatisfactory
necessarywaterfor compaction,
material;maintenanceincludingprotectionof
areas and unsatisfactory
stabilizedlayers;and incidentalsnecessaryfor completionof work except
whichshallbe paidseparately
as measuredabove.
cementconsumed

Payltem
No.

Description

111a SoilCementstabilized
Sub-grade

Unitof
Measurement
CM

1 1 1 b C e m e n t c o n t e n t t y p e . . . . . . Ton

111-5

ITEM 112

tt2.l

LIME STABILIZED SUBGRADE


DESCRIPTION
The work shall consistof performingall operationsin connectionwith
of lime stabilizedsubgradeand all incidentalsin accordance
construction
and in conformitywith linesand level,gradeand
*itn tn"t" specifications
shownon the plansor as directedby the Engineer.
tyfical cross-sections

112.2

MATERIALREOUIREMENTS

tlz.2.l

Soil
Naturallyoccurringheavyclay soils,clayeygravelsor_soils containinga
stabilization
of cliy oi silty clay to enablesatisfactory
.ufi"i"nl proportion
and
construction
of
method
in
Place
with limeshallbe requiredfor the-Mix
"Material
111.2,
ltem
in
specified
properties
as
shaff conform to
undeisoilscementstabilizedsub grade. Materialsfrom any
Reluirements"
shallcomplywiththe specification
othersourcesselectedby the Contractor
of stationaryplant construction
in
case
Engineer
the
by
all as approved
method.
Lime stabilizationhas been used successfullyin clayey soils having
to
is applicable
plasticityindexmorethanten (10). Thistypeof stabilization
clay'
silty
or
of clay
ihat soiiwnichcontaina highpercentage

112.2.2

Lime

Lime to be used for stabilizationshall be calciumhydroxide(slakedor


for building
lime)or Calciumoxide(quicklime)to the requireme-nts
nVOrat"O
temporary
produced
from
quality
lime
lower
limeas in tabiegivenbelowor
Engineer'
the
by
burningpitsor Kilnswhenapproved

Tablell2l2
SPECIFICATION REOUIREMENT FOR LIME

Oxides Not less than 92%


Calciumor Magnesium

Notlessthan95%

Carbon Dioxide-atKiln

Notmorethan3%

Notmorethan5%

Carbon Dioxide-elsewhere

Notmorethan3%

NotmorethanT%

1t2.2.3

Water
water used for lime stabilizationshall be clean and free from injurious
substances. Potablewater is preferredand organic water is not permitted.
It shall neithercontain more than 1,000 parts per millionof chloridesnor
more than 1,300 parts per millionof sulphates(soa). water from doubtful
sourcesshall not be used until tested as specifiedin AASHTo- T-26 and
approvedby the Engineer.

rI2.2.4

Mix Designin Laboratorv


The mix designshall be workedout in the laboratoryand it strallstate the
followingfield requirements:

112.2.5

(i)

The percentage of rime and water (optimum content and


tolerances)

(ii)

The field densityof lime stabilizedmixtureto minimumninetyfive


(95) percent of raboratorydensity estabrishedwith modified
AASHTOT-134test.

(iii)

The requiredresultsof the compressivestrengthin laboratoryat


7 days shaltnot be lessthanten (10) Kg/sq.cm.

Comnositionof Mixture at Site


soil containingclay shall be mixed with sufficientlime, normallythree (3)
percent to eight (8) percent lime content, so that minimum compressive
strength is seven (7) Kilogram force per square centimetersat seven (7)
days. Moisturecontentof the lime stabilizedmaterialshall be not less than
the optimum nor more. than two (2) percent above the optimum
as
determinedby VibratingHammermethodtest of BS 1924(1975).
As a guidetrials,lime contentshouldbe establishedstartingwith 1% of lime
by weightof dry soil for each ten (,10)percentof clay in soil.

t12.3

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS

tt2.3.l

StationarvPlant Method
The constructionrequirementsof this clauseshall conformto as specified
in
s u b i t e m1 1 1 . 3 . 2 .

r12.3.2

Mix in PlaceMethod
The requirementsof constructionunderthis clause shall be in accordance
w i t hs u bi t e m1 1 1 . 3 . 1 .

112-2

rt2.3.3

Measures
PrecautionarY
Keepingin view the caustic nature of calcium oxide (quick lime), special
measures shall be taken in handling, since it wiil attack equipment
corrosivelyand precautionsshall also be taken againstthe risk of severe
skin burnsto personnel. Suitablehandlingmethodsshall be used such as
fully mechanisedor bottom dump handling equipment, and protective
doining worn by the operators. working operationsshould take into
accountthe wind directionto minirnisethe dust problem and consequent
eye or skin irritationto any personnelinvolvedin the vicinity.Even when
calciumhydroxide(slakedor hydratedlime) is used, care must be taken
againstthe effectsof prolongedexposureto skin.

112.3.4

CompactionRequirement
lmmediatelyupon completionof spreadinganC shaping operation' the
mixtureshall be thoroughlycompactedwith approvedroller. Compaction
shall be continueduntilthe entiredepthof subgradeis uniformlycompacted
to the maximum density of 95% as determinedby modifiedAASHTo T134.
lf quick lime is used, it shall not be permittedto compact the layers
immediatelyafter spreadingthe lime, becausethe hydrationof the lime will
causedamageto the compactedlayers. The time withinwhich compaction
shall be completedwill be estimatedin the laboratory. Dry density of
compactedlayersshall not be less than Ninetyfive (95) % of the maximum
dry densitydeterminedin laboratory.
Compactionshall not take place after hydrationof lime and any lime
stabilizedmaterialthat has been mixed and depositedafter h1'drationof
lime,shall be removedand replacedwith fresh material,mixed and treated
of this clause.
in accordancewith the requirements
Surface of subgradeshall be acceptablein all respectsto specification,
together with compactionwith One and half (1.'/2) hours after mixing.
for any removalof or makinggood to deficient
Contractorwill be responsible
payment.
No vehicleor equiprrentshallbe allowedto
extra
areawithoutany
initialsettingof 7 days.
before
subgrade
over
stabilised
move

112.3.5

Tolerance
Tolerancefor lime stabilizedsubgradeshall be as specifiedin the relevant,
"Tablefor AllowableTolerances"in thesespecifications.

1t2.3.6

WeatherLimitation
The layingof lime coursesshall be avoidedas far as practicableduringcold
and wet weather and shall be suspendedwhen free standing water is
presenton the surface. The stabilizedmaterialshall not be laid on any
surface,which is frozenor coveredwith ice or Snow,and layingshall cease
when the atmospherictemperaturereachesfive (5) degree C. on a falling
thermometeror as directedby the Engineer. lf wet weatherthreatensto be
prolonged,
the manufactureand layingof stabilizedmix shallbe suspended.

112-3

r12.4

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

t12.4.l

Measurement

The unit of measurement


for paymentshall be the cubic meterof the
compacted
and acceptedsubgradeas measuredin place. Measurement
shallnot includeanyareain excessof thatshownon the drawrngs,
except
the areas authorized
by the Engineerin writing. Measurement
of lime
consumedshall be the numberof metricTon used to stabilizesubgrade.
This quantityof limeconsumedshallnot exceedthe theoretical
percentage
established
in the laboratory.
ttz.4.2

Payment
The measuredquantityof stabilizedsubgradedeterminedas aboveshall
be
paid for at the contractunit price.percubic meter for a particularitem
listed
below and shown on the bill of quantities,which payment shall be full
compensationfor furnishingall labour, material, tool, plant, equipment;
handling, mixing, manipurating,pracing, shaping, compacting inituoing
necessarywater for compaction,rolling,finishing; correctingunsatisfactor!
areas and unsatisfactorymixtures; maintenance includin! protection
of
stabilized layers; and incidentalsnecessaryfor completion-ofwork except
lime consumedwhich shall be paid separatelyas measuredabove.

Pay ltem
No.

Description

Unitof
Measurement

112a

LimeStabitizedSubgrade

CM

112b

Lime

Ton

112-4

ITEM llJ
11 3 . 1

BITUMEN STABILIZED SUBGRADE


DESCRIPTION

The work shall consist of performingall operations in connectionwith


construction of bitumen stabilized subgrade and all incrdentals in
acuordancewith the specificationsin conformitywith the lines. grade,
thicknessand typicalcross-sections
shown on the plans or as clirectedby
the Engineer.
tt3.2

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS

tt3.2.l

Soil
This method will only apply to sites with naturallyoccurringnon plastic
materialsuch as sand. lf the materialis brouqht at site. it shall be nonplastichavinguniformgradation.

113.2.2

Bitumen
Bituminousmaterialused for subgradestabilization
shall complywith the
requirementas per relevant tables specified in item 301, "Asphaltic
Materials"for hot mix asphalticconcreteor can be viscous cut back that
requires heating in areas where moisture content of sand is high,
necessitating
heatingand dryingof sand.
ln dry areas,where naturalmoisturecontentof sand is low, the bituminous
bindershall be fluid cut back conformingthe requirementsas given in tables
301-3and 301-4respectively
of item 301 "AsphalticMaterials".
Bitumenemulsionor foamed penetrationgrade bitumencan also be used
subjectto the approvalof Engineeraftertrialtest.
Bitumen-sand
mixturefor the gradeof bitumenselectedshall be ascertained
by trial mixes using MarshallTest to determinethe quantity of bitumen
requiredusing either heated or unheatedsand. The quantityof bitumen
requiredwill generallylie betweenthree (3) to six (6) percentby weightof
dry sand,the higherproportionsbeingrequiredwith fine-grainedmaterials.

113.3

CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTS
Equipment,
tools,and machinesusedfor bitumenstabilizedsubgradeshall
be subject to the approval of Engineerand shall be maintarnedin
satisfactory
workingconditionsall the times,
Mix in placemethodof bitumenstabilizatron
will be subjectto the approval
of Engineerto ensurefull controlof bitumencontent,uniformand thorough
mixing and satisfactoryprocessingof the materialto the full depth of the
layer. For scarification
of in situ materialand spreadingof Bituminous
qraderwith bladeand bitumendistributor
material,
shallbe used

ttJ-l

The stabilizedsoil shall be left uncompactedafter pulverizationand mixing


to allow for evaporationof volatile materialsthus increasingstabilityand
decreasing water absorption particularlyin fine grained sand when
temperatureis low.
ll3.3.1

Compaction
lmmediatelyafter completionof spreading,aerationand shapingoperation,
the mixtureshall be thoroughlycompactedwith rubberor pneumatictyred
rollers. compactionshall continueuntilentirewidth and depth of subgiade
is uniformlycompactedto give soaked (96 hours)unconfinedcompressive
strength accordingto design requirementto meet traffic loading. steel
wheeled tandem roller shall be used to carry out final rolling of compacted
surfaceto eliminatethe tyre marks.
To determinethe efficiencyof mixing,spreading,degree of compactionof
equipmentand suitabilityof constructionmethod,trial sectionsas directed
by the Engineer,shall be preparedby the contractorbefore main work of
stabilizationis started.
lf thicknessof compactedlayeris lessthan 20 centimeters,
it shall be laid as
singleoperationwhere as if thicknessof compactedstabilizedlayer is more
than twentycentimeter,materialshall be placedin two or more layers,eaeh
within the range of eight (B) to twenty (20) centimetersin compacted
thickness.
The resultsof cBR test for measuringthe strengthof bitumen stabilized
materialsor cone stabilitytest for designingbitumen-sandmixtureshall not
supersedethose of Marshallrest unlessagreed by the Engineer. In-situ
densityof compactedlayershall be deierminedusing methodas described
by MSHTO - T-191, AASHTO - T-205 or AASHTO -T-2ZB and shail be
minirnLrmninety five (95) % modified AASHTO according to the above
mentionedmethods.
Frequencyof testingin field and in laboratorywill be accordingto relevant
schedulefor samplingand testingof thesespecifications.

113.3.2

Tolerance
compactedlayer shall complywith the tolerancerequirementsas specified
in relevant,"Tablefor AllowableTolerances,'
in thesespecification.

113.3.3

WeatherLimitation
The laying of bituminouscourses shall be avoided as for as practicable
during wet weather and shall be suspendedwhen free standingwater is
presenton the surface.The stabilizedmaterialshall not be laid on any
surface,which is frozen or covered with ice or snow and laying shall cease
when the air temperature reaches five (s) degree c on a falling
thermometer.Layingshallnot commenceuntilthe air temperatureis at least
flve (5) degree c on a rising thermometerunless othenruisedirected by the
Engineerand also if wet weatherthreatensto be prolongedthe manufatture
and layingof stabilizedmix shall be suspended.

113-2

113.4

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

173.4.1

Measurement
The unit of measurementfor payment shall be cubic meters of a given
thickness of compactedand accepted subgrade as measuredin place.
Measurementshall not includeany areas in excess of that shown on the
drawings, except the areas authorized by the Engineer in writing.
Measurementof bitumenbinder used shall be the number of metric Ton
used to stabilizesubgrade. This quantityof bitumenconsumedshall not
exceedthe theoreticalpercentageestablishedin the laboratory'

t13.4.2

Payment
Measuredquantityof stabilizedsubgradedeterminedas aboveshall be paid
for at the contractunit priceper cubic meterfor a particularitem listeJbelow
and shown on the bill of quantities, which payment shall be full
compensationfor furnishingall labour, material, tool, plant, equipment;
handling,mixing, manipulating,placing, shaping, compactingincluding
necessarywater for compaction,rolling, finishing; correctingunsuitable
areas and unsatisfactorymaterial; maintenanceincluding protectionof
stabilizedsubgradelayer and incidentalsnecessaryfor completionof work
except bitumen consumedwhich shall be paid separatelyas measured
above.

Pay ltem
No.

Description

Unit of
Measurement

113a

BitumenStabilizedSubgrade.

CM

113b

BitumenBinder,tYPe-

Ton

11 3 - 3

ITEM 114

tt4.l

DRJ,SSING AND COMPACTION

OF BERMS

DESCRIPTION
This work shallconsistof scarification
of berms,which are undulated,or out
of level. The existing material shall be scarified, watered, mixed and
properly leveled and compacted accordingto specificationdescribed here
underor as directedby the Engineer.

tt4.2

MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
In this item no fresh materialis required,however,if fresh materialis
used it shall be measuredand paid under other relativeitems of
works.

114.3

CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTS

1t4.3.1
In case the berms show undulationof more than 5 cms in level from the
reconstructedpavementstructure,the berms shall be scarifiedto a depth of
15 cm and material will be watered,mixed and compactwith appropriate
equipmentapprovedby the Engineer.
t14.3.2

Dressingof bermwith the useof extra material


ln case the difference of elevation of existing berm with respect to
reconstructed
road structureis less than 15 cm than additionalmaterial (to
be measuredunderother itemsof work) shall be addedto bringthe levelof
berms in conformitywith the linesand grades of the existingr6ad.Existing
and fresh material shall be properlymixed, wateredand compactedas
directedby the Engineer.

t14.J.J

Compactionrequirement
compaction requirementof the fresh and existing material shall be in
accordancewith the type of materialusedin berms,as under:_
Dgt[

Compactionrequirementas
per AASHTO T-180 (D).

in cm

0 - ' t 5 l T o pl a y e n

95% for
material

0 - 15 (Toplayer)

100%for subbasematerial

11+1

common earth

t14.3.4

Comoaction of slopes
While reinstating/dressirrgof berms, it shall be ensured that compaction
requirements are observed on slopes of the berms. The degree of
compaction shall be as per direction of the Engineer.

114.4

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

I l-t.4.1

Measurement

Measurementunder this item shall be made in square meter of berms


dressed or compactedin accordancewith theoretieallines, or sections
shownon tne drawings,or as per existingedgeof road.
In case partialfreshmaterialis used to compensatefor shortageof material
in the top layerthe quantityof such materialshall be measuredby survey
levelsof existingground and designedlines,gradesor sectionsshown on
the drawing.
The quantityof materialthus measuredshall be paid under other items of
worksof formationof embankment/ subbase.

1I4.4.2

Payment
The paymentof this item shall be made for at the contractunit price per
square meter of dressed and compactedberm measuredas above, for
scarificationwatering, mixing, rolling, labour, equipment, tools and
incidentalsnecessaryto completethts item.
Pay ltem
No.

Description

Unit of
Measurement

of bermwithout
114a Dressing
extramaterial.

SM

of bermwith
114b Dressing
extramaterial.

SM

114-2

ITEM 115

11 5 . 1

REINSTATEMENT OF SHOULDERS FROM BRICK KILN


MATERIAL
DESCRIPTION
This work shall consistof furnishingand placingin singlelayerof Brick Kiln
materialon shouldersand to mechanicallyinterlockby wateringand rolling,
in conformitywith lines,gradesand cross-sections
shownon driwino.

L15.2

!4AIN,RIAL REOUIREMENTS
The materialshallconformto the followingrequirements.

11s.2.1

Texture
The Kiln materialshall be fully burnthavingreddishbrowniblackcolour. No
unburntor semi burntmaterialshall be allowed. The materialshall behave
like improvedsub gradewith followingproperties.

rr5.2.2

Cradation
The gradingshallconformto the followinglimits.

SieveDesiqnation

MassPercentPassing.

1"
(25mm)
3/8" (9.5mm)
No.10
No.200

100
80-100
50-85
15-35

Note:- coarser than 1" (25 mm) size materialmay be allowedupto five
(5) percentby the Engineer.
115.2.3

PhvsicalReouirements

The additionalphysicalrequirementsof the kiln materialwill satisfy the


followinglimits:4

2.

P . l .v a l u e .

6.0%max.

SwellingValue.
SoakedC.B.R.(96 hours)

115-1

0.2Ook
max.
20o/omin.

115.3

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS

11s.3.1

General

Materialfor shoulders,obtainedand approvedas providedabove shall be


placed and thoroughlymixed with water in horizontallayer of uniform
ihicknessand in conformitywith the lines,grades,sectionsand dimensions
shownon the Drawings.The layerof loose materialshall not be morethan
twenty (20) centimeters in thickness unless othenrviseapproved by the
Engineer.

The compactionof the shouldersshall be carried out at the designated


moisture content, consistentwith the approved compacting equipment.
Shoulder materialthat does not contain sufficientmoistureto obtain the
required compaction shall be given additional moisture by means of
approved sprrnklersand mixing operation. Material containingmoisture
more than necessaryto obtain the requiredcompactionmay not, without
writtenapprovalof tlre Engineerbe incorporatedin the shouldersuntilit has
been sufficientlydried out. The dryingof wet materialmay be expeditedby
discingor otherapprovedmethods.
Side slopes shall be neatlytrimmedto the lines and slopes shown on the
drawingsor as directedby the Engineer,and the finishedwork shallbe kept
in a neat and acceptablecondition.
115.3.2

Compaction
All materialshall be compactedto a minimumninetyfive (95) percentof the
maximumdry densityas determinedaccordingto AASHTO T-180 method
'B' or 'D' whicheveris applicable. ln place density determinationof the
compactedlayershall be made in accordancewith AASHTOT-191or other
approvedmethod.

115.4

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT

115.4.1

Measurement

The quantitiesto be paid for shall be the number in cubic meter by the
theoreticalvolumeof shouldersconstructedaccordingto designedlinesand
gradescompactedin placeand completein all respect.

115-2

115.4.2

Payment
The acceptedquantitiesmeasuredas providedabove shall
be paid for at
the contractunit priceper cubic meter oi Brick Kiln shouldermaterial
for the
pay item listedbelow and shown in the Bill of
euantities,wrrichprrceand
payment shall constitutefull compensationfor furnishing
all materials,
hauling,mixing,placing,wateringand compacting,
labour,e!uipment,toots
and incidentalsnecessaryto completethe item.
Pay ltem
No.

Description

Unit of
Measurement

Reinstatement
of Shoulders
from BrickKiln Material

11 5 - 3

CM

SUBBASE
AND
BASE

SUBBASEAND BASE
ITEM 2OO

200.1

GENERAL
DESCRIPTION

The work shall consist of furnishing,spreading,and compactinggraded


subbase, base, asphalticbase course, crushed limestone base course,
cement stabilizedsubbaseand base course,lime stabilizedsubbaseand
bitumenstabilizedsubbaseand base, crack relieflayers,constructedon a
preparedbed and all incidentalsin accordancewith these specificationin
shownon
conformitywiththe lines,gradethicknessand typicalcross-section
Engineer.
as
directed
by
the
and/or
the drawing

200.2

MATERIAL
The materialshallconsistof sand, gravelor a sand gravelmixtureobtained
from the source approvedby the Engineer.Materialrequirementsfor this
work are specifiedundervariousitemsof the section.

200.2.1

SamnlinsandTestins
samplesshall be submittedto Engineerfor testing
Adequaterepresentative
and preliminaryapprovalnot less than twenty days, before the intended
materialis to be used in the work.The material,when deemednecessaryby
the Engineer,shallbe sampledand testedin his presenceby the contractor
for particularsubbase,base course as called for in the specificationof
partrcularapplicationand /or the bill of quantities,and/oras shown on the
Any
of specification.
drawing,to assureconformancewith the requirements
materialfound not to confortn with the requirementswill be subject to
rejection.All rejected material shall be removed and replacedwith the
at no additionalcostto the Client.
materialmeetingthe requirement,
Preliminaryapprovalof source shall not mean that all the materialin the
sourceis approved.
Samplingand testing,uniess otherwisestated,shall be accordingto the
standard methods prescribed in the latest edition of the American
Associationof State Highway and TransportationOfficials(AASHTO)or
standardspecificationand methods of samplingand testing, providedin
latest versionof AmericanSocietyof Testingand Materials(ASTM).Any
deviationfrom the methodsand procedureprescribedthereinmay be made
only as directed in writing by the Engineeras per relevant "Table for
Samplingand TestingFrequency".

200-1

200.2.2

Selection
of Placefor SamDling
The selectionof representative
samplesfor testing shall be by "Random
samplingMethod"by whicheverypari of a lot or stockpilehas equalchance
to be selected.when it is necessaryto sample stockpiles.every effort
shouldbe madeto enlistthe serviceof powerequipmentthat is capableof
exposingthe materialat variouslevelsand locations.
In samplingsandfrom
stockpiles,the outer layerwhichmay have becomedry, causingsegregation
shallbe removedand representative
samplesof the damp sand selected.

200.2.3

NumberandSizeof Samplcs
The numberand sizeof samplerequireddependson the intendeduse of the
material,the quantityof materialinvolvedand the variationboth in quality
and size of aggregate.A sufficientnumbero{,samplesshall be obtainedto
cover all variationsin the material. The qriantitiesmust be sufficientto
providefor properexecutionof the requuedtests.

200.2.4

Scheclule
fbr Sarnpling
and Testing
The samplingfrequency,acceptancelimits,and other informationfor proper
controlof each work shall be as given in "Tablesfor sampling and resting
Frequency"which will providethe minimumtestingfrequencyunder normal
conditions.where samplingfrequenciesare not given in the tablethey shall
be as directedby the Engineer.where frequenciesare givenas per layeror
per stripthis will meanthe widthof stripor layerbeinglaid at any one item.lf
the materialsor operationsare variableand good control is difficultto
maintain,greater sampling frequencymay be taken as directed bv the
Engineer.

200.2.5

Tolerances
The allowabletolerancesfor the subgrade prior to placing the overlying
courses,togetherwith the allowabletolerancesfor the subbaseand base
are as specifiedin "TableforAllowableTolerances",in thesespecifications.

200.3

PLANT & EQUIPMENT


All equipment,tools and machinesused in the performanceof work shall be
maintainedin satisfactory
conditionsat all times and be subiectto the
approvalof the Engineer.
Listof recommended
typeof equipmeniis onlyfor
guidance of contractor.However contractorwill be responsibleto give
required quality and workmanshipthrough any type of equipment
irrespective
of any approvalgivenby the Engineer.

200-2

:()(|.J

I'RIAL STIIIPS
contractorshall preparetrial strip for any item as appearingin this chapter,
to establishthe following.
a) Maximumthicknessof looselayer.whichcan be laid,
b) Typeof equipment
to be used.
c) Wateringand mixingprocedures.
d) Numberof passesrequiredto satisfactorily
compactthe layerto required
level.
e) Any otherrequirement
orderedby the Engineer.
Engineershall then inspect and test the Trial strip and approve the
procedurein writing,to carry out the work. Howeverthis approvalshall nol
relievethe contractorfrom his contractual
obligation

200-3

TTEM201
201.1

GRANULAR SUBBASE
DESCRIPTION
This item shall consistof furnishing,spreadingin one or more layersand
compactinggranularsubbaseaccordingto the specifications
and drawings
and/oras directedby the Engineer.

201.2

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS
Granularsubbasematerialshall consistof naturalor processedaggregates
such as gravel,sand or stonefragmentand shallbe cleanand free from dirt,
organicmatterand otherdeleterioussubstances,and shallbe of such nature
that it can be compactedreadilyunder wateringand rollingto form a firm,
stablesubbase.
The materialshallcomplyto the followinggradingand qualityrequirements:
The subbase materialshall have a gradationcurve within the
limitsfor gradingA, B, and C given below.HowevergradingA
may be allowedby the Engineerin specialcircumstances.

a)

Grading Requirementsfor SubbaseMaterial


SieveDesignation
mm

60.0
qnn

25.0
9.5
4.75
2.0
0.425
0.075

Inch

(2.1t2)
(2)
(1)
(3/8)
N o .4
No.10
No.40
No.200

Mass PercentPassing
Gradine
A
B

100
90-100
50-80

.1-_to
2-8

'100
55-85
40-70
30-60
20-50
10-30
5-15

The Coefficientof UniformityD60/D1Oshall be not less than 3, where


D60 and D10 are the particlediameterscorresponding
to 60% and 10%,
passing(byweight)in a grainsizeanalysis,curve.
respectively,

201-1

b)

The Materialshallhavea CBR value of at least50%, determined


accordingto AASHTOT-193. The CBR value shall be obtained
at a densitycorrespondingto Ninety eight (98) percentof the
maximumdry densitydeterminedaccordingto AASHTO T-180
Method-D.

c)

The coarse aggregatematerial retainedon sieve No. 4 shall


have a percentageof wear by the Los Angeles Abrasion
(AASHTOT-96) of not more than fifty (50) percent.

d)

In order to avoid intrusionof silty and clayey materialfrom the


subgrade in the subbase, the ratio D15 (Subbase)/D85
(Subgrade)shouldbe lessthan 5.
to
Where D85 and D15 are the particlediarneterscorresponding
eighty five (85) o/oand fifteen (15) 9/o,respectively,passing (by
weight)in a grainsizeanalysis,curve.

e)

The fractionpassingthe 0.075 mm (No. 200) sieve shall not be


greaterthan two third of the fractionpassingthe 0.425 mm (No.
40) sieve.The fractionpassingthe 0.425 mm sieveshall have a
liquid limit of not greaterthan 25 and a plasticityindex of 6 ol
IESS.

screeningof materialat source,shall


lf over-sizeis encountered,
invariablybe done, no hand pickingshall be allowed,however
hand picking may be allowed by the Engineer, if over-size
quantityis lessthan 5% of the total mass.

g)

for all classesshallbe 25 min.


Sandeouivalent

20t.3

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS

20r.3.1

Spreadins
Granularsubbaseshallbe spreadon approvedsubgradelayeras a uniforr,i
mixture. Segregationshall be avoided during spreading and the f;nal
of coarseor fine materials.
compactedlayershallbe free from concentration
Granularsubbaseshall be depositedon the roadbedor shouldersin a
quantity which will providethe requiredcompactedthickness without
resortingto spotting,pickingup or othenruiseshiftingthe subbasematerial.
In case any materialis to be addedto compensatefor levels,the same shall
be done after scarifyingthe existingmaterial,to ensure proper bondingof
material.
additional

201-2

When the requiredthicknessis fifteen(15) cm or less, the aggregatesmay


be spreadand compactedas one layer,but in no case shall a layer be less
than seven and' one half (7.5) centimetersthick. Where the required
thicknessis more than 15 cm, the aggregatesshall be spread and
compactedin 2 or more layersof approximately
equalthickness,but in anv
case the maximumcompactedthicknessof one layershallnot exceed15
cm. All subsequentlayers shall be spread and compactedin a similar
manner.
Granularsubbaseshallbe spreadwithequipment
that will providea uniform
layer conformingto the specifieditem both transverselyand longitudinally
within the tolerancesas specifiedin "Table for AllowableTolerances"in
these specifications.No haulingor placementof materialwill be permitted
when,in the judgmentof the Engineer,
the weatheror road conditionsare
such that the haulingoperationwill causecuttingor ruttingof subgradeor
contamination
of sub basematerial.
201.3.2

ContiractionTrials
Prior to commencementof granularsubbaseoperaron,contractorshall
constructa trial length,not to exceed,five hundred(500) meters and not
less than two hundred(200) meterswith the approvedsubbasematerialas
wlll be used during constructionto determinethe adequacy of the
contractor's
equipment,
loosedepthmeasurement
necessary
to resultin the
specified corripactedlayer depths, the field moisture content, and the
relationshipbetweenthe number of compaition passes and the resulting
densityof the material.For details,refer to clause 1.20 (General)of these
specifications.

201.3.3

Compaction
The moisture content of subbase material shall be adjusted prior to
compaction,by wateringwith approvedsprinklersmountedon trucks or by
dryingout, as required,in orderto obtainthe specifiedcompaction.
The subbasematerialshall be compactedby means of approvedvibrating
rollers or steel wheel rollers (rubber tyred rollers may be used as a
supplement),progressinggraduallyfrom the outside towards the centre,
excepton superelevated
curves,wherethe rollingshall beginat the low side
and progressto the high side. Each succeedingpass shall overlapthe
previouspass by at least one third of the roller width. while the rolling
progresses,the entire surface of each layer shall be properlyshaped and
dressedwith a motor grader,to attaina smooth surfacefree from ruts or
ridges and having proper section and crown. Rolling shall continue until
entirethicknessof each layer is thoroughlyand uniformlycompactedto the
specifieddensity.
Any area inaccessible
to rollingequipmentshall be compactedby means of
hand guided rollers,plate compactorsor mechanicaltampers,where the
thicknessin looselayershallnotbe morethan 10 cm.

zv t-5

lf the layer of subbase material,or part thereof does not conform to the
requiredfinish,the Contractor
shall,ot his own expense,rework,water,and
recompactthe materialbeforesucceedinglayerof the pavementstructureis
constructed.
lmmediatelyprior to the placingof first layer of base course the subbase
layer (both underthe traveledway and the shoulders)shall conformto the
required level and shape. Prior to placing the succeeding layers of
the material,the top surfaceof each layershall be made sufficientlymoistto
ensurebond betweenthe layers. The edges or edge slopesshall be bladed
or otherwisedressedto conformto the lines and dimensionsshown on the
otans.
No materialfor constructionof the base shall be olaceduntil the subbase
has beenapprovedby the Engineer.
201.3.1

C'omDaction
requirements
The relativecompactionof each layer of the compactedsubbaseshall not
be less than Ninety eight (98) percent of the maximum dry density
determinedaccordingto AASHTOT-180 Method-D. The field densityshall
be determinedaccordingto AASHTOT-191 or otherapprovedmethod. For
all matbrials,the field densitythus obtainedshall be adjustedto accountfor
oversizeparticles(retainedon 19 mm sieve) as directedby the Engineer
Also for adjustinentof any materialretainedon 4,75 mm sieve,AASi-1TO
Methodf -224 shallbe used

201.3.5

MoistureContentDetermination
As rr is customaryin the projectlaboratories
that smallsamplesof materials
are placed in ovens for moisture determinationfor proctor, following
precautions
are necessaryto ensurepropercompactionresults.
a) Same sizeof sampleis placedin oven for moisturedetermination
in case
density(Proctor)and fielddensity.
of laboratory

201.3.6

b) Moisturecontent for calculationof field density and proctor shall be


observedon materialpassing4.75 mm sieve.
Tolerance
The subbaseshallbe compactedto the desiredleveland cross slopesas
shownon the drawings.The allowabletoleranceshall be accordingto the
"Tablefor AllowableTolerances"in thesesoecifications.

20L.4

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT

201.4.1

Measurement
The quantityof subbaseto be paid for shall be measuredby the theoretical
volumein placeas shown on the drawingsor as directedand approvedfor
construction
by the Engineer,placedand acceptedin the completedgranular
will be givenfor materialsplacedoutsidethe
subbasecourse.No allowan.ce
theoreticallimitsas shownon the cross-sections.

201-4

201.4.2

Pavment
The acceptedquantitiesmeasuredas providedaboveshall be paidfor at the
contractunit price per cubic meter of granularsubbase,for the Pay ltem
listed below and shown in the Bill of Quantities,which price and payment
shall constitute full compensationfor furnishing all materials, hauling,
placing,watering,rolling,labour,equipment,tools and incidentalsnecessary
to completethe item.

Pay ltem
No.

201

Description

GranularSubOase

201-5

Unit of
Measurement

CM

ITEM 202

202.1

AGGREGATE BASE COURSE

DESCRIPTION
This item shall consistof furnishing,spreadingand compactingone (1) or
more layersof aggregatebaseon a preparedsubgrade,subbase,or existing
and the drawingsand/or
road surface,in accordancewith the specifications
as directedbYthe Engineer.

202.2

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS
Materialfor aggregatebase course shall consistof crushed hard durable
gtatef, rocf oi-itone fragments. lt shall be clean and free from organtc
iratters,lumpsof clay and otherdeleterioussubstances.The materialshall
be of such a naturethat it can be compactedreadilyunder wateringand
rollingto form a firm, stablebasefor bothflexibleand rigidpavements.
The aggregate base shall comply to the following grading and quality
requirements.
a) The gradationcurve of the materialshall be smooth and within the
envelopelimitsfor GradingA or B givenbelow.

Gradine Requirementsfor AggregateBaseMaterial


Mass Percent Passing
Grading

Sieve Designation
mm

50.0
25.0
9.5
4.75
2.00
0.425
n n76

Inch

2
1
3/8
No.4
N o .1 0
No.40
No.200

100
70-95
30-65
25-55
15-40
8-20
2-8

100
75-95
40-75
30-60
20-50
12-25
5-10

The materialshall be well gradedsuch that the coefficientof Uniformity


D60/D10shallbe greaterthanfour (4).
b) crushed Aggregate(materialretainedon sieve NO. 4) shall consist
of material of which at least ninety (90) percent by weight shall be
crushedparticles,havinga minimumof two (2) fracturedfaces'

202 1

c) The Coarseaggregateshall have a percentageof wear by the Loss


AngelesAbrdsiontest (AASHTOT-96)of not morethan forty(40)
d ) The materialshall have a loss of less than twelve(.12)percent.when

subjectedto five cycles of the Sodium Sulphate Soundnesstest


accordingto AASHTOf -104.
e) The sand equivalent
determinedaccordingto AASHTOT-176 shall
not be lessthan 45 and the materialshallhaVea Liquidlimitof not
more than twentyfive (25) and a plasticityIndexof not more than 6
as determinedby AASHTOT-89 and T-90.
The materialpassingthe 1g mm sieve shall have a CBR value
of minimumeighty(80) percent,testedaccordingto the AASHTO T
193.The cBR valueshall be obtainedat the maximumdrv densitv
detbrminedaccoidingto AASHTOT 180,tUetfroA
O.

g) Laminatedmaterialshall not exceed 1s% of total volume of


Aggregate
BaseCourse.
202.2.r

Filler for Blendine


lf filler,in additionto that naturallypregentin the aggregatebase materialis
necessaryfor meetingthe gradingrequirementor for satisfactory
bondingof
the material,it shall be uniformlyblendedwith the base course materialat
the crushingplantor in a pugmillunlessothenrrise
approved. The material
for such purposeshall be obtainedfrom sourcesapprovedby the Engineer.
The materialshallbe free from organicmatter,dirt,shale,clayand clay lump
or otherdeleteriousmatterand shallconformto followingrequirement.
AASHTO Sieve

PercentPassi

3/8 lnch
4

100
Plasticity
Index(AASHTO
T-90)
SandEquivalent
(AASHTO
T-176)

100
85-'100
10-30
6 maximum
3 0m i n i m u m

Howeverthe combinedaggregatespreparedby mixingthe coarse material


and fillershallsatisfythe requirements
as mentionedin clause202.2above.
202.3

CONSTRUCTION
REQUIREMENTS

202.3.1

Prenarationofsurfacefor Aggregatebasecourse
In case crushed aggregatebase is to be laid over preparedsub base
course, the subbasecourse shall not have loose materialor moisturein
excessto optimummoisturecontent.

2.02-2

spreadingshall conformin all respectsto the requirementsspecifiedunder


t h i sh e a d i n gi n l t e m2 0 1- S u b b a s e( 2 0 1 . 3 . 1 ) '
202.3.2

Comnaction
compaction process shall conform in all respect to the requirements
specifiedunderthisheadingin ltem201 (201.3.3)'

202.3.3

Requirement
ComDaction
The relativecompactionof each layer of the compactedbase shall not be
less than 100 percentto the maximumdry densitydeterminedaccordingto
AASHTOT-180,MethodD (Modified).The fielddensityshallbe determined
accordingto AASHTOT-191 or other approvedmethod' For all materials,
the field densitythus obtainedshall be adjustedto accountfor overstze
particles(retainedon 19 mm sieve)as directedby the Engineer' Also for
adjustmentof any materialretainedon 4]5 mm sieve,AASHTOMethodT224 shall be used
Completedbase courseshallbe maintainedin an acceptableconditionat all
times untilprimecoat is applied.When base courseis to carrytrafficfor an
indefinitelength of time before receivingsurfacing,the contractorshall
nraintainthe lurface until final acceptanceand shall preventrevelingby
wetting,blading,rollingand additionof fines as may be requiredto keep the
base iightly bound and leave a slight excess of materialover the entire
surface which must be removed and the surface finish restored before
applicationof Primecoat.

202.3.4

MoistureContentDetermination
Moisture content deternrinationshall conform in all respects to the
underclause201.3'5for subbase'
specified
requirements

202.3.5

Trial Sections
of aggregatebase courseoperations,a trialsection
Priorto commencement
of two hundred(200)metersminimum,but not to exceedfive hundred(500)
meters shall be prepared by the contractor using same material and
equipmentas will be used at site to determinethe adequacyof equipment,
loose depth measurementnecessaryto result in the specifiedcompacted
layerdepths,field moisturecontent,and relationshipbetweenthe numberof
compactionpassesand the resultingdensrtyui inaierial.For detailsreferto
of thesespecifications.
clause1.20(General)

202.3.6

Tolerance
The completedbase course shall be tested for requiredthicknessand
in
smoothnessbefore acceptance. Any area having waves, irregularities
be
shall
(15)
M
fifteen
(2)
in
cm
two
(3)
M
Or
excessof one (1) cm in three
correctedby scaiifyingthe surface,addingapprovedmaterial,reshaping,recompactinganO tihistrlngas specified. Skin patchingof an area without
r""rifying ihe surfaceto permitproper bondingof added materialshall not
be permitted.The allowabletolerancesshall be accordingto the "Tablefor
AllowableTolerances"in thesespecifications.

202-3

292.3.1

Acceptance.
Samplingand Testinq
Acceptance of sampling and testing with respect to materials and
constructionrequirementsshall be governed by the relevant,"Table for
Samplihgand TestingFrequency"or as approvedby the Engineer.

202.4

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

202.4.1

Measurement
The quantityof aggregatebase to be paid for, shall be measuredby the
theoreticalvolume in place as shown on the drawings or as directed'and
approvedfor constructionby the Engineer,placed and accepted in the
completedcrushedaggregatebase course.No allowancewill be given for
materials placed outside the theoreticallimits as shown on the cross
sections.

202.4.2

Payment
The acceptedquantitiesmeasuredas aboveshallbe paid for at the contract
unit price per cubic meter of aggregatebase,for the item listedbelowand
shown in the Bill of Quantities,which price and payment shall constitutefull
compensationfor furnishingall materials,hauling,placing,watering,rolling,
labour,equipment,toolsand incidentalsnecessaryto completethis item.

Pay ltem
No.
202

Description

AggregateBase.

Unitof
Measurement
CM

ITEM 203

203.1

ASPHALTIC BASE COURSE PLANT MIX

DESCRIPTION
This work shallconsistof furnishingof plant,labour,equipmentand material
and performingall operationsin connectionwith the constructionof an
asphalticplant-hix base courseon a previouslyconstructedand accepted
subgrade,subbaseor base course,subjectto terms and conditionsof the
the
Con'iract,and in strictaccordancewith this Sectionof the Specification'
Engineer.
the
of
Drawingsand the directions

203.2

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS

203.2.r

Mineral Aggregate
Mineral aggregatefor bituminousbase course shall consist of coarse
aggregate,iinJaggregateand filler material,if required,all conformingwith
the followingrequirements:
Coarseaggregatewhich is the materialretainedon AASHTO No. 4 sieve
shallconsiit oi crushedrock, crushedgravelor crushedboulder.lt shall be
clean,hard,tough,sound,durable,free from decomposedstones,organic
matter,shale,clly lump or other deleterioussubstances.Rock or boulders
from which coarse aggregate is obtained,shall be of uniform quality
throughoutthe quarry
The crushingshall be so regulatedthat at least ninetyfive (95) percentby
weightof miterial retainedon AASHTO No. 4 sieve shall consistof pieces
with-at least two (2) mechanicallyfractured faces, and when tested for
stability.
stabilityof bituminousmix shallshow satisfactory
Fineaggregatewhichis materialpassingNo.4 sieve,shall consistof 100%
miterialfrom rock or boulder. No naturalsandwill be allowedin the
crushe-d
mix.
When the combinedgradingof the coarseand fine aggregatesis deficientin
materialpassingtto.2OOsieve,additionalfillermaterialshall be added.The
fillermaterialshill consistof finelydividedrock dust,hydratedlime,hydraulic
cement or other suitable mineral matter. However,in case the coarse
aggregatesare of quartiziticnature,then hydratedlime or a bettermaterial
dry to flow freely.
sfritt ne allowed.At the time of use, it shall be sufficiently
gradation:
following
to
Fillermaterialshallconform
US Standard Sieve

PercentPassing

Weisht

100
95-100
70-100

No.30
No.50
No.200

203-1

z-t0z

:alqeloun^olloJ
aLllut u^ oqs g sselc jolpue v sselc oi uilojuoc
lleqs
osJnoceseg roJ saJnlxrtr6urnedelaJcuoccrlleqdseaq] jo uorlrsodLuoc
aq1

f 'z'f0u

.;eaur6u3 ;f
aql ]eaurnr^ 1r{s1eLaueg
lo sluo.xorrnbar
8*igH
se 00t-0g lo 01.-09'09-07
"flf
epelOuolletlauad
Ourneq
]uauao
lleqospaq lleqs
aseq 3tlleLldse
ecnpotd o1 a1e6el66eeLl]qln^ paxtul aq ol Japutq
lleqosV

iEirstEn-5jtmiBv
'taeul6u3
eq1{qpalceltpos lt pelcnpuoc
aq lleqs ale6et66e esleo3 aL.lllo uotleutulexauqder6o:;a6

(q

r1Ius1e,
Iaq] ]eql o no,n :ili.iJ"ril
Tfi rtXTn"""."ll
Hli!
'sageOetO'6e
'"qf
",fJo''
aql Iq palsop Jt",
pa)coqc
aq lleqs

(6

"ir"o"
qstqMpoMolle
lso] oq] sautlenb
aq llellslet:aleut1eq1
Iluo pue ZgL_l OIHSW Jopunpaqucsap
se sele6aL66eesleoc uo partrolad aq lleqs
lsal OurOdulg

\ L : gz = s u o t s u o t u l p
urnuluLu ol unutxeul Jo orlet) salclped pele6uo1a
Jolpue
Iq luacled gf ueql oJoLUureluoolou lleLlsa^ats
lell lo 1q01em
(qcut ele) ULU9 6 aql uo pautelarale6e.r66e uoipod aql
1o

(e

'06-1pue
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poururralep
se (g) xrs ueL{larour}ou lo xopul{lrcrlseJ6
e pue (97j
anr;{1uann1
ueq}eroLu}ou trurl prnbrle aneqljeqsiale6a"rooe
e-uij

(p

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uerl]
ssal eq )ou lleqs]uouloolleqdselo uoqtppelo1ldacxaburssaco:d
lle reue pautultolep(Sty t OTHSW) luelenrnb3pues aLll

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]so]sseupunos
oleqolns untpos oq] Jo se;cIc a^U ol lcafqns ueLlmssol oql

(q

'(Ol),iUolueLtl
arouraq lou leqs (96 j O1HSW)
uotserqy
sele6uy
lsel
sol aql Aq reann1o a6eluac:aOaqj

(e

elqecrldde
ourirnol;o1
aqr ]oaurteqs sale6e:66e
aur; or"'tl:i#:''T;i

7.'7't07

TABLE203-1

CombinedAqqreqateGradinqRequirements

Mix Designation

ClassB

ClassA

Use

Leveling/Base

Leveling/Base

Thickness
Comoacted

70-90mm

50-80mm

U.S.StandardSieveSizePercentpassingby weight
2" (50 mm)

100

1 . 1 / 2("3 8m m )

9 0- 1 0 0

75-90

1" (25 mnt)

3/4"(19mm)

100

65-80

56-75

112"(12.5mm)

55-70

3/8"(9.5mm)

45-60

N o . 4 ( 4 . 7 5m m )

23-40

30-45

N o .8 ( 2 . 3 8m m )

1 5- 3 0

1 5- 3 5

0 m)
N o .5 0 ( 0 . 3 0 m

4-10

No. 200 (0.075mm)

3-6

2-7

AsphaltContentweight
oercentof totalmix

(Minimum)

(minimum)

The asphalt concrete leveling/ base course mixture shall meet the
followingMarshallTest Criteria.
Compaction,numberof blowseach end
of specimen
Stability.......

75
1000Ks (Min.)

Flow0
, . 2 5m m ( 0 . 0 ' i1n . ) . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .

8-14

Percentair voidsin mix

4_8

Percentvoidsin mineral
aggregates

Loss in Stability

Accordingto Table 5.3 MS-2 ,


Asphalt institute,sixth edition
1993.
25 percent (Max.)

Mixes composedof largersize aggregateswith maximumsize upto 3g mm


(1.5 inches)will be preparedaccordingto modifiedMarshallmethodas per
MS-2 Asphalt institute,sixth edition, 1993 or the latest edition.The
pr_ocedure
is basicallythe same as the originalmethodexceptfor following
differencesthat are due to the largerspecimensizethat is used:
a) The hammerweighs10.2kg (22.slb.)and has a 149.4mm (5.88inches)
flat tamping face. only mechanically-operated
device is used for the
same457 mm ('18inches)dropheight.
b) The specimenhas a 152.4 mm (6 inches)diameterby 95,2 mm (3.75
inches)height.
c) The batchweightsare typicailyof 4 Kg.
d) The equipmentfor compactingand testing(moldsand breakingheads)
are proportionately
largerto accommodatethe largerspecimens.
e) The mix is placedin the mold in two approximatelyequal increments,
with spadingperformedaftereach incrementto avoidhoney-combing.
f) The numberof blowsneededfor the largerspecimenis 1.5 times (75 or
112 blows)of that requiredfor the smallerspecimen(s0 or 75 blows)to
obtainequivalentcompaction.

s)The designcriteriashall be modifiedas well, the minimumstabilityshall

be 2-25 times and the range of flow values shall be 1.5 times normalsizedsoecimens.

h ) similarto the normalprocedure,followingvaluesshallbe usedto convert

the measuredstabilityvaluesto an equivalentvaluefor a specimenwith


a 95.2 mm (3.75inches)thickness,if the actualthicknessvaries:

203-4

Approximate Height

SpecimenVolume

(3 t^tr)
(3l/,u)
(3 "4')
(3 /ru)
"
(3",tJ)
(3,"/ru)
(3 .{')
(3 "/,0)
(4)

1608to 1626
1 6 3 7t o 1 6 6 5
1666to 1694
1695to 1723
1 7 2 4l o 1 7 5 2
1753to 1781
1782to 1810
' 1 8 1 t1o 1 8 3 9
1 8 4 0t o 1 9 6 8 .

88.9
90.5
e2.1
93.7
95.2
96.8
e8.4
100.0
1 0 1. 6

203.2.1

1.12
,1 no

l.uo

1.03
1.00
0.97
0.95
0.92
0.90

Job-Mix Formula

At least one (1) week priorto production,a Job-MixFormula(JMF)for the


asphalticbase courseto be used for the project,shall be establishedjointly
by ihe Engineerand the contractor in the project laboratory. Job mix
forrnula shall combine the mineral aggregates and asphalts in such
requirements.
proportionconformingto specification
The JMF shall be establishedby MARSHALL Method of Mix Design
accordingto the procedureprescribedin the AsphaltInstituteManualSeries
No.2 (MS-2),sixthedition1993,orthe latestEdition.
The JMF, with the allowabletolerancesshall be withinthe rangespecifiedin
Item 203.2.3. Each JMF shall indicatea single percentageof aggregate
passingeach requiredsieve size and a singlepercentageof bitumento be
addedto the aggregate.
The ratioof wt. of filler(passingsieveNo. 200) to that of asphaltshall range
between1-1.5 for hot ciimateareaswithtemperaturemorethan 4OoC.
After the JMF is established,all mixtures furnished for the project
representedby samplestaken from the asphaltplantduringoperation,shall
conform thereto Moreoverupon receivingthe job-mix, approved by the
Engineer,the Contractorshall adjust his plant to proportionthe individual
aggregates,mineralfiller and asphalt to produce a final mix that, when
limits'
compireOto job mixformulashallbe withinthe following

203-s

Maximum Valiation of Percentaqeof Materials


RetainedNo.4 and larger
PassingNo.4 to No. 100 sieve
PassingNo.200

+ 7.00h
+ 4.00h
+ 1.Oo/o

AsphaltContent
Weightpercentof total mix

+ 0.30h

In additionto meetingthe requirements


specifiedin the proceedingitems,
the mixtureas establishedby the JMF shall also satisfythe following
physicalproperty
Loss of Marshall.stabilityby immersionof specimenin water at sixty (60)
dqgree centrgradefor 24 hours as comparedwith stabilitymeasuredafter
immersionin water at 60 degreescentigraoefor 20 minutesshall not
exceedstwentyfive (25) percent. lf the mixturefails to meet this criterion,
JMF shallbe modifiedor an antistripping
agentshallbe used.
shoulda changeof sourcesof materialsbe made,a new Job Mix Formula
shall be establishedbeforethe new materialis used. when unsatisfactory
resultsor otherconditionsmake it necessarv,a new Job Mix Formulawill be
required
203.3

C O N S T R U C T I O NR E Q U I R E M E N T S

203.3.r

BituminousMixing Plant

Plants used for the preparationof bituminousmixturesshall be "Batching


Plants" conforming to AASHTO M 156, and of adequate capacity,
coordinatedand operatedto producea mixturewithin the limits of these
specifications.
Plant shall have minrmumthree cold bins and at least 3.5
decksof hot sieves.
203.3.2

Prerrarationof Aggregates
Before being fed to the dryer, aggregatesfor the asphalticbase courses
shall be separatedinto three or more sizes and stored separatelyin cold
bins. One bin shall containaggregateof such size that eighty(80) percent
will passsieveNo. 4, and the othertwo bins shallcontainaggregateof such
sizes that eighty(80) percentwill be retainedon sieve No. 4. Should fine
material,be incorporatedin the mix, separatebin shall be provid6din
additionto the three bins mentionedabove. lf filler is used as a separare
componentit will also be stored and measuredseparatelyand accuratery
beforebeingfed intothe mixerthroughfillerscrewmechanism.
Asphaltcementshall be heatedwithina temperaturerange of hundredand
thirtyfive to hundredand sixty three (135-163)degreescentigradeat the
time of mixing. Asphaltcement heatedabove maximumshown shall be
consideredoverheatedand shallbe rejectedand removedfrom iob site.

203-6

Dried aggregateweighedand drawn to pugmillshall be combinedwith


quantityof asphaltcement accordingto the job mix formula.
proportionate
shallnot be lower
Temperatureof asphalt,exceptfor temporaryfluctuations,
than fifteen(15)degreescentigradebelowthe temperatureof the aggregate,
at the time, the two materialsenterintothe pugmill.
For placingthe materialsin bins or in movingthem from bins to the dryer,
any method which causes segregationor uncontrolledcombinationof
materialsof differentgrading,shall be discontinuedand the segregatedor
for reuse.
degradedmaterialsshallbe Prescreened
not to
shall be heatedand driedat temperature
Each aggregateingredient
exceedhundredand sixty three (163) degreescentigrade. lf aggregate
contain sufficient moisture to cause foaming in the mixture or their
temperatureis in excess of hundred and sixty three (163) degrees
centigtad., they qhall be removqd frqm tlle bins and returnedto their
respectivestock piles. In no case, shall the temperatureof asphalticmix
'163degreecentigradewhen dischargedfrom the pugmill.
exceed
lmmediatelyafter heating,the aggregatesshall be screenedto required
sizes and stored in separate hot bins for batching and mixing with
material.
bituminous
Asphaltplant shall have mtnimumthree and half (3
controlthe gradationof hot bins.
effectively
203.3.3

tlr)

sieve decks to

HaulingEquipment
Dump truck used for haulingbituminousmixturesshall have tight,clean,
smoothmetalbedswhichhave beenthinlycoatedwith an approvedmaterial
to preventadheringof materialto the beds. Eachtruckshallhave a coverof
canvas or of other suitable material of sufficientsize as to protect the
mixturefrom the weather.The mixturewill be deliveredon the road at a
temperaturenot less than hundred and thirty,(130) degree C. Driversof
dump trucks will ensure that while reversingthe vehicles,paver is not
pushedbackproducing
a humP.

203.3.,1

Pavers
Bituminous
power-propelled
units, provided
Bitumrnouspaversshall be self-contained,
with an automaticallycontrolledactivatedscreed or strike-offassembly,
heated if necessary,capable of spreadingand finishing courses of
bituminousplant mix materialin lane widths applicableto the specified
typicalsectionand thicknessshownon the plans. Paversusedfor shoulders
and simitarconstructionshall be capableof spreadingand finishingcourse
plantmix materialin widthsshownon the plans.
of bituminous
The paver shall be equipped with a receivinghopper having sufficient
capacityfor a uniformspreadingoperation. The paver shall be equipped
with automaticfeed controls,properlyadjustedto maintaina uniformdepth
of materialaheadof the screed.

203-7

8_e0z
'pegtulod aq
lou llm ole6al60eaql io 6urqsn:ca^rsse3xa
'luaudrnbe
ur sllnsor r.lctr.lm
;o esn aqf uorlceduocalnlxtu.lsnourunltq
:o1 alqeldmoe aq lleLls slalloJ fuo1erql4 uot]tpuocolqe)JoA e ut lltls
sr lr elrqM{lrsuap pelrnbereq} o} oln}xlu orl} lceduoc o} }uatct}Jns
aq lleqs
pue laqunu oql 'eJnylulsnoutunltqoLi]]o ]uauece;dsrp
sJelloJ
1o 1qOrem
prone o] qOnouaMols spaads ]e pale;edo oq llells pue 'qsellceq
poobul aq lleqs(s)le;;otaql loaJaLl]
aJqedec'uotltpuoc
lnoqlM Oursrane:;o
'fuoleLqrA
pue e$ cryeunaud'1aaqrur
uorleurqu03e to
leals aq lleLlsslalloE
SlaltoU
'luauudrnba
lo:1uoc
crleu,rolne
eql lo uorlelado{rolcelstlesloJ ,{lessaceusauossoocepue oJm
'sacnapburuorsuel
'slo)ceJq'surd
;;ellelsutpue qstuln1lleqslolceJluoCorjf
'luauanedlor:adnse
uteluteu ol sltellolcelluo3 aq] lanouoLlm
{lalelpauur
palelsuraroq lleqssoull ocueleleJaq] Jo asn aq1 'teaul0uJoLl]1o ;enoldde
aLll o] lcafqns polnltlsqnseq ^eu lueuuabuerealll-lls e 'aurl o3uoJoJol
oql ,o asn oLll ]noqlm po^oil{ceaq lsaq uec ssauLllootuspue suotlcos
ssorc 'eperO'autlotll o) luaulonoJdurLaqynl'laeur0u3aql 1o uorurdoaLl]ul
uotll 'pue eoueralolpaqstlqelseaq1ol.rouednssr Durned:o;peledaldepet6
eLllJo tlsluqeql uoqM 'luauebuele tls lenp e Jo ectnaploJluocedo;se pue
r)s e lo sueatu{q :o saur;acueJa}oluo.rl {1;ecrleuolnepalloJ}uoc
eq llells
sauelalerpaulalullo; ado;spue epe.r6oLll 'paptul:adaq llm autl acueJaJoJ
'lolluoo
eq1 6utzrlr1n
loJluocleluoztJoH
lectpanio1 Ieanpeolautl uteu qcea
polaner}
ro1{em
eq11osebpelo}no Llloqro; patrnbalaq ll$ soutlacuarolau
'suorlecrlrceds
eql burleeuasmraLilosllnsoJacnpo.rd1lurn
uorletadoJo pot1}otu
srql paprno:d
']rsueJlur ro
1ue;dor.llle paonpo:d{peaL;elleqdseaLllesn ol Joloe:}uocaL{}
Molleo] rapio ur spoqlau :aq1o{q io {;;enueu pe}eladoaq Ieu lueudrnbe
aql 'srnccoslolluocctleuolnEaql lo uotlcunller!Jo uMop)eoJqB JoAouaLlM
'sealelouruJpue paoeqs
,{;:e;nbelrJo uorlonrlsuocaLl} ur peplLuLad
eq {Juo ;pnnuorleledolenuel4
'uorlerJen
luectad t 0 snuttrlro snld urqlnnedo;spaltsopeql
paorcs
eq1
6ururelureu
]e
1o elqedecaq lleLlsrallolluocadolsas:ensuer]aq1
'lueua6uere olrl-r)se io outlo3uala1alB lrtoJ;
eleredolllmllleql Bolanitsuocos eQ lgeqsiosuas aq1 'edo1sailensueri pue
epel6 perrsapaq] ureluteulol paalos aq1salelado qcrqnn
sleu6tsctleulolne
aq16utpno:dpue paalos eql 1o adols asJansuel]eq1Dursuas'outlegualaloJ
aprslnoue [uol] apel6 6ursuaslo a;qedec':anedaLl]Jo septsrl]oqJo laq]to
Jol sJosuasq]rmslo.rluocpaercscrleuolne qlnnpaddrnbaoq lleLls:anedeq1
'sJnoq
'burpea:ds
,iep 6uunparnlxl.u1ouorlceduocpue 6urqsturl
1q6r1
1o
uotla;duocyru:edo] oult] ur :ened ol palentlepaq lleLlsletJaleuJ
paxtu aLlt
'pasn0uraq:emod
qorLl^
edfi
eql
roJ
eq1
enr6
speeds
1o
llnsal lsaq
1e pale:edoaq ller.ls
lln
laned aq1 'aJnyrureq11o6ur{epfuopelsrlesq}m }ua}srsuoc
spaedspJeMJoJ
'sornlxtruaql Ourrtel
uaqM
1e paleredo6uraq1o alqedecoq llells raned eq1
'eJnlxrril
aq] 6urOno0
;o Ournoqs'6uuee1lnoqlm alnlxal pue ssauuanepa:rnbaloL{}}o agepns
potlsru4e Ourcnpo:d
1o alqedecaq lleLlsIlquuasseJJo-olulslo poaJcsaqI

s'f'f u;

203.3.6

Preparationof Baseor ExistingPavementSurface


Before spreadingmaterials,the surface of base or existingpavementon
which the mix is to be placedshall be conditionedby applicationof a prime
or tack coat as sPecified.
After a primecoat is applied,it shall be left undisturbednot less than twenty
four (24) hours. The Contractorshall maintainthe primedsurfaceuntilthe
mix materialhas been placed. This maintenanceshallincludethe spreading
of sand or otherapprovedmaterial,if necessaryto preventadherenceof the
prime coat to the tyres of vehiclesusingthe primed surface,and patching
any breaks in the primed surfacewith additionalbituminousmaterial.Any
area of primedsurfacethat has becomedamagedshall be repairedbefore
the mix is placed,to the satisfactionof Engineer.lt shall be ensuredthat
when premixis !aid,
primedsurfaceis nol in tackyconditionr
After a tack coat is applied,it shall be allowedto dry until it is in the proper
conditionof tackinessto receivethe mix. The'tackcoat shallbe appliedonly
as far in advanceof the placingof mix, as is necessaryto obtainthe proper
conditionof tackiness.Any breaksin the tack coat shallbe repaired.
When the surfaceof the existingpavementor old base is irregular,it shallbe
broughtto uniformgrade and cross-sectionby levelingcourse as directed.
of ltem 203.2.
The levelingcoursemixtureshallconformto the requirements
A thin coatingof bituminousmaterialshallbe sprayedon contactsurfaceof
curbing,gutters,manholes,and other structures,prior to the bituminous
mixturebeingplacedagainstthem.

203.3.7

and Finishins
Spreadinq
The mixtureshall be laid upon an approvedsurface,spread and struck off to
the sectionand elevationestablished.Bituminouspaversshall be used to
distributethe mixtureeitherover the entirewidth or over such partialwidth
as may be practicable.
in one layershalloffsetto that in the layerimmediately
The longitudinaljoint
15.0cm; however,the joint in the top layershallbe
below,by approximately
at the centerlineof the pavement if the roadway comprises two lanes of
width,or at lane linesif the roadwayis more than 2lanes in width'
On areas where irregularitiesor unavoidableobstaclesmake the use of
mechanicalspreadingand finishingequipmentimpracticable,the mixture
shall be spread,raked and lutedby hand'tools.For such areas the mixture
shall be dumped, spread and screededto give the requiredcompacted
of coarseand fine material.
thickness,ensuringeven distrlbution
When productionof the mixturecan be maintainedand whereverpractical,
Oaversshall be used in echelonto ptacethe wearing course in adjacent
lanesand compactedto form a surfacewithoutlateraljoint'

203-9

All mixturesshall be spreadat a temperatureof not less than hundredand


thirty (130) degree c and atl initiatrollingor tamping shall be performed
when the temperatureof the mixture is such that the sum of the air
temperatureplus the temperatureof the mixtureis between165 degree c
and 190 degreec. The mixtureshall not be placedon any wet surfaceor
when weather conditionswill otherwise prevent its proper handling or
finishing.
203.3.8

Compaction
After spreadingand strike off and as soon as the mix conditionpermitsthe
rollingto be performedwithout excessiveshovingor tearing,the mixture
shallbe thoroughlyand uniformlycompacted.Rollingshallnol be prolonged
when cracksappearon the surface.
lnitialor breakdownrollingshall be done bl meansof eithera tandem steel
roller or three wheeled steel roller. Rollingshall begin as soon as the
mixturewill bearthe rollerwithoutunduedisplacement.
The numberand weight of rollersshall be sufficientto obtainthe required
compactionwhilethe mixtureis stillin workablecondition.The sequenceof
rollingand the selectionof rollertypes shall providethe specifiedpavement
density. Initialrollingwith a tandem steel roller or a three-wheeledsteel
rollershallfollowthe paveras closelyas possible.
Unlessotherwisedirected,rollingshall beginat the lowerside and proceed
longitudinally,
parallelto the road centerline,eachtrip overlappingone-halfof
the roller width, graduallyprogressingto the crown of the road. when
pavingin echelonor abuttinga previouslyplacedlane,the longitudinaljoint
should be rolledfirst followedby the regularrollingprocedure. on super
elevatedcurvesthe rollingshall begin at the low side and progressto the
high side by overlappingof longitudinaltrips parallel to the centerline.
lntermediaterollingwith a pneumatictyred rollershall be done behindthe
initialrolling. Finalrollingshall eliminatemarksfrom previousrolling. In no
case shallthe temperaturebe less than hundredand twenty(120)degreec.
for initialbreak down rollingwhile all other compactiorroperationsshall be
completedbeforethe temperaturedrops down to hundredand ten (110)
degreeC.
Rollersshall move at a slow but uniformspeedwith the drive roll or wheels
nearest the paver. Rolling shall be continueduntil all roller marrs are
eliminatedand a minimum density of Ninety seven (g7) percent of a
laboratorycompactedspecimenmade from asphalticmateriaiobtainedfor
dailyMarshalldensityis achieved.
Any displacementresultingwhile reversingthe directionof a roller,or from
othercauses,shallbe correctedat once by the use of rakesand additionof
fresh mixture when required. care shall be exercisedin rolling not to
displacethe lineand gradeof the edgesof the bituminous
mixture.
To preventadhesionof the mixtureto the rollers,wheelsof rollersshall be
kept properlymoistenedwith wateror water mixedwith very small quantities
of detergentor otherapprovedmaterral.Excessliquidwill not be permitted.
203-10

L LT O Z

':e{o;dt"u3
aq} ol }soc leuor}rppe
}noq}tmaslnoceseqcllleqdseMau Ll}t^
aoef ns aq}
6urcelderpue eaJeo^rlJelopaq16utnouter{q palce::ocaq lleL.ls
Iuy
uo ralemurelorleql lo sacueJalolpatycedseq] poacxaleLlisot]tteln6aLtt
'Iennpeo.t
(g)
raqlo pocelduaqnns:eleLut1ltLu
ro 1a1lered
Jo aurlarluacol relncrpuodled
xrs paacxolurod ou ]e lleqs acelns oql qllm slceluoc(Z) ottt Aue uaamleq
suotlecol
e6pe lqbrerls;o a6pa 6urlsa] uoll acelns Jo uotleueneqt
palcalas 1e :eeut6u3 ,iq e6palqbrerlssrolot! (g) aaLql qltm ssauqloouls
aql '6ut11ol
ro1 palsol eq lleL.lsacepns pot.lsruU
leutl ,o uotlalduoc te11y
saruEJololaJEJrns

0I't'gOz

'ro]oeJluoc
perltcads
1oasuadxeaql ]e rouueutpanorddeue ut xrur
pue ponouiaraq llelJseole paltejeq] '%96 uaLll
Iq paceldareq rilluenbasqns
ssal lo uorlceduocebe:ene0utnt6saroc eAUoseL{}
1o a6e:anesLl}Jo olnlteJ
'pouad ocueuo}uteu
'asn raLllo:o
lueu{ed 1o esea;arall} :o1
lo osec ul
6uunp Jnoneqaq e^rosqo pue Alped Lo llnJ ul ]ueuAed oLl] ploqqlm
'paldacce
,teu raeur6uf uaLll'orotu ro %96 xls {lautu st eOeleneasec ul
oq llq eare eql '%L6 sl saroc anu 1o eOelanell uotqseJaules oql ut saJoc
anrlaq] lle ro] palcot{ooq lleqsuotlceduo?pue aptsloqlteuo sLalatl(gl)
uaal1qJo ocuelsrpe le saJocoql a)elal ueql 'uotlceduoclsuteOeslte1JoqunJ
']uocred(gO)enU
soJocall] 1o a6e:eneJl 'elqeldaccest uotlceduoceq] uaq]
Ilauru ueql ssol lou sr aroc aq) Jo uorlceduoclenpnlpulaql pue 'uotlcedLuoc
'Iltsuep p;et1
lsutebe
%L6 lo eberane ue anr6 saroc aaJql eql lle 11
palsal aq lleLlspue oloc 6u1g1e1
oLltol lcedse: qlm apts Jotllrouo slalou
(e) earqt Jo leruelurue le peoJ oql lo lueuuOt;eleutpnltbuol
aql ut uole]
aq lleLlssaJocleuorlppe(Z) oM] uaql 'Ilrsuap o/oL6petltcadseq1 lsute6e
papel sr uole] os eroc eq] ll sasec ;etcedsut 'joalaql uotlcel]Jo 'oseg
cryleqdsyJo auel qoeoJo JalarrlJeaurl00 t tlceeJol uo)e] aq lleLlsoloc auO
seJoJ JoJdurlselJo aJuenDaJd

6't'02

J o O Z 'M
, olaq

'xruro:d pelceduocun aq] umop


lleqdse palaedLuocpue ia^ed uoa/mloq
'qcrul
saop eutl 6uo;
onrssaocns
uaam}aqesdele
drunp
}ou
looc{eu qorr1m
e leql 'pa6eueu os sq lleLlsxruard 1o uotlceduocpue 6utAe1
;o acuanbeg
'pacelda:pue ponourer
oq lleqs leualeursnouil.!n]rq1o r{cuaot;aplo ssecxo ue ounnoqseale [uy
'eere burpunoJrns
aLll rllrmtlroluoc o1 pelceduoo aq llel{s tlcttlm'eln}xttu
lor.lL{sar;qlnn pecelderpue ponouraraq lleqs ,{ltsuaplo qstu4ut anllca}op
Aean
Aueur sr ro '1.tlp
Llllmpoxrur'uolorq pue asoolsauocaq leql e:nlxttu{uV
'eoJepessa:dapeq] o1uotsselduoc
lltusuell
o] rellor aLll repun pasn aq Aeu sdr:1suotssalduoc paleels lo posn aq
s:adua1'sBarepessa:dapu6 s:adutellectueqcauqlm Jo suo.ltDutqloou;s
's:adurelpuell
oln}xll.xall} 'lellol
lotl qyanpelceduloc{lq6nolotl}aq lleLls
'sJopeaq'sqlnc 'stu.to;6uoly
oqt o] olqrssaoce1ousaceqdJaLllopue sliem

203.3.11

BaseThicknessTolerances
For determinationof thickness,one (1) core for each hundred(100) linear
meter of each lane shall be taken. Unless othenryisepermitted, cores
extracted for thickness measurement shall not be used for density
determination and density cores shall not be used for thicknesi
measurements.
when layer thicknessof asphalticbase course is deficientby more than five
(5) rnm from that specifiedin the Drawings,the deficiencyshall be removed
with satisfactorybase course materialandlor made up by additionalasphalt
concrete wearing course thickness without extra cost to the Employer. lf
suchremedialactionis authorised,revisedthicknessdeterminations
shallbe
made by measurements of new cores taken after placing of "Asphaltic
wearing Goursel!material or as direeted by the Engineer. lf base course
deficienciesare corrected in this manner, full payment for the "Asphaltic
Base course" will be made to the contractor,but no additionalpaymentwill
be madefor the increasein thicknessof the "AsphalticWearingCourse,,.

203.3.12

AcceptanceSamplingand Testing
Acceptance of samples and testing of materials and construction
requirements,shall be governedby the relevant,"Table for Samplingand
TestingFrequency"or as approvedby the Engineer.

203.3.13

WeatherLimitations
Hot asphalticmixturesshall be placedonly when the air temperatureis four
(4) degreescentigradeor aboveand no asphaltshall be laid under foggyor
rainyweatheror over moistsurface.

203.3.r{

Trial Section
contractorshall preparea trial sectionbeforethe start of work in light of
proceduregivenin clause1.20(General).

203.4

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT

20J.l.l

Measurement
The quantitiesfor asphalticleveling/ base course will be measured by
volumein cubicmeterscompactedin place.Measurementshallbe basedon
the dimensionas shown on plan or as otherwisedirectedor authorizedby
the Engineer.No measurementshallbe made for unauthorized
areas or for
extrathickness.
The quantityof asphalticmaterialused is includedin the asphaltconerete
mixtureand will not be measuredseparately.
Quantitiesof liquidasphalt,wastedor remainingon hand aftercompletionof
the work,shallnot be measuredor paidfor.

203-12

203.4.2

P4vment
The quantitiesdeterminedas providedabove shall be paid for at the contract
unit price respectivelyfor each of the particularpay items listed below and
shown in the bitt of Quantities,which pricesand paymentshail constitutefull
compensationfor all the costs necessaryfor the proper completionof the
work prescribedin this item. Asphalt additive or antistrippingagent, if
allowedand used to meet with JMF requirementshall not be paid directly,
paymentshall be deemed to be includedin the respectivepay items of
AsphalticBaseCourse.

Pay ltem
No.

Description

Unit of
Measurement

AsphalticBaseCoursePlantMix(ClassA)

CM

BaseCourse203b Asphaltic
PlantMix(ClassB)

CM

203a

203c
203d

AsphalticLevelingCoursePlantMix(ClassA)

CM

CourseLeveling
Asphaltic
PlantMix(ClassB)

CM

203-13

ITEM 204
204.1

QgIL CEMENT qIAEIIIZED

SUBBASE AND BASE

DESCRIPTION
The work shall consistof performingall operationsin connection
with the
constructionof cement stabilizedsubbase or base and all incidentals
in
accordancewith the specificationsin conformitywith ttre
iines, grade,
thicknessand typicalcross-sections
shown on the plans or as directedby
the Engineer.

204.2

MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS

204.2.r

Mineral Aggregate
Aggregateshall be crean,.
tough,hard durabreparticlesfree of decomposed
stone,organicmatterand other deleterioussubstancesand shall
consistof
materialof which at least
by weight of the total aggregatesstratthave at
_50yo
least two (2) mechanicailyfracturedfaces tor cem6it Jtabirized
subbase
whereas for cement stabilizedbase course, materialshall
have at reast
Ninety(90) percentby weightof totalaggregatehavingtwo (2)
mechanically
fracturedfaces.
coarse aggregateretainedon sieve No. 4 shail have a percentage
of wear
!v t-9s Angeles Abrasion as determinedby AASHTO r g6 not more than
forty five (45) for base courseand fifty (50) filr subbasemateriat.
FractionPassing0.075 mm (No. 200) shall not be greaterthan
two{hird of
the^fraction.passing
the 0.425 mm (t,to.40) sievel The fractionpassrng

0,425ym (No.a0)sieveshailhavea tiquid


iimitnotgreateiiiin zsv, ana
plasticity
indexnotgreater
than6.
sandy and gravelysoilsusedfor cementstabilization
shallfulfillthe following
gradingrequirements.
Fassingmaximumsize50 mm sieve
1OO%
PassingAASHTONo. 4 sieve
above50%
PassingAASHTO No. 40 sieve
above15o/o
PassingAASHTONo. 200 sieve
betow 5%
Clayfraction,finerthan 0.002mm
betow 3%
204.2.2

Cement
Cementshallconformin all respectto requirementspecifiedunder
sub-item
111.2.2and item401 ,'Concrete,'.

201.2.3

Water
water used for cementstabilizedbase courseor subbaseshall
conformrn
arrrespectto requirements
specifiedundersub-item112.2.3.

_44-t

204.24

in Laboratorv
Mix DesignRequirements
Prior to commencementthe work of stabilization,proposed mix design
indicatingthe exact percentageof cement and water to be used so as to
obtaina uniformmixture,shall be submittedby the Contractorfor Engineer's
approval,and shallfulfillthefollowingrequirements:
i)

The mixture sample submergedin water for two hours before


crushing,after storage in a box having minimum humidityof
ninety five (95) percentfor Twenty four (24) hours shall have a
minimumcompressivestrengthof twentythree (23) kg/sq.cmfor
sub baseand thirty(30) kg/sq.cm for base respectively.

ii)

The maximum permissiveswellingof volume shall be two (2)


percent ald mqximum loss in weight eight (8) percent when
testedin accordancewithAASHTOT-'135.

iii)

shall be as givenbelow:Maximumvariationduringconstructions
a.

iv)

CementContent:

-1 to +1ok of that given


in the mix design.

Water contents:

61s +2okof that givenin


the mix design.

materialfor curing seal shall be any one of the


Bituminous
:
following
Type
RC-250
MC-250
SS-1
RT-5

cations
ApplicatrleSrrecifi
AASHTOM-81
AASHTOM-82
AASHTOM-140
AASHTOM-52

Optimum moisture content shall be determined in accordance with


MSHTO T-134 by placingmoist sample under shade for seven days and
crushingaftertlo hoursof immersionin water.
204.2.5

of Mixture at Site
Comnosition
be mixedat site with sufficientcement
The granularmaterialshallthoroughly
The cement content shall be
strength.
required
crushing
to obtain
determinedat the laboratoryso that minimum compressivestrength of
mixtureis fifty (50) kg/sq. cm for sub base and eighty (80) kg/sq. cm for
at seven(7) days.The moisturecontentof the mix cement
base respectively
stabilizedmaterialshall not be less than the optimum as determinedby
MSHTO T-134 Method and nor more than two (2) percent above the
optimumas determinedby this test or such highervalue as may be agreed
trial.
by the Engineeron basisof preliminary

204.3

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS

204.3.r

StationaryPlantMethod
Equipment,tools, machinesused in the performanceof cement
stabirized
subbase,base shall be subjectto the approvalof Engineerand
shall be
maintainedin satisfactoryworkingconditionat all times.
lf stationaryplant is used, it shail be of the power driven paddreor pan
type
and may be of batchor continuoustype.
lf batch mixer is used, measuredamountof materialand cement
shall first
be placed in mixer, water being added to bring moisturecontent of
mixture
within the optimum.range. Mixing shail b6 continued uniit
mixture is
uniformlymixedbut in no case lessthan one minutemixingtime.
The mixing plant shail be of approvedtype, coordinatedand
operatedas to
produce mixture within mix design requirementsand shall
be of sufficient
capacity.
The aggregate,cement and water shall be mixed at an approved
central
mixingplant by eithercontinuous-flow
or batchtype mixer reloving blades
or rotarydrum mixer.
The plantshall be equippedwith feedingand meteringdevices
that add the
materials,cement and water into the mixer in specitiedquantities;
mixed
thoroughlyand sufficienilyto obtain intimate and uniform mixture
with out
cementlumps.
The mixtureshall be transportedto paving area in trucks or other
approved
eq_uipments
having clean bed within a mlximum hauling time of fbity five
(45) minutes.
The mixture shall be placed on moist subgrade/or subbase
wthout
segregation at a rate. that wiil produce a uiriformry comfacted
rayer
conformingto the required grade and cross-section. The mixture
shall be
spread by spreaderwithinthirty minutesafter placementof mixure.
compactionshall start as soon as possibleafter spreadingand
elapsedtime
betweenthe additionof water to mixture and start or co"mfacttn
shall not
exceedninety(90)minutes.

204.3.2

Mix in PlaceMethod
cement stabilizedsubbase/basecoursecan also be constructed
by Mlx_lN_
PLACE method. The plant used for pulverisingano mixint-ihe
stabilized
materialshallbe approvedby the Engineeron the basisof triil
conductedto
establishthat the prantis capabreof producingthe degree
oi mixing and
uniformityof materialaccordingto specificatiorirequireiient.
The material
shall be processedthroughoutthe depth of layer *it ot"ol,
of approved
mixingequipment.The cementshallbe spread-ahead
of mixerby meansof
cement spreader,fitted with a device to ensure uniformand required
- -'rate of
spreadof cementbothtransversely
and longitudinally.

204-3

Moisturecontentof the materialshall be adjustedto optimum using water


sprayerof such designthat water is dischargedin uniformand controllable
and longitudinally
mannerbothtransversely
20-1.3.3

ConstructionJoints
joint
a straighttransverseconstruction
In the end of each day construction,
shall be formedby cuttingintocompletedwork to form a true verticalface.
For large area, a series of parallellanes of convenientlength and width
meetingapprovalof Engineershall be built with true verticalface free of
looseor shatteredmaterial.
Guidestakesshallbe set for cementspreadingand mixing.
Giade and alignmbntstakes shall be furnished,set ahd maintaihedby
contractor,in orderthat the work shallconformto the lines,gradeand crosssectionsshownon the drawing.
All materialshall be placed and spread evenly by mechanicalspreader
capableof levelingoff the materialto an even depth. The mixtureshall be
mixed uniformlywith propermoisturecontent. Areas of segregatedmaterial
shall be correctedby removingand replacingwith satisfactorymaterialor by
additionalapproved
re-mixing. When necessaryto meet the requirements,
materialshall be spreadin such amountsas are foundto be necessaryand
the added materialshall be uniformlymixed into previouslyplacedmaterial,
addingwateras requiredto obtainthe specifieddensity.

204.3.4

Compaction
The thicknessof layer shall be as shown on the Drawingsbut in no case
shall be less than eight(B) centimeters.lf thicknessof each layerdoes not
exceed twentycentimeters,it shall be constructedas one layer. lf thickness
of layer exceeds twenty (20) centimeters,it shall be constructedin two or
more layers each within the range of eight (8) to twenty (20) centimetersin
compactedthickness.
The mixture shall be spread and finished true to crown and grade by
machine or hand method where machine methods are impracticableas
determined by the Engineer and shall be thoroughlycompacted with
approvedrollersuntil entire depth and width of subbase/baseis uniformly
compacted to maximum density of 95% as tested accordingto procedure
outlinedin AASHTOT-134.
The compactionshall be complete as soon as possible after mixing,
normallywithinthree (3) hoursafter addingwater dependingon settingtime
of ceinentand the weatherconditions.
Compactionshall not take place after cement hydrationand any materialthat
has been mixed or depositedafter cement has hydratedshall be removed
and replacedwithfresh mix material.

204-4

204.3.5

PreliminaryTrial
At leastone (1) week beforemain work of stabilization
is startedcontractor
shall constructa trial section of two hundred (200) meters in length at
locationapproved by the Engineerwith same material,equipmen[ mix
proportionand constructionprocedurethat he proposesto use for the main
work.
Purposeof this trial sectionis to determineefficiencyof mixing,spreading,
compaction,suitabilityof constructionprocedures,depth of layer being
compactedwith availablecompactiveeffon.
In qlqge density determination wiil be made using AASHTO r-19.1 or
AASHTOT-205& T-238Method.

204.3.6

Curing/Maintenance
After compactionthe stabilizedsubbase/baselayer shall be protected
againstdryingout by keepingit continuouslydamp for a periodof at least
three (3) days or by coating with approvedcuring material at the rate
approvedby the Engineer.
The completedcement stabilizedsubbase/baseshall be maintainedin an
acceptableconditionat all the times, prior to constructionof subsequent
asphalticlayer.
No vehiculartraffic shall be allowedto pass on the compactedlayer until
curing period has elapsedwith a minimum notraffic period of seven (7)
days.
Cement stabilized subbase/baseshall be constructed only when the
atmospherictemperatureis above 4 degrees centigradeand when the
weatheris not rainy.

204.3.7

Tolerance
The surface of each subbase/basecourse shall be properlyshaped to a
smooth uniformsurfaceparallelto the finishedsurfaceof the carriageway
and shallnot vary morethan the limitsas specifiedin the relevant,,'Tablefor
AllowableTolerances"in thesespecifications.
The completedsubbase/Basecourseshall be testedfor requiredthickness
and surfacebeforeacceptance.Any area havingcompactedthicknessless
thanthe thicknessshownin the billof quantitiesand/oron the drawingsshall
be reclifiedby scarifyingthe top seventyfive (75) mm, reshapingwith added
rnaterialand recompactingall to specification.skin patchingof an area
withoutscarifyingthe surfaceto permitproperbondingof added materialwill
not be permitted.

204-5

204.4

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT

204.4.r

Measurement
The unitof measurement
for paymentshallbe cubicmeterof the compacted
and acceptedsubbase/basematerialas measuredin place. Measurement
shall not includeany areas in excessof that shown on the drawingsexcept
in writing,by the Engineer.
the areasauthorized,
Measurementof cement content used shall be the number of metric Ton
consumedto stabilizesubbase/base.This quantityof cementused shallnot
exceedthe theoreticalpercentageestablishedin the laboratory.
Bituminouscuring material shall be measured by the metric Ton. The
Contiadbrshall fuinish in dupliCatecertifiedwei$hl tidketSfrom the batdh
scalesof commercialplants.

204.4.2

Payment
Measuredquantityof stabilizedsubbase/basedeterminedas providedabove
shall be paid for at the contractunit price per cubic meter for a particular
which paymentshallbe
item listedbelowand shownon the Billof Quantities,
full compensationfor furnishingall labour,material,tool, plant,equipment,
handling,mixing, manipulating,placing, shaping, compactingincluding
necessarywaterfor compaction,rolling,finishing;correctingunsuitablearea
material;maintenanceincludingprotectionof stabilized
and unsatisfactory
layerand incidentalsnecessaryfor completionof work except
subbase/base
cement consumedwhich shall be paid separatelyas measured above.
Paymentfor bituminouscuring materialshall includeall labour, material,
heating (if required)equipment,spreadingand protectionfrom traffic as
directedby the Engineer.

Pay ltem
No.

Description

Unitof
Measurement

204a

CementStabilizedSubbase

CM

204b

CementStabilizedBase

CM

204c

Cementcbntent

Ton

204d

LiquidAsphaltfor
curingseal,type--

Ton

Emulsified
Asphaltfor
curingseal,type_

Ton

204e

204-6

ITEM2O5

205.1

CRACK. RELIEF LAYER

DESCRIPTION
The work shall consist of constructinga layer of graded crushed aggregate
or asphalticopen-gradedplant mix on a preparedsoil-cementbase course
in accordance with these specificationsand in conformity with the lines,
grades,thicknessesand typicalcrosssectionsshownon the Drawings.

205.2

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS

205.2.1

Aggregates
Materialfor gradedcrushedaggregatesshallin all respectsconformwiththe
requirementsspecified under ltem 202, with the following exceptionsand
supplementaryrequirements:
The portionof the aggregateretainedon the 9.5 mm. (3/8 inch)
sieve shall not contain more than 10 percent by weight of flat
and/or elongated particles (ratio of maximum to minimum
d i m e n s i o=n 2 . 5 : 1 ) .

a)

b)

'

Crushedaggregatesshall consistof particleswith not less than


Ninety(90) percentof the portionretainedon the 4.75 mm. (No.
4) sieve havingat leasttwo fracturedfaces.

Aggregates
for the asphalticopen-graded
plantmix shallconformto the
requirements
of ltem203.2.1with
thefollowing
exceptions:

205.2.2

a)

Fineaggregatesand mineralfillerwill be required.

b)

Sand equivalentand plasticityrequirements


are not applicable.

Asphaltic Material

Asphaltic
bindershallbe asphaltcement,60-70penetration
grade,meeting
the requirements
of AASHTOM-20.
205.2.3

Asphaltic Open-Graded Mixture


The composition of the asphaltie open-graded crack-relief layer shall meet
the following criteria:

Aggregate Grading Requirements


Percent Passingby weight

SieveDesignation
Inch
mm
502
1.1t2
37.5
3t4
19
No.4
4.75
N o .1 0 0
0.15
AsphaltCementContentof totalMix
MixingTime
Mix Design

100
75-90
50-70
8-20
0-5
2-3%byweight
30 seconds(Maximum)
WithinMasterRangeGradation

The exact percentageof asphaltcementcontentshall be such that at least


Ninetyfive (95) percentcoatingof aggregateswill be achievedwhen tested
in accordancewithAASHTOT-195.
205.3

CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTS
Prior to constructionof the crack-relieflayer (CRL) the completedsoilcementbasecourseshallbe dulyacceptedby the Engineer.

205.3.1

GradedCrushedAgsregate
Constructionof this layer shall conformin all respectsto the requirements
specifiedunderltem 202.3.

205.3.2

AsnhalticOpen-GradedCRL
Constructionof this layer shall conformin all respectsto the requirements
specifiedunderltem 203.3,exceptas providedbelow:a)

Compaction shall be accomplishedby ten (10) Ton steel


Wheeled tandem rollers. A maximum of three complete
coverages,or as otherwisedirectedby the Engineer,shall be
sufficient. No density test will be required, however the
compactionshall be achievedin the same manneras displayed
of the Engineer.
in the totaltest and to satisfaction

b)

The consistencyand temperatureof the mix shall be such


controlledthat it does not squeeze out or move under the
pressureof dompactingroller. For this purpose,trial reaches
shallbe preparedby the contractorto fix the aboveparameters.

205-2

In order to ensurethe stabilityof CRL beforethe placementof


any subsequentlayer or openingof a layerto traffic,a priming
time of 4 days in hot weatherwill be allowed.This tine mav be
reducedto two dayswherethe lowertemperatureallows.
c)

All trafficshall be kept off this layeruntila subsequentlayernas


been placedon it. Any damagecausedby trafficmovingdirecfly
on the crack-relieflayer shall be the responsibilityof the
contractorand all necessaryrepairwork theretoshall be at the
Contractor's
exoense.

205.{

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT

205..1.1

Vleasurenrent
The quantityof gradedcrushedaggregatecrack-reliefasphalticopen graded
layerto be paidfor shallbe measuredby the theoreticalvolumein pllce as
thown on the drawingsor as directedand approvedfor constructionby the
Engineer,placedand acceptedin the completedgradedcrushedaggregate
crack-relieflayer.
The quantityof asphalticopen gradedcrack relieflayershallbe measuredin
cubic metersby takingout cores as detailedfor Base course Asphaltunder
item 203.4.1
The quantityof Asphalticmaterialis includedin the mixtureand will not be
measuredseparately.

205.4.2

Payment
The quantitiesdeterminedas providedaboveshallbe paidfor at the contract
unit price respectively
for each of the particularpay items listedbelow and
shownin the Billof Quantities,
which pricesand paymentshallconstitutefull
compensationfor all costs necessaryfor the propercompletionof the work
prescribedin this item:
Pay ltem
No.

205a
205b

Description

Unit of
Measurement

GradedCrushedAggregate
Crack-Relief
Layer

CM

Asphaltic
Open-Graded
PlantMix CrackRelief
Layer

CM

ZU3-J

ITEM 206
2{J6.1

WATER BOUND MACADAM BASE


DESCRIPTION
This work shall consistof furnishingand placingone or more coursesof
clean crushed stone base mechanicallyinterlockedby rolling,and voids
thereof filled with screeningand binding materialwith the assistanceof
water, laid on a preparedsubgrade,sub base, or existingpavementin
conformitywiththe lines,gradesand cross-sections
shownon the drawings.
Unlessotherwisedirectedby the Engineerthis item of work may be applied
to road structureor shoulders.

206.2

MATERIAL REOUI REMF,NTS


Coarse aggregateseither crushed or broken stone shall conform to the
qualityrequirements
as specifiedhereunder,exceptthat no CBR testingwill
be required.The gradationcurveof the coarseaggregateshallbe withinthe
enveloplimitsgivenbelow:Percent Passins bv weisht
SieveDesignation
mm
Inch

102
89
76
63.5
37.5
25
19
12.5

(4")
(3.112:)
(3")
(2.1tz',)
(2")
(1.1t2")
( 1' )
(3t4")
(1t2")

ClassB

ClassA

ClassC

100
9 0- 1 0 0
25-60

o-rs
0-5

100
9 0- 1 0 0
25-75
u - tc

ols

100
9 0- 1 0 0
35-70
0-15
ntr

Fine aggregate(fillermaterialor screenings)shall consistof cruShedstone


screeningsor any otherfine materialapprovedby the Engineer.lt shall be
free from clay lumps, dirt and other objectionablematerial. The fine
aggregateshallbe of the followinggradation.
SieveDesignation
mm
Inch

9.5
4.35
0.15

PercentPassi

3t8
No.4
No. 100

hr

100
85-I 00
10-30

The materialpassingNo. 40 sieveshall have a liquidLimitof not more than


twentyfive (25) and a PlasticityIndexof not morethan six (6).

206-1

206.2.1

PhysicalRequirements
The additionalphysicalrequirementsof coarseaggregatesfor water bound
macadamwill satisfythe followinglimits:a.
b.
c.

206.2.2

LossAngelesAbrasionValue Max 45oh


FlakinessIndex
Max 15o/o
The loss when subject to five cycles of the Sodium Sulphate
Soundness
test (AASHTOT-104)shallbe lessthantwelve(12).

Bindins Material
Bindingmaterialto preventravelingof water bound macadamshall consist
of a fine grainedmaterialpassing'100percentthrough425 micronsieveand
possessingP.l value of four to Rine(4-9)when the weter Bouad Macadam
(WBM) is to be used as a surfacingcourse,and upto 6 when WBM is being
adoptedas sub-base/base
coursewith bituminoussurfacing. tf lime stone
formationsare availablenearby, lime stones dust or as directed by the
Engineer,may be usedfullyemployedfor this purpose.

206.3

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS

206.3.1

Equinment
Any combinationof machinesor equipmentthat will produce the results
meetingthesespecifications
may be usedwith the approvalof the Engineer.
These include mechanical spreaders, water sprinklers and
rollers/compactors.

206.3.2

StructurePreparation
Preparation
of surfacefor water boundmacadam,shall be carriedout in the
samemanneras for aggregatebasecourseitem202.3.1.
Where the existingroad surfaceis blacktopped,50 mm x 50 mm furrows
shallbe cut in the existingsurfaceat one (1) meterintervalsat fortyfive (45)
degree to the centre line of the carriage-waybefore proceedingwith the
layingof coarseaggregates.
Before startingwith wBM construction,necessaryarrangementsshall be
madefor the lateralconfinementof aggregates.one methodis to construct
side shouldersin advanceto a thicknesscorresponding
to the compacted
layerof the wBM course. After shouldersare ready,thereinsideedgesmay
be trimmed verticaland the includedarea cleanedof all spilled material
therebysettingthe stage for spreadof coarseaggregates.The practiceof
constructingwBM in a trench sectionexcavatedin the finishedformation
must be avoided.

206-2

206.3.3

Spreadinqand Comnaction
Crushedstoneshallbe depositedand spreadon the preparedsurfaceto the
proper depth so that the compacted layer will not exceed two and a half
(2.112)timesthe thicknessof maximumaggregatesize. Each layershallbe
inspectedthoroughlybefore rolling to detect high or low spots. Crushed
stones shall be added or shifted to provide a true surface. The course
aggregatelayer,after being laid to proper thickness,shall be lightlyrolled
sufficientonlyto establishthe requiredgradeand levelof the stones.
Spreading of the coarse aggregates shall be followed by rolling with a
smooth wheel rollerweighingat least 10 tons. Rollingshall begin at the
lower edge of the shoulders to lock the stones firmly at the edge, then
progressgraduallytowardsthe centre line. Rollingshall continue until the
aggregateis well keyedand does not creep aheadof the roller.

n" itoi"a in neipi di;;iiy ontnearei


In nocase,shallcoarslatgregates
where these are to be laid nor shall the haulingover a partlycompleted
base be permitted,however dumpers shall be allowed at the construction
area wherethe materialwill be spreadedquicklyafterdumping.
Followingthe initialrolling,dry screeningsshall be applieduniformlyover the
surface. Dry rollingshall be continuedwhile screeningsare being applied.
The surfaceshallbe sweptwith mechanicalor hand broomsto aid spreading
of the screenings.
When the intersticesin the coarseaggregateare filledwith screenings,the
surface shall be sprinkled with water until it is saturated. The rolling,
of additionalscreeningsshallcontinueuntila grout
sprinklingand application
is formed that fills all the voids and forms a wave of grout in front of the
roller.
When more than one layer is requiredto completethe Macadam base
course to the thickness shown on the drawings, each layer shall be
constructedas beforeprescribed.

206.3.4

ConstructionControlTestinq
Tests for compliancewith the requirementsof ltem 206.2 will be made as
of the Engineer.
oftenas deemednecessaryand to the satisfaction

206.3.s

Maintenance
The completedbase courseshall be maintainedin an acceptablecondition
untilthenecessarysubsequenttreatmentis applied.

206-3

206.4

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

206.4.r

Measurement
The quantity of water Bound Macadam Base to be paid for shall be
measuredby the theoreticalvolumein place,as shown on the Drawingsor
as directed and approved for construction by the Engineer, placed and
accepted in the completed waterbound Macadam Base course. No
allowancewill be given for materialsplaced outside the theoreticallimits
shown on the cross-sections.

206.4.2

Pavment
The acceptedquantitiesmeasuredas providedabove shall be paid for at the
contract unit price per cubic meter of water Bound Macadam Base, for the
pay items listedbelowand shown in the Bill of euantities,which price and
payment shall constitutefull compensationfor furnishing all materials,
hauling,placing,watering,rolling,labour,equipment,tools and incidentals
necessaryto completethis item.

Payltem
No.
206a
206b
206c

Description

Unitof
Measurement

Water BoundMacadamBase
with CoarseAgg: ClassA

CM

Water BoundMacadamBase
with CoarseAgg: ClassB

CM

Water BoundMacadamBase
with CoarseAgg: ClassC

CM

ITEM 207
207.1

DEEP PATCHING
DESCRIPTION
This work shall be carried out in patchesof roads where the existing road
base materialhas moved and is lying in loose condition.Requirementunder
this item is to removethe existingroad base and to strengthenit to take new
layerof aggregateor water boundmacadambase.

207.2

MATERIAL RT,OUIREMENTS
Freshaggregatebase or water boundmacadambase may be requiredto be
added to existingroad base. Specificationfor such materialshall conformto
materialrequircmentsof item 202.2or 206.2,

207.3

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS
Patchesof roads in which surface courseshave broken and road base has
moved, the materialwhich has lost its compactionshall be removed. Next
layer shall be watered and compacted,thereby the removed materialshall
be placed back duly screened to remove plastic contamination,by hand
pickingand passingthough sieve No. 4. after properlywateringand mixing.
Materialwill be recompactedin layers not exceedingfifteen (15) cms thick
with approved equipments. Additional material will be added, if needed
particularly
fines passingsieveNo. 4.
non-plastic

207.4

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

207.4.1

Measurement
The quantityof deep patchingto be paid for shall be measured in square
meter of the area demarcatedor approvedby the Engineer.The minimum
area will be taken as 0.5 square meters irrespectiveof the size of the pot
hole.

207.4.2

Payment
The acceptedquantitiesmeasuredas providedabove shall be paid for at the
contractunit price per square meter of deep patching,which price payment
shall constitutefull compensationfor furnishing all materials, hauling,
placing,watering,rolling,labour,equipment,tools and incidentalsnecessary
to completethe item:

Payltem
No.
207a
207b

Description

Deep Patching
(0-15cm)
Deep Patching
(15-30cm)

207-1

Unitof
Measurement
SM
SM

ITEM 208

208.1

REINSTATEMENT OF ROAD SURFACE

DESCRIPTION
This work shall consist of reinstatementof worn out road surface with a
materialapprovedby the Engineer.Pot holes,ditchesand depressionsshall
be filled with the approved materialsin layers in conformitywith lines,
grades,sectionsand dimensions,as directedby the Engineer.

208.2
The materialused underthis item shall conformto the materialrequirement
of differqntB,O.Q.itemsselectedfor use bylhe Engineer.

208.3

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIRf,MENTS
The contractorshall remove loose materialfrom the pot holes or from road
depressionsand shall also reshapethe holes and depressionby removing
firm materialas directedby the Engineerand disposeall materialaccoiding
to the instructionof the Engineer. The surface thus exposed shall be
compactedin accordancewith applicablerequirement,for reinstatementof
surfacethe Engineershallselectitem of work as mentionedhere under:

1)
2)
3)
4)
A\

subbase.
Granular
Aggregate
basecourse.
Waterboundmacadam.
Asphaltbasecourse.
Surfacetreatment.

The Engineermay select one, or more than one of the items mentioned
above to reinstatethe pot hole or depressionsin the road surface according
to size and depthof the holeor depression.

208.4

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT

208.4.1

Measurement
The quantitiesto be paid for shall be the number of square meter of pot
holes or road depressions,reinstatedin accordancewith the requirementof
thisitem.
The materialused for reinstatement
of the pot hole or road depressionshall
be measuredin cubicmeteror tonesas applicableunder.the item used.

208.4.2

Pavment
The acceptedquantitiesmeasured,as providedabove shall be paid for at
the contractunit price per square meter of reinstatedsurface,as for the pay
item listed below and as shown on the bill of quantitieswhich price shall
constitute full compensation for excavation and disposal of material,
watering, rolling, labour, equipment,tools, and incidentalnecessaryto
completethis item.
Howeverthe materialused such as subbase,aggregatebase course,water
bound Macadam or asphaltic base course shall be paid at the rates
applicableto the item.

Pay ltem
No.

208

Description

Unitof
Measurement

of RoadSurface
Reinstatement

SM

ITEM 209
209.1

SCARIFICATION OF EXISTING ROAD/BREAI<ING OF ROAD


PAVEMENT STRUCTURE
DESCRIPTION
Thisitemshallconsistof scarification
of existingroadsurfaceor breakingof
existingroadpavementstructureto ensurebondageof new layerwith the
existingroadpavementandto ensuredrainageof waterbelowthe surfaceof
freshlylaidaggregate
base.The surfaceon whichthe basematerialis to be
constructed
shallbe approvedand acceptedby the Engineerpriorto placing
the crushedstonebaseaggregate.

209.2

CONSTRUCTION
REOUIREMENTS
The methodof scarificationof road surface or breakingof pavement
structureshall
b'epropose-by the Contiacloiandepprotedby the Engineer,
in accordance
withtherequirements
undersiteconditions.
Afterthe existingpavementstructurehas beenbrokenoff,the materialshall
be removedand disposedoff outsidethe right of way, accordingto the
satisfactionof the Engineer.The surfaceobtainedafter scarificationor
breakingtheexistingpavementshallbe compacted
to the densityprescribed
underitem 108.3.1.Paymentof suchcompaction
shallbe includedin the
contractpricefor item209.

209.3

MEASUREMENT
AND PAYMENT

209.3.r

Measurement
Thequantityfor roadpavementstructurebrokenandremoved,to be paidfor
shall be measurementin Cu. meter to a depth as shown in the
drawings/cross
sectionsor as specifiedby the Engineerand in the area
earmarked
bythe Engineer
for suchpurpose.
The quantityfor road pavementstruclurescarified,to be paidfor shall be
measuredin Sq. meter as shown in the drawings/cross
sectionsor as
specifiedby the Engineerand in the area earmarkedby the Engineerfor
suchpurpose.

209.3.2

Payment

The quantities
as measuredaboveshallbe paidfor at the contractunitprice
per Cu. meterof breakingof roadpavementstructureand per Sq. meterof
scarification
of existingroadpavementstructure,for carryingout the works
mentioned
aboveincluding
cost of labour,equipment,
toolsand incidental
necessary
to completetheseitems.
Payltem
No.
209a
209b

Description

Unitof
Measurement

Breakingof ExistingRoadPavement
Structure.
Scarification
of Existinq
RoadPavement

zfrp':1

CM
SM

IT[,i{ 210
2t0.1

PAVEMENT WIDENING
DESCRIPTION
This work shall consist of the widening of the existing pavement and
and in
finishingof the completedwork in accordancewith the specifications
conformitywith the lines,grades,thicknessof each pavementcomponent
and typical cross-sectionsshown on the plans or as directed by the
Engineer.

210.2

MATERIALS
Materialsfor the constructionof "PavementWidening"shall conformto the
requirementsspecifiedin relevantitems of Subbaseand Base course in
these specifications.

210.3

TRENCHING

The contractorshall excavate along the edge of the existing pavementfor


the full depth and width as indicatedon the Drawingsor as directedby the
Engineer. The bottomof the trenchshall be compactedwith rollersand/or
tampers approvedby the Engineerto minimum ninetyfive (95) % of the
maximumdry densityas per AASHTOT-191 method. lf the plansdo not call
for a specifictype of compaction,the subgrade,subbaseor base shall be
compacted by rolling with an approved type trench roller until the entire
surface is smooth, firm and at the designated elevation. Adequate
provisionsshallbe madefor drainageof the trenchto preventdamageto the
subgrade. Prior to placing any widening material,the trench shall be
cleanedof all loose material. The edge of the existingpavementshall be
thoroughlycleaned. The trench must be approvedby the Engineer,before
placingany wideningmaterial. All subsequentlayersshall be compactedto
the degreeas shown under relevantitem of these specifications
210.4

SPECIAL PROVISIONSFOR HANDLING TRAFFIC


Wideningoperationsshall be permittedon onlyone (1) side of the pavement
at a time and excavationof trenches shall be permittedonly sufficientlyin
advance of other operations to ensure a continuityof the operations of
excavating,placingwideningmaterial,and rolling.
barricadesshall be placedalongopen trenchesday and ntgnt.
Reflectorized
Lightingshall be placedat each barricadeat night. Barricadesand lights
shall be approvedby the Engineer. The barricadesshall be placed at
intervalsnot to exceed one hundred (100) meters or as directed by the
Engineer.
The Contractorshall make adequateprovisionto enabletrafficto cross open
trenchesat intersectingroads,streetsand privateentrances.

214-1

Partial shoulderingshall be performed immediatelyafter completionof


wideningof portionsof the Work in orderto eliminatethe hazard.
No separate payment will be made for handling traffic which will be
consideredsubsidiaryto the item of "PavementWidening.',

2r0.5

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

210.5.1

Measurement
"Pavementwidening"shallbe measuredby the unit of cubicmeterand shall
includeall excavation,trimming,disposaland compactionof subgradeand
subsequentlayersof subbaseand base course.
The removalof edge kerb if exists,will not be paid for separatelybut wiil be
consideredsubsidiaryto the itemof "PavementWidening,'.
water, ordered by the Engineeror added with the consent of the Engineer,
which is necessary to obtain satisfactory compaction of the foundation
treatmentwill not be paid for separately,but will be consideredsubsidiaryto
the item of "PavementWidening", No measurementwill be made of
unauthorizedareas or for extra width or thickness.

210.s.2

Pavment
The amount of completed and accepted work, measured as provided
above, will be paid for at the unit price bid in the Bill of euantities for
"PavementWidening,".which
priceshall be full compensationfor furnishing
materials, such as subbase, base course and water etc., for all labour,
equipment, tools, supplies, and all other items necessary for the proper
completionof the Work

Pay ltem
No.

210

Description

Unitof
Measurement

PavementWidening

CM

210-2

ITEM 211
ztL.l

LIME STABILIZED AGGREGATE BASE COURSE


DESCRIPTION
This work shall consist of performingall operationsin connectionwith
constructionof "Lime StabilizedAggregateBase Course"on the prepared
Subbase or Subgradesurface and all incidentalsin accordancewith the
in conformitywith the linesand levelgrade,and typicalcrossspecifications
sectionsshownon the Plans.

zrt.2

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS

2rr.2.l

Coarse Aggregate

Coarse Aggregatesfor crushed Lime stabilizedBase Course shall be


composedof hard, tough, sound durablecrushedlimestone,particlesfree
from thin and elongated, soft and disintegrated material or other
matters,complyingwiththe followingrequirements.
objectionable
Table-2fib
CRUSHEDSTONE GRADING
SieveDesignation
Inch
mm

37.5
25.O
12.5
4.75
0.425
0.075

1.1t2
1
1t2
No.4
No.40
No. 200

Percent Passingbv Weight

100
80-100
50-80
30-60
10-30
5-15

passing
0.075mm (No.200Sieve)shallnotbe more
Thefractionof material
0.425mm (No.40 Sieve).
than60%thefractionpassing
Crushingof boulderor rockshallbe regulatedin sucha way thatfractionof
aggregatesretainedNo. 40 (0.425mm) sieveshallcontainat leastNinety
(00) percent by weight of crushed particleshaving more than one
fracturedfaces.
mechanical
The Abrasionloss of crushedLime stone as determinedby AASHTO
T96-74shallnotexceedfortyfive(45)percent.
2t1.2.2

Fine Aggregate

The fractionof crushedaggregatespassingNo. 4 sieve shall consistof


freeof loam,organicor othermatter.
stonescreenings

211-1

The material passing 0.42s mm (No. 40) sieve when prepared in


accordancewith AASHTOr 146-49and tested by appropriatemethodsshall
conformwiththe followingrequirement.
LiquidLimit
PlasticityIndex

25%Maximum.
6 Maximum.

The calciumsulphatecontentof the fractionretainedon sieveNo. 4 shallnot


exceedten (10) percentby weight.

211.3

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS

zlt.3.l

Equipment
All equipment,toolsand machinesused in the performanceof the work shall
be in goodworkingconditionand maintainedallthe times.
Blade graders,if used for spreading,the materialshall have adjustable
bladesfor slopes.
All sprinklingequipmentshall be suitablefor applyingwater uniformlyand at
controlledquantitiesto variablewidth of surface.
Transportvehiclescarryingplantmix materialshallhave a capacitysuitedto
the outputof mixingplantand the site condition.
Mixing plant shall be of approvedtype, coordinatedand operated so as to
produce a mixturewithin requiredspecificationlimit and shall have sufficient
capacity.

211.3.2

Construction
Grade and alignmentcontrolstakes shall be furnished,set and maintained
by the contractorin order that work shall conform to the lines, grade and
cross-sectionshownon the drawings.
Materialshallbe placedand spreadevenlyusing mechanicalspreader.The
spreadershall be adjustableso that width and thicknessof the spreadercan
be set to any dimensionrequired by the drawingsand for uniform and
completecoverage.
Aggregate shall be spread to loose thickness necessary to obtain the
requiredcompactedthicknessof the layer.
lmmediatelyafter spreadingand shaping operation,the mixture shall be
thoroughlycompactedwith approved rollers.water shall be applied to the
materialsduringthe rollingoperationin such amountas may be requiredto
obtain the specifieddensity. ln all the places not accessibieto the rolling
equipment, the material shall be compacted thoroughly with approved
mechanicalor hand tampers to density comparableto inat obtaihbdby

211-2

rolling.The surfaceof the final layer shall be finishedby bladingand the


addition of water, until the surface is smooth and free from waves and
irregularitiesand is true to grade and cross-section.Where the thickness
exc-eedstwelve and half (12.5) centimeters,it shall be compacted in two
layers of equal thickness except that if vibratory roller is used for
compaction,t'helayerthicknessmay be increasedto maximumof twentyfive
(25) centimetersprovidedthat satisfactorycompactionis achieved.
Each layer shall be compacteduntil the entire depth of course is at least
95% of density at optimum moisture content as determinedby AASHTO
T 180-74. Compactionshall be completed as soon as possible after the
materialhas beenspread.

2tr.3.3

Finish
Thickness'and
Completed oar" corr." ,n"tt o" testeJ ior tne required thickness and
smoothness before acceptance.Any areas of the completed base course
having compactedthicknessless than the thickness shown on the drawing,
or waies and irregularitiesas specifiedin the relevant,"Table for Allowable
Tolerances", in these specificationsShall be corrected by scarifying the
surface,addingapprovedmaterial,reshaping,recompactingand finishingas
specifiedand is approvedby the Engineer.Skin patchingof an area without
scarifyingthe surfaceto permit proper bondingof added materialwill not be
permitted.

2r1.3.4

Maintenance
The completedbase course shall be maintainedin an acceptablecondition
at all times until prime coat is applied. When the base course is to carry
traffic for an indefinite length of time before receiving the surfacing or
pavement,the contractorshall maintain the surface until final acceptance
bnd shall preventravelingby wetting,blading,rollingand the additionof fines
as may be requiredto keep the base tightlybound and leave.aslight excess
of maierial over the entire surface,which must be removed and the finish
restoredbeforethe applicationof prime coat.

211.4

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

2tt.4.r

Measurement
The unit of measurementfor payment shall be in cubic meter of the
completedand acceptedcrushed lime stone base course as measured in
place. Measurementshall not include any area in excess of that shown on
ihe drawings except the area authorized in writing by the Engineer.
Measurementof lime used shall be the numberof metricTon consumedto
stabilize base course. This quantity of lime used shall not exceed the
theoreticalpercentageestablishedin the laboratory.

211-3

2It.4.2

Pavment
Measuredquantitiesof crushedlimestonebasecoursedeterminedas above
shall be paid for at the contractunit price per cubic meterfor particularitem
listedbelowand shownon the bill of quantities,which paymentshall be full
compensationfor furnishingall labour, material,tool, plant, equipment;
handling,mixing, manipulating,placing,shaping, compacting'inituoing
necessarywater for compaction,rolling, finishing;correcting unsuitable
areas and unsatisfactorymaterial; maintenanceincluding protectionof
preparedbase courseand all incidentalsnecessaryfor completionof work
exceptlime usedwhichshallbe paidseparatelyas measuredabove.

Pay ltem
No.

211a

211b

Description

Unit of
Measurement

LimeStabilized
Aggregate
BaseCourse

CM,

Lime

Ton.

211-4

ITEM 212
212.1

BITUMEN STABILIZED SUB-BASEOR BASE


DESCRIPTION
This work shall consist of performingall operation in connectionwith
constructionof bitumen stabilizedsubbaseor base and all incidentalsin
conformitywiththe linesand level,grade,thicknessand typicalcross-section
shownon the drawingsor as directedby the Engineer.

2t2.2

MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
lf stationaryplantis used for blending,all ingredientsshall complywith any
of the gradingcurve given in Table 1 whereasfor mix in place method,in
situ sand and gravelshall meet the gradationrequirementas per Table 2 for
bitumenstabilizedSubbaseor Base Gourse:
Coarseaggregateretainedon 4.75 mm (No. 4) sieveshall consistof tough,
hard and durableparticlesfree from decomposedstone,organicmatterand
substances.
otherdeleterious
Crushing of material shall be regulatedsuch that material retained on
4.7Smm(NO.4) sieve shall have 50% by weightof total aggregateswith at
least two (2) mechanicallyfracturedfaces in case of bitumen stabilized
subbasewhere as for bitumenstabilizedbase, materialretainedon No. 4
sieveshallhaveat leastNinety(90) percentby weightof total aggregatewith
fracturedfaces.
two (2) mechanically
Aggregateretainedon sieve No. 4 shall have a percentageof wear by Los
Angles AbrasionTest as determinedby AASHTO T-96 not more than forty
five (45) percent in case of base course material and fifty (50) percent in
case of sub-basematerial.
Fractionpassing0.075mm(No. 200) sieveshallnot be greaterthan 2/3 rd of
the fractionpassingthe 0.425mm (No. 40) sieve. The fraction passing
0.425 mm (No. a0) shall have a liquid limit not greater than 25% and
plasticitylndexnot greaterthat 6.
lf mineralaggregatescontain moisturethus necessitatingdrying,bitumen
materialshallbe of such naturethat it will not foam when heatedto hundred
and eighty(180)degreecentigradeand shall conformwith requirementsas
shownin Table301.2.
In dry areas,where natural moisturecontentof mineralaggregateis low
bitumenbindershallbe cut back conformingwith the followingrequirements.
Cut back shall meet the requirementof MSHTO M 81-70 and M 82-73 for
rapid and medium curing type respectively lt shall comply with the
of AASHTOT 49-74,T 50-69,T 78-74for the selectedgrade
requirements
the bituminous
to suitthe cutbackas approvedby the Engineer.Alternatively
binder shall be asphalticcement of 80/100 penetrationin summer and
1201150in winter;bitumenemulsionof 80/100penetrationin summer and
150/180penetrationin winter. The bituminousemulsionshall comply with
the requirementsof AASHTO M 100-70and be tested in accordancewith
AASHTOT 59-74,
21L1

Bitumen-Aggregatemixture for the grade of bitumen selected shall be


ascertainedby trial mixesusingMarshalMethodto determinethe amountby
weightof dry material,and using eitherheated or unheatedaggregatesas
appropriate.
TENTATIVE CRITERIAFORBITUMEN-AGGREGATESUBBASE/ BASE
MATERTAL
Characteristic

MarshalStability
(Min)
(Min)
Flow

Subbase

Base

250 Kg

400 Kg

2mm

2mm

TABLEJ
SELECTEDGRANULARSUBBASE
/BASEMATERIAL-GRADING.
SieveDesisnation
mm
Inch

75
50
25
9.5
4.75
2.0
0.425
0.075

Percent Passingby weight


Type-A
Type-B
Type-C

100
90 -100
55-90
35-65
25-55
20-40
10-25
3-10

3
inch
2
inch
1
inch
118 inch
No.4
N o .1 0
No.40
No.200

100
70-100
50-80
40-65
30-50
15-25
3-10

't*
65-95
50-80
40-65
20-35
3-10

Tahle-J
SAND - GRAVEL SUB BASE MATERIAL - GRADING

mm

37.5
25.0
12.5
4.75
o.425
0.075

Sieve Designation
Inch
I

1.112
1
112
No.4
No.40
No. 200

Inch.
lnch.
Inch.

Percent Passins bv Weisht

100
80-100
50-80
30-60
10-30
5-15

passing
Fineaggregate
4.75mm (No.4 sieve)shallconsistof sharpnatural
sand,freefromorganicor otherobjectionable
substances.

212.2

2t2.3

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS
All equipment,tools, machinesused in the performanceof work shall be in
good workingconditionand be subjectto the approvalof the Engineer,and
workingconditionat all times.
shallbe maintainedin satisfactory
Bladegraderif used shall have an adjustablebladefor slopesand shall be
self propelled.

212.3.r

Mix in PlaceMethodof Construction


Mix in place methodof constructionmay be adoptedwhere the use of low
vlscositybrnderi,e. CutbasKor Bilumenemqisiqnarq foqnd suitqble,
Grade and alignmentcontrolstakesshall be furnished,set and maintained
by the contractorin order that work shall conformto the line, grade and
shownon the drawings.The stakesshallbe set in rowson and
cross-section
parallelto the centerlineof pavementand spacedso that stringline may be
stretchedbetweenthem.
All materialshall be placedevenlyusing mechanicalspreaderor spreader
box operated with a mechanismwhich levels off the surface to an even
depth.
Mixingshall be accomplishedon one or more passesof the mixerthrough
the materialand shall be continueduntil the resultingmixture is entirely
uniform and of proper moisturecontent. Moisture content, if less than
required,shall be adjustedby sprinklingequipment,which shall be suitable
for applyingwater uniformlyand at controlledamount to variabledepth of
layer.
Areas of segregatedmaterialshall be correctedby removingand replacing
with satisfactory material or by re-mixing. When necessary to meet the
requirementof specified,additionalapprovedmaterialshall be spread in
such amountsas are foundto be necessaryand the added materialshallbe
uniformlyspreadaddingwaterif requiredto obtainthe specifieddensity.

212.3.2

StationaryMixing Plant Method


with
will be used where stabilization
Stationaryplant methodof construction
grade80/100is necessary.
asphaltcementbinderof penetration
The mixing plant shall be designed,coordinatedand operatedso as to
and shall have sufficient
producemixturewithin requiredJob-Mix-Formula
plant
be
weigh
batch
shall
type.
capacity.The
Transportvehiclescarryingplantmix materialshall have a capacitysuitedto
the output of mixing plant and the site condition and be capable of
of materialshallbe avoided.
dischargingcleanly.Segregation

212.3

2t2.3.3

Compaction

lmmediatelyafterspreading,shapingto requiredlevel,crownand grade,the


mixture shall be thoroughlycompactedwith rubber or pneumatictyred
rollers. compaction shall continue until the entire depth and width of
subbase/Baseis uniformlycompacted.Rollingshall begin at the low side
and progresstowardsthe higher side overlappingeach precedingtrip until
entire surface has been rolled. Alternatetrip of roller shall be of slighfly
different length. Roller shall be in good working condition,capable of
reversingwithoutbacklash and shallbe operatedby skilledoperator.
compactionshallbe checkedon stabilizedlayerin accordancewith ASTMD 915-61 (1973).The bulk densityof the mixture shail not be tess than
ninetyeight (98) % of the laboratorybulk density.Deficientpavementshall
be removedand replacedwith satisfactory
material.

2r2.3.4

Tolerance
Tolerancein the compactedlayer shall be as specifiedin the relevant,
"Tablefor AllowableTolerances"in thesespecifications.

212.3.s

Curingand Maintenance
After compaction,the stabilized subbase/Base shall be protected against
damage and maintainedin an acceptableconditionat all times prior io the
construction
of subsequentcourses.
No vehiculartrafficshall be allowedto pass on the stabilizedsurfacefor a
minimumperiodof two (2) days.

212.3.6

WeatherLimitations
Layingof bitumenstabilizedbase/subbase
shallbe avoidedwhen air temp is
fo_ur
degreescentigradeor belowor when whetheris rainyor foggy.placing
of mixtureshallalso be avoidedwhen surfaceis wet or on any surfacewhich
is frozen or coveredwith ice or snow.

212.4

MEASUREMENTOFPAYMENT

212.4.r

Measurement
The unit of measurementfor payment shall be cubic meter for the
compacted and accepted bitumen stabilized subbase/basecourse as
measuredin place.Measurementshallnot includeany area exceptthe area
authorizedin writingby the Engineer.Measurementof bitumenbinderused
shall be the numberof metricTon usedto stabilizesub base or basecourse.
The quantityof bitumenused shall not exceed the theoreticalpercentage
establishedin the laboratory.

212-4

212.4.2

Payment
determinedas aboveshallbe
Measuredquantityof stabilizedSubbase/Base
per
for particularitems listed
price
meter
cubic
paid for at the contractunit
payment shall be full
quantities,
which
bill
of
the
on
and
shown
below
compensationfor furnishingof labour, material, tool, plant, equipment,
handling, mixing, manrpulating,placing, shaping, compacting,rolling,
finishing, correcting unsuitable areas and unsatisfactory material,
maintenance including protection of stabilized Subbase/Baseand all
incidentalsnecessaryfor the completionof work exceptbitumenconsumed
whichshallbe paidseparatelyas measuredabove.

Pay ltem
No.

212a
212b
212c

Description

Unit of
Measurement

BitumenStabilized
Subbase.

CM

BitumenStabilized
BaseCourse.

CM

BitumenBinder.

Ton

212-5

ITEM 2T3

213.1

COLD RECYCLING OF ROAD PAVEMENT


STRUCTURE/SOIL STABILIZATION.

DESCRIPTION
This item shail consist of breaking, removar, mixing, reraying
and
compactionof rayers of surface, base and subbase coirs" in a singre
operation ln this operation,additionof water or binderwill also be requi6d
to add strengthto the mix.

2t3.2

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS
No fresh materialis to be used as far as quarry materialsare coneerned.
Howeverin order to achreveproper strengthof ihe relayed materiat;
water,
cement or bitumen binder may be requiredto be adled. specification
requirements
of theseingredientsshallbe same as describedunder relative
items of work. cement and bitumenbinderof followingnomenclature
shall
be used.
i)

Ordinaryporflandcement(Type_l)

ii)

Emutsified
asphatt(RS-1,RS_2,SS_1,SS-1h)

213.3

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS

213.3.r

Equipment
Equipmentutilizedfor this item of work shail ensurefollowingactivities
in a
singleoperation:

213.3.2

t)

Breakingof layersin full depthin singleoperation.

ii)

Pulverizingand mixing of different types of materials to give


homogeneousmix.

iii)

Mixingof wateror bitumenbinderin the total mass.

iv)

Layingof treated materialin smooth layer,keepingthe grade and


lineas per design.

Cold Recvclinsof Asphalt


a. Milling Process
This work shall be carried out by specialized equipment designed
to break

and pulverize
the asphaltic
layerin a mannerthat'maximu,ii.e of broken
material
reducesto basicsizeof aggregates.
Asphaltic
material
lumpsshall
be reduced
to a maximum
sizeof fifteen(15)mm.
213_1

b. Additives
Bitumenbinder (EmulsifiedAsphalt)shall be added to the mix through a
controlledunit for selectingand measuringthe
electronically
computerised,
and additivesshall be added with pump
binder
reouiredamount. Bitumen
of bitumenbindershallbe controlledby
system.
Quantity
and spray/injection
programmablemicro processorswith respect to forward speed, milling
depth,millingwidthand densityof material.
c. Mixing and Lavins
Milledmaterialsand additivesshall be mixedin a forcedmixer to make the
mass completelyhomogeneous. Materialthus preparedshall be relayed
throgghpav]ngblgckhavlnglamqng and vibratingpavingscreeds. Paving
sCieedsshould be designedto piovidd initialcbmpaetionand shapingthe
surfaceto givethe requiredgradeand profile'
d. Compaction
Initial compactionshall be providedwith paving screeds, however final
compaction shall be carried out with conVentionalrolling equipment
approvedby the Engineerconsideringthe type of materialand thicknessof
recycledlayer. Howeverfinal compactionshall be checkedafter completion
of iolling as determinedby AASHTO T-230 methodand shall not be less
than ninetyseven(97) percentof the Marshalldensity.
e. General
Totalwidthof roadasphaltshallbe recycledin a numberof strips,depending
on width of recyclingequipmentand widthof road. Howeverall longitudinal
and lateraljointsshallbe properlyworkedup to ensuresmoothridingquality.
2t3.4

SOIL STABILIZATION
a. Milling Process
This work shall be carriedout by specializedequipmentdesignedto break
and pulverizeasphalticlayersand base and subbasecoursesto a depth of
maximumthree hundred(300) mm in a singleoperation. Breakingand
pulverizingshal!ensurereductionof bindingmaterialto reduceto a size of
bO mm (maximum)or to a smallersize dependingon the thicknessof
relayedlayer.
In case cementis to be used for improvingthe strengthof relayedmix, the
same shall be calculatedand spread over the pavementstructurebefore
millingstarts.

213-2

b. Additives
water shall be added to the mix through a computerized,electronically
controlledunit for selectingand measuringthe requiredamount,water shall
be added with pump and spray/injectionsystem. Quantityof water shall be
controlledby programmablemicro processorwith respectto forward speed,
millingdepth,millingwidthand densityof materials.
c. Mixine and Layine
Milledmaterialsand additivesshall be mixed in a forced mixerto make the
mass completelyhomogeneous. Materialthus preparedshall be relayed
through paving block havingtamping and vibratingpaving screed. paving
screedsshould be designqd!o provideinltialqompaetionand shapingthe
atrftde to gite the iequiieOgrade and profite.
d. Compaction
Initial compactionshall be providedwith paving screeds, however final
compaction shall be carried out with conventionalrolling equipment
approvedby the Engineerconsideringthe type ol materialand thicknessof
recycledlayer. Howeverfinal compactionshall be checkedafter completion
of rollingas determinedby AASHTO r-230 method and shall not be less
than NinetyFive (95)percentof the modifiedproctordensity.
e. General
Totalwidthof roadasphaltshallbe recycledin a numberof strips,depending
on width of recyclingequipmentand width of road. Howeverall longitudinal
and lateraljointsshallbe properlyworkedup to ensuresmoothridingquality.
213.5

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

213.5.1

Measurement
The quantityof cold recyclingor soil stabilizationto be paid for shall be
measuredby the theoreticalvolume recycledas shown on the drawingsor
as directedby the Engineer,completedin place as per proceduredetailed
above. No allowanceshall be given to material laid outside approved
theoretical
limits.
Measurementfor bitumen binder shall be made in tons deliveredto the
equipmentfor work minusthe balanceleft in the equipment.
Measurementfor cement shall be made equal to the number of tons of
cementdeliveredand laidoverthe pavementin mannerdescribedabove.

213_3

2r3.5.2

Payment
The acceptedquantitiesmeasuredas providedabove, shall be paid for at
the contractunit price for each of the particularpay item listed below,which
price and payment shall constitute full compensation for furnishing all
materials,labour,equipments,toolsand incidentals
to completethe item.

Pay ltem
No.

213a

Description

Unit of
Measurement

Coldrecycling
of Asphaltic
layer

CM

zl3n

SoilSta6iii2ation

CM

213c

BitumenBinder(Asphaltic
Emulsion)

Ton

213d

CementBinder(O.P.C- Type-l) Ton

213-4

TTEIM2I4
2t4.1

ASPHALTIC CONCRETEBINDER COURSE


DESCRIPTION
This work shall consist of furnishingand mixing aggregatesand asphalt
binderat a centralmixingplant,transporting,
spreadingand compactingthe
mixtureon a preparedbase in accordancewith these specifications
and to
the lines,gradesand typicalpavementsectionsshown on the Drawingsor
as directedby the Engineer.

214.2

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS.

214.2.1

Aggregates.

coarse and fine aggregatesshallbe clean,hard,tough,sound particlesfr"ee


from decomposed material, vegetable matter and other deleterious
substances,and be of uniform quality,geology and petrology.Water borne
materialsuch as river bed gravel,if used, shall also conformto the above
criteria.
Coarse aggregate,which is material retainedon the No. 4 sieve, shall
consistof crushedrock, crushedgravelor a mixtureof naturaland crushed
gravel.The aggregateshall containnot more than 8% by weight of flats/or
elongatedparticles(ratiomaximumto minimum5:1) and shallcontain100%
angularmaterial,such that all faces of each piece are fracturedfaces in
cuboidshape.
Fine aggregate,which is materialpassingthe No. 4 sieve shall consist of
100%crushedmaterialfromrock or boulder.No naturalsand will be allowed
in the mix.
when the combinedgradingof the coarseand fine aggregatesis deficientin
materialpassingthe No. 200 sieve,additionalfiller materialshall be added.
The filler materialshall consist of finely dividedrock crust, hydratedlime,
hydrauliccementor other suitablemineralmatterand shall conformto the
followinggradation:
US Standard

Percent Passingby
Weisht

---!&ye_No.30
No.50
No.200

100
95-'100
70-100

TheCoarseandfineaggregates
shallmeetthefollowing
requirements:
a) The percentage
of wear by the LosAnglesAbrasion
test(AASHTO
T
96)shallnotbe morethan40%.
b) The losswhensubjectto fivecyclesof the sodiumsulphatesoundness
test(AASHTO
T 140)shallbe lessthan12%.
214-1

c) The Sand Equivalent(AASHTOT-176) determinedafter all processing


exceptfor additionof asphaltcementshouldnot be lessthan45.
d) All aggregatesshall have a liquid limit of not more than 25% and a
PlasticityIndexof not more than 4 as determinedby AASHTOT-89 and
T-90.
e) The portionof aggregateretainedon the 9.5 mm (3/8 inch) sieve shall
not contain more than 15 percent by weight of flat and/or elongated
=2.5:1).
particles(ratioof maximumto minimumdimensions
214.2.2

AsphalticMaterial
Asphalticbinderto be mixed with the aggregateto produceasphalticbase
shall be as asphaltcementpenetrationgrade40-50,or 60-70 or 80-100,as
specifiedby the Engineer.Generallyit will meet the requirementof AASHTO
M-20.

2t4.2.3

AsphaltConcreteBinder CourseMixture.
The compositionof the asphalticconcretepavingmixturefor bindercourse
shallconformto classshownin the followingtable:
Table No. I
Combined Aggregate Grading Requirements
Sieve Designation
Inch
mm

25
19
9.5
4.75
2.38
0.30
0.075

4
I

3t4
3/B
No.4
No.8
No.50
No.200

Asphalt Content Weight


Percent of total mix.

Percent Passingby
Weisht

100
90-100
56-80
35-65
23-49
5-19
2-8
3.5 (minimum)

The asphaltconcretebindercoursemixtureshallmeetthe following


Criteria:
MarshalTest
numberof blowseachend
Compaction,
of Specimen
Stability(Minimum)
Flow,0.25mm (0.01")
Percentair voidsin mix.
Percentvoidsin mineralaggregate

Lossof stability
ratio
Filler/Bitumen

214-2

75
1000Kg.
8-14
4-8
according to article
5.3, MS-2, (Asphalt
InstituteUSA) edition
1993
25% (Max.)
1-1.5 (applicableto
oC.
hot climate(> 40

214.2.4

CombinedAgeregates
Gradation.
RetainedNo. 4
PassingNo. 4 to No. 100 sieves
PassingNo.200

r
;
;

7.0%
4.0%
1.0%

0.3%

Asphalt Content.
Weight percent of total mix.

shoulda changeof sourcesof materials


be madea new Job Mix Formula
shallbe established
beforethe new materialis used.when unsatisfactory
resultsor otherconditions
madeit necessary,
a newJob MixFormula
willbe
reouired.
214.2.5

Job-lVlixl'ormula.
At least one week prior to production,a Job-Mix Formula (JMF) for the
asphaltic concrete course mixture or mixtures to be used ror tne project,
jointlyby the Engineerand the Contractor.
shallbe established
The JMF shallbe establishedby MarshalMethod.ofMix Designaccordingto
the procedureprescribedin the AsphaltInstituteManualserJesNo. 2 (MS2), May 1992Edition.
The JMF, with the allowabletolerances,shall be within the master range
specifiedin Table No. 1. Each JMF shall indicatea single percentageof
aggregatepassing each requiredsieve size and a single percentageof
bitumento be addedto the aggregates.
After the JMF is established,all mixtures furnished for the project
representedby samplestaken from the asphaltplantduringoperation,shall
conform thereto with the tolerances as per clause zlq.z.q of these
specifications.

214.3

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS.
construction requirementsfor this item shall conform with the same
constructionrequirementsspecifiedfor Asphalticconcrete Base course
PlantMix underltem 203.3,exceptas modifiedin the followingsub-items.

214.3.r

PreDarationof BaseCourseSurface.
Before spreadingmaterialsthe surface of the previouslyconstructedand
acceptedbase courseon which the mix is to be placedshall be conditioned
by application
of a tack/orprimecoat,as directedby the Engineer

2r1.3.2

PavementThicknessand Tolerances.
The asphaltconcretebindercourseshall be compactedto the desiredlevel
and crossslopeas shownon the drawingsor as directedby the Engineer.

214-3

The tolerancesin compactedthicknessof the bindercourse shall be + 10


percent from the desired thickness shown on the drawings. For
determinationof the thickness,one (1) core per hundredmeters of each
lanewill be taken.lf the thicknessso determinedis deficientby more than +
10 percent,the Engineershalldecidewhetherto acceptthe deficitthickness
or to directreconstruction.
The surface of the bindercourseshallbe testedby the Engineerusingat 3meter straightedge at selectedlocations.The variationof the surface from
the testingedge of the straightedgebetweenany two contacts,longitudinal
or transversewith the surfaceshall at no point + 5.0 millimeters.The cross
fall (camber)shall be within+ 0.2 percentof that specified,and the level at
any pointshall be withindrawings.All humps or depressionsexceedingthe
specifiedtoleranceshall be correctedby removingthe defectiveworks and
replacingit with new material,by overlaying,or by other means satisfactory
to the Engineer.
2t4.4

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT.

2t4.4.r

Measurement
The quantitiesof asphalticbindercourseshall be measuredper cubic meter
basis.
The quantityof asphalticmaterialused is includedin the asphaltconcrete
mixtureand will not be measuredseparately.
Quantitiesof liquidasphalt,wastedor remainingon hand after completionof
the work,shallnot be measuredor paidfor.

214.4.2

Pavment
The quantitiesdetermined,as providedabove, shall be paid for at the
contract unit price respectivelyfor each of the particular pay item listed
belowand shown in the Bill of Quantities,which pricesand paymentshall
constitutefull compensationfor all the costs necessaryfor the proper
completionof the work prescribedin this item:

Pay ltem
No.

214

Description

AsphalticConcrete
BinderCourse.

214-4

Unitof
Measurement
CM

ITEM 215

GEOTEXTILES

215.1

DESCRIPTION
The work covered by this section shall consist in furnishingall material,
labour,equipmentand placingof Geotextileson preparedsurfices complete
in accordance with the specificationsfor the work items involved. in
thicknessesand to the dimensionsshown on the typicalcross-sections
of
applicabledrawingsor as directedby the Engineer.

2r5.2

GEOTEXTILE FUNCTIONS
where indicatedon the drawingsor directedby the Engineer,Geotextilewill
be placedto performone or more of the followingfunctions.
.

one road foundationfor the purpose of separation between road fill


malerial and soft underlyingsoils in order to eliminate the need for
removalof poor subsoilmaterialand quick and effectivedrainageof soil_
fill interface.

For subgrade stabilizationand increasing soil shear strength by


providingbondingmechanismof the Geotextile- soil system.

As a filter for all drainagesystems where a danger of clogging by fine


particles of adjacent soil is possible. The geotextile wilf relain tne
particles from passing whilst allowing the seepage water to' pass
through.

As a filter elementfor all bodiesof water where the soil can be erodedby
current,wave actionor changingwater levels.

For.permanent
proteclionof syntheticsealingsystems(Geomembranes)
againstmechanicaldamageduring installationand afier completiono'f
construction.

215.3

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS

215.3.r

Compositionand EnvironmentalBehaviour
I|" l?* materialof geotextileshalt be UttraViolet stabilizedpolypropylene.
The fibers shall consist of continuousfilaments of approximaiely40 micron
diameterand mechanically
bondedby needling.The geotextilematerialshall
be resistantto acid and alkalinemedia in the pH raige2 to 13, resistantto
lime, cement and concrete,resistantto all naturallyoccurringbacteriaand
fungi. A prolongedout side exposureof several mohths shall-haveno effect
on the propertiesof Geotextile.

215-1

2r5.3.2

Mechanicaland HvdraulicProperties
.

To ensure free drainage, the geotextile shall have high water


permeabilitY.

Geotextileshallofferhigh retentioncapabilityfor almostalltypesof soils.


The geotextileshallhave optimumstress-strainbehaviourevenwith low
damage.
unitweightfor high resistanceagainstinstallation

215.4

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

2I5.4.1

PreDaration
The surface shall be fairly leveledbefore placementof Geotextile.lt is to be
ensured that there are no protrudingStones which may damage the
TaDnc.
oeotextrle

215.4.2

GeotextilePlacement
The Geotextileshallbe rolledout directlyon top of the preparedsurfacein a
lt shall be over lappedat the
manneras recommendedby the manufacturer.
edgesas shownon the drawingsor as recommendedby the manufacturer.

215.4.3

Placementof fill
The first layerof fill materialshall be appliedby overheadplacement.Traffic
on the geotextileitself shall be avoided.Necessaryprecautionsshall be
observedto ensurethat geotextileshallnot be damagedduringplacement'

2t5.4.4

Spreading
Spreading of fill material shall be done with suitable equipment and
pioceOureensuringthat geotextilemust not be dqmagedby high axle load
stressesof spreadingequipmenttravelingon sharpfill over the geotextile'

215.4.5

Compaction
The compacting method (Static/Dynamic)shall be suited to subgrade/fill
material.

215.4.6

Jointilg of GeotextilePanels
weldingor sewingas shown
A tensionjoint shallbe achievedby overlapping,
on drawingsor approvedby the Engineer.
i) Overlanning
Overlapprngwidth shall not be less 30 cm on even surfaceand 50 cm on
uneven'surface.In order to avoid displacingthe geotextileduring backfill
over end paneljoints,the connectingpanel must be placedunderneaththe
end cf the previouslyrolledout geotextile.

u5a

ii) Weldins
welding widthshallnot be lessthan 1o cm. A wide patterngas torch shallbe
used at a low temperatureand about20 cm from the geotextile.
The welded
geotextilesectionshallbe continuously
presseddown by walkingon it during
placement.
iii) Sewine
The stitchingmethodshall be singlethread,doublethreador butterflytype
suitable to geotextilethread type and strength. The thread shall be
sufficiently
tightenedand stitchdensityshallbe threeto six stitchesper inch.
215.5

GEOTEXTILE FUNCTION FOR REPAVING


This section deals geotextilesplaced between old pavement and new
asphaltoverlay,alongwithsuitabletack coat of bitumen.where indicatedon
drawingsor directed by the Engineer,geotextilewill be plaeedto perform
one or moreof the followingfunctions.

215.5.1

215.5.2

To ensure proper adhesion between old pavementand new asphalt


overlay & thus reducing the over all flexural tensile stresses and
increasinglifeof road surface.

As a cut off layer for the prevention of propagationof cracks in the


pavement.

As water barrier,even under high pressureto stop reflectivecracking in


the pavements.

ConstructionRequirements
.

Removalof dirt, dust and vegetationfrom wearingsurfaceand cracks.

Fillingpotholesand larger cracks (>Smm)with hot mix or an adequate


filler.

Removalof sharpor craggyedgeson surface.

On badlydamagedroads,a levelcourseof approx.1,5 cm shallbe laid


to avoid the labour intensiveand time consumingoperation of crack
filling.

Applvins the tack coat


Dependingon the conditionof the old surface,a calculatedamount of tack
coat (Q$ of
-approx.1.1 kglm2active binder is to be sprayed evenly on the
preparedsurfacebeforelayinggeotextile,makingsurethat:_
o The bitumenis appliedbeyondthe width of the geotextileby
about 5 cm
on eitherside.
'

The sprayingtemperaturefor pure bitumenis kept between150 oC and


170oCto achievea coatingas even as possible.

215-3

When usingbitumenemulsion,the coatingamountis adjustedto contain


the requiredaverageamountof bitumen.
a

The coatingis onlyappliedto areaswherethe pavingfelt is to be laid.

No additionalpre-sprayagentis appliedon top of the pavingfelt.


Where only sectionsfor the road are coveredwith the pavingfelts,their
surfacesmust be gritted.

215.5.3

Laying Geotextile
Geotextileshallbe laidby hand or machinetakinginto accountthat;

2t5.5.4

When using pure bitumen as tack coat, Geotextile may be [aid


aftercoating.
immediately

When using bitumenemulsions,Geotextileshall not be laid until the


emulsionhas cured.

Wrinklesshallbe avoided.

Edges lengthwaysand across overlap by 5-10 cm, an additionalpure


seams'
bitumenbinderoi 0.9 tg/mt shallbe appliedon the overlapping

is to be carriedout with referenceto the direction


Transverseoverlapping
will proceedi.e. underthe previousone so
finisher
the
asphalt
in which
that the felt does not shift out of place when the asphaltconcreteis
applied.

When one half of the road is made (leavingthe other open to traffic), at
least 25cm of the lengthwaysfelt edge shall remainuncoveredto allow
when layingthe otherhalf of the road.
overlapping

During short time stoppages of constructionwork, the road under


constructionshall be opened only to slow traffic without detrimentto
Geotextile.

Rain water on the Geotextilesurfaceshall be allowedto evaporatebefore


applyinga top layer.

Applyingthe asphaltconcretesurface
The asphaltconcretesurfacingshall be appliedimmediatelyafter laying
Geotextilepreferablyby crawlertype finisher,takingthe followingpointsinto
consideration.

The materialmix shallhave a temperaturebetween145oCand 165oC


To avoid types of the finisher or truck stickingto the felt (which can
happenin hot climatesor where too much tack coat has been applied)'
some of the mix can be spreadmanuallyin the pathwayof the vehicles.

215-4

215.6

GEOTEXTILE TESTING
Geotextilestesting shall be in accordancewith following standard test
methods.
. Weight
ASTM D-3776
. Thickness
tso 9863
. CBR PunctureResistanceTest
BS 6906/4
.
StripTensileTest
ASTM D-4595
.
Grab TensileTest
ASTM D-1682
. Tear StrengthTest
ASTM D-1117
.
PenetrationResistanceTest (DropTest)
NT Build243
. VerticalPermeability
BSE90613
.
PoreSize
E DtN60500/6
Based on the requiredfunctionsand the type of stresses,the contractor
shall proposethe type of Geotextile.The contractorshall furnishtechnical
literature and Manufacturer's Certificate of Guarantee for the type of
geotextilematerialfor approvalof Engineerpriorto deliveringthe materialto
the site.The certificateshall note complianceto the specifications
and shall
state the resultsof the tests performedon the material,as requiredby the
specifications.
The Contractorshall,when directedby the Engineer,havethe
Geotextilematerialtestedfor conformanceto the applicablespecifications
at
an approved testing laboratory. All costs connected with certificate of
Guaranteeand any subsequentqualitytestingshall be at the contractor's
expense.

215.7

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

215.7.1

Measurement
The quantityof Geotextilemeasuredto be paid shall be the number of
square meters of work completedin accordancewith requirementof this
item and the limitingdimensions
shallnot exceedthan thoseshownon the
drawingsor fixed by the Engineer.Measurementshall only be made of area
coveredwithoutconsideringany overlap.

215-5

215.7.2

Pavment
The accepted quantity measured as provided above sfrall be paid at the
contract unit price per square meter of Geotextilelaid for the pay item as
listed below in the BOQ which price and payment shall constitutefull
compensationfor furnishingall materials,labour,equipmentand placingof
geotextile.

Pay ltem
No.

215

Description

Providingand Placing
of Geotextile,
type------

215-6

Unit of
Measurement

S.M.

TTEM216

216.1

SOLING STONE

DESCRIPTION
This item shall consistof layingof solingstone, handpackedon a surface
(subgrade)preparedearlier and all intersticesfilled with sand or similar
approvedmaterialsto provideproper bondingof all the stones with each
other.

216.2

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS
Thematerialfor solingshAllbe iouhd and d0iableioCk,pioperlyshapedor
bouldersof maximumsize 15-20cm. The filler materialtofill the interstices
shall be coarse sand or rock dust or any other materialapprovedby the
Engineer.Materialshall be cohesionlessand clean to allow its free flow
down to the bottomof solingarea.

216.3

CONSTRUCTIONRf,QUIREMENT

216.3.1

The subgradeto receivethe soilingstone shall be preparedunder relative


item of the work.

2t6.3.2

Placinsof SolineStone
The solingstoneshall be placedfrom outer edges of the road and finishing
at the crown of the road in such a way that all stones are properly
handpackedand keyedwith the surroundingstones.lt shallbe ensuredthat
the maximumdimensionis kept in verticalpositionensuringthe variationof
the size of the stone does not exceed+ 1" of soecifiedthicknessof solino
stone:
The filler materialshall be dry and in free flow conditionwhen placedover
the soling stone. The filler materialshall be kept addingwhile the soling
stones are rolledunder a 6 tons roller.The additionof filler materialshall
continuetill the area does not absorbmore materialand it is ensuredthat all
intersticesare fully filled.The area will than be watered and kept under
rollingto achievea smoothsurface.

216.3

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT

216.3.1

Measurement
The areato be measuredshallbe boundby the linesshownon the drawings
whereasthe normalthicknessshall be that which is describedin BOQ. The
measurement
shallbe madein CM.

216-1

216.3.2

Pavment
The quantities determined as provided above shall be paid for at the
contract unit price for cubic meter which price and payment shall be full
compensationfor all cost of materials,manpowerand equipmentsinvolved
in the propercompletionof work.
Pay ltem
No.
216

Description

Unitof
Measurement

Layingof SolingStone

CM

216-2

rl-Ev.{2t7
217.1

INTERLOCKING CONCRETE PAVING BLOCKS


DESCRIPTION
The work shall consistof precastconcretepaving blocks intendedfor the
construction
of low speedroads,parkingareas,lay byes,industrialand other
paved surfacessubjectedto all categoriesof static and vehicularloading
and pedestriantraffic. Paving blocks covered by these Specificationsare
designed to form a structural element and the surfacing of pavements,
havingthe blockto blockjointsfilled,so as to developfrictionalinterlockand
placed in conformitywith the lines, grades,thicknessesand typicalcrosssectionshownon the drawingsor as directedby the Engineer.

217.2

MAT4RIAL REOUIREMENTS
For executionof this item provisionsmade in BS 6717 shall be applicable.
Detailedrequirement
of materialsand construction
shallbe as under:

217.2.1

Bindersand Binder Constituents


Pavingblocksshall be made using one or more of the followingbindersor
binder constituentscomplying with the requirementsof the relevant
standards:

Ordinary
Portland
Cement

B S1 2

Portland
Blastfurnace
Cement

B S 1 4 6: P a r l 2

Portland
Pulverized
FuelashCement

BS6588

Pulverized
fuelash

BS3892: Part1

Groundgranulated
Blastfurnaceslag

BS6699

Wherepulverized
fuel ash is used,the proportions
and properties
of the
combination
withPortlandCementshallcomplywithBS6588.
Wheregroundgranulated
blastfurnace
slag is used,the proportions
and
properties
of the combination
with PortlandCementshallcomplywith BS
146:Part2.
217.2.2

Aggregates
Pavingblocksshall be made usingone or more of the followingaggregates
complyingwiththe relevantstandards:
NaturalAggregates(Crushedor
Uncrushed)
Air Cooledblastfurnace
slao
Pulverizedfuel ash
Groundgranulatedblastfurnace
slag

217-1

BSBB2: 1983(exceptgrading
requirements
in clause5)
BS 1047:1083(except
gradingrequirements
in 4.8)
BS 3892: Part-1or Part-2
BS6699

217.2.2.1

Acid SolubleMaterial (FineAssresatel


(material
When testedas describedin BS 812 : Part 119,the fine aggregate
than
more
contain.not
paising a 5 mm sieve complyingwith BS 410) shall
or in
on,
retained
fraction
the
in
lSy" Oi mass of acid solublemaierialeither
the fractionpassing,a 600 p m sieve.

217.2.3

Water
with the
The water shall be of drinking quality or in accordance
1980'
:
3148
of appendixA of BS
recommendations

217.2.4

ADMXTURES AND PIGMENTS


proprietaryaccelerating,retardingand water reducing agents shall comply
wlth BS 5075 : Part 1,
Pigmentsshallcomplywith BS 1014.
Calciumchlorideshallcomplywith BS 3587

t111<

FINISHES
and the Engineer'
The finishshouldbe agreedbetweenthe manufacturer
concrete describedas "naturalcolout''shall containno pigment.
In compositepavingblocksthe surfacelayer shall.beformedas an integral
parl of ine ntobf and shallbe not lessthan 5 mm thick'

2t7.2.6

BINDER CONTENT
The cement content of the compactedconcrete shall be not less than 380
fglm5. For equivalentdurability,pavingblocks made with binderconstituents
oiner tnan ordinaryPortlandc'ementshall have a higher binder-contentthan
paving blocks mide in a similar way using only PortlandCement. The
Enginler wilt decidethe additionalbindercontent.The compressivestrength
tesi will be the onlyguideto the amountof additionalbinderneeded.

217.2.7

SIZES AND TOLERANCES

2t7.2.7.1

Sizes
mm'
Paving blocks shall have a work size thicknessof not less than 60
a
and
mm
of
200
length
size
work
fype-F blocksshall be rectangularwith a
within
fitting
shape
of
any
be
shall
blocks
work sizewidth of 100 mm. Type-S
a2g5mmSquarecoordinatingSpaceandsha||haveaworksizewidthnot
lessthan B0 mm.
The preferredwork sizethicknessesare 60 mm, 65 mm, 80 mm & 100 mm'
A chamferaroundthe wearingsurfacewith a work size not exceeding7 mm
in width or depth shall be permitted.
All arisesshallbe of uniformshape'

217-2

217.2.7.2

Tolerances
The maximumdimensionaldeviationsfrom the statedwork sizesfor paving
blocksshall be as follows:
length
width
thickness

1 2mm
t 2mm
+ 3mm

where a pavingblockincludesprofiledsides,the profileshallnot deviate


fromthe manufacturer's
specification
by morethan2 mm.
2r7.2.8

COMPRESSTVESTRENGTH
The compressivestrengthof pavingblocks shall be not less than 49 N/mm2
and the crushingstrengthof any individualblock shall be not less than 40
N/mm',

217.2.9

SAMPLING
The following sampling procedure shall be used for the compressrve
strengthtest.
a) Beforelayingpavingblocks,divideeach designatedsection,comprising
not more than 5000 blocks,in a consignmentinto eight approximately
equalgroups,clearlymark all samplesat the time of samplingin such i
way that the designatedsectionor part thereof and the consignment
representedby the sampleare clearlydefined.Take two (2) blocksfrom
each group.
b) Dispatchthe sample to the test laboratory,taking precautionsto avoid
damage to the paving blocks in transit. Each sample shall be
accompaniedby a certificatefrom the person responsiblefor taking the
sample,statingthat samplingwas carriedout in accordancewitn tnis
Partof BS 6717.
c) Protectthe paving blocks from damage and contaminationuntil they
have been tested.carry out any tests as soon as possibleafter the
samplehas beentaken.

217.2.10

MARIqNG
The followingparticularsrelatingto pavingblocksmade in accordancewith
this standard shall be indicated clearly on the delivery note invoice,
manufacturer'sor supplier's certificateor brochure suiplied with the
consignmentof blocks:
a) The name, trade mark or other means of identification of the
manufacturer.
b) The number and date of this Britishstandard, i.e. BS 6717 : part 1 :
1986*;or latestrevision.

217-3

217.3

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

217.3.1

Layine the ConcreteBlocks


The total area to be coveredwith pavingblock shall be preparedby:
a) Compactionof subgrade
b) Layingof subbasein a thicknessspecified
c) Layingof crushedaggregatebase or lean concretein thicknessas per
typicalsection

217.3.2

Tolerance
Toleranceof these layers shall be as per applicablerequirementof each
item of this specifications.
Paymentfor each of the aboveitem shallbe made underthe relativeitem of
work.
The total area will therebybe dividewith nylon strings into sectorsof not
more than 1.5 squaremeters.This shall be done to controlthe alignmentof
paving blocks and to avoid multiplication
of deviationin sizes of paving
blocks.

217.4

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

217.4.r

Measurement
The area to be measuredshall be boundby linesshown on the drawingsor
as directedby the Engineer.Unit of measurementshall be square meter
measuredin horizontalplane.

2t7.4.2

Pavment
The qualitydeterminedas providedaboveshall be paid for the unit priceof
contractfor each square meter of paving block installedincludingsand
cushion and sand filling in joints and all other work relatedfor installing
paving blocks. Cost shall includeall labour,materialsand equipmentfor
propercompletionof work.

Pay ltem
No.

Description

Unitof
Measurement

217a

Installation
of pavingblocks
60 mmthick

SM

217b

Installation
of pavingblocks
80 mmthick

SM

217c

lnstallation
of pavingblocks
100mmthick

SM

217-4

SURFACECOURSES
ANI)
PAVEMENT

SURFAGEGOURSESAND PAVEMENT
TTEM 3OO

GENERAL

This sectiondescribesthe requirementsand proceduresfor executionof


surfacecoursesand pavements.The materialsto be used shall conformto
specificationsand testing proceduresas per AmericanAssociationof State
Highwayand TransportationOfficial (AASHTO)or the American Societyfor
Testingand Material(ASTM)as indicatedin their latesteditions.Samplesof
materialsfor laboratorytestsand theirsubsequentapprovalsshall be utilized
accordingto thesereferencesunlessotherwisedirectedby the Engineer.
Matefialsw!!qh dq 1ot confolm !o lhe requirementsof these specifications
will be rejectedwnetneiin titae or not. ihef straifbe removedimmediately
from the site of the work at the expense of contractor. While
and pavingoperationsare in progress,a detourshall be
subgrade/subbase
providedfor vehicularflow in order to avoid any publicinconvenienceand
thoroughlybe maintainedtill completionof that particularsection of the
project or as a whole. In order to expedite the passage of public traffic
throughor aroundthe work, the contractorshall installroad signs,warning
lights,flares,barricadesand other facilitiesfor the safety,convenienceand
direction of public traffic. Also where directed by the Engineer, the
contractorshallfurnishcompetentflagmenwhosesole dutiesshallconsistof
directingthe movementof publictrafficthroughor around the work. The
of such road-signs,lights,flaresbarricades
cost of furnishingand installation
and otherfacilities,shallbe includedin the respectivework item. Shouldthe
Engineerpointout the inadequacyof warningand protectivemeasures,and
requireadditionalmeasures,such actionon the part of the Engineershall
not relievethe contractorfrom responsibilityfor publicsafety or abrogatehis
obligationto furnishand payfor theseservices.

300-1

ITEM 301

30r.t

ASPHALTIC MATERIALS
ASPHALT CEMENT
Asphaltcement shallbe an oil asphalt,or a mixtureof refinedliquidasphalt
and refinedsolidasphalt,preparedfrom crude asphalticpetroleum. lt shall
be free from admixturewith any residuesobtainedby the artificialdistillation
of coal, coal tar, or paraffinand shall be homogeneousand free from water.
No emulsification
shalloccurwhen a thirty(30) gram sampleis boiledfor two
(2) hourswith two hundredand fifty(250)cubiccentimetersof distilledwater
in a five hundred(500)cubic centimetersEdenmeyerflask equippedwith a
refluxcondenser.
Asphalt cement shall be classifiedby penetrationand when tested in
accordancewith the standardmethods of tests of the AASHTO,the grades
of asphaltsshallconformto the requirementssetforth in Table got-2. rne
grade of asphaltto be used shall be in accordancewith these specifications
or the SpecialProvisions
or as directedby the Engineer.

301.2

EI{VIRONMENTAL FACTORS
In areas where highlyfrost susceptiblesoils and severe low temperature
conditionsare encountered,it may be necessaryto removeand replacesoils
susceptibleto frost heave or take other precautionsprior to pavement
construction.
In extremelyhot climates,asphaltmixesshouldbe designedto
resistruttingand maintainstiffnessat hightemperatures.
Becauseasphaltmixturesare influencedby temperature,it is recommended
that differentasphaltgradesbe used where differenttemperatureconditions
prevail. Table below gives recommended asphalt grades for various
temperatureconditions.
SELECTING ASPHALT GRADE

Temperature
Condition

alt Grade+

Cold,mean annualair temperature


< 7 degreeC (45 degreeF)

AC-10
AR-4000
80 / 100pen

Warm, mean annualair temperature


between7 deg.C (45 deg.Fj
and 24 def.C (75 def. F)

AC-20
AR-8000
60 / 70 pen.

Hot, mean annualair temperature


> 24 deg.C(75 deg. F)

AC-40
AR-8000
40 / 50 pen.

* Bothmediumsetting(MS)and
slowsetting(ss) emulsified
asphaltsare
used in emulsified
asphaltbase mixes.Theycan be eitherof two types:
cationic(ASTMD 2397 or AASHTo M 208) or anionic(ASTMDg77 or
AASHTOM 140).selectingone of the two shaildependson the type of
aggregateusedfor betteraffinity.

basisof its ability


The gradeof emulsifiedasphaltis selectedprimarilyon.the.
by coating and
to satisfactorilycoat-in"-'"ggr"gate.]h1g is determined
in the
important
faclors
;i"bitiit Gst (nsrrv D z4i,,'nns'Hro T 59). other
at the
weather
job
anticipated
site,
selectionare the water availabilityat the
rate.
curing
the
and
used,
be
piocess
to
the mixing
time of construction,
301.3

CUT.BACKASPHALT
L i q u i d a s';assifiiationi.
pha|ts(cutback)sha||consistofmateria|sconformingtothe
Wn"n tested in accordance with the standard
t"ff-"*irg
shall conform
methodsof tests of the AASHTO,the gradesof liquidasphalt
301-4'
and
301-3
Table
in
the
specified
to the requirements
consistof asphalt
Medium curing productsdesignatedby lettersMC, shall
solvent,
cemept fluxqd-orblendedwilh a kerosene
consistof asphalt
Rapidcuringproductsdestgnateduy tl9 lettersRC, shall
fluxedor blendedwith a naphtha
cementwith a punutr"tiono"fgradetiO-tOO,
solvent.

301.4

EMULSIFIED ASPHALT
base uniformly
Asphalticemulsionsshall be composed of a bituminous
shall be
agent.
or stabilizing
-setting
.They
emulsifiedwith water and an emulsifying
shall
and
Setting,
Slow
or
classified according to ut" as Ra[lO
301-5'
Table
in
specified
contormto the requirements
shall be
The bituminousbase used in manufacturingRS-l type emulsion
by the
designated
as
i"*ent, Grade 120-150or Grade 2OO-aOO,
".pnaii
Engineer.
shall be
The bituminousbase used in manufacturingssl type em.ulsion
by the
designated
as
12b-150,
Grade
or
;;tnan, CraOe 60-70
ilng
Engineer.

301-2

APPLICATION TEMPERATURES
TABLE 301-I
Application Temperature Range. oC

Asphalt Type /
Grade
a) AsphaltCement
(Allgrades)

b.

Mixing Temp

As requiredto achieve
viscosityof 75-150secs.
Saybolt-Furol
or as required
to achievea Kinematic
Viscosityof 150-300
centistokes.

Spraying
Temperature
RoadMixes
160 (Max)

Emulsified
Asphatts

ffi
RS-2
MS-1
MS-2
MS-2h
HFMS-1
HFMS-2
HFMS-24
SS-1
SS-1h
CRS-1
CRS-2
CMS-2

cMS-2h
CSS-1

css-1h
c)

10-70
10-70
10-70
10-70
10-70
10-70
10-70
10-70
10-70

20-70
20-70
20-70
20-70
20-70
20-70

10-70
10-70
10-70

10-70
10-70
10:70

20-70
20-70
2i-7i

CutbackAsphatts(RC, MC, SC)

70
250
800
3000

55-80
75-100
80-115

301-3

20 min.
40 min.
55 min.

TABLE 301-2
REQUIREMENTSFOR ASPHALT CEMENT (AASHTO M-20)
40-50

at77oF (25"C) 100


Penetration
g 5 Sec.
Flashpoint,ClevelandOpen
cup,oF("c)
oF
Ductilityat 77 (25 "C)5 cm
p e rm r n . c, m .

60-70

80 - 100

Min.

Max.

Min.

Max.

Min.

40

50

60

70

80

Max.

100

120
Min

120

450
(232)

450
(232)

450
(232
)

425
(218)

100

'100

100

100

oo

99

lene
Solubilityin trichloroethy
percent.

99

150
Max

150

Thin-filmoventest, 118in.(3.2
mm),325 "r ltOe "C; 5 hr
Losson heating,percent.

0.80
of residue,percent
Penetration,
of original.
ouciitityof residueat77
oC;
5 cm. per min.,cm.

58

1.0

0.80
54

50

50

75

1.3
46

oF (25

301-a

75

100

TABLE 301-3
REOUIREMENTS F'ORMEDIUM-CURING TYPE ASPHALTS (AASHTO M-82)
MC-70
Min.

\A/rtor

Max

MC - 2s0
Min.

0.2

nornonf

F l a s hp o i n t( t a g .o p e nc u p ) ,D e g r e eC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
KinematicViscosityat 60oC(140"F)(See Note

Max

Min.

Max

0.2

0.2
66

oo

70

140

250

500

0
20
65

20
60
90

0
15
60

't0

0F)
A l 2600C /500
at 315 0C /600 oF'l

oC (680
Residue from distillationat 360
"F)
of sampleby difference......
Volumepercentage

55

1\ Centistnkes

MC - 800

800

1600

35
80

Distillation
test:
Distillate,percentageby volume of total distillate
at 360oc(680"F)
^t 22qoc. (a?7otr\

55
87

45
75

ol

Testson residuefrom distillation:


p e n e t r a t i o1n0, 0 g .5, s e c . ,a t 2 5 o C( 7 7 " F ) . . . . . . . . . 120

250

120

250

120 , 2 5 0

100

100

100

S o l u b i l i it ny T r i c h l o r o e t h y l epneer,c e n t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 9 . 0

99.0

99.0

Ductility,5 cm/min,cm (see note2)

Note:

'1,

As an alternate,SayboltFurolvicositiesmay be specifiedas following:


GradeMC-70 FurolViscosityat 50oC(122"F)-

60 to 120 Sec.

GradeMC-250FurolViscosityat 60oC(140"F)-

125to 250 Sec.

GradeMC-800FurolViscosityat 82.2oC(180"F)- 100 to 200 Sec.


2.

lf penetrationof residueis morethan 200 and its ductilityat 25oC(77'F)


is lessthan 100 cm., the materialwillbe acceptableif its ductilityat 15.5
oF;
"C 100 is morethan 100 cm.

301-b

TABLE 301-4
ITEQUIREMENTSFOR IL{PID-CURING TYPE ASPHALTS (AASHTO M-81)
RC - 250

RC-70
Min.

Max

Min.

1\ Cantielnkcq

7n

140

lsb

Max

0.2
27

27

F l a s hp o i n t( t a g .o p e nc u p ) ,D e g r e eC . . . . . . . . . . . .
KinematicViscosityat 60oG (140"F)(See Note

Min.

0.2

0.2

Water,percent.......

Max

RC - 800

500

800 1 6 0 0

test:
Distillation
Distillate,percentageby volume of total distillate
at 360oC(6Bo"F)
at 1go"c (37:4"F)
tt 2)60(. t4?70tr\
af rAnoc /qnootr\
at 21F'on /Ann otr\

oC (680
"F)
Residue from distillationat 360
of sampleby difference......
Volumepercentage

'10
50
70
85

35
60
80

45

55

65

75

15
75

Tests on residuefrom distillation:


oF)..
. ...
penetration,
100g: 5 Sec.,at 25"C (77

BO

5 cm/min,of 25oC (77"F) cm ............


Ductility,

100

100

100

percent
Solubilityin Trichloroethylene,

99.0

99.0

99.0

Note:

120

BO

80

120

As an alternate,SayboltFurolvicositiesmay be specifiedas following:


GradeRC-70 FurolViscosityat 50oC(122"F)GradeRC-250 FurolViscosityat 60oC('140"F)-

60 to 120 Sec.
125to 250 Sec.

GradeRC-800 FurolViscosilyat 82.2oC(180"F)- 100 to 200 Sec.

301-c

120

TABLE 3OI-5

Trrna

Rapid-Settine
RS-I

Slow-Settins
RS-2

Min.

Max.

2A

100

Min.

SS-I
Max.

Min.

NIax.

20

100

SS.lh
Min.
Ma

Test on Emulsions:
Viscosity,
SaybottFurotat T7"F(ZSoF).
Sec.............
Viscosity,
SaybottFurolat 122oF(50"C)Sec..........

75

Demulsibility,
35 m1. 0.02 NCaCl2percent

60

4
I

Residueby distillation,
percent.....

2.0

2.0

0.10

0.1(

60

Cementmixingtest,percent........... .
Sievetest,percent.......

10(

400

Settlement5days,
percent(a) . . . ...,.
Storagestability
test 1 day (b).............,

20

0.10
55

n 4n

63

57

Test on Residue from Distillation


Test penetration

"F(2s"c;toog.5 sec.

Ductility,77"F (25oC),5 cm/min.cm


Solubilityin trichloroethylene,
percent

Suggested

a)
b)
c)

100

200

100

200

'100

200

4A

40

40

40

40

97.5

97.5

97"5

97.5

Surface treatment, Surfacetreatment&


penetration
penetration
macadam and tack macadam
coat

on

Plantor road mixturewith gradedand f t e


aggregates,a substantialquantityof wh :h
passes a No. B (2.3mm) sieve and a
portion of which may pass a No. 2 )0
(0.075mm) sieve;slurrysealtreatments

The test requirementfor settlementmay be waivedwhen the emulsifiedasphaltis used in less than 5 days
time; or the Engineer
requirethat the settlementtest be run from the time the sampleis receiveduntilit is used,if the elapsedtimeis less
than 5 daysl
The 24-hr. (1 day) storagestabilitytest may be used insteadof the 5 days setflementtest.
The demulsibility
test shallbe nnadewithin30 daysfrom date of shipment.

'Pt

301-d

ITEM 302
302.I

BITUMINOUS PRIME COAT


DESCRIPTION
This work shall consistof furnishingall plant, labour,equipment,material
and performingall operationsin.applyinga liquid asphaltprime coat on a
previouslyprepared and untreated;earth sub grade, waterboundbase
course,crushedaggregatebase course,tops of roadwayshoulders,and as
otherwiseshown on the plans in strict accordancewith the specificationand
in conformitywiththe linesshownon the drawings'

302.2

MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS

of the item 301


Asphaltic materialshall conform to the requirements
'Asphaltic MateTialS";
Asphalt,whichever is
eitheaentbaek or Emulsified
specifiedin the Billof Quantities.
302.3

CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTS
Prime coat shall be appliedwhen the surfaceto be treatedis dry: exceptthat
when emulsifiedasphaltis used,the surfacemay be reasonablymoist. The
applicationis prohibitedwhen the weather is foggy or rainy,or when the
atmospherictemperatureis below fifteen (15) degree C unless otheruvise
directedby the Engineer.Priorto the applicationof the primecoat,all loose
materialsshallbe removedfrom the surfaceand the same shall be cleaned
by means of approved mechanicalsweepers or blowers and/or hand
brooms,untilit is as free from dust as is deemedpracticable.No trafficshall
be pefmitted on the surface after it has been prepared to receive the
bituminousmaterial. Priorto the applicationof prime coat on bridgedecks
and concretepavdments,the surfacesshall be cleanedof all loosematerial
as describedin Section302.3. All expansionjoints shall be cleanedand
filled with bituminousmaterialas directed by the Engineer.Areas to be
primedwill be classifiedas under:
(i)

The top of earth surface or water bound base courses from a


pointtwenty(20) centimetersoutsidethe edge of the pavement
line to 20 cms outside the line on the oppositeside of the
roadway.

(ii)

of embankment
The top of the shouldersfrom the inter-section
pavement
line.
edge
of
the
to
the
of
subgrade
slopeand top

(iii)

The bridgewearingsurfacefrom curb to curb and end to end of


bridgewearingsurface.

(iv)

Other surfaces as shown on the plans or ordered by the


Engineer.

for at least24 hours,so that the


Primedsurfaceshallbe kept undisturbed
bituminousmaterialtravelsbeneathand leavesthe top surfacein nontackycondition.No asphalticoperationsshallstarton a tackycondition.

302.3.r

Equipment
The liquid asphalticmaterial shall be sprayed by means of a pressure
distributorof not less than 1000 litre capacity,mounted on pneumatictyres
of suchwidthand numberthat the load producedon the road surfacewill not
exceed hundred(100) Kg per cm width of tyre. lt shall be of recognized
manufacturer.
The tank shall have a heating device able to heat a complete charge of
asphalticliquid up to one hundredeighty (180) degree C. The heating
deviceshall be so that overheatingwill not occur. consequenfly,the flamei
must not touch directlyon the castingof the tank containingine asphaltic
liquidor gasestherefrom.The contractorwill be responsiblefor any fire or
accidentresultingfrom heatingof bituminousmaterials.The liquidshall be
circulatedor stirredduringlhe heating. The tank shall be insulatedin sueh a
way that the drop in temperaturewhen the tank is filledand not heated,will
be less than two (2) degree c per hour. A thermometershall be fixed to the
tank in orderto be able to controlcontinuously
the temperatureof the liquid.
The thermometershallbe placedin such a way that the highesttemperature
in the tank is measured. The tank shall be furnishedwitn a device that
indicatesthe contents. The pipesfor fillingthe tank shall be furnishedwith
an easilyinterchangeable
filter.
The distributorshall be able to vary the spraywidth of the asphalticliquidin
steps of maximum 10 cm, to a total width of four (4) M. The sprayingbar
shall have nozzlesfrom which the liquid is sprayedfan-shapedon the road
surfaceequallydistributedoverthe totalsprayingwidth.
The distributorshallhavea pumpfor sprayingthe liquiddrivenby a separate
motor,or the speed of the pump shall be synchronizedwith the speed of the
distributor. The pump shall be furnishedwith an indicatorshowing the
performancein litresper minute. At the suctionside the pump shall hive a
filtereasilyexchangeable.A thermometershall be fixed,which indicatesthe
temperatureof the liquidimmediatelybeforeit leavesthe sprayingbar.
The distributorshall be furnishedwith a tachometerindicatingthe speed in
meter per minute. The tachometershall be visiblefrom the driver'sseat.
The functionof the distributorshall be so exact that the deviationfrom the
prescribedquantityto be spread on any squaremeterdoes not exceed10%
The distributorshall be equippedwith a devicefor hand sprayingof the
bituminousliquid,to coverany irregulararea or coveringthe area improperly
sprayed.

302.3.2
lmmediatelybeforeapplyingprime coat, the full area of surfaceto be treated
shall be swept with a power broomto removeall dirt and other objectionable
material.lf requiredby the Engineer,the surfaceshall be made moist but
not saturated. Asphaltic Materialsshall be appliedat

302-2

operated
statedin ltem 301 by approvedpressuredistributors
temperature
by skilledworkmen.The spraynozzlesandspraybarsshallbe adjustedand
frequently
checkedso as to ensureuniformdistribution.Sprayingshall
of any nozzleand
uponany cloggingor interference
ceaseimmediately
is resumed.
measures
takenbeforespraying
remedial
shallbe as
of asphalticmaterial(cutback/emulsified)
The ratefor application
unoer:LITRES PER SOUARE METER

TYPE OF SURFACE

Minimum

Subbase,
1. Subgrade,
Water boundbaseco,,rses,
and Crushedstonebasecourse.
2. Bridge,WearingSurfaces,
ConcretePavement

Maximum

0.65

1.75

0.15

0.4

from
the exactrateshallbe specifiedby the Engineerdetermined
However,
fieldtrials.
by the Engineerand performedby the
Thetestmethodsshallbe determined
of Engineer.
in thepresence
Contractor
for a periodof at least24 hours,and
Theprimecoatshallbe leftundisturbed
penetrated
and curedsufficiently
so
it
has
to
traffic
until
not
be
opened
shall
that it will not be pickedup by the wheelsof passingvehicles. The
Contractorshall maintainthe prime coat until the next courseis applied.
of bituminous
materialis not in
Care shallbe takenthat the application
excessof the specifiedamounts,any excessshallbe blottedwith sand or
to the distributor
shallbe sprayed
similartreatment.All areasinaccessible
distributor.
for
spraying
from
the
using
device
hand
tnanually
the
The surfaceof structuresand treesadjacentto the areabeingtreatedshall
in suchmanneras to preventtheirbeingspatteredor marred.
be protected
shall be
detouris availablefor traffic,operations
Where no convenient
shall
confinedto one-hdlfthe roadwaywidth at a time. The Contractog
providepropertrafficcontrolso that vehiclesmay proceedwithoutdamage
to the primedarea. Workshallnot be startedon the portionof the roadnot
coveredby previousapplicationuntil the surfacepreviouslycoveredhas
driedandis readyfor traffic.
302.4

ANDPAYMENT
MEASUREMENT

302.4.r

Measurement

coveredby prime
shallbe squaremeteras actually
Theunitof measurement
or payment
No measurement
with thesespecifications.
coat in accordance
primed
specified,
herein,
shown
for
outside
the
limits,
willbe made the areas
bythe Engineer.
on theplansor designated
302-3

Blottingmaterialwillnot be measuredfor paymentand shallbe considered


subsidiary
to theprimecoat.
302.4.2

Pavment
The paymentfor area primed measuredas stated above, shall be made for
the contractunit price per sM, which paymentshall be full compensationfor
furnishingall labour, material,tools, equipment and incidentalsand for
performingalt the work involvedin applyingprime coat, completein place in
accordancewith these specifications:

Pay ltem
No.

302

Description

Bituminous
PrimeCoat.

3024

Unitof
Measurement
SM

ITEM 303

303.1

BITUMINOUS TACK COAT

DESCRIPTION
The work coveredby this sectionshallconsistin furnishingall plant,labour,
equipment and ap'plyingasphaltic material on a previously prepared
asphalticlayer,in additionto performingall operationsin connectionwith the
applicationof a Bituminoustack coat, complete in accordancewith these
specificationsand to the width shown on the typical cross- sections of
applicabledrawings.

303.2

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS
Asahlltic mateiiatshallconformto the requiiement$of item 301, "Asphaltic
Materials"for emulsifiedasphalt,or cut back asphaltas calledfor in the Bill
of Quantities.

303.3

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS
lmmediatelybefore applyingthe tack coat, all loose material, cjirt or other
objectionablematerial,shall be removedfrom the surface to be treated by
power brooms and/or blowers,supplementedwith hand brooms,as directed
by the Engineer.The tack coatshallbe appliedonlywhen the surfaceis dry,
hbweverfioremulsifiedasphalt,applicationmay be n'ladeon a reasonable
moist surface. Applicationof tack coat shall be avoided in case of foggy or
rainyweather. Priorto the application,an inspectionof the preparedsurface
'Engineerto determine its fitness to receive the
will be made by the
Bituminousbinderand no tack coatwill be applieduntilthe surfacehas been
approved.

303.3.r

Equipment
Equipmentshall conformin all respectto the provisionunder.ltem302.3.1
and'shall be subject to the approvalof the Engineer in additionto the
maintenanceof the same in a satisfactoryworking conditionat all times. A
hand power spray attachmentto a bitumen pressure distributoror other
operatedbitumenpump,pressuregauge,
containerhavingan independently
of the asphalt tank contents
temperature
the
determining
for
thermometer
and a hose connected to a hand power spray suitable for applying the
Bituminoustack coat in the amountsspecified- all to be such as to meetthe
approvalof the Engineer,shallbe furnished.

303.3.2

Applicationof AsphalticMaterial:
at the
Asphalticmaterialshallbe appliedby meansof a pressuredistributor,
Rates
used.
being
particular
material
temperaturestated in ltem 301 for the
per
lihes
of
0.2-0.4
the
range
within
of applicationof cut back shall be
rage
of
the
within
rate
be
shall
the
asphalt
square meter and for emulsified
the
by
specified
rate
shall
be
exact
per
the
meter;
litre
square
O.b O.O
Engineer.

303-1

care shallbe takenthat the applicationof asphalticmaterialis not in excess


of the specifiedquantity;any excess asphaltshall be blotted by sand or
similartreatment. All areas inaccessibleto the distributorshall be treated
manually using the device for hand spraying from the distributor. The
surfacesof structuresand trees adjacentto the areas being treated shall be
protectedin such a manner as to preventtheir beingspatteredor marred.
where no convenient detour is available for traffic, operations shall be
confined to one-half the roadway width at a time. The contractor shall
provide proper traffic control so that vehicles may proceed without damage
to the treatedarea. work shall not be startedon the portionof the road not
covered by previous application until the surface previously covered has
dried and is readyfor paving.
Traffic shall be kept off the tack coat at ail times. The tack coat shail be
sprayedonly so far in advanceoflhe surfacecourse as will permit it to dry to
a "tacky"condition. The contractor shall maintainthe tack coat until the next
course has been placed. Any area that has become fouled, by traffic or
otheruvise,shall be cleaned by contractor at his own cost before the next
courseis applied.
303.4

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

303.4.1

Measurement
The quantitiesof BituminousTack coat shall be measuredin square meter
for the actualarea Tacked with asphalticmaterialon the preparedsurface in
accordancewith this specification.

303.4.2

Piyment
The paymentof bituminousTack coat, measuredas stated above shall be
paid for at the contract unit price per square meter,which paymentshall be
full compensationfor furnishingall labour,materials,tools, equipmentand
incidentalsand for performingall the work involvedin applyingTack coat
completein place, as shown on the Drawingsand in accordancewith these
speiification.

Pay ltem
No.

303

Description

Bituminous
TackCoat.

Unitof
Measurement
SM

ITEM 304

304.1

BITUMINOUSSURFACETREATMENTANDSEALCOAT./
PAD COAT
DESCRIPTION
of asphalticmaterialand
This work shallconsistof one or more applications
one.ormorecoversofaggregatesoranapplicationofaspha|ticmateriai
and ir'
*iinort ajgregates apptijO'in accordancewith these specifications
or as
cross-sections
the
typical
on
contormit!-withtne lines and width shown
establishedbYthe Engineer.

304.2

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS

304.2.1

Aggregate
goqnq
Aggregate shall csnsist of clean, dry, hard, durable,toUgh,Algqlql
clay
dirt,
from
quality,
free
and
gravel
of
uniform
crushed stone or crushed
of
sources
the
only
from
Aggregates
iratter.
anJ otner objectionable
lt:/
wea"
of
establishedadhesionpropertieswould be used.The percentage
than fc':tv
the Los AngelesAbrasiontest (AASHTOT-96) shall not be more
(1990)
per
BS-812
as
(40). Aggregatecrushingvalue (ACV).whentested
sodium-sulfate
of
(5)
cycles
five
inatt niie"ieed 25%. filnen subjectedto
a weight
soundnesstestingas determinedbyAASHTOT-104, it shall have
in the
content
moisture
The
percent.
(10)
loss of not greater than ten
not
shall
material
bituminous
of
the
the
to
directly
aggregateap-ptieO
lirrfqce
absorption
water
(112)
the
plus
one-half
weight
by
p"r"eni
tnreb'1a1
shall free
"iJ"""O
of the aggregateat the time of dllivery to the Project. !n no case
moisturebe drawingfrom the truck bed'
Theportionofaggregateretainedontheg.5mm(3/8inch)sievesha||not
of flat or
contain more thln f-ifte"n (15) percent of particles by weight
minimum
the
and
maximum
the
between
or both,that the'ratio
etongateO,
part
(1990)
BS-812
under
tested
lndex,
Flakiness
2.5:1.
diminsionsexceeds
105,sha||be25(max)fornominalsizel8mmandl2mmand30(max)for
nominalsize9mm.
against
The nominalsizes of aggregatesused for surfacetreatment;shown
table304-1shallbe as under:
SizeNo. 1
SizeNo.2
SizeNo .3
SizeNo. 4

Nominalsize
.Nominalsize
Nominalsize
Nominalsize

18 mm
12 mm
9 mm
6 mm

in thetablebe
areOefrned
Thenominalsize
Specified Size
NominalSize
(mm)

1B
i2
I
6

PassLn_g_
Sieve (mm)
19

12.5
9.5
6.3

.
SIEVES.

304-1

o/o?!e

100
100
100
100

*
Retained

Sieve(mm)
12.5
9.5
6.3

o/o?ga

85
85

B5
85
resPective
rialwithinthe
4.75

For Materialpassing3/8" Sieve,followingTableshallbe used:

304.2.2

AsphalticMaterial
The asphaltic material shall conform to the requirementsof ltem
301
'Asphaltic
Materials'.The type shall be one of the following,as ihown in the
Bill of Quantitiesor orderedby the Engineer.sprayingteriperaiureshall
be
as shownagainsteachtype.

able

atures

Asphalt Type / Grade


a.
AsphattUements
AC-2.5
AC-5
AC-10

AC-20
AC-40

1 3 0m i n .
'140mn.
1 4 0m n .
1 4 5m i n .

1 5 0m i n .

AR-1000
AR-2000
AR-4000
AR-BOOO
AR-16000
200-300pen.
pen.
120-150

1 5 5m i n .

1 4 0m i n .
1 4 5m i n .
1 4 5m i n .
1 3 0m i n .
130min.
1 4 0m i n .

85-100pen.
60-70pen.

1 4 5m i n .

40-50pen.
p.

for SurfaceTreatments
SprayingTemperature
SurfaceTreatments

1 5 0m i n .

EmutstttedAsphalts

RS-1
RS-2
MS-1
MS-2
MS-2h
HFMS-1
HFMS-2

20-60
50-85
20-70
20-70

FIFMS-2h

HFMS-2s
SS-1
SS.1h
CRS-1
CRS-2
CMS-2

50-85
50-85

cMS-2h
CSS-1
CSS-1h

3442.

Asphalt Type / Grade

SprayingTemperature
SurfaceTreatments

CutbackAsphalts(RC, MC, SC)

30 (MConlv)
70
250
800
3000
304.3

30 min.
50 min.
75 min.
95 min.

1 1 0m i n .

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS
At the time of the application,the weathershall be warm and dry, and the
road surfaceshall be clean and dry. Sprayingshall not be done unlessthe
roadtemperatureis abovetwenty(20)degreeC for at leastone hour priorto
the commencementof-sprayingoperations,and the lernperatureshall not be
less than twenty (20) degree C duringthe spraying. Prior to applyingthe
asphalticmaterial,dirl and other objectionablematerialsshall be removed
from the surfaceand surfaceshall be primedas per item 302. lf so directed
by the Engineer,the surfaceshall be cleanedby power broomingor wire
brushuntilall looseand foreignmaterialsare removed.

304.3.1

Equipment
Equipmentshallconformin all respectsto the provisionsunderltem 302.3.1.
The equipmentshall be operatedby the manpowerspeciallytrainedfor this
work. Necessarysafetyarrangementfor the workers,equipmentand traffic
shallbe ensuredduringthe operations.

3043.2

PreparationofSurface
and surfacedamagee.g. potholes,depressions,raveling,shall
lrregularities
be corrected prior to surface dressing.The Engineer shall also satisfy
himself that fundamentalpavement defects e.g. base failure, drainage
problemsetc. have been remediedbefore surface dressingis attempted.
'bleeding',shall be cut out
Areas,which are excessivelyrich in bitumene.g.
and patched. All patches, however, occasioned shall be thoroughly
compacted,sealedand blindedwith crusherdust beforeopeningto trafficfor
severaldays beforesurfacedressingcommences.
of binderall dirt,dust are foreignmaterial
lmmediatelypriorto the application
shall be removedby thoroughbroomingand / or the use of compressedair.
Adheringmud or othersoilingmay be removedusingwaterand brushes,the
generaluse of waterto washthe roadshallnot be permitted.

304.3.3

Applicationof AsphalticMaterials
Asphalt cement, liquid asphaltand emulsifiedasphalt shall be appliedby
means of pressure distributormanual or automatic at the temperature
specifiedfor the type and grade of asphalt being used. The rates of
applicationshallbe withinthe rangesgivenin Table304-1.

304-3

v-v0t,
poupads
sa'ueroL*urrilr^
aqrerrsparrdde
aqo]sale6ar66"
ri lfli;ll
'asBInS

"ttt

Oql uotj po^oulel


eq
lle-pue papto^e aq lleqs leuo]Br! ta^oc lo suorlecr;dde
[eq:.abeJJrds
'saprLla^

aq1ourddepa^o
lo slaaLmol aroqpelou saop pue 'sllnsarocerns
uena ue lrlun pabbelpuooJqpue pellor reqynl pue a1e6e:66e
leuoryppe
tllm paJanocaq lleqs ecefns aql uo smoqs laputq ajaqm acegdIuy
'palrqrqo:d
oq saslnocleasaLll
o1aoeuep-Joleualeu ranocall] lo ]uoruoceldsrp
ur s]lnsoJ'r.lcrqM
luerudrnbJ
;o ecerd {ue 1o 6uru:n1.ro ,burddols,6urpe1s}o selnpacoJd paute}qo
,L{}oouls
s! oce1.tnspalceduoc IgqOno:oq1
e lt}un ,iluo anurluoc lleqs
'railorpuocas
e se pasn oq {etr suol (gj lq6te o1 (g) xrs uoa/\^loq
9utttgu
-raors v 'Jalourluec e.renosT'6)g:;'
burqbrervrJailor poroaLr^
1o ernsserd
]cBluoculnuturrrJe 6uneq la1;o:a:Iycrleutnaudpelledold_1|as
e qym pa1lot
aq lleqs aceJJnspaleojl eq1 'e1e6ar66e
aql 10 ourpeerdsJaue{le1erpeutrl
'burr{elds
raye salnurur(67)
{1uaaq}o ssocxaur pouade Jo}palenocunuteuloJlleqsJaputqaq11ouoryod
o1r1'lleqdsepaferds {pneu eq1uo r;lcarrpOurnupuro4 ropeorosite6aio6e
aLl}pue )3ru1 oll} 10 seil1 eql luanerd ol se os ,oues spea:ds
lesruBr{3aur
lr se pJe/v\)ceqa^orrJ l1eqs a1e6er66eaql ourfurec rcrut aqr .raeur6u3
gql fq peno.rddesuBaul raqlo r{ue ro repeards e1e6a.r66e'-lecruer..l3or!
penorddeuB_rIloJJ
acelns paleoJleql JaAopalnqulstpr{1uane
pue {;ur.ro;run
aq llBrls a1e6a.r66e
fup ';eueleurcrlleqdseaq1 bur^lddereye ,(1a1erpeurul
@
'paunsal st
uotlnqlJlsrp
ololaq uo)el oq llBrls
saJnseeuta^tlcalloc pue aEzou r{ue1o asueJola}utto 6ur66o;crue uodn
r{lalerpaurur
aseoclleqsuollnqutslpoqt 'parnsuasr uor}nqulsrp
uJJoJrun
}eq}
polcaLlcrtJluenba4pue pelsnlppos aq lleLlslBq {e.rdseq1
eq1pue
iqotaLl
1o
salzzoufelds eq11oa16ueeq1 'ebera^ocuonaun6ursnec-rqa:aLll
leueleur
snourunltqoq] ql!/v\:le ;adxeol pamolleaq rolnqulstpoq) lleqs osec ou ul
'leHaletusnouttunltq uotlnqulslpLlJolun
e aq.'il/'^eio4 lql os .ublle-rJddE
lo
qcPo ]o pua oLll le Jolnqulsrpalll u! ual
letJaleu snoutulnltqluotetJJns
pue pelelnbal os oq lleqs letJaleu snoululnllqaql
lo uotlnqulsl6 ,t-ervr
palone4oLl]Jo acelns oq] uo leueleu snoutunltqdup
1oullm lustueqcout
ro Jeqr{erdseql }eq1paubrsepos aq 11eqs
burpeards1ouueqnn')o1nqr,r}slp
aqI
'JBocJonocaql
ro ,fup ,dn
]o uotluole:lredu.rrostmJoqlo
'llrrlcol pomolle
oq ll$ leueleu snoutunltqlpql JouueurL{cnsut paaco:d
las
suorleladolleLlssacuelsuncJtcou lapun 'Ja^ocr;elerpauwr uec letJaleu
leoc Ja^oc qlm papeol slcnJ] qctqM leLll uetll paosxo lou lleqs leuoleu.l
snourunltq;o pee:ds10 q16ua1
oq|aceJJns 6urpuq100rusB arnsseol apeur
I|;nla.recoq lleLlsspealds Jo suollcunf .:euueu pbno.rddeue ut palca,,oc
oq ller.1ssatcuatct;opJo seale peddlys Auy 'peuedo st leq Ields aq1
aurl aql 1e peads uorlecl;dde
:edold le pleruo16urnou.r
aq llBt.lslolnqulstp
aql 'acr^op burpeerdsaLll rxor1e1eba.r66e
eql Iq paJa^oooq ol L.llptm
oLll
ueql arou rxo (0t) ual lseel le oq lleqs sletraleu snoutunltq1o pea.rdseq1

v'e'vOe

304.3.5

Maintenanceof Traffic
Detouringof highwaytrafficfor this work on runningroadwill not be provided
for or peimitted,except when authorizedby the Engineer' All construction
operations shall be coordinatedto result in the least practicabledelay of
trattic. One way traffic shall be maintainedand traffic speeds restrictedto
fifteen (15) Km per hour. The contractorshall provideflagmen,warning
signs, bariicades, and a sufficient number of pilot cars to control traffic
thioughthe bituminoussealingoperationswhen so directedby the Engineer.
pilot cars shallbe usedto lead the trafficthroughthe areasof all distribution
and sealingoperations. Pilot cars shall be light "Pick up" trucks or other
approvedvbhiclesand shallbe equippedwith signsreading"PILOT
CAR - DO NOT PASS"in both Englishand Urdu languages'Two (2) signs
shall be mountedon the vehicles so as to be clearly visible from both
direetisns,One (1) flagman shall be stationedimmediatelyahead Sf the
applicationof the bituminousmaterial and one (1) flagman immediately
behind the section being rolled. Suilable speed limit signs shall be
displayed,and the signs shall move forwardwith the flagmanas the work
progresses.
No separatepaymentshall be made for conformanceto this paragraph.All
these items beihgconsideredsubsidiaryto the item (s) given in the Bill of
Quantities.

304.3.6

Workins Period
All work shall be so conductedthat the work of applyingasphalt and
aggregateand of all rollingshall be completedduringthe time from sunrise
to sunset and under favorableweather conditionsaS determinedby the
Engineer.

304.3.7

work
Maintenanceof comPleted
when directed by the Engineer, the contractor will be required to add
bituminousmaterialor aggregateor both to the portionof road identifiedfor
such purposeon the project.Furnishingadditionalbituminousmaterialand
furnishing,spreading,draggingand rollingof additionalaggregatewill not be
paidfor separatelybut will be consideredas subsidiarywork pertainingto the
SurfaceTreatment"'
relevantitem of "Bituminous

304.3.8

Openingto Traffic and after-care


There shallbe no delayin openinga completedsurfacedressingto traffica,t
a controlledspeed.Priorto openingto traffic any spillageof aggregatesshall
be removed and any binder drips or wind blown contaminationshall be
dusted with crusherwaste. After 2-3 days under traffic,excess stone will be
removedby brushing.

304.3.9

Pad Coat
To ensure chippingretentionwhen surface dressinga very hard surface, a
pad coat consistingof applicationof an initialbindersprayfollowedby 6 mm.
chipping will be applied.After stabilizingof pad coat under traffic, the
surfacedressingwill be applied.
appropriate

304.5

304.4

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

304.4.1

Measurement
The quantityof surfacetreatmentto be paidfor shall be measuredin square
meterwithinthe theoreticallinein placeas shownon drawing. No allowance
will be given for materialplaced outsidethe theoreticallimits of finished
surfacingwhetherplacedfor, due to requirementof contractor'soperations
or placedout sidethe limitsdue to inadequatecontrol.

304.4.2

Payment
The aggregateand asphalticmaterialmeasuredas stated above shall be
paid for at the contractunit price per square meter for a particularitem listed
below and shown on the bill of quantities,which payment shall be full
coqlpglsetion_Iq fuittrsflQg a!! labour, materiats, tooJs equipment and
incidentalfor performingall the work in the constructionof bituminous
surface treatment or seal coat complete in place and according to
specification,
includingprimingof surface.
Pay ltem
No.

Description

Unitof
Measurement

304a

SingleSurface
Treatment

SM

304b

DoublesurfaceTreatment

SM

304c

TripleSurfaceTreatment

SM

304d

SealCoat/ PadCoat

SM

304-6

TABLE 304-1
Ouantitiesof Materialsfor BituminousSurfaceTreatments

Type

Application

Single

Single

First

Bituminous Material

Aggregate

Surface Treatment

SizeNo.

Quantity Kg.
/Sq.M

First

Third
Seal Coat / Pad Coat with
Aggregate

(a)

1.63

(b)
(a)

2.14
1.19

(b)
(a)

1.63
1.90

(b)
(a)

2.14
1.19

(b)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(c)

12.5

24.0

Tripple
Second

1.19

24.0

Double
Second

Type

12.5

Quantity Litres
/ Sq.M

12.5

2
3

6.5

1.63
0.68

0.5

Notes:-

typesare (a) asphaltcement,(b)cut-backor emulsified


material
Bituminous
andemulsified.
and(c)asphaltcement,cut-back
by 115%
materialmaybe variedby the Engineer
of bituminous
Quantities
on siteconditions.
depending
iii)

Primecoat shallbe appliedpriorto the surfacetreatmentfor the newly


pavement
at the rateas specifiedin the item302.3.2.
constructed

304-7

ITEM 305

305.1

ASPHALT CONCRETE WEARING COURSE- PLANT MIX

DESCRIPTION
This work shall consist of furnishingaggregatesand asphalt binder at a
central mixing plant, to a specified mixing temperature,transporting,
spreadingand compactingthe mixturein an approvedmanneron primedor
tacked base, subbase,subgrade,bridge deck or concrete pavementin
accordancewith these specificationsand in conformitywith the lines,grades
and typical cross-sectionsshown in the drawings or as directed by the
Engineer.

30s.2

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS

305.2.1

Mineral Aggregates
The Aggregatesshall consist of coarse aggregates,fine aggregatesand
fillermaterial,if requiredand shall be clean,hard,tough,durableand sound
particlesof uniformquality,geology,petrologyand free from decomposed
material, vegetable matter, soil, clay, lumps and other deleterious
substances.
Coarse aggregatewhich is the materialretained on an AASHTO No. 4
Sieve,shall consistofone hundred(100) % crushedrock orcrushed gravel
having two (2) faces mechanicallycrushed. The type of source shall be
uniform throughoutthe quarry location from where such a material is
obtained.The coarseaggregatesshallbe free from.anexcessof flat orland
elongatedparticles.
Fine aggregatewhich is the materialpassingfrom AASHTO No. 4 sieve,
shalfconsistof 100o/o
crushedmaterialfrom rock or boulder. Fineaggregate
shallbe storedseparately,
and no naturalsandwill be allowedin the mix.
when the combinedgradingof the coarseand fine aggregatesis deficientin
materialpassingthe AASHTo No. 200 sieve,mineralfillermaterialshall be
added as approvedby the Engineer.The fillershall consistof finelydivided
mineralmatter such as rock dust, hydratedlime, hydraulic,calcineddust
cement or other suitablemineral matter free from lumps, balls or other
deleteriousmaterialand shallconformto the followinggradation:
SieveDesignation
mm
Inch

0.600
0.300
0.075

No.30
No.50
No.200

Percent

Weisht

100
95-100
70-100

The coarseand fine aggregatesshallmeetthe followingrequirements:


The percentof wear by the Los Angeles Abrasiontest (AASHTO
a)
T 96) shallnot be morethanthirty(30)'
b)

The loss when subjectedto five cyclesof the SodiumSulphate


Soundnesstest (AASHTOT 104) shall be less than twelve(12)
DercenI.

c)

The Sand Equivalent(AASHTO 1 176) determinedafter all


processingexceptfor additionof asphaltcementshallnot be less
than45.

d)

All aggregatesshall have a liquid limit of not more than twenty


five (25) and a PlasticityIndex of not more than four (4) as
determinedby AASHTOT-89 and T-90.

e)

The portion of aggregates retained on the 9.5 mm (3/8 inch)


sieve shall not containmore than 10 percent by weight of flat
and/or elongated particles (ratio of maximum to minimum
= 2.5'.1\.
dimension
Stripping test shall be performed on crush aggregatesas
describedunder AASHTO-182and only that materialshall be
allowedwhichqualifiesthe test.

g)

The coarse aggregatesshall be checked if desired by the


Engineerfor cationicand anionicbehaviourso that their affinity
with the bitumento be usedis verified.

h)

Petrographicexaminationof the coarse aggregate shall be


conductedif so directedby the Engineer.

The percentageof particleshavingcertain proportionsbetweentheir largest


and smallestdimensions(i.e.betweenthe largestdistancethe particlescan
fill out betweentwo parallelplanesthat will permitthe particleto pass),shall
be determinedin the followingwaY:
Form a sampleof coarseaggregates,all particlespassingNo. 4
sieve are eliminated.The sample shall be of sufficientquantity
that at least100 particlesremain.
By means of a sliding caliper, the largest and smallest
dimensions,as definedabove,are determinedfor each particle
and its proportioncalculated(withone decimal).
iii

305.2.2

The total weightsof particleshavingthe proportionstwo and a


half (2.5) or less and three (3) or less, are determinedand their
percentagein relationto the totalsampleare calculated.

AsphalticMaterial

Asphalticbinderto be mixedwith the aggregateto produceasphalticbase


shall be asphaltcement penetrationgrade 40-50,60-70 or 80-100 as
specifiedby the Engineer.Generallyit will meet the requirementof AASHTO
M-20.

30s.2.3

Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course Mixture

The compositionof the asphaltic concrete paving mixture for wearing course
shall conform to Class A and/or Class B shown in the following table:
Table 305-1
Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course Requirements

Mix Designation

ClassA

ClassB

CompactedThickness

50-80mm

35-60mm

Combihed
AEEregate
Giadin$ReqUiaemEffiS

SieveDesignation
mm

Inch

25

19

3t4

12.5

1t2

Percent Passingby Weight

100
90-100

9.5

3/8

4.75

No.4

2.38

No.8

1.18

N o .1 6

0.075

No. 200

AsphaltContentweight
percentof totalmix

100
75-90
60-80
40-60
20-40
5-15
3-8

56-70
35-50
23-35
5-12
2-8

3 . 5( M i n . )

3 . 5( M i n)

The asphalt concrete wearing course mixture shall meet the following
MarshalTest Criteria:
Compaction,
numberof blows
each end of specimen

75
1000Kg(Min)

Stability
Flow,0.25mm (0.01inch)

8-14

Percentair voidsin mix

4-7

Percentvoidsin mineralaggregates

according
to table5.3MS-2
(AsphaltInstitute- USA ), sixth
addition,
1993.
20%(Max.)

Lossof Stability

305-3

305.2..{

Job-Mix.Formula
At least one week prior to production,a Job-Mix Formula (JMF) for the
asphalticwearingcoursemixtureor mixturesto be usedfor the project,shall
jointlyby the Engineerand the Contractor.
be established
The JMF shall be establishedby MarshallMethodof Mix Designaccording
to the procedureprescribedin the Asphalt InstituteManual Series No. 2
(MS-2),sixthedition'1993
orthe latestEdition.
The JMF, with the allowabletolerances,shall be within the master range
specifiedin Table 305-1. Each JMF shall indicatea single percentageof
aggregatepassingeach requiredsieve and a singlepercentageof bitumen
to be addedto the aggregates.
The ratio of weightof filler (PassingNo. 200) to that of asphaltshall range
between1 - 1.5 for hot climateareaswith temperaturemorethan 40 "C.
After the JMF is established,all mixtures furnished for the project
representedby samplestaken from the asphaltplantduringoperation,shall
conformtheretowiththe followingrangesof tolerances:
Combined aqgreqatesg radation
Retair{ed
No. 4 and larger
PassingNo.4 to No. 100sieves
PassingNo.200

17.0%
14.0%
11.0%

Asphalt Content.
Weightpercentof total mix

+ 0.3%

In additionto meetingthe requirementsspecifiedin the precedingitems,the


mixtureas establishedby the JMF shall also satisfythe followingphysical
property:
Loss of MarshallStabilityby immersionof specimenin water at sixty (60)
degreeC. for twentyfour (24) hoursas comparedwiththe stabilitymeasured
afterimmersionin waterat sixty(60) degreeC. for twenty(20) minutesshall
not exceedtwenty(20) percent. lf the mixturefailsto meet this criterion,the
JMF shallbe modifiedor an anti-stripping
agentshallbe used.
Shoulda changeof sourcesof materialsbe made a new.JobMix Formula
shall be establishedbeforethe new materialis used. When unsatisfactory
resultsor otherconditionsmake it necessary,a new Job Mix Formulawill be
required.
305.3

CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTS

Construction
requirements
for this ltem shallconformwith the same as
specified
for Asphaltic
ConcreteBaseCoursePlantMix underltem 203.3,
exceptas modified
in thefollowing
sub-items.
305-4

305.3.1

Preparationof BaseCourseSurface
Before spreadingmaterials,the surfaceof the previouslyconstructedand
acceptedbase courseon whichthe mix is to be placedshallbe conditioned
by applicationof a tack coat, if directedby the Engineer

305.3.2

PavementThicknessand Tolerances
The asphaltconcretewearingcourseshall be compactedto the desiredlevel
and crossslopeas shownon the drawingor as directedby the Engineer.
The tolerancesin compactedthicknessof the wearing course shall be
+3mm from the desiredthicknessshownon the drawings.For determination
of thicknessone ('1)core per hundredmetersof each lane will be taken. lf
the thicknessso determinedis deficientby more than three (3) mm, but not
more than ten (10) mm, paymentwill be made at an adjustedprice as
specifiedin table-1, clause305.4.2.(2)
of this specification.
The surface of the wearingcourseshall be testedby the Engineerusinga
5 meters straightedgeat seiectedlocations. The variationof the surface
from the testing edge of the straightedge between any two contacts,
longitudinalor transversewith the surfaceshall at no point exceedfive (5)
millimeters. The cross fall (camber)shall be with + 0.2 percentof that
specified,and the level at any point shall be within + three (3) mm of the
level shown on the Drawings. All humps or depressionsexceedingthe
specified toleranceshall be correctedby removingthe defectivework and
replacingit with new material,by overlaying,or by other meanssatisfactory
to the Engineer.

305.3.3

AcceptanceSamplingand Testing
Acceptance of sampling and testing for this ltem with respect to materials
and constructionrequirements,
not specifiedherein,shall be in accordance
with the relevant, "Tablesfor Samplingand Testing Frequency,'in these
specifications.

30s.4

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

305.4.1

Measurement
The quantitiesof Asphalticwearingcourseshall be measuredby volumein
CM. laid and compactedin place. Measurementsshall be based on the
dimehsionas shownon plansor as othenvisedirectedor authorizedby the
Engineer.A toleranceof + three (3) mm shall be allowed in comiiacted
thicknessof wearingcourse.However,any asphaltin excessof 3 mm shall
not be paid and any layerdeficientby more than 3 mm but not exceeding10
mm shallbe paidas per clause305.4.2(2) of this specification.
The quantityof bitumenmaterialused is includedin the asphaltconcrete
mixtureand will not be measuredseparately.

305-5

Quantitiesof Bitumenor asphalticconcretewasted or remainingon hand


aftercompletionof the work shallnot be measuredor paidfor.
305.4.2

Payment
1 ) The quantitydeterminedas providedabove shall be paid for at the
for each of the particularpay items listed
contractunit price respectively
below and shown in the Bill of Quantities, which prices and payment
shall constitutefull compensationfor all the costs necessaryfor the
propercompletionof the work prescribedin this item.Asphaltadditiveor
antistrippingagent, if allowedand used to meet with JMF requirement
shall not be paid directly,paymentshall be deemedto be includedin the
respectivepay itemsof Asphalticwearingcourse.

2\ Ptiaatedil5tmeRt. lf the ttiidkneSS


determinedeS per Cla0Se305.3.2of
this specificationis deficientby more than three (3) mm, but not more
than ten (10) mm, paymentwill be madeat an adjustedpriceas specified
in table-1below:Table - 1
Deficiency in thickness as determined
bY cores

Proportional Rate of contract


Price allowed.

0 . 0m m t o 3 . 0m m

100%

3 . 1m m t o 5 . 0 m m

s0%

5 . 1m m t o 1 0 . 0m m

8Oo/o

When wearingcourse is more than ten ('10)mm deficientin thickness,


the contractorshall removesuch deficientareas and replacethem with
wearingcourse of an approvedqualityand thicknessor the contractor
may opt to place an additionallayerof wearingcourse asphalt,grading
with a minimum thicknessof 35 mm. The contractorwill receive no
compensation
for the aboveadditionalwork.
Alternately,
the Contractormay chooseto overlaythe area in a thickness
of 30 mm (min.)with smoothtransitionas approvedby the Engineeron
eithersidewith no extracompensation.
Pay ltem
No.

305a
305b

Description

Unitof
Measurement

AsphalticConcretefor
WearingCourse(Class-A)

CM

AsphalticConcretefor
WearingCourse(ClassB)

CM

305=&

ITEM 306

306.1

SHOULDER TREATMENT

DESCRIPTION
This work shall consist of constructing shoulders of the types specified
hereinafterin accordancewith the specificationsand in coniormity to the
lines, grades thicknessand typicalcross-sectionsshown on the pl"ns or
establishedby the Engineer.

306.1.1

Definitionof Shoulders
That portion of the completed road construction which lies above the
9.!9vati919f the sybgrade or sub-baseand whlch e{eqds frsm the edge of
the wearingcourseto the pointof inter-section
with tne emojntment slopes
on eitherside of the road centerline.

306.2

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS

306.2.1

Earth Shoulders
The materialused for "Earth Shoulders"shall consistof suitablematerials
from roadwayor structuralexcavationsupplementedby additionalsuitable
materialfrom borrowexcavationor as designatedon the plansand shall be
obtainedfrom sourcesapprovedby the Engineer.

306.2.2

AseregateShoulders
Materialused for'Aggregateshoulders"shall be of classdesignatedon the
plans and shall conform to all the requirementsof item 201,
"Granular
subbase",item 202,'AggregateBase course" or item 206, 'water Bound
MacadamBase".

306.2.3

SoiICementStabilizedShoulders
Materialfor soil cement shouldersshall conform to all the requirementsof
item 204,"SoilGementStabilizedSubbaseor Base',.

306.2.4

AsphalticMaterials
Materials for surface treatment of shoulders shall be liquid asphalts,
emulsifiedasphaltsor asphaltcement as specifiedor shown on the driwings
and in the Bill of Quantities. Asphaltic materials shall conform to all the
requirementsof item 301 for the type specified.

306-1

306.3

CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS

306.3.1

General
All shouldersshall be formed and compactedas soon as practicableafter
the asphalt paving on the traffic lanes is completed,howeverin the case of
cementconcretesurfacing,shoulderingoperationshall not be initiatedprior
to Engineer'sapproval.

306.3.2

Shoulderingand delineation
On projectsthat carry trafficthrough construction,the contractorshall begin
shoulderingon the secondday of the layingof the final roadwaysurfacing
layer, qless wqqlhe1cq[ditions prevent lhis qpeqqtion.!1 wlrch case the
shoulderingshall begin as soon as the weather does permii. tt tne
contractorfails to beginthe shoulderingwithin a redsonabletime after the
last layer has been laid, whetherthe projecthas a flow of trafficthrough
constructionor not, the Engineermay order the contractorto cease paving
untilthe shoulderwork has begun. The shoulderingshall be a continuous
operationfrom that time on untilcompletion,with the weatherbeingthe only
delayingfactor. The Contractorshall,on roadsundertrafficor as directedby
the Engineer,delineatethe edge of pavementas soon as the surfacingis
begunand maintainthe delineationuntilthe shouldersare completed.The
delineatorsshall be approvedprior to use and shall be placedat the edge of
the surfacingat approximately
one hundred(100) meter intervals.The cost
of this delineationwill be consideredsubsidiaryto other items in the Bill of
Quantitiesand will not be paidfor directly.

306.3.3

Earth Shoulders
Earth shouldersshall be constructedin accordancewith the applicable
paragraphsunderltem 108.

306.3.4

AgeregateShoulders
Aggregate shoulders shall be constructgd in accordance with the
of ltem 201,202 or 206 whicheveris shownon the drawings.
requirements

306.3.5

SoiICementStabilizedShoulders
Soil cement stabilizedshouldersshall be constructedin accordancewith the
requirements
of item204.

306.3.6

AsphalticTreatmentof Shoulders
The asphaltic treatment of the prepared shoulders shall be either a
bituminoussurfacetreatmentor seal coat or a layer of asphalticconcreteas
shown on the plans or in the Bill of Quantities. Detailed construction
proceduresfor the particulartreatmentspecifiedare outlinedunder item 203,
304,or 305.

3U6-2

306.4

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT
The quantitiesfor shouldermaterialsand treatmentshall be measuredand
paidfor as specifiedunderthe pafiicularpay items in the work listedbelow.
The quantitiesof differentitemsof work as mentionedbelowshall be added
to relativeitemsof the billof ouantities.
Pay ltem
No.

Description

Unit of
Measurement

108 a

Formationof Embankmentfrom
RoadwayExcavationin
Commo4Materiq!
CM

108c

Formation
of Embankment
from Borrow Excavationin
CommonMaterial

CM

108 d

Formationof EmbanKment
from
structuralExcavatron
in
CommonMaterial.
CM

201

GranularSub Base.

CM

202

AggregateBase.

CM

203

AsphalticBase- PlantMix.
Class......

CM

204a

CementStabilizedSubbase

CM

2O4b

CementStabilizedBase

CM

204c

Cementcontent

Ton

204d

LiquidAsphaltfor
curingseal,type_

Ton

EmulsifiedAsphaltfor
curingseal,type_

Ton

206

WaterboundMacadamBase.

CM

304

BituminousSurfaceTreatment
and SealCoat.
SM

305

AsphaltConcreteWearing
CoursePlantMix.Class....

204e

306-3

CM

ITEM 307

307.1

BIT

- MAC

DESCRIPTION
This item shall consist of furnishingand mixing aggregateswith asphalt
binderat site in mobilemixingplant,spreading,compactingon an approved
pr:imedsubgrade,subbase or base course, for potholes repair, leveling
course and wearing course in accordancewith the specificationand in
conformitywith the lines,grade,thicknessand typicalcross-sectionshown
on the Drawingsor as directedby the Engineerincludingsealing of cold
slurry.
bituminoussurfacecrackswith sand-bitumen

30'7.2

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS

307.2.1

Mineral Aggregate
Mineral aggregatesfor BIT-MAC Constructionshall consist of coarse
fine aggregateand fillermaterial,all conformingto the following
aggregates,
requirements:speciftcation
Coarseaggregatewhich is the materialretainedon No. 4 Sieve
and Passing 25.4 mm sieve, shall consist rf crushed rock
crushed boulder,or crushed gravel. lt shall be clean, hard,
tough, sound, durable,free from decomposedstones, organic
matter, shales, clay lumps or other deleterioussubstances.
Rock or boulders from which coarse aggregates shall be
obtained, must be of uniform quality throughout the quarry
location.
b.

Fine aggregateswhich is the materialpassingNo. 4 sieve shall


consistof crushedsand.
When combined gradationof coarse and fine aggregatesis
deficientin materialpassingNo. 200 sieve,mineraltillershall be
added. The fillermaterialshallconsistof finelydividedrock dust
from soundrock, hydratedlime or hydrauliccement. At the time
dry to flow freely,free from lumps.
of use it shallbe sufficiently

Aggregateshouldbe storedon hard clean surfaceso as to facilitateprompt


inspectionand control. Private propertyshall not be used for storage
purposeswithoutwrittenconsentof the owneror lesseeand paymentto him
by contractor,if necessary.Materialshall be stored in such a way as to
preventsegregationand coningto ensurepropercontrolof gradation. The
equipmentand methodsused for stockpilingand removingaggregatesshall
be such that no degradationof aggregatewill result and no appreciable
amount of foreignmaterialwill be incorporatedinto the aggregate. When
aggregatescontaininga wide range of sizes are to be incorporated,they
must be stockpiledseparatelyto preventintermingling.MineralFillermust
be protectedfrom moistureto eliminatecakingand hardening.

307-1

307.2.2

BituminousBinder
Asphalticbinderused shall conformto standardspecificationof petroleum
asphalthavinggrades60-70 or 80-100 penetration.Generallvit will meet
the requirementof AASHTOM-20,Table301-2.

307.2.3

DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS
optimum Gradingc-urves.for differenttypes of hot mix asphalticdesign
relatedto quantumof repairwork and maximumsize of aggregates,given-in
Table 307.2-A,must be carefullyselectedconsideringaveragethicknessof
patches.
Designsheet undertable No. 307.2,AshowingDense GradedMix used for
leveling courses and potholes should use litfle asphalt content of such
qllaltity tq prcvenl!-leedlngthrough subsequentwearing course or surface
treatment.Designsheetundertable No. 307.2.8.is suitablefor open graded
wearingcoursehavingroughsurfacetexturewith good skid resistancethus
havingminimumbleedingtendency.

307.3

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS

307.3.1

Mixing Requirement
Asphalt cement shall be heated to a max. temperatureof 163 degrees
centigradeat the time of mixing. Asphaltcementheatedabove 163 delrees
centigradeshall be rejected. Temperatureof asphalt shall be checked
frequently. Each aggregateingredientshall be heaiedto temperature150160 degreescentigradefor at leastsix'(6) minutesbeforemixingof asphalt
cement to ensurecompletedryingof aggregates.The range of heatingof
aggregatesshall be strictlyfollowed,to ensure propercoatingof aggregates.
Fine aggregatesshall be introducedinto the dryer (mixer) rirst rot-towiony
the coarseaggregatesto assurepropermixing. euantityof aggregatesfed
!o dryer (mixer) must be accuratelycontrolledby suitablemeis-uringdevice
(lron box) having predeterminedvolume of one (1) cubic fooi or as
instructedby Engineer.
Both bitumenand aggregatesmust be heatedbeforethey are combinedin
the mixerdrum. Mixing temperatureshouldbe keptwithinthe rangeof 140170 degreescentigrade.
To achieve uniform mixing and proper coating, aggregatesand asphalt
cement must be thoroughlymixed for a minimum durationof ninety (90)
seconds. Mixing time shall be prolongedto hundred (100) seconds if
coating of aggregatesis not proper. After one hundredand iwenty (120)
secondsif it is still not possibleto get good coating,the aggregatediin6
time must be increased.

307-2

TABLE 307.2-A

ro rrucxxnsswnlr

onbrcnsnrnrs nonlrr'lsn cn'loso uor vux' non.r'.r]TLr.I.Lc-ArD-p9:]EQl'!s'lBe-llrro


--f-AsPTTALTBTNDER60-70oR 80-100PENETRATIoN GRADE.
FINE
AGG.

200
(0.075)

No.8
(2.36)

No.4
(4.75)

3/8"
(e.5)

Soe,:ificationRanqe
Allo red % Passinq
% b 'Weight
Qtv. bv Prooortion.
Spe :ificationRanqe
Allo ued% Passinq
% b 'Weiqht
Qty by Proportion.

4-12

43-56
48

55-75
65

90-100

Sor ;ificationRanqe

4-11

MIX

Sir)ve Size lnch


(mm)

Allc rrtedo/oPassinq
% t r Weiqht
Qty bv Proportion.

Sp( cificationRanqe
Allc ruedo/oPassinq
% J y Weiqht
Qtl bv Proportion.

30-45
36

46-60
54

( 1s)

t1"
(25)

4% byWt. MinimumLayer
mm
of Mix. Thickness:-20
Aggr.max size : 9 mm
Rateof Aggr.
Appl.:-50 Kg/SM

100
87-100
100

72-87

80

32-46

46-60

65-80

38

CJ

7'r,

75-88

B2

90-100

'100

54%
4

46%
2

24-37
30

4-12
8

314"

4% by Wt
of Mix.

MinimumLayer
30mm
Thickness:
12mm
Size:Aggregate
Rateof Aggr.
70Kg/SM.
Appl.:-

3.5%by
Wt, of
Mix.

MinimumLayer
Thickness:-50mm
20mmDown
Aggr.size:Aggr.
Rate of
A p p l .1: 1 5K g i S M .

3.5%by
Wt. of
Mix.

Layer
Minimum
Thickness:-50mm

54%
4

46%

1t2"
(12.5)

REMARKS

43%

5 l"/o

3-11

BITUMEN
USED.

COARSE AGGREGATES

FILLER

A GREGATEIN

34-47

40

57-70
oz

49-61
54

46%

54%

307-2(A)

70-87
76

88-100

100

Aggr.size:-20mmDown
Rate of Aggr.
Appl.:150Kg/SM.

TABLE 307.2-8

DESIGNSH

HOT
NDER 60-

RW

FILLER

FINE
AGG.

SieveSize Inch
(mm)

200
(0.075)

N o .8
(2.36)

NO.4

3tE"

(4.751

(e.5)

2-10

24-37

40-50

88-1
0o

% Dy wetght
Qty. by Proportion.

43

Specification
Ranoe
Allowed% Passinq
% by Weiqht
Qtv. bv Prooortion.

1-10

Specification
Ranoe
Allowed% Passinq
% bv Weiqht
Qty. by Proportion.

2-10

z3

32-45
37

31%
1

100

57-70

75-100

A?

3.5%by
Wt. of
Mix.

100

25-40
32

45-57

58-70

87-100

65

100

45-60

65-81

52

72

5tl

260/o

3.5%by
Wt. of
Mix

74%

12-25
41
II

23%

4% by WL
of Mix.

20

1"
(251

69%

14-28

3t4"
(1e)

14-28

112"
(12.51

20-35
26

36-51
41
770h

307-2(B)

W IT

BITTJMEN
USIiD.

64%

1-9

THI
DE.

COARSEAGGREGATES

36%

Specification
Ranoe
Allowed% Passino
% bv Weioht
Qty. by Proportion.

EAN
ION

PENET

AGGREGATE IN
MIX

Specification
Ranqe
Allowed% Passinq

82-100
100

3 . 5 %b y
Wt. of
Mix.

REMARKS

MinimumLayer
Thickness:
20mm
AggregateMax.
Size-9 mm
Rate of Aggr.
Appl.:50 Kg/SM.
rvlililtttultt

Lclyul

Thickness:30mm
AggregateSize:-|2n1m
Rateof Aggr.
Appl.:70Kg/SM.
MinimumLayer
Thickness:-50mm
Aggr.size20mmDow
Rate of Aggr.
A p p l . : ' 1 1K0g / S M .
MinimumLayer
Thickness:-60mm
Aggr.size- 25mmDovVN
Rate of Aggr.
Appl.:-135
Kg/SM.

301.3.2

holes
DeepPatches/Pot
The surfacesof base coursethus preparedas mentionedunder ltem 207,
or as
shall be primedto receiveBit Mac in a thicknessas per drawings
avoid
to
carefully
directed by the Engineer, Bit Mac shall be spread
of
the
size
to
suited
equipment
Compaciionshall be done with
segregation.
patches.
small
for
recommended
is.
J"d A vibratory'plate compactor
-whereas
roller may be more practicalfor larger areas. straight edge or
shall be used to check ridingqualityand the alignmentof the
stringlrne
patch.

307.3.3

LevelingCourse
pavement
All local depressionscorrugatedsurface, ripples across the
free of
area
the
Clean
placed.
is
course
shouldbe rectifiedbeforeleveling
air'
co{npressed
or
btoollrmechallca!
dust or other loose materialwith
801100
Ae
ol
mefel
per
square
litres
0.7
to
0.2
coat,
Apply light tacK
pln&r"ton grade. After dryingdensegradedhot Bit-Macshall be spreadin
be
iayer not m6re than seven (7) centimetersin thickness. Spread shall
and
with
steel.wheeled
done carefullyto preventsegregationand compact
pot holes hand tempersshall be allowed'
fneumatictyied roller.for smail
quality
of the levelingcourse.
use stringlineto checkthe riding

307.3.,1

WearingSurface

307.3.4.1

Mini Mixine Plant


Localmade bitumen4ggregatemixerequipmentusedfor preparationof BitMac shall be in good-riroriingcondition,of sufficientcapacity,capableof
beingoperatedto producea uniformblendwiththe giveningredients.

30'7.3.4.2 Preparationof aggregates


Aggregatesshall be stored and handledas discussedunder item 307.2,
MaterialRequirement.
301.3.4.3

HaulineEquiDment
Bit-Macmixed materialshall be deliveredin tight, clean and smooth metal
bed hand trolleys,or any method as convenientto the contractorand
approvedby the Engineer

Surlace
307.3."1.4 Preparationof Baseor ExistingPavernent
surface of base or existing pavementupon whrch Bit-Mac mix is to be
olacedshall be cleanedby means of compressedair to removedust or as
approvedbYthe Engineer.

307-3

Primingshalr be done in a manneras describedin


item 302. The rate of
applicationof prime coat shail be 0.g-1.5ritresp"r
rqu"r"rnut"r. Tack coat
shall be done in a manneras describedin item 303. The
rate of apprication
of tack coat shail be 0..2-0.4litres per square meter.
when surface of
existingpavement org base is irregurar,it shail
ne
orougnt
to uniform
9f
grade and cross-section
by reveringcou-rseas describeJ;bJ;
sand bitumensrurryto searthe cracks in crod bituminous
surfaceshail be
injectedby pressurepumps with nozzresfiiled at
the end insteaoof spray
pipe in conventional
harristrolley.
307.3.4.5 Spreadingand Finishing
Bit-Macmrxtureshail..bepracedon approvedsurface,
struck off to required
:ggtign manuaily with rakes or hand toors by experiencedforeman,
distributedover the entire width or"partial width as r"qirir"o.,
Al[ mixtures
shall be spreadat temperaturesnot ressthan one
rrunoiedand forty (1a0)
degreescentigrade.Mixtureshallnot be placedon
any wet surfaceor when
the atmospherictemperatureis berowfive (s) degreectntrgiale
or when the
.weatheris foggyor rainy.
307.3.4.6 Compaction
Rollershallbe steerwheer,
or pneumatictyred. The roiler(s) shailbe in good
working condition,capabreof reversingwithout backrash,
capabre
operatedat speeds slow enough to avbid displacement git_lvac.to be
of
The
numbe.rand weightof rollerssnitt oe sufficientio compact
ine mixturewnite
it is stillin workabreconditionto obtaincompaction
to rngineei,ssatisfaction.
lhe..us9.of equipmentwhich resultsin excessivecrushing ;;;;;,;i
shallnot be permitted.
"f
After spreadingand strikeoff as soon as the mix
conditionpermitthe roiling
to be performedwithout excessiveshoving or tearing,
the Bit-Mac mixture
shalrbe thoroughryand uniformrycompact6d.Roilinj
wiri-noi'b"proronged
to avoidappearanceof cracks. Roilingwiil be oone
tJnjituJ;;iiy, beginning
at the rower side of.the,spreadand-proceedingtowaid.
in" r,ign"r side,
overlappingsuccessivetrips by at least one hilf (112)
the width of rear
wheelsof roller.
Roller shall be operatedat speed srow enougn
to avoid dispracementof
mixture. To preventadhesionof mixtureto rolrers,
the wheelsof roilerssharl
be kept properlymoist with water, but avoidingexcess
*"t"r.-norring shall
be continueduntilall rollermarkshavebeenetiminated.
Along forms, curbs, headers,wails and other praces
not accessibreto the
roller,the mixtureshail be thoroughrycompacted
with hot hand tampersor
mechanicaltampers.
Any mixturethat has becomecordenough,mixed
with dirt or is defectivein
any way shall be replacedwith fresh hothixture and
compactedto conform
the requirement.

347-4

3Q7.4

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

307.4.r

Measurement
Unless otherwiseshown on the plans or as directed by the Engineer,
quantityof BIT-MACshall be measuredby theoreticalvolumeof compacted
mix, in place, in cubic meters. Measurementwill be based on the
dimensions as shown on plans or as directed by the Engineer. No
measurementwill be made for unauthorizedareas or for extra thickness
than specified.Minimumquantityfor pot holeshall be 0.05 cubicmeters.

307.4.2

Pavment
T[q aqqepted qua4lttieq lle3surgq aloyQ shall be parq fql et the qqn!1qgt
unit price per cubic metersof BIT-MACfor the Pay ltem listed belowand
shown in the Bill of Quantities,
which priceand paymentshall constitutefull
for slurryseal,primingand tack coat,furnishingall materials,
compensation
hauling,placing,rolling,labour,equipment,tools and incidentalsnecessary
to completethe item.

Pay ltem
No.

302a
307b

Description

Unitof
Measurement

DenseGradedHot
BIT-MAC.

CM

Open GradedHot
BIT-MAC.

CM

307-5

ITEM 308

308.1

HOT RECYCLING OF ASPHALT CONCRETE

DESCRIPTION
This item shall consist of heating and removal of the existing asphalt
concretelayerto a designateddepth,addinga calculatedquantityof asphalt
binder, adding of freshly prepared asphalt concreteof specifiedquality,
mixing, laying and compaction of properly mixed asphalt concrete in
thicknessand widthas per drawingsor as directedby the Engineer.

308.2

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS
Materialspecifications
for coarse and fine aggregatesand asphalt oinoer
shall correspondto the specificationrequirementselaboratedunder items
203, 300 and 305 respectively.

308.3

CONSTRUCTION
REOUIREMENTS

308.3.r

Heatingthe ExistingPavement
Asphalt pavementshall be heated and softenedby preheatersor in built
infraredgas firedheaters,to temperaturesbetween140-170degreesc.

308.3.2

ScarifvingAsphaltCourse
Rotatingshaft scarifiersfitted with carbide bits shatlremove asphalticcourse
to a depthas specifiedin drawingsor as directedby the Engineer.scarifiers
shall be controlledby electronicdevicesto ensureremovalof materialsto a
specifieddepthand grade.

308.3.3

Mixins of ReclaimedMaterial
Formulafor the admixturewill be based on materialanalysisof existing
pavementby bitumenextractionand sieve analysis. Materialto be added
may be asphalt binder or aggregate,which will be calculatedto ensure
preparationof properfinal mix.

308.3.4

Addition of FreshAsohaltConcrete
Freshasphaltconcreteof specifieddesignpreparedas per ltem 203 or 305
shallbe addedin proportionto be establishedas per requirementof line and
gradesor as directedby the Engineer. This shall be done in conventional
way throughdumper-hopper
arrangement. Fresh materialshall be carried
by drag-slat conveyor into a second mixer. Exact mixing ratio will be
achievedby calibratingthe speed of the electronically
adjustabledrag-slat
conveyorto the fonruardadvancespeed of the remixer. A second mixer shall
ensurehomogeneity
of reclaimedand fresh asphalt.Engineershallestablish
the ratio of fresh and existingasphalt premix to be relayed, before starting
this operation.This ratioshall dependupon the qualityof existingasphafiil
concrete.

308-1

308.3.s

Layine and Compaction


Laying and preliminarycompactionof mixed asphaltshall be effectedby
tampingand vibratingscreedsof the recyclingequipment.Screedsshall be
able to lay the mix true to the levelsand gradesrequiredby the drawingsor
as directed by the Engineer. Compaction shall be carried out by
conventionalequipmentto achieve ninety seven (97) percentcompaction
with respectto the laboratorycompactionachievedby the mixedasphaltas
oer Marshallmethod.

308.4

GENERAL REOUIREMENTS
Any otherphysicalpropertyessentialfor workmanshipor qualitycontrolshall
be fixed by the Engineerand contractorjointly. Physicalpropertiesof the
fresh m?terial shall correspondto the applicablerequirementsof such
ingredientsin this specifications.

308.s

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT

308.5.r

Measurement
The quantityof recycledasphalt shall be measured in cubic meters of
asphaltconcreteremovedand relayedafter mixingof otheringredientssuch
as asphalticbinderor freshwearingcourseasphalt.
Measurementand paymentof fresh wearing course asphalt or asphaltic
binder shall be made in tons and paid under applicableitem of work
separately.

308.5.2

Payment
The quantitymeasuredas providedabove shall be paid at the contractunit
price per cubicmeteras shownin B.O.Q.,acceptablylaidand compactedin
place, which paymentshall be deemed to includefull compensationfor
furnishingall materials,Labour,equipments,tools and incidentalsnecessary
to comoletethe item.
Paymentfor asphalticbinderor fresh asphaltwearingcourseshall be made
separatelyunderrelativeitem of work as given below:
Pay ltem
No.

Description

Unit of
Measurement

308a

Recycling
of AsphaltConcrete
(0-60mmThick)
CM

308b

BinderGrade
Bitumen
(40-50,
60-70,Bo-100)

Ton

WearingCourseAsphalt

Ton

308c

-304-2

TTEM 309

309.1

COLD MILLING

Df,SCRIPTION
This work shall consistof milling(cutting)of concreteor asphalticlayerto a
designatedlevel and width by means of specializedEquipment,removalof
cut materialand disposalas per special provisionor as directedby the
Engineer.

309.2

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS
specializedequipmentto be used for this item of work shall be qapablgof
following
operations:

309.2.1

i)

Millingdrumshallbe capableof levetand gradeadjustments


and
it shall have variablespeed provisionto ensure productionof
smoothor roughmilledsurface.

ii)

Level and grade control shall be ensured through electronic


sensors,capableof givingan accuracyof t two (2) mm.

iii)

pclaper bars and belt conveyorsystemshall ensurepickingand


loadingof milledmaterialin a truck.

ConstructionProcedure
Area shall be earmarkedwith respectto depthof milling,which shall be split
in stripslookingto the widthof millingdrum and widthoiarea to be milled.
Millingmachineshallbe adjustedto cut to requireddepth. Millingdrumshall
be correlatedto sky or-stringline
arrangementto ensuremillingiccordingto
requiredgradeand profile.
Millingshall proceedfrom one edge of the road, strip by strip in a manner
that may ensureresultingsurfaceevenand level.
Milledmaterialshall be removedand disposedas per special provisionor
as directedby the Engineer.
Milled surface shall be cleaned by wire brushes or compressedair for
subsequentoperation.

309_1

309.3

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT

309.3.1

Measurement
The quantityof cold millingto be paid shall be measuredby the numberof
square meters of area milled and cleaned as described above, as per
drawingsor as directedby the Engineer. No allowancewill be given for
millingout side the approvedlimit. Any such area milledbeyondapproved
limits,shallbe reinstatedby the Contractorat his own expense.

309.3.2

Pavment

The accepted quantity measured as -.provded-abave shall be paid al lhe


contractunit priceper squaremeterof cold millingfor the pay itemsas listed
below and in the B.O.Q., which price and payment shall constitutefull
for labour,equipmentand incidentalsnecessaryto complete
compensation
the item.

Pay ltem
No.

Description

Unit of
Measurement

3 0 9a

C o l dM i l l i n g0, . 3 0 m m

SM

309 b

ColdMilling,0 - 50 mm

SM

309 c

ColdMilling,0 - 70 mm

SM

_309

ITEM 310
310.1

CONCRETE PAVEMEN:IS
DESCRIPTION
This work shall consist of a pavement composed of porfland cement
concrete with or without reinforcement as specified constructed on
a
preparedsubgradeor base course in accordancewith these specifications
and in conformitywiththe lines,grades,thicknessand typicalcross_sections
shown on the plans. Both plain and reinforcedconcrete shall include
deformedbars for contractionjoints and dowel bars for expansionjoints
or
as shownon the Drawings.

310.2

MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS

310.2:1

LOnCrete

310.2.2

concrete materialsshall conformto the requirementsindicatedin item


401
and as specifiedhereinafter.In additionto it the contractorshall advise
the
Engineerimmediatelyafter the award of the contractof the source of
all
materialsto be used in proportioningconcretefor the work. lf the contractor
later proposesto obtain materialsfrom a differentsource,he shall notify
the
Engineerat leastthirty(30)days beforesuch materialsare to be used.
ReinforcingSteel
concrete reinforcementshall conform to item 404 or as indicatedon
the
Drawings. lf required, steel fabric for reinforcementof concrete
shall
conformto AASHTOM 55-73.lt must be suppliedin sheets.

310.2.3

PolvtheneSheetins
Polytiene sheetingfor placingimmediatelybelow concreteslabs shall
be
0.065mmthick or havinga minimumweignt of fifty (50f grams per square
'oi
meter (whicheveris greater) made from polythene
other approved
hydrocarbonthermoplastic
resin(producedby the polymerization
of eihylene
under high pressureand density) and given an inti-static treatment
to
reduce dust attractionand reduce friction.The sheeting shall have
the
minimummechanicalpropertiesshownin tableas under:

Properties

Machine
Direction

Transverse
Direction.

TensileStrengthMethodASTM
D882-73Kgf/SM

140

105

Elongationat Break9,o

150

500

Tear StrengthElmendorfMethod
ASTM DOB9-62(1974)-Kgtcl'n2

390

310

310.2.1

Joint Filler
Joint filler shall consistof cane or other suitablelong fibres of a cellular
natureuniformlyimpregnatedwith asphalt.The asphaltcontentof the joint
materialshall be betweenthirtyand fifty per cent. The joint materialwill not
deteriorateunderany weatherconditionsand is to be of such a characteras
not to be permanentlydeformedor brokenby moderatetwisting,bendingor
other ordinaryhandling.Stripsof the joint fillerwhich do not conformto the
specifieddimensionswithinthe tolerance1 two (2) mm for thicknessand +
twelve (12) mm for depth are to be rejected.All damagedstrips are to be
rejectedtoo.

310.2.s

Joint SealingCompound
Joint SCalinEadmFoUndiS to be as BS 2499(1973\typo A1 or A2, or aS
approvedby the Engineer.
The compoundis to be impermeable,is to withstandall weatherconditions
and is to be capableof adheringto the concretewithoutcracking,spallingor
disintegrating
and will not requirean impracticableconditionof drynessor
cleanlinessof the concreteslabs.
Where recommendedby the manufacturerof the sealing compound,a
primersuppliedby him is to be usedto improveadhesion.

3t0.2.6

DoweiBars
Dowel bars shall be cut from mild steel bars and will be approvedby the
attentionis directedto the requirementthat one
Engineer.The Contractor's
joints,shall
end of each dowel bar in all joints,except bondedconstruction
likelyto interferewith its
be sawn and not shearedso that no irregularities
slidingactionin the concreteshall occur.The minimumlengthof the dowel
bars spaced at one meter centreto centre or as shown on the drawings,
shallbe thirtyfive (35) times the diameterof the bar used unlessotheruuise
specifiedor as directedby the Engineer.

310.2.7

ExpansionCaps
Expansioncaps for dowel bars in expansionjoints shall consistof pressed
metalsleevespluggedat one end by punchingthe specifiedjoint fillerboard
of a wad of cotton waste of similarcompressibility
and sealed at the end
againstentry of mortar.The tube shall have an internaldiameterpermitting
slidingon the dowelbar but closeenoughto prevententryof mortar.

uo-2

3r0.2.8

Darkenins Agent
Darkeningagent for the top course of concretepavementsif orderedand
specified shall be a carbon black; either as an aqueous dispersion
containingat least 25% of solids,to be addedto the mixingwater, or as a
powder to be .addedto aggregateand cement..lt shall be
self-dispersing
approvedby the Engineeras non-deleterious
and as giving a grey colour
and shall be addedat the rate of 01% by weightof the mixedconcreteif it is
aqueousdispersion.
The minimumquantityof self-dispersing
powder.shall
be 0.025%by weightof the concreteaggregate.
The darkeningagent shall be free from sulphurtrioxideand from any other
matterdeleterious
to concrete.

370.2;9

CrackInducineBattens
crack inducingbattensshall be of wood or of any other suitablematerial
proposedby the Contractorat the time of tenderingand approved of at the
awardof the contractor approvedby the Engineerat his discretionafterthe
award of the contract. Battensof highlyabsorbentwood or other.material
shall be of cross-sectional
dimensionsshown on the Drawings,and treated
to preventadhesionbetweenthem and the concrete.

310.2.10

SamplingandTestins
All materialsshall be approvedby the Engineerprior to use in the work.
Additionalsamples will be taken and tested by the Employerduring the
progressof the work to check on the qualityof the materialsbeingsupplied
and/orplacedby the contractor.The resultsof these tests will be available
for the contractor'suse, howeverthey are not intendedfor construction
control purpose.The contractorshould set up his own test facilitiesor
arrangethe same from a prrvatelaboratory,
to assurethat his materialsand
workmanshipcomplywiththe specification.

310.3

CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTS

310.3.1

Pavement
Base
The base upon which the concrete pavement is laid shall be leveled
compactedand true to the grades and cross-sections
shown'on the plans
and shalLbeso maintained,as providedundersuch other items throughout
the periodof placingconcretepavement.
To ensurethe proper depth and section,a scratchtemplatetrue to depth
and sectionand restingon accuratelyset sideformsshallbe movedover the
surfaceimmediatelybeforeplacingconcrete,and any irregularities
shall be
immediatelycorrected.High spots sball be planeddown and the contractor
shall have the optionof eitherfillinglow spots to the proper elevationwith
approvedmaterial,which shall be watered compactedand struck off to the
requiredgrade or of placing additionalconcrete. No measurement or
payment will be made for such additionalconcrete.

3TO3

Until the subgradehas been checkedand approved,no materialshall be


depositedtheieon . Storingor stock pilingof materialson the subgradeand
placing of surfacingmaterialor laying of pavementon muddy or frozen
subgradewill not be Permitted.
310.3.2

Forms
Side forms shall be made of metalof an approvedsectionand construction
providedwith adequatedevicesfor securesettingso that when in place,they
shall withstandthe impact and vibrationof the compactingand finishing
equipmentwith settlementnot exceeding1.5 mm in three (3) metersform a
true planesurfaceon the top of the form and insideface shallnot vary more
than six(6)millimetersfrom a planesurface.The width of the bases of steel
forms shallbe not less than their heightexceptthat the forms havinga base
not less that two-third(213)
-of their helg[t and mqqtilg q]l olhgqrequlrements
hereinmay be usedfor manuallayingof non rectangularbays'
The depthshallbe equalto the thicknessof the pavementat the edge or as
shownon the plans.The forms sectionsshall be tightlyjoined by each joint
free from play in any direction.These forms shall be stacked with steel
stakes and shall be of a lengthapprovedby the Engineer.Each sectionof
forms shallhavestake pockefat each end and at intervalsof not more than
one and one-half(1:5)metersbetweenends.
Each sectionof forms shall be straightand free form bendsand warps at all
times.
Side forms for machineplacingShallhave roltedsectionsteel rails which
shall be of adequatestiffnessto carry the laying,compactionand finishing
machines.
These machinesshall not run on folded sheet metal form tops' The top
faces of the forms are to be carefullycleanedand maintained.The forms
shall be withouthorizontaljoints and with flange bracesextendingoutward
on the base not less than twothirds the height of the forms. Each stack
wedge. These
pocket shall be equippedwith a positive non-detachable
pins
and length
of
the
size
placed
least
three
steel
using
at
by
shall
be
forms
approvedby the Engineeror as shownon the plans. They shallbe equipped
with positivelockingdeviceswhich will permit neat tight joints and do not
deform under impact vibrationby thryst. Pins for stackingforms in place
shall be made of steelat leasttwo(2)centimetersin diameteras directedby
the Engineerin caseof impracticaluse.
Wooden forms may be used for curves havinga radius of less than fifty (50)
meters.They shallbe made of two and half (2.5)centimeterswell seasoned
surfaced planks fastened together and shall be attached securely to a
wooden base in width. All wooden forms shall be braced at least every
sixty(60)centimeterswith steel pins of the size and lengthhere in specified.
Straightformsshallbe set out as chordsto convexedgesand as tangentsto
concave edges, but payment will not be made for concrete outside the
curvededgesshownon the Drawings.

31e-4

Before placing forms the underlyingmaterial shall be excavatedto the


requiredgrade, and shall be firm and compact.The forms shall have full
bearingsupon the fbundationthroughouttheir length and shall be placed
with exactnessto the requiredgrade and alignmentof the edge of the
finishedpavement.
Forms shall be set to the requiredlines and grades well in advance of
placingconcrete,preferablynot less than two hundred(200) meters.Forms
shall not be removedfor at least twelve (12) hours after the concretehas
been placed.Formsshallbe carefullyremovedin a mannerto avoiddamage
to the pavement.Underno circumstances
will the use of pry bars between
the forms and the pavementbe permitted.pavementwhich in the opinionof
the Engineeris damageddue to the carelessremoval of forms shall be
repavedby the contractoras directedby the Engineerat the contractor's
own expense.
Formsshallbe thoroughlycleanedand oiledeachtime they are used.
special forms or other supportingdevices meeting the approvalof the
Engineershall be used to supportthe joint filler at transverse'controt
ioints
when concreteis to be placedon only one side of the filler."whenpavement
is placed adjoiningexistingconcretepavement upon which the finishing
machinewill travel,any irregularities
in the old pavementshall be grorni
down to a true uniform surface of sufficient width to accommodate the
wheelsof the finishingequipmbntif necessaryto obtainpropersmoothness
of the pavement.
310.3.3
1. Composition
(a)All concreteshall be proportioned
by weighingand shall conformto the
followingstrengthand mix requirements

i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)

Compressive
Strength,
28 daysminimum
Cementcontent,
sacks(50Kg)
Watercementratio.maximum
Slump
Entrained
air,percent
Nominal
sizeof aggregate

250 kg/sq.cm.
7.5 (min.)
0.45
25-75 mm
3+0.6
1rlr" Max.

(b) At least 35 days prior to the start of paving operationsand afler approval
of all materialsto be used in the concrete,the contractorshallsubmitfor
approval,the mix design he intends to use based on proportioned
weights of cement, air entrainment agent, saturated surface drv
aggregatesand water.This mix designwill be testedby the Engineerand
approvalwill not be grantedunlessthe averagetwenty eight (2g) days
compressivestrengthexceedsthe minimumstrengthrequi-remeni
oy lt
least 15 percent.Howeverthe Engineermay allow pavingoperationon
the basis of seven (7) days strengthif he is satistieowitn-tnb resuttsof
seven (7) days strength.

c) The cement contentgiven rn the foregoingtable is minimum.lf it is not


sufficientto produce concrete of the compressive strength specified it
shall be increasedas necessarywith out additionalcompensationunder
the contract.
d) The compressivestrength of the concretewill be determined by testing

standard cylinders made from concrete taken from the mixer. The
making,cuiing and testingof the specimenswill be in accordancewith
AASHTOT23-73.

whenthe sourceof any materialfor the


e) Duringthe courseof construction,
concreteis to be changed,or if thereis any variationin the qualityof the
materialsfurnished,additionaltests and necessaryadjustmentsin the
mix shallbe made as requiredto obtainthe specifiedstrengths.
2. ConsistencY
The requiredconsistencyof the concretemixture shall be such that the
mixturewill be cohesive,uniformand plastic,permittingproperhandlingand
finish.When depositedit shtlll not flow, but shall remain in a conicalpiie.
There shall be minimum of segregationand surplus water during the
process of handling and finishing.The slump shall be determinedby
AASHTO f 1rc-74 except that during the course of constructioncontrol of
concrete may be accomplishedby the ball penetrationas outlined in
AASHTO T1B3-72.Two and a half (2.5) centimeter ball penetrationis
consideredequivalentto a slumpof five (5) centimeters.
The cement content shall be determinedby means of a yield test in
accordancewith AASHTOT121-74.
310.3.4

Batchinsand Mixine
Concreteshalleitherbe batcheddnd mixedat a centralbatchingand mixing
plantor batchedat a centralbatchingplantfor either mixing in field mixers
adjacentto the forms for slabs,or mixedin a truck mixer.When cementis
subpliedin bags, each batch of concreteshall containa whole numberof
bagsof cement.
i) Batchine Eq'UBrugB!
All aggregatesand bulk cement for use in pavementshall be batchedby
weight by means of automaticdevices of approved type conformingto the
reqiirements specifiedbelow:The batchingshall consistof dividingthe aggregatesinto three sizes,each
stored in a separate bin, of .placin$ the cement in another bin, and of
theseingredientsas hereinprovided.
recombining

310-6

Materialdischargedfrom the severalbins shall be controlledby gates or hy


mechanicalconveyors.The means of withdrawalfrom the severalbins anil
of dischargefrom the weigh box shall be so.interlocked
that not more than
one bin can dischargeat a time;that the orderof dischargecan be changed
as desiredby the Engineer.;and that the weigh box cannotbe trippedrintil
the requiredquantityfrom each of the several bins has been deposited
therein.should a separateweighbox be usedfor edch size of aggregate,all
bins may be operatedand dischargedsimultaneously.
The dischargeshall
be so regulatedthat the amount of materialdiscirargedinto thd weigh
hppperfrom any bin, with weighingdevicesat rest,will be withintwo (z) ig
of the weightcalledfor by the scatesettingfor the bin.
Whgn the dischargefrom the severalbins is controlledby gates,eacn gate
gherllaqrlgmalcqlly-lock
in an open or partiallyopen positionirntil the r,equired
weight is dischargedinto the weigh box, after which the gate shall
automatically
closeand lock.
scales utilisedin the batchingdevicemay be of the springlessdial type or of
the multiplebeamtype.
lf they are the dialtype,the dial shall be of such size and so arrangedthat it
may be easilyread from the ground.The automaticweighingdevice of the
dial scale shall be so markedthat the numberof proportionirequiredmay
be set on the dial at the same time and that proportionsmay be changed
withoutdelay.
lf they are the multiplebeamtype,the separatebeamsshallbe automatically
connectedto the hopper or weigh box in sequence.Multiplebeanr scales
shall be providedwith an indicatoroperatedby the main beam which will
give positivevisibleevidenceof over or underweight.The indicatorshall be
so designedthat it will.be oTeratedduringthe adcitionof the last seventy
kilograms
The overtravetof the indicatorhand shall be ai
.91any_weighing.
least one-thirdof the loadingtravel. Indicatorsshall be enclosed against
moistureand dust.
The beams or dial of automatic scales shall be so arranged that the
weighing units will be in a conlpartmentthat may be toireo at the
requirement
of the Engineer.
It is the intentionof this specificationthat the deviceshall be automaticto
the extent that the only manual operation required for combining the
ingredients
for one batchshallbe a singleoperationof a switchor a starter.
All receptaclesused for weighingmaterials,togetherwith the scales of any
kind used in batchingmaterials,shall be so insulatedagainstthe vibrationor
movementof the rest of the plant due to any operatingequipment,that the
errorin.weighing
with the entireplantrunningwiil not eiceed two per cent of
any settingnor exceedone and a half per cent of any batch.

310-7

Shouldseparatesuppliesof aggregatematerialsof the same sizegroup,but


of differentmoisturecontent,be availableat the batchingplant,withdrawals
shall be made from one supply exclusivelyand the material therein
completelyexhaustedbeforestartingon another.
The moisture content of the aggregate shall be such that no visible
separationof moistureand aggregatewill take place during transportation
from the batchingplantto the pointof mixing.Aggregatescontainingexcess
moistureshall be stockpiledprior to use until sufficientlydry to meet the
aboverequirement.
Except where small quantitiesof concreteonly ar6 to be used, when the
Engineermay permit othenvise,the equipmentfor batchingof concrete
materialsshallconformto the followingrequirements:The betching eqfiBmeff shall bo substantially.eonstructedon a firm
foundation,highenoughabovetrucksbeingloadedto functionpropedy.lt
shallhavethree(3) binsand a weighinghopper. The bins shallhave a
total capacityof not less than 100 tons, and the partitionsbetweenthem
shallextendnot lessthanone(1)meterabovethe bins.The binsshallbe
equippedwith baffleboards so as to assist drainageof the aggregates
and preventthe drainedout water from passingthroughthe outletgate.
Al platformshall extendaroundthe weighinghopperfor easy means of
inspection,adjusimentand weighing.
The weighinghoppershallhave a singlecompartmentwith arrangements
for readyremovalof excess material,and with a dischargegate opening
parallelto the portlonof receivingtrucks.The amountof openingof the
dischargegate shall be readily controlled. Tftere shall be sufficient
clearanceat all pointsfor the weighinghopperto functionproperly.The
weighingscale shall be of the beam or springlessdial type of standard
designand make, and shall be able to recordthe true weightwithintwo
(2) kg at maximumload. The beam type shall have separatebeamsfor
each size of aggregate,and each beam shall have an easilyoperated
lockingdevice. A dial whichwill show the weightwhen the load is within
forty five (45) kg of that requiredand an approvedsignal device shall be
provided.
The weighingscalesshallbe arrangedfor readystandardization,
and with
each scaleshall be furnisheda set of standardweightsincludingseven
25 kg, two 10 kg, two 5kg and two (2) kg weights. For batchersof
capacityof hatf (112)cubic meter or less, the standardweight to be
furnishedshall be as approvedby the Engineer.The toleranceto these
scalesshallbe withinthose listedin table 3 of the US nationalbureauof
standardNBS handbook44. The standardweights shall be protected
againstthe defacementand injury,and shall be easily to handle and
attached.All parts of the weighing devices and appurtenanceof the
made and shall be maintained
batchingequipmentshall be substantially
in properoperatingcondition.lf in the opinionof the Engineer,any part or
all of the weighingdevicesor other appurtenancesare not satisfactory,
expense.
they shallbe replacedin satisfactory
at the Contractor's

24n Q
g
tv-u

In lieu of the automatic devices for controllingthe weighing of the


aggregatesand bulk cementas describedin the forgoingspecification
for
batching equipment,the Contractormay be permitted to substitute
manually controlleddevices, provided approval for such devices is
grantedby the Engineer.
ii) Unloadingand HaulingEquipment
Aggregateshall be transportedfrom the batchingplantto field paver mixers
in batchboxes,vehiclebodiesor othercontainersof adequatecapacityand
construction
to carrythe volumerequired,properly.
Paditionsseparatingbatches shall be adequate and effected to prevent
spillingfrom one compartmentto anotherwhile transit or being dumped.
where cement is storedin bulk;the contractorshall use a suitablemelhod
of handlingthe cement from weighinghopper to transportingcontaineror
into the batch itself for transportationto mixer, with chute, boot or other
approveddevice,to preventloss of cementand arrangedto providepositive
assurance of the actual presence in each batch of the entire cement
specified.
Loosecementshall be transportedto the mixerin waterproofcompartments
carryingthe full amountof the cement requiredfor the batch or it may be
carriedin compartmentscoveredby the aggregate.Batcheswhere cement
is placedin contactwith the aggregatesmay be rejectedunlessmixedwithin
one and a half hours of such contact. Cement in originallyshipping
packagesmay be transportedon top of the aggregates,each containingthe
numberof bags requiredby the job mix.
Batchesshall be deliveredto mixerseparateand intact.Each batchshallbe
dumpedcleanlyinto the mixerwithoutloss of cement,and when more than
one batchis carriedon the truck withoutspillingof materialfrom one batch
compartmentintoanother.
iii) Batchingto CentralMixing Plant
At a central mixing plant, batchesshall be dischargedfrom the weighing,
hopperintothe mixereitherdirectlyby gravityor by elevatingcontainer,large
enoughto containthe batch.The plantshallbe arrangedto ensurethat there
is no lossof cementduringtransferfrdrnthe weighinghopperto mixerdrum.
iv) FieldMixins Equipment
The concrete mixer shall be a batch mixer so designed as to ensure
positive,uniformdistribution
of materialsthroughoutthe mass. The size and
type of mixer used on variousclassesof work shall be as specifiedbelow
and shall be approvedby the Engineer.For all work, where the volume of
concreteto be placedjustifiesit, the mixershall have a capacityof not less
than one cubic meter, shall be of approvedmake and acceptableto the
Engineer,and shallcomplywith the followingrequirements:-

3't0-9

Mixers shall have a locking device preventingthe mixture from being


dischargedbeforethe expirationof the specifiedmixingtime; an automatic
locking device preventing materials being placed in the mixer before
dischargegate is closed,a regulatorthat will maintainthe rate of speedfor
which the mixer has been designed;a signaldevicethat will functionwhen
water is added; a verticalwater tank with an automaticdevice that will
measure and dischargethe requiredvolume of water; valves to prevent
overflowinto the mixing chamberor on to the ground when the discharge
valveis closedand intothe tank when open;and valvesand pipingin proper
order to prevent any leakage.The automaticdevice for measuringand
dischargingthe requiredvolume of water shall be arrangedto dischargea
predetermined
volume,to be easilyadjustedto dischargea largeror smaller
volume,and to registerthe volumedischargedaccuratelyon a gaugeor dial
whichshallbe calibratedbeforethe mixeris used and shall be kept properly
calibrated.A by-passvalve shall permitthe dischargeof all the water into a
meastrriirgeafl fo-tllc pul.trtossofcalibration.ThdmEsuTing oflhe volume
of water requiredshall be done by means of adjustabledischargedevice
onry.
The loadingskipof the mixershallbe substantially
madeand shapedso that
wet sand and othermaterialswill not remainin it when it is beingdischarged.
The mixer shall not be used when any of the devicesabove stated are not
functioningproperly,or when the bladesof the mixer have worn down to
ninety (90) per cent of their originalwidth. The Contractorshall furnish a
certifiedstatementfrom the manufactureras to their originalwidth. The
mixershallbe keptcleanand free from hardenedmortar.
v) Truck Mixers
Truck mixersshall be used only when permittedby the Engineerin writing.
Eachtransitmixershall have a watertightdrum, suitablemountedand fitted
with adequateblades capable of properlycombing the mixture.A batch
meter and lockingdeviceto preventdischargepriorto completionof mixing
shall be providedon each unft.Measuringtanks,equippedwith outsidetaps
and valvesto facilitatecheckingtheir calibration,shall be providedfor the
mixing watgr. All water added to the mixer shall be passed through an
approvedwater meter, located betweenthe water tank and mixer drum,
equippedwith indicatingdials and totaliser,and capableof measuringand
discharginga specifiedamountof waterwithinan accuracyof one per cent.
The device shall provide means of readilyver,ifyingthe amount of water
added to mixing shall be providedon each mixer. An inspectionopening
shall be providedon each mixer, to permit ready determinationof the
consistencyof the concretebeing placedin the forms. When pick-upand
throwover bladesare worn down two (2) centimeteror more in depth,they
shall be replacedwith new blades.The Contractorshall furnish a certified
statementfrom the manufacturer
as to the originaldepthof the blades.
310.3.5

PlacingConcrete
a) General
The mixer shall be operated outside of the forms at all times except at
locationswherethe Engineerdeemsit not feasibleto do so.

310-10

When ordered by the Engineer,the subgrade shall be moistened as


directed,prior to the placementof the subgradepaper such as polythene
sheeting.
Concretemixed in centralplant shall be transportedwithoutdelayfrom the
mixingplantto the positionfor layingand any concretewhich in the opinion
of Engineerhas been mixed too long before reaching,the work will be
rejectedand shallbe removedfrom the site.The concreteshallbe deposited
on the subgradein successivebatchesfor the full width betweenforms and
in a mannerwhich will requireas littlerehandlingas possible.Spreading
shall be done by an approvedmechanicalspreaderin a mannerthat will
prevent segregationand separatiqn of the materials.Necessary hand
spreadingshall be done with shovels,not rakes. Workmen shall not be
allowedto walk in the freshlymixedconcretewith bootsor shoescoatedwith
earth or foreign substances.the amount of materialdepositedshall be
sufficientlyin excess of that requiredto form {he pavementto the r.equired
cross-section
afterconsolidation
in order to providea roll of concreteahead
of the front screedof the finishingmachinefor the full lengthof the screed.
concreteshall be thoroughlyconsolidatedagainstand alongthe faces of all
forms and along the full length and on both sides of ail expansionjoint
assembliesby means of vibratorsinsertedin the concrete.Vibratorsshall
not be permittedto come in contactwith a joint assembly,the grade or a
side form. In no case shaflthe vibratorbe operatedlongerthan fifteen(15)
seconds.concreteshall be depositedas near to expansionand contraction
joints as possiblewithoutdisturbingthem but shall not be dumpedfrom the
dischargebucket or hopper on to a joint assembly.The hopper is well
centeredon the joint assembly.Damage to joint assembliescaused by
dumpedconcreteshall be repairedimmediatelyas directedby the Engineer
at Contractor'sexpense. Trucks delivering concrete shall not run on
polythenesheetingnor shall they run on completedslabs until at least
fourteen(14) daysafterplacingthe concrete.
should any concretematerialsfall on or be worked into the surface of
completedslab,they shallbe removedimmediatelyby methodsapprovedby
the Engineer.
Placementof concreteahead of the initialspreaderstrike off shall not be
more than fifteen(15)minutesahead of final spreaderstrike-off.lf concrete
is placedin one(1)layeronly,the placementof concreteshall not be more
thantwenty(2O)
minutesaheadof the spreaderstrikeoff.
In orderto secureadequatecompaction,the concreteis io be spreadwith a
surchargeabovethe finishedlevel of the layer.Spreading,compactingand
finishingoperationsare to be completedwithoutdelay.
The total time taken from the additionof the water to the mix until the
completionof the surfacefinishingoperationsshall not exceed thirty (30)
minuteswhen the shade or mix temperatureexceedstwenty seven (27)
degreeC or forty (40) minuteswhen less than twentyseven (27) degreeC.
The mixing and placing of the concreteshall progresso-nlyat such a rate
as to permit proper finishing,protectingand curing of the pavement.

310-11

The additivesshall be added to the concretemix so as to ensure more


settingtime. The top of the forms shall be kept free from accumulationof
concrete or foreign material. The Contractor shall not permit the
accumulationof laitancealong the edge of a siab poured adjacentto one
previouslyplaced. Any accumulationof laitance shall be removed and
replacedwith fresh concrete.As soon as the side forms are removed,the
edges of the slab shallfirst be inspectedby the Engineerand any minor
honeycombedareasshallthen be filledin with mortarcomposedof one part
of cement to two parts of fine aggregateunder the supervisionof the
Engineer.
b) WeatherConditions
401.3.6(l) of these
For concretingduringhot/coldweather,requirements
will be followed.
specifications
310.3.6

PlacingReinforcemen(
All pavement reinforcementshall be placed as shown on the plans. All
marginalbars,dowelbars,and tie bars requiredby the plansshallbe held in
proper position by sufficientnumber of metal bar supports or pins as
approvedby the Engineer.lf the centerjoint is to be sawedin lieu of placing
the metalcenterstrip,the tie bars may be installedmechanicallyby means
of equipmentand methods approved by the Engineer.The satisfactory
placementof the tie bars shall depend upon the abilityof the mechanical
deviceto placethe tie bars in theirtrue position..
The Engineermay require,
when satisfactoryplacementis not obtainedby mechanical'means,
that the
tie bars be installedaheadof placingthe concreteand that they be securely
stakedand tied if necessaryto hold them in their exact position.The use of
removabledevices,supportingthe barsfrom the forms,will not be permitted.
Followingthe placingof the concrete,it.shallbe struckoff to conformto the
cross sectionshown on the plans and to an elevationsuch that when the
concreteis properlyconsolidated
and finished,the surfaceof the pavement
will be at the elevationshown on the plans. When reinforcedconcrete
pavementis placedin two (2) layers,the entire width of the bottom layer
shall be struck-offto such lengthand depth that the sheet of fabric or bar
mat may be laidfull lengthon the concretein its final positionwithoutfurther
manipulation. The reinforcementshall then be placed directlyupon the
concreteafterwhichthe top layerof'the concreteshall be plabed,struckoff
and screeded. Any positionof the bottom layer of the concretewhich has
been placed more than thirty (30) minuteswith out being coveredwith the
tpp layer shall be removedand replacedwith freshlymixed concreteat the
contractor'sexpense.Plain concreteand bar reinforcedbridge approach
pavementmay be plaoedin'one(1) layer.
Where two (2) layersof wire mesh reinforcementare required,as at bridge
approaches,the bottomlayershallbe supportedin the requiredpositionwith
bar chairs.Separatorsshall be used for the top layer if the strikeoff cannot
be properlyused for the operation.Laps in adjustmentsheets or mats of
reinforcementshallbe as shownon the plans. Laps parallelto the

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r.f'0lc

Jointsfor pavementdesignedfor two (2) or less lanes of trafficshall be


assembledand installedin one (1) continuouspieceor the connections
between sectionsshall be made rigid and tight to prevent offsets in
sectionsof the joints. The lengthof individualpiecesof the expansion
joint filler shall be not less than the width of one ('l) traffic lane of the
pavement.
The finishingmachineshall be operatedin a mannerthat will prevenr
displacement
of the joint. lf for any reasonit is necessaryto straightena
joint,any depressioncausedby this operationshall immediatelybe filled
with fresh concrete, respaded and brought to the original crown in
advanceof the longitudinal
finishers.Any fluid laitanceor mortarcaused
by this operationshallbe removedand replacedwithfreshconcrete.
As the finishingmachineapproachesthe joint on the firsttrip,the excess
concreteshall be shoveledahead and the tamper and each screed,in
turn, shall be lifted over the joint. On the second trip of the finishing
machine,the screedmay be operatedoverthe joint.
b) ContractionJoints
jointsshall be of the type and dimensionsand at the spacing
Contraction
shownon the plans. Sawed contractionjoints shall be cut by means of
an approvedconcrete saw. The joints shall not be sawed until the
concrete has hardened to the extent that tearing and reveling is
precluded.All joints shall be sawed duringthe initialcuring periodand
the sawingshall begin beforethe pavementstartsshrinkingand before
uncontrolledcracking takes place. Any procedurewhich results in
prematureand uncontrolledcracking shall be revised immediatelyby
adjustingthe sequenceof cuttingthe joints or the time intervalinvolved
betweenthe placingof the concreteor the removalof the curing media
and the cuttingof the joints. In no case shall the pavementbe left
overnightwithouthavingthe joints sawed. The joints shall be sawed at
the depth,spacing, and lines shownon the plans. Guidelinesor devices
approvedby the Engineershallbe providedto ensurecuttingthe joint in a
straightline and perpendicular
to the centerlineof the pavement. The
dust resultingfrom sawing shall be completelyremovedfrom the joint
and adjacentareas by means of an air jet or a combinationof air and
water appliedunder pressureimmediatelyafter the joint has been cut,
and before filling with joint compound. When the plans specify that
dowels be installedthrough contractionjoints,'the subgrade at the
contractionjoints shall be accuratelytrimmed to the required cross
sectionand to the properdepth of the pavement.A string line shall be
stretchedbetweenthe pavementforms alongthe centerline of the joint.
Each dowelshall be paintedand thoroughlycoatedwith hard greaseor
lubricant,in accordancewith the directionshown on the plans or as
approvedby the Engineer,to preventthe concretefrom bondingto that
portionof the dowel. The entire joint assemblyshall be of the type
designatedon the plansand shall be installedin such a positionthat the
centerlineof the joint assemblyis perpendicular
to the centerline of the
slab and the dowelslie parallelto the slab surface and parallel to the
centerlineof the slab. The greased ends of the dowelsshall be placed
310-14

in the directionas indicatedon the plans and shall be free to slide in the
dowel holder. Any excess hard grease on the dowel holder shall be
removed.
c) LongitudinalJoints
joints shall be constructedin conformancewith the details
Longitudinal
shown on the plans.When the fabricatedsteel strip is specified,it shall
be held rigidlyin placewith an adequatenumberof pins drivenintothe
subgradeto ensure that it will remain true to line and grade during
concretingand finishingoperations. On multiplelane pavenientwhere
jorntsare constructedat the form line,an approvedrecessed
longituoinar
form and tie bars will be required. The full depth fabricatedsteel strip
will not be permitted.When sawed
designatedfor otherlongitudinaljoints
joints are specifiedor used, suitable guidelinesor devices shall be
joint on the true lines as
furnishedto ensurecuttingthe longitudinal
shallbe performed
shownon the plans. The sawingof longitudinaljoints
cracking. Sawedjoints
at a time that will precludeerraticor uncontrolled
shall be filledwith the type of joint compoundindicatedon the plans.The
dust resultingfrom sawing shall be completelyremovedfrom the joint
and adjacentareas by meansof air jet or a combinationof air and water
appliedunder pressureimmediatelyafter the joint has been cut and
beforefillingwithjoint compound.
.Ioints
d) Construction
joint shall be made perpendicular
to the centerlineof
A butt construction
the pavementat the closeof each days work and also when the process
of depositingconcreteis stoppedfor a length of time such that, in the
opinionof the Engineer,the concretewill have taken its initialset. This
joint shall be formed by using a clean plank header having a nominal
a width of not less than the thicknessof
thicknessof five (5) centimeters,
the pavementand a lengthof not less than the width of the pavement.
The headershall be cut true to the crown of the finishedpavementand
shall be accuratelyset and held in place in a plane at right angles to
to the surfaceof the pavement.
centerlineand perpendicular
The top surfaceof the headershall be protectedwith steel as approved
by the Engineer.On the face along with the center of the header there
shall be fasteneda trapezoidalpiece of metal or wood the full lengthof
the header, five (5) centimeterswide and at least twenty five (25)
millimetersin depthto form a groovedjoint.The headershallhave drilled
holes to accommodatethe dowelor tie bars hereinafterspecified.Upon
resumptionof Wort<any surplusconcreterepaining upon the subgrade
shall be removed.The headershallthen be carefullyremovedand fresh
concretedepositedagainstthe old in such a manneras to avoidinjuryto
the edge of the old concrete.The fresh concreteshallbe vibratedintothe
joint.
groovein a mannerto ensurean interlocking

310-15

joints
Dowelbars or loadtransferdevicesshallbe used in all construction
in accordancewith the detailsshownon the plans.lf no such detailsare
shown on the plans,tie bars as providedfor the longitudinaljoint, and
spaced at forty-five(45) centimetercenters,shall be placed acrossthe
joint in a plane parallelto the surface of the pavementapproximately
midway between the top and bottom surfaces of the pavement. The
edges of the joint shall be grooved,edged,and sealedwith the material
joints.
usedfor sealingexpansionand contraction
No constructionjoint shall be placed within three (3) metefs of an
jotnt.
expansion,contraction,
or otherconstruction
e) SealineJoints
a)

Materials:Joints shall be sealed with material of the type


designatedon the plans.

b)

Hot PouredJoints:The joints shall be sawed as providedin sub


and coveredas providedin sub item 310.3.7(c).
item 310.3.7(b)
After the fourteen(14) or seventeen(17) day curing periodfor
the pavementhas elapsed,the jute o6other protectivecovering
shall be removedfrom the joint and the joint thoroughlycleaned
of all loose scale, saw dust, dirt, laitance or other matter.
Cleaningmay be accomplished
with a compressedair jet, air and
water underpressure,wire brushesor in extremecasesthe joint
shall, when directedby the Engineer,be resawedto ensure a
completelycleanjoint. The joint surfacesand adjacentareas of
the slab shallbe thoroughlyclean.
The hot pouredjoint materialshall be heated in a heatingunit
approvedby the Engineerto the temperaturewithin the range
requiredas shown by tests. The joint shall be filled from the
bottom of the saw cut to the surface of the pavement.Any joint
with a depth greaterthan twenty five (25) millimetersshall be
filled with a minimum of two (2) layers, each layer being
equalin depth.
approximately

c)

Cold PouredJoints:The jointsshallbe sawedas providedin subitem 310.3.7(b)& 310.3.7(c)


and cleanedof all loosesaw dust,
laitance,dirt,otherforeignmatterand free water.
The joints shall be filled immediatelyafter cleaning.The nozzle
used must be so designedthat the joint is filledcompletelyfrom
bottom to top. The joint shall be filled so it is roundedon top
about six (6) millimeters above the pavement surface.
lmmediatelyafter the joints have been filled, they shall be
covered with strip of nonabsorotive paper at least four (4)
centimeterswide. Eleven(11) kilogramglasslineor heavycraftis
suitable.The paper shall remain on the joint until it weathers or
wears off.

310-16

fl PermanentHeaderBoard
lmrnediatelyafter the forms are removed from the ends of concrete
pavementthat will be exposedto other than permanent
type surfacing
and temporaryand permanenttraffic,a headerboardhavingdimensioni
of not less than eight rs) centimeters (nornirrar)by twenty (20)
centimetersshall.be bolted securelyto the end of ttre pavementin
a
mannerto protect. gdoe of the pavementfrom damage.The header
!!e
boardshallextend.thefulr roadwaywidth,but may be in tilo (z) sections.
nt lhe time of ptacingthe concrete, six (6) (threefor each tane),thirteen
(13) millimetersby twenty (20) centimetersbolts shall be embedded
in
the end of the pavementin a manner that will hold the header board
securely.The headerboard shall be shapedto conformto the crown
of
the pavementand shall be installedflush with the concretepavement
surface.The finishingand installingof the'header board shall
be
c.rnsideredsubsidiary-worrpertiiniig to the other items in the Bill
of
Quantitiesand will not be paidfor direcily.
The headerwiilnot be requiredon concretebasecoursework.
310.3.8

Consolidatinsand Finishins
After being spreadand struck-offas providedin sub-item310.3.5"placing
concrete,"the concreteshall be furtherstruck-offand consolidated
with an
approved finishing machine to such an elevation that when
finishing
operatiorrs
are completed,the surfacewill conformto the requiredgradeand
crown.The finishingmachineshall operateover the entire'surface
at least
twice,the first time with the finishingmachinetamper ano notn
screedsin
operation.A uniformroll.of concreteapproximatelyfifteen
(15) centimeters
abovethe pavementgradeshall be maintainedaheadof the front
screedfor
its entire length during the first trip over with the finishing
macnine.'
Excessivetampingor finishingresurtingin bringing
of mortar to
the surfacewill not be permitted
"n """"ii
After the last pass of the finishing machine, a mechanicaltongitudinal
finisher shall be operatedover the concrete surface.The forurard
motion of
the longitudinal
finisher-shall
be so adjustedthat the screedwiil pass over
each portionof the surfaceat leasttwlce. The longitudinal
finishershall be
operatedin a mannerthat will preventexcessives[imping of the
concreteat
the form lines or the metal center strip or the loss of the crown
of the
pavement.lf necessaryor when orderedby the Engineer,
the finishershall
be operatedin one directiononly or shall be operatedfrom only
-."ttion
the form to
the centerlinein order to ensure that the proper .ro..
of the
pavementis obtained.The leadingedge of the screedshall
clearthe forms
upon completionof each.transversepass in order to clear the pavement
surfaceof any laitanceor thin mortar.
In general,the additionof superficialwater to the surface of therconcrete
to
ass.istin finishingoperationswill not be permitted.tf the apptilaiion
of water
to the surfaceis permittedby the Engineer,it shail oe apptieioas
a fog spray
by meansof approvedsprayequipment.

310-17

As an alternativeto the longitudinalfinisher,the contractormay use a


machinecomposedof a cuttingand smoothingfloat, or floats,suspended
from and guidedby a rigidframe. The frame shall be carriedby four (4) or
morevisiblewheelsridingon, and constantlyin contactwith,the sideforms.
when directedby the Engineer,followingone of the precedingmethodsof
longitudinal
finishing,long-handled
floats havingbladesnot less than one
and one half (1.5) metersin lengthand fifteen(1s) centimetersin widthshall
be used to smooth and fill in open{exturedareas in the pavement,Longhandledfloatsshallnot be usedto floatthe entiresurfaceof the pavementin
ileu of, or supplementing,one of the precedingmethods of longitudinal
finishing.
when the longitudinal
finishinghas beencompleted,
the entiresurfaceshall
be testedwith straightedges
not less than three (3) metersin length.The
straightedges
shall be operatedparallelto the pavementcenterlinestarting
at the center and progressingtoward the forms. Advance along the
pavementshall be in successivestagesof not more than one half (l/2) the
length of the straightedges.
All laitance,surpluswater, and inert material
shallbe removedfrom the surface.All high placesshallbe workeddown and
all low placesfilledby combinedoperationsof floatsand straightedges until
no irregularlties
exist.The propercrownof the pavementshallbe maintained
throughoutthe operations.
After floatingand straightening
has been completed,the concreteshall be
finishedby using a belt made of canvas,rubber,or other approvedbelting
not less than fifteen (15) centimetersin width, nor less than sixty (60J
centimeterslongerthanthe widthof the pavement.This belt shallbe worked
with a longitudinal
and crosswisemotion. care shall be exercisedin the use
of the beltto ensurethat the edgesof the belt do not dig intothe surfaceof
the concreteor work the crownout of the pavement.Eithermachinebelting
or hand beltingwill be permitted.
As soon as all excessmoisturehas disappeared,and whilethe concreteis
stillplasticenoughto make a granularsurfacepossible,a drag shallbe used
whichshallconsistof a seamlessstripof damp burlapor cottonfabric,which
shall produce a uniform surface of gritty texture after dragging it
longitudinally
alongthe full width of pavemlnt. For pavement(5) metersor
more in width,the drag shall be such that a strip or burlapor fabricat least
one and one half (1.5) meters wide is in contact with the full width of
pavementsurfacewhilethe drag is used. The drag shall be maintainedin
such conditionthat the resultingsurface is of uniform appearanceand
reasonablyfree from grooves over two (2) millimeters in depth, as
determinedby the Engineer.Dragsshall be maintainedclean and free from
encrustedmortar.Dragsthat cannotbe cleanedshall be discardedand new
dragssubstituted.
After draggingthe surfacewith burlap,the concreteover the expansionjoint
fillershall be completelyremoved and the joint finished. The edgei of
the concrete at expansionjoints. shall be finishedwith an edgerto the

310-18

radius shown on the plans. The exposededge of the pavementshall be


finishedwith an edger to a radius of six (6) millimeters.Any tool marks
appearingon the slab adjacent to the joints or edge of slab shall be
eliminatedby draggingthe surface.In doingthis, the roundingof the corner
of the slab shallnot be disturbed.
310.3.8.1

HandFinishine
Unless otheruuise
specified,hand finishingmethodswill not be permitted
excep_t
underthe followingconditions:
i)

In the event of breakdownof the mechanicalequipment,hand


methodsmay be usedto finishthe concretealreadydepositedon
the grade when the breakdown occurs, and no additional
concreteshall be placeduntilsuch equipmentis repairedto the
satisfaction
of the Engineer.

ii)

Narrowwidthsor areas of irregulardimensionswhere operation


of mechanicalequipmentis impracticalas determinedby the
Engineer,may be finishedby approvedhand methods.

iii) Short lengthsof pavement,such as bridgeapproachpavement,


where the operationof mechanicalequipmentis impracticalmay
be'finishedby approvedhandmethods.
Concrete,as soon as placed, shall be struck-offand screeded.An
approved portable screed shall be used. A second screed shall be
providedfor striking off the bottom layer of concrete if reinforcementis
used.
The screedfor the surfaceshallbe at leastone (1) meter longerthan the
maximum wiOtn ot the slab to be struck-off.lt shall be of approved
design,sufficientlyrigid to retainits shape,and be constructedeitherof
metalor othersuitablematerialshodwith metal.
consolidationshall be attainedby the use of a suitablevibratoror other
approvedequipment.
In operation the screed shall be moved forward on the forms with a
combinedlongitudinal
and transverseshearingmotion,movingalwaysin
the directionin which the work is progressingand so manipulatedthat
neitherend is raisedfrom the sideforms duringthe strikingoff process.lf
necessary,this shall be repeateduntilthe surfaceis of uniformtexture,
true to grade and cross section,and free from porousareas.
Afterthe concretehas beenstruck-off,it shallbe furthersmoothed,trued,
and consolidatedby means of a longitudinalfloat. The hand operated
longitudinal
float shall be not lessthan threeand one-half(3.5) metersin
lengthand fifteen(15) centimetersin width,properlystiffenedto prevent
flexing and warping.The longitudinalfloat, operatedfrom foot bridges
resting on the side forms and spanningbut not touchingthe

310-19

concrete,shall be workedwith a sawingmotion,while held in a floating


poiition parallelto the road centerline,and passinggraduallyfrom one
side of the pavementto the other,Movementaheadalongthe centerline
of the pavementshall be in successiveadvancesof not more than one
nalt ttizl the lengthof the float. Any excesswater or soupy materialshall
be wastedoverthe side forms on each pass'
floats having bladesnot
At the optionof the Engineer,the long-handled
length and fifteen ('15)
in
meters
less than one and one rratt 1t.s;
the hand operated
for
substituted
be
may
centimeters in width
float.
longitudinal
All other operationsafter this substitutionfor the mechanicalequipment
shallbe performedin the mannerpreviouslydescribed'
concreting operationshall be performedonly in daylight,under no
circumstaicesshallconcretepavementplacedor finishedat night.

3r0.3.9

RemovingForms
Unlessotherwiseprovided,forms shall not be removedfrom freshlyplaced
concreteuntil it has set for at least twelve (12) hours, except auxiliaryforms
used temporarilyin widenedareas. Formsshall be removedcarefullyso as
to avoiddamagbto the pavement.After the forms have been removed,the
sides of tfre ltab sfrait be cured as specified for the surface. Major
honeycombedareas will be consideredas defectivework and shall be
removed and replaced at the Contractor'sexpense, as directed by the
Engineer.Any area or section so removed shdll not be less than three (3)
r"i"ts in lengtnnor less than the full width of the lane involved.When it is
necessaryto remove and replace a sectionof pavement,any remaining
portionof the slab adjacentto the jointsthat is less than three (3) metersin
length,shallalso be removedand replaced.

310.3.r0 Protectingand Curing of ConcretePavement


a) Initial Curins
finished,the initial
As the surfaceof the newly-laidpavementis progressively
be
started.
shall
curingand protectionoperations
Upon completionthe finishingoperationand whilethe surfaceof concreteis
stillmoist,but no free water remains,a liquidcuringmembraneapprovedby
the Engineershallbe appliedto the exposedsurfaceof the pavementat the
rate nol lessthan one (1) litreper threeand two-thirds(3-213)squaremeters
are used.The curing
of surfaceareawhen mechanicalpressuredistributors
by means of
applied
be
shall
areas,
membrane, except on irregular
hand
approved
or
distributors
pressure
mechanical
approvedself-propelled
the
mixing
provided
thoroughly
for
be
shall
means
.piuyt. Satisfactory

310-20

curing membranecompoundbefore and during its use. The mechanical


sprayingequipmentmay be either a full width spray bar equippedwith
multiple nozzles or a traversingspray which travels from one edge of the
pavementto the other.In eithercase the path of adjacentnozzlesor passes
of the traversingsprayshalloverlapa minimumof one-half(112)thewidthof
the spray patternso that all portionsof the surface shali receivedouble
applicationsfrom adjacentnozzlesor passes.The pumping,pressureand
distributionarrangementshall be correlatedwith the foruvardspeed to
provideadequateand uniformcoverageof the pavementat not lessthan
the
minimumrate required.lrregularareas to which the mechanicaldistributor
cannotbe adaptedmay be coveredwith hand sprays.
when hand spraysare used,the curing membraneshall be appliedin two
(2) applications,each at a rate of not less than one (1) litre'per five (5)
squaremetersof surfacearea so as to providea total rate of application'oi
one (1)litre pertwo and one half (2-112)squaremetersof surfacearea.The
path o! the spray on the secondapplicationshall be at right angles
to the
path of the spray on the first application.when hand ope-rated
iprays are
permitted,-the
equipmentsupplyingthe pressureto the.spraynozzleshallbe
capableof supplyinga constantand uniformpressureto provideuniformand
adequate distributionof the curing membrane compound at the rate
required.lf from any cause,such as rain-fallsoon aftei its application,the
curing membrane is damaged, the contractor shall immediatelyapply
anotherapplicationof curingmembraneto the surfaceof the pavement.The
rate of applicationfor the replacementmembraneshall be the same as for
the originalmembrane.
Unless othenruisedirected by the Engineer, immediatelyfoilowing the
applicationof the curing membrane,an approvedshade-canvasshill be
placed.approximatelythirty (30) centimetersabove the pavementsurface.
The shade-canvasshall be constructedof materialsand in a manner
approvedby the Engineer.In no case shall any portionof the shade-canvas
come in contactwiththe pavement.The initialcuringshallbe continuedfor a
period of twenty four \24) hours from the time the curing membrane
is
applied.
when forms are removed,whether during the initial or the final curing
period,the edgesof the pavementshallreceivecuringmembraneat
the rate
of coveragespecifiedfor the pavementsurface.
The curingmembranemay be appliedto the verticaledgesof the pavement
by means of hand sprays or by nozzles attached to the mechanical
distributor,but the edges of the pavementshall be covered with curing
membraneat the ratespecifiedwithinthirty(30) minutesafterremovalof the
forms.
when cold-pouredjoint compoundis used, all joints shall be sawed during
the initialcuringperiod.The shade-canvasmay be moved at joint locations
for short periodsof time to permitthe sawing.Beforebeingseiated,
the joints
shall be thoroughlycleanedof all loosesawdust, laitanceldirt,otherforeign
matter, and free of water.As the methodof final curing is different

310-21

from that of the initial curing,the cleaningand sealing of joints shall be


performedimmedlately
followingthe removalof the shade-canvasat the end
period
and prior to the applicationof the polyethylene
of the initialcuring
sheeting.
When hot pouredjoint compoundis used,the jointsshallbe sawed,cleaned,
and filledwith jute or other acceptableprotectivematerialin the same time
joints.
sequenceas for cold-poured
In no case shall any portionof the concretepavementbe exposedto the
directrays of the sun for morethan one (1) hour.
Followingjointingoperations,curingmembraneshall be appliedto the joint
area at the ratespecifiedfor the pavementsurface.
b) Final Curine
Upon completionof the initialcuringperiodand after the shade-canvashas
been removed and jointingoperationhas been completed,the pavement
shall be completely covered with White Opaque Polyethylene Film as
specifiedin AASHTOM 171.Adjoiningsheetsshall be lappeda minimumof
forty five (45) centimeters.The sheetingshall be held in place in a manner
approvedby the Engineer.
Finalcuringshallbe continueduntilthe concretereachesan age of fourteen
film
('14)days. During this period,the curing membraneand polyethylene
from
Any
one
cause.
damage
protected
from
any
from damage
shall be
cause shall be immediatelyrepairedby the Contractorat his expense.No
shall be allowedon the surface
traffic,includingworkmenand pedestrians,
of the pavementuntilthe expirationof the fourteen(14) daycuringperiod.
When concreteis beingplacedduringthe time that the air temperaturemay
be expected to drop below fifteen (15) degrees C, a sufficient supply of
burlap, straw, hay, or other suitable blanketingmaterial shall be provided
alongthe work to protectthe concreteand maintaina minimumtemperature
of fifteen(15) degreesC in the concreteas measuredon the surfaceof the
pavement. An approved moisture barrier such as wet burlap or plastic
sheetingshall be placed on the concreteprior to placing the blanketing
material.This type of cure shall be maintainedfor a periodof seventytwo
(72) hours as the initialcure.After the initialcure as specifiedabove,a final
cure as specifiedabovemay be used. The final cure shall be maintainedfor
a period of fourteen(14) days, thus making a seventeen(17) day curing
periodfor coldweatherconcreting.

310.3.11

SurfaceToleranCe
As soon as the concretehas hardenedsufficiently, the pavementsurface
shall be tested with a three (3) meter straightedge or other specified
devices. Areas showing high spots of more than three (3) mitlimeters,
but not exceeding twelve (12) millimetersin three (3) meters between

310-22

any two contactpoints,shall be markedand immediatelygrounddown with


an approvedgrindingtool to a toleranceof less than three.(3) mm as
describedabove.where the departurefrom correctcross sectionexceeds
twelve(12) millimeters,
the pavementshall be removedand replacedbyand
at the expenseof the Contractor.
Any area or sectionso removedshall be not less than three (3) meteis in
lengthnor less than the full width of the lane involved.when it is necessary
to removeand replacea sectionof pavement,any remainingportionof the
slab adjacentto the joints that is tess than three (3) meters in length,shall
also be removedand replacedat the Contractor,s
expense.
310.3.12

Testsfor Thicknessof Pavementand Degreeof.Compaction


i) Thicknessof Pavement
The Employerwill not be liablefor paymentof any excess in thicknessof
depthof pavement.Duringthe progressof the work, the thicknessor depth
of pavementwill be determinedby the Engineerfrom cores cut from the
concretepavementby the contractor.The cost of guttingand recoveringall
the cores describedin this clause and the followingparagraphshalf be
deemedto be includedin the ratesand pricesfor porflandcement concrete
Pavemententeredby the Contractorin the Billof euantities.
Unsatisfactory
work shall be repaired,replaced,or will be paid for at an
adjustedprice,as follows:
a)

One 15cmdiametercore will be removedby the Contractorfrom


each lane, at such locationsas the Engineermay direct, and
shallrepresentnot morethan 1000SM of pavementarea.A lane
shall be consideredthe pavementsurface betweenlongitudinal
joints,or a longitudinaljoint
and pavementedge.

b)

lf any core measurementis deficientmore than 6.5 mm from the


requiredthicknessa core measurementshall be taken at each
30m intervalin both directionslongitudinal
from the first deficient
core in the same lane, as definedherein,until the thicknessof
the pavementis foundto be not morethan 6.5 mm deficientfrom
the requiredthickness.Each deficientcore shall be considered
as representing
the'conditionin the same lane or longitudinal
section, as above defined, for a distance of 15m, in each
directionlongitudinally
from the core.
c)
Sectionsof pavementwhichare deficientin thickness,as
determinedby cores, by an amount more than 1.3 cm shall be
removedand replacedwith pavementof the specifiedthickness
at the expenseof the Contractor.The removaland replacement
shall startat the determinedpoint of deficiencyand proceed
longitudinallyas hereinafterspecilied, until the pavement is
to be not more than 6.5 mm Ueficientfrom the required
thickness.The old reinforcingsteel shall be left extended a
sufficientdistanceso as to allowthe new reinforcementsteel to
be lappedwith the old, the requireddistanceto be weldedto the
satisfaction
of the Engineer.

310-23

d)

e)

The removal and replacementsof pavements shall extend


the full width each lane in which such deficiencyis
transversely
found.
All pavementswithin two (2) meters of the deficiencyspot shall
be removed,except that When any joint is more than two (2)
meters,all pavementsshallthen be removedto the nextjoint'
Sections of pavement which are deficient in thickness, as
determined by measurement of cores in accordance with
AASHTO T14il-49, by an amount more than 6'5 mm, but not
i"norethan 1.3 cm, will be paid for at an adjusted price as
specifiedin TableBelow:
DEFICIENCY IN THICKNESSAS DETERMINED
FROM CORES

Thickness

Proportional Part of Contract of


Contract Price to be allowed.

3 00 mmto 6.5mm

95%

6 . 5m mt o 1 3 m m

75%

ii) Degreeof .ComPaction


The coresthat have been cut from the concretepavementaccordingto the
requirements of (i) above shall be examined by the Engineer's
to check the degree of compactionachievedthrough the
Representative
the effectivenessof the bond betweenthe top and bottom
check
to
sla'band
courseconcrete.
Should any core reveal that any part of the slab has not been adequately
compactedby revealinghoneycombedor segregatedconcreteand should
the bond betweenthe top and bottomlayersof concretebe suchthat a plane
of weaknessis present,then adOitionalcores shall be taken to check the
areas of defectiveconcretepavementaccordingto the procedurelaid down
in (i) above for determiningthe areas of concretepavementdeficientin
compaction.
Any areas of defectivepavementconcreteso found shall be replacedwith
new concretein accordancewith this sectionat contractor'sOWnexpense'
The Engineerreservesthe right to carry out crushingtests on any or all of
the conirete cores taken in accordancewith this clause,and shouldthese
tests show that any area of pavementconcrete has failed to meet the
then such areasof concreteshall
strengthrequiremenisof the specificatibn,
be re-movedand replagedwith new concrete,mixed, laid, compactedand
own expense'
of this sectionat contractor's
finishedto the requirements

310-24

iii) Refillineof Holes


Holes in the pavement.createdby the cuttingof cores shall be thoroughly
coatedon the insidewith a neat cementgrout and shall then be filledilith
concreteof the same mix as shownin the pavement. The fillingshall be in
two-equal layersand each shall be rodded25 times to its full-depth.The
surface shall be finishedflush and broomed. The surface shall be kept
thoroughlywet for 72 hoursthereafter.
310.3.13

Replacement
of DefectiveConcrete
Any concrete not complyingwith the specificationshall be cut out
and
replacedin accordancewith the specification
over the full width of the slab
betweenlongitudinal
jointsand over a lengthextendingbetween
construction
two transversejointseach of a typeotherthan a warping
foint.

310.3.14

ConcreteLug Anchors
"concrete Lug Anchors" shall be constructedin accordance
with the
dimensionsand notes and at the locationsshown on the plans.
unless
otheruviseindicated on the plans, the class, composition,consistency,
proportioning,
batching,mixingand curingof the concreteused in concreie
lug anchors shall conform to the sarne requirementsas the
concrete
pavement.Reinforcingsteel,concreteand excavationfor
lug anchorsshall
be subsidiaryto the Billof euantitiesitem "concreteLug Ancliors."

310.4

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT

310.4.1

Measurement
The unit of measurementfor paymentshall be the cubic meters
of the
completed and accepted poriland cement concrete pavement,
as
measured in place.The numberof cubic metersof the completedporfland
cement concrete pavementshall be determinedby the rengin measured
along the centre line and upon the surfaceof the roao, times"ihe
width as
snownon the Drawingsplus the areas of any wideningon curves,
turnouts
and intersection,authorizedand measured-separateiy.Measurement
of
pavement thickness will be ensured by erecting
shutters for screeding
concreteat requiredlevel.
The unit of measurementfor bridgeApproachslabs shall be the
square
meters of the area actuallyconstructedin accordancewith the Drawings
or
as directedin writingby the Engineer.
concrete Lug Anchorsshall be measuredby the linearmetersin prace,
the
measuringbeing made along the centerlineof the concrete lug
anchor
transverseto the pavementcenterline. No measurementwill
be made of
unauthorized
areasor for extrathickness.

310-25

310.1.2

Payment
The number of cubic meters of Portland Cement Concrete Pavement,
measuredas specifiedin sub-item310.4.1above , will be paid for , at the
pricetenderedper cubicmeter in the Bill of Quantities,adjustedas specified
for deficiencyin thickness,which priceshallincludethe cost of constructing,
finishing,curing,protectingand cleaningthe pavementas above described;
the preparationof subgradeto receivethe pavement;the constructionof all
joints of whatevertype; cutting of cores and fillingof holes, all materials,
includingjoint filler and other material, equipment,labour and all else
necessarytherefor,and all otherwork in connectiontherewithand incidental
there to in accordancewith the specificationand Drawings. Reinforcing
steel shall be measuredseparatelyunder relativeitems of work.
The numberof cubic metersof BridgeApproachSlabs,will be paidfor at the
price tenderedper cubic meter in the Bill of Quantities,which price shall
finishing,curing,protectingand cleaningthe
includethe cost of constructing,
slab as abovedescribed;the surfacepreparationof the sub-baseto receive
the slab; the constructionof all joints of whatever type; all materials,
includingjoint filler and other joint material,equipment,labour and all else
necessarytherefor,and all otherwork in connectiontherewithand incidental
and Drawings.
theretoin accordancewiththe Specification

Pay ltem
No.

Description

Unitof
Measurement

3 1 0a

PlainConcrete
Pavement

3 1 0b

ConcretePavementCM
Reinforced

3 1 0c

ConcreteLugAnchors

310-26

CM

ITENI 3I I

3l l.l

ASPHALT CONCRETE WEARING COURSE (PLANT MIX)


WITH CELLULOSE FIBRE.
DESCRIPTION
The work shallconsrstof furnishing
aggregates,
asphaltbinderand cellulose
fibre at a controlasphaltbatchingplant,'mixedat a specifiedtemperarure,
spreadingand compacting
the mixturein an approvedmanneron primedor
tacked surface of base, subbase,bridge deck or concretepavement,in
accordancewith these specificationra'io in conformitywith lines, grades,
typical cross-sections,shown on the drawings or as directed by the
Engineer.

311.2

MATERIALS REQUIREMENTS

3lt.2.l

VlineralAggregates
a ) Coarse Aggrcgates

coarse Aggregatesshall be crushed, non-absorptivestones and unless


othenvisestipulated,shall conformto the followingqrialityrequirementsof
AASHTOM 283 for classA aggregates:
1. Los A.ngelesabrasion,AASHTOT 96
2. Flatand ElongatedParlicles,
ASTM D 4791,Comparinqtenqthto
thickness(measuredon mate ial
retainedabovethe No. 4 sieve)

30% max.

15 oh max.

2.5:1
3. Sodiumsulfatesoundness
loss
(5 cycles),AASHTOT 104

15 oh max.

4. Particles.
retainedon the No. 4 sieve
shallhave at least
one fracturedface,
two fracturedfaces

1 0 0% m i n .
75 % min.

5. Absorption,
MSHTO T 85

2 o/orfax.

6. Coarseand finedurabilitv
index.
AASHTOT 210

40 o/omix.

Mixeswith relativelypure carbonateaggregatesor any aggregatesknownto


polishshallnot be used.
h) FineAggregates
Fineaggregate
shallconsist
of a blendof 100% crushed,manufactured
sancl.lt
shallconformto the qualityrequirements
of MSHTo M 20. The sodiumsulfate
soundnessloss in 5 cyclesshailnot exceed15 percent.ln addiiion,the liquid
iimitshallnotexceed25 as determinecl
bv AASHTOT g9.
Jti-l

c) CombinedAggregates
The severalaggregatefractionsof courseand fine for the mixtureshall be
sized, graded, and combined in such propotlions that the resulting
comoositebtendconformsto Table-Abelow.
Table A
(Percentage
by WeightPassingSieves,AASHTOT 27 &f 11)
PercentaqePassinq

Sieve Designation
3/4 in.
1t2
3/B
No.4
N o .B
No. 30
No. 50
No. 200
0.020mm

lessthan

1 0 0%
85-95
60-75
20-23
16-24
12-16
12-15
8-10
3*

* To be controlled
and mineralfillertaken
of aggregate
froma combination
samples.
stockpile
fromrepresentative

3rr.2.2

AsphaltCement
a) AsphaltCementshallbe AC-20or similargradeand conformto AASHTO
M 226.
b) AsphaltCementshallbe mixedat a temperatureas requiredto achievea
kinematic viscosity of 150 to 300 centistokes.Typical plant mixing
is 310o-325oF and at no time shallthemixingtemperature
temperature
exceed325 "F.

31t.2.3

Mineral Filler
a. Mineralfiller shouldconsistof finelydividedmineralmater such as rock
or limestonedust or other suitablematerial.At the time of use it should
dry to flow freelyand essentiallyfree from agglomerations.
be sufficiently
Fillershould be free from organicimpuritiesand have a plasticityindex
not.greaterthan 4. Fillermaterialforthe mix shall meet the requirements
ofAASHTOM 17.
b. Commercialmineralfiller added to the mixture,shall be limitedto less
than20ohof its weightsmallerin sizethan 0.02 mm.

31r.2.4

Fibre
Cellulose
Fibrestabilizer,cellulosefibre is to be utilized.Dosageratesfor celluloseis
0.3 % by weightof the total mix. Allowabletolerancesof fibre dosageshall
be +/- 10 % of the requiredfibre weight.The selectedfibre shall meet the
propertiesdescribedin Table-Butilizingthe listedtest procedures.

311--2

Table B
C E L L U L O S EF I B R EP R O P E R T T E S
1 ) SieveAnalysis
d.

MethodA - AlpineSieveAnalysis:
FibreLength:
PassingNo 100sieve

0.25"(maximum)
70 % (+1-19 o1"1

MethodB - MeshScreenAnalysis;
FibreLength:
PassingNo. 20sieve
No. 40 sieve
N o . 1 4 0s i e v e
2) Ash-Content:
3) p H :
4) OilAbsorption:

1B% 1+1-non-volatiles)
7.5 (+l--.9;
5.0 (+l- 1.9;
(timesfibreweight)

5) MoistureContent.
l

a)

0.25"(Maximum)
85 oh(+l- lgo1"1
65 % (+l- 1go 1
30 % (+t- 10%)

<50

Method A - Alnine Sieve Analvsis

This test shall be performedusingas AlpineAir Jet sieve (Type200 LS). A


representative
five gram sampleof fibre shall be sievedfor 14 minutesat a
controlledvacuurnof 22 inches(+/- 3) of water.The portionremainingof the
screenshallbe weighted.
b) Method B - Mesh ScreenAnalvsis
Thistestshallbe performed
usingstandardNo. 20,40,60,g0, 100 and 140
sieves,nylon brushesand a shaker.A representative
10 gram sample of
fibreshallbe sieved,usinga shakerand two nylonbrusheson eacn screen.
The amount retainedon each sieve shall be weighedand the percentage
passingcalculated.
Repeatability
of this methodis suspectand needsto be
verified.
2) Ash Content
A representative
2-3gram sampleof fibreshallbe placedin a tarredcrucible
and heatedbetween1100oFfor not less than two hours.The crucibleand
ash shallbe cooledin a desiccator
and reweiqhed.
3) pH Test
Fivegramsof fibreshallbe addedto 100 ml of distilledwater,stirredand let
set for 30 minutes.The pH shall be determinedwith a probecalibratedwith
pH 7.0 buffer.

311-3

4) OilAbsorptionTest
Five gramsof fibreshallbe accuratelyweighedand suspendedirt an excess
of mineralspiritsfor not less than five minutesto ensuretotal saturation.lt
will then be placed in a screen mesh strainer(approximately
0.5 square
millimeterhole size) and shaken on a wrist action shakerfor ten minutes
(approximately
1 - l14inchmotionat24Oshakes/minute).
The shakenmass
shall be then transferredwithout touching, to a tarred container and
weighed.Resultsshallbe reportedas the amount(numberof timesits own
weight)the fibresare ableto absorb.
5) MoistureContent
Ten gramsof fibre shallbe weighedand placedin a 250" forcedair oven for
two hours.The sample will then be reweighedimmediatelyupon removal
from the oven.
311.2.5

DesiqnMix RequiremenE
Design parametershall be rn accordancewith Hot Mix AsphaltDesign by
MarshalMethodutilisingAASHTOT - 245.

Sr. N o
t,

ii.
iii

tv.
vi.

vii.

Test

Parameter

WM percent.
AsphaltContent%
(Kg).
Stability
VMAperbent.
Flow0.01inch.
Compaction No. of
blowson each side of
specrmen.
Drain Down Test,
percent.

3-4
6 . 0m i n .
1 0 0 0m i n .
1 7m i n .
8-14
Er\

Desiqnation
T-166,T-209,T-269
of total mix.
MarshallMethod
MS-2
MarshallMethod.
MarshalMethod.

0.3max.

The mix designtest propertyvaluesand cures used to developthe job mix


in accordancewith the Asphalt InstitutesManual Series No. 2 (MS-2).
Acceptabledeviations
from variousvaluesof JMF shallbe as under:
a. Agqregates
PassingNo.4 and largersieves
PassingNo.8 to No. 100sieves
PassingNo. 200 sieve

!5%
!3%
+1ok

b. AsphaltCement
Percentby wt. in totalmix

!4.3%

c. CelluloseFibre
Percentby wt. in total mix.

311-4

+ 0 . 0 3%

3lr.3

CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTS

311.3.r

NlixingPlant
Plantsused for the preparationof the mixtureshall conformto AASHTOM
156and the following.
a. HandlineFiller
Adequatedry storageshall be providedfor the mineralfiller,and provisions
shallbe made for proportioning
the fillerintothe mixtureuniformlyand in the
desiredquantities.Mineralfillerin a batchplantwill be addeddirectlyintothe
weigh hopper.In a drum plant mineralfiller will be added directlyinto the
drum mixer.Specialattentionis directedto providingappropriateequipment
for accuratelyproportioningthe relative large amounts of mineral filler
requiredfor mixture.
b. Fibre Addition
Adequatedry storageshalt be providedfor the fibre additive,and provisions
shall be made for proportioning.fibre
into the mixtureuniformlyand in the
desiredquantities.
c. BatchPlant
Loosefibreor palletizedfibreshallbe addedthrougha separateinletdirectly
into the pugmill before adding bitumen in the mix. The additionof fibre
should be timed to occur duringthe hot aggregatecharging.Adequatedry
mixingtime is requiredto ensureproperblendingof the aggregateand fibre
stabilizer.Dry mixingtime shall be increased5 to 15 seconds.Wet mixing
time shall be increasedat least 5 secondsfor cellulosefibres to ensure
blendling
with the asphaltcement.
d. Hot - Mixture Storage
When the hot mixture is not to be hauled immediatelyto the projectand
placed,suitablebins shall be provided.Such bins shall be eithersurge bins
to balanceproductioncapacitywith haulingand placingcapacityor storage
bins which are heated and insulated and which have a controlled
atmospherearoundthe mixture.The holdingtime shall be withinlimitations
imposedby the Engineer,basedon laboratorytests of the storedmixture.In
no casewill mixturebe kept in storageovernight.

311.3.2

HaulingEquiBment
Hauling equipmentand paver shall be of . a type normally used for the
transportand placementof dense grade asphalthot mix. Truck beds shall
be coveredand insulatedif necessary,so that he mixturemay be delivered
on the road at a temoeratureof not lessthan 130 oC.

311-5

311.3.3

Pavers
Paversshall be a type normallyused for the placementof dense graded
asphalt hot mix. They shall be self-contained, power-propelled units
provided with an adjustable activated screed, heated and capable of
spreadingand finishingcoursedof asphaltplantmix materialin lane widths
applicableto the specifiedtypicalsectionand thicknessshownon the plants.
The paver shall be capableof being operatedat fonarardspeeds consistent
with satisfactoryplacementand compactionof the mixture.The paver shall
be capableof strikinga smoothfinishof uniformtexture.

31r.3.4

Conditionineof Existinq-.rsgr:tac9
a. lmmediatelybefore placing the mixture,the existing surface shall be
cleanedof loose or deleteriousmaterialby brooming or other approved
means.
b. A thintack coat of asphaltemulsion(SS-1,SS-1 h, CSS-1,CSS-1h or
similarmaterial)conformingto AASHTOM 140 or M 208 shall be applied
to ensure uniform and complete adherenceof the overlay.The asphalt
emulsionused for this purposewill be dilutedwith an equal part of water
and be appliedat the rate of approximately.1 gal/squareyard.
c. Where the existingsurface is distorted,a levelingcourse of hot asphalt
mix shall be requiredto restorepropercross-sectionprior to construction
of the overlay.

311.3.5

FacinsAnd Finishine
oF. The
The mixture shall be placed at a temperaturenot less than 290
mixturetemperatureshall be measuredin the truckjust priorto dumpinginto
the spreader.
The mixture shall be spread and struck off to the establishedgrade and
elevationwith asphaltpavers.
Facing speed will be adjusted so that sufficient time is allowed for
compactionoperationsand to providecontinuity.

311.3.6

Compaction
lmmediatelyafter the mixture has been spread and struck off, it shall be
thoroughlyand uniformlycompactedby rolling.
a. Due to the nature of mixture,the surface shall be rolled immediately.
Rollingshall be accomplishedwith steel wheel roliers of a minimum
weight of 10 tons. Rollingproceduresshall be adjustedto providethe
specifiedpavementdensity.Rollersshall move at a uniform speed not to
exceed 3 mph with the drive roll nearestthe paver. Rolling shall be
continueduntiland rollermarks are eliminatedand the minimumdensity
has been obtained.The Contractorshall monitor density during the
compactionprocessby use of nucleardensitygaugesto assurethat the
minimumrequiredcompactionis beingobtained.

3 11 - 6

b. To preventadhesionof the mixtureto the rollers,it shall be necessaryto


keep the wheels properlymoisturedwith water mixed with very small
quantitiesof detergentor otherapprovedmaterial.
c. The pavement shall be compacted to at least g4o/oof maximum
theoreticaldensityand at no morethan 6% air voids.
d. Once sufficientin-placedensity has been achieved,rolling operating
shouldcease,as over-rollingmay cause migrationof asphdltcementand
fillerto the compactedpavementsurface.
3t1.4

CONTROL OF ASPHALT MD(TURE


The mixture furnished by the Contractor shall conform to the job-mix
formula, within the allowable deviations from the target values. The
allowabledeviationsfrom the target values for the JMF of the aggregate
shallbe +l- 4% for the 314",112"
and 3/8"sieve,+/- 3Yoforthe No. 4, No. 8,
No. 30 and No. 50 sieve,and +/- 2o/ofor the No. 200 sieve.The allowable
deviationfrom the target value for the asphalt content shall be +/- 0.3
percent.

311.5

TRIAL / EXPERIMENTAL SECTIONS


Test section (s), a minimum of 200 meter each, shall be constructedto
examine the mixing plant process control, placement procedures,mix
surface appearance,compaction patterns and to calibrate the nuclear
densitydevice.

311.6

WeatherLimitations
The mixture shall be placed only when the air temperature is four (4)
degrees centigradeor above and no asphaltshall be laid under foggy or
rainyweatheror over moistsurface.

311.7

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT

311.7.1

Measurement
The quantitiesof Asphalticwearingcourseshall be measuredby volume in
CM. laid and compactedin place. Measurementsshall be based on the
dimensionas shownon plans or as otherurrise
directedor authorizedby the
Engineer.A toleranceof + three (3) mm shall be allowed in compacted
thicknessof wearingcourse.However,any asphaltin excessof 3 mm shall
not be paid and any layer deficientby more than 3 mm may be rejected
unlessrectifiedby overlayingadditionallayer at no extra cost, approvedby
the Engineer.
The quantityof asphalticmaterialused is includedin the asphaltconcrete
mixtureand will not be measuredseparately.
QuantitiesBitumen,wasted or remainingon hand after completionof the
work, shallnot be measuredor paidfor.

311-7

The quantityof cellulosefibreshallbe measuredin Kg. and paidseparately'


311.7.2

Payment
The quantitydeterminedas piovidedabove shall be paidfor at the contract
for each'of the particularpay items listedbelowand
unit jrice respectively
shown in tne bitt of Quantities,which prices and paymentshall constitutefull
compensationfor all the costs necessaryfor the propercompletionof the
work prescribedin this item.
Pay ltem
No.

Description

Unitof
Measurement

311 a

AsphalticConcretefor
WearingCourse(ClassA)

SM

3 1 1b

Cellulosefibre

SM

311-B

ITI]M 312

312.1

PROOF ROLI,ING

DESCRIPTION
Theworkshallconsistof conducting
proofrollingby a specifiedtypeof roller
to confirmthe adequacyof compaciionfor ihe-underlyinglayersof an
existingroad or naturalsurface.The proof rollingshall'be-carriedout in
accordancewith these specifications
and in coriformation
with the lines
shownon the drawingsor as directedbythe Engineer.

312.2

CONSTRUCTION
REOUIREMENTS
1. The proofrollingis to be carriedout on any type of granularmaterial,
subgradematerialor asphalticlayersas tho ciie mai oe. However,in
case, the proof rolling is to be carried out on granularmaterial/
subgrade,all the undulations
shall be removedoy irre contractoras a
pre-requisite
of this item for which paymentshalt be deemedto be
includedwithinthisitem.
2- The equipmentrequiredfor compaction
may be any of the followingor
combination
thereof:
a.
b"
c.

Combination
vibratoryroller_ min.10tonscapacity.
Padfootvibratoryroller- min.10tonscapacity.
Pneumatic
typeroller,g wheeler_ 21 tonscapacity.

312.3

MEASUREMENT
ANDPAYMENT

312.3.1

Measurement

Proofrollingshallbe measuredby the unitof squaremeterin the areasas


designated
on the drawingsor directedbythe Engineer.
312.3.2

Payment

Thequantityof completed
and accepted
work,measuredas providedabove
will be paid at the unit price quotedby the contractorfor furnishingall
equipments,.
Labour,and otheritemsnecessaryfor the completionof the
work.
Payltem
No.
312

Description

ProofRolling

312-1

Unitof
Measurement
SM

striln'I,cnu.r.s

STRUGTURES
ITEM 4OO

,100.1

GENERAL
DESCRIPTION
This item containsa generaldescriptionof the specificitems of work, the
materials,constructioi requirements,and methods of measurementand
payment for all concrete structures including bridges, culverts, piles'
compositestructuresof concretesuch as barriersand steel, prestressed
and posttensionedgirderand all brickand stone masonrystructuresbuiltas
indicatedon the drawingsand in conformitywith the lines,grade,dimension
in conjunctionwith ant instructionsissued by the Engineer. Materials,
methodsappliedin the work shall
equipment,workmanshipand construction
conformto the requirementslaid down hereinand shall also followthe best
modernconstructionpracticeswith the approvalof Engineer.This item shall
also includeconstructionof certainstructuralfeaturesand incidentalitems
which are either common to all types of structuresor which may apply to
any of them.

,100.2

CLEARING OF SITE
The contractorshall clearthe sitesfor proposedstructuresof trees,bushes,
stumpsand debris,in the manneroutlinedin section10'1"clearingand
Grub'bing"cost of which shalt be deemed to be included in the price bid for
the vari6us items. Special clearingof site such as removal of existing
prices
bridges,buildings,concretepavementetc., will be paid for at the
all
provided
for,
prices
are
such
no
where
but
items,
tendLredfor these
be
included
to
deemed
be
shall
clearing
special
with
the
costsin connection
in tlre price tendered for various items of the structuresin the Bitl of
Quantities.
Removal or relocationof public or private utilities such as telephone,
telegraphlines,power lines,sewer and water pipe lines,railwaytracksand
theii appurtenances etc., shall be arranged by the Employer's
n"pr"r"ntrtlu" with the concerned Government Agency/Agencies,
AuionomousBodies,Utilitycompaniesinvolved.The Employershall bear
the costs of relocatingsuch utilities.

,100.3

ALIGNMENT AND GRADE


The structureson verticalcurvesor the structureswhich have superelevated
roadwaysbecauseof horizontalcurvesand those spans on which definite
finished camber is necessaryin order to form a uniform grade line, all
requirespecialcare and attentronregardingto the elevationand alignment
of their railingand kerbs.

400-1

400.4

FOUNDATIONDATA
Referto clause400(4).3(b)

400.5

FINAL CLEARING
upon completionof structure,the contractorshall clean up the site, remove
all temporarybuildings,false work, lumber,equipmentand all other debris.
The contractorshall level off all excavatedmaterialnot used for back fill
around piers, bents, abutment, culvert, headwallsand on embankment
slopes.Bridgedecksand side walks shall be left in cleanand workmanlike
condition.No specificpaymentfor clearingup shall be made but the cost
shallbe includedin otheritemsshownon the billof quantities.

400.6

OPENING TO TRAFFIC
Bridges or slab or box culverts h4ving decks constructedwith porfland
cement concrete shall remain closed to all traffic and contractor,s
equipmentsubjectto the resultsof tests made of the concretebut not less
than twenty eight (28) days after the placingof concrete.
The above time of openingto traffic is applicablewhen temperaturesare
aboveten (10) degreec. when temperaturesare belowten
1io1degreec,
the time of openingto traffic shall be increasedat the discretion-ofthe
Engineer.In any event bridgesor culvertswith concretedecks shall not be
openedto trafficwithoutthe approvalof the Engineer.

400.7

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

400.7.1

Measurenlelt
The quantities of various pay items which constitute the completed and
acceptedstructuresshall be measuredfor payment accordingto the plans
and specification
for the severalpay items appearingin the Biil of euantities
and in term of the prescribedunits providedfor theleveral pay items.only
acceptedwork shall be includedfor paymentand the measuredquantity
shall be basedon the dimensionof componentas shown on the plansor ai
directedin writingby the Engineer.

400.7.2

Payment
The quantitiesmeasuredas providedabove shall be paid for at the unit
pricesbid for the severalpay items appearingin the Bill of euantities
which
paymentand priceb shall be full compensitionfor furnishinj, preparing,
fabricating,transporting,placingancl erectingall materialtor ine complet,e
structure,for all labour,equipment, tool and all other items necessaryfor
the completionof work such payment shali constitutefull paymeni for
completed structure and no allowance will be made roi cofferdam
construction,
form lumber,falsework and otherincidentalexpenses.

400-2

(A)
ITEM ZIOO

,{00.A.1

BRTDGESAND CULVERTS
DESCRIJTION
All steel and concretebridgesand concreteculvertsshall be constructedas
indicatedoir the plans,in conformitywith the lines,grades,dimensionsand
designshorvnon the plansarrdin accordancewith the provisionof item 107
"StructuralExcavationand Backfill",item 401 "Concrete"",
item 402 "False
Work and Centeringfor BridgeS",item 403 "Form Work", item 404 "Steel
Reinforcement",
and item 405 "Pre Cast ConcreteStructures",
and all other
pay itemswhichare to constitutethe completeconstructionof the structure,
as directedby the Engineer.

;100.A.2

MATERIALS
The materialsused shall be those prescribedfor several contractitems
which are to constitutethe completestructure.

400.A.3

CONSTRUC'TIONREQUIREMENTS
a. Clearingthe Site
The contractorshallclearthe site of the proposedstructureof trees,bushes,
stumps,and debrisin accordancewith section101 "Clearingand Grubbing".
Special clearingof site such as removal of existing buildings,concrete
pavementshallbe paidfor at the pricestenderedfor these items,but where
no such prices are providedfor, all costs in connectionwith this special
clearingshallbe deemedto be includedin the pricetenderedfor the various
itemsof structuresin the tenderedBillof Quantities.
Removal or relocationof public or private utilitiessuch as telephoneor
telegraphslines, power lines, undergroundcable lines, sewer and water
supply lines,railwaytracks and their appurtenancesetc. shall be arranged
by the employerrepresentative
with the specificgovernmentagency,utility
companies and person involved.The Employer shall bear the cost of
relocatingsuch utilities.

b. FoundationData
Foundationdata includingthe locationof all boreholestogetherwith the
records of ground conditionsencounteredhave been obtainedfrom soil
investigationby test boring, test pits or other sources. lt is the Engineer's
responsibility
to ensureby additionalinvestigations
throughthe contractorat
the very beginningof constructionwork that the foundationlevelsgiven in
the Drawingscoincidewith the localrequirements.

400(A)-1

c. Alignmentand Grades
All structuralmemberssuch as prefabricated
girders,cast in situ deck slab,
cast in situ superstructures,bridge rails including kerbs, wheel guards,
safety fencing shall be so constructedand placed that finished vertical
alignment
and gradeshallbe as shownon the Drawings.
Rails, sidewalks and Kerbs on the curved portion of structureshall be
constructed, as far as possible after the completion of the entire
superstructure
slab. In such cases,the heightof rail, sidewalkand/orkerb
may vary with respectto the grade line of the slab in order to producethe
desiredappearance.

d. ErectionMethod
Beforemovingany constructionequipmentto the site, the contractorshall
submitfor approvalan outlineof the method he proposesto follow in the
erectionof structure.

e.NavigableStreams
The channelof navigablestreamsshall be kept clear for safe passageof
water. The contractorshall provideand maintainall necessarylight and
signals in accordancewith the navigationauthority'srequirements.The
contractorshall pay due regardto the hazardof the riverflow duringperiod
of intenserainfall.All nraterialdepositedin the channelshall be removedto
the requireddepthand clearancelinesat the contractor's
expense.

f. Concreting.
The concreteof Bridgesor culvertsshallbe pouredand surfacefinishedand
curedas per requirements
conformingto item401.3

g. Final Clearing
upon completion of structures,the contractorshall clean up the site
conformingto requirements
in item400.5

It. PublicBodies/Service
Authorities
The Contractor'smethodologyshall meet all statutoryrequirements
of the
railway,irrigationor ServiceAuthoritiesand his ratesshallincludefor all
costsof meetingthese requirements.

400(A)-2

400.A.4

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT

400.A.4.1 Measuremdnt
The quantitiesof variouspay itemsof Bridgesand culvertswhich constitute
the completedand accepted structuresshall be measuredfor payment
for the severalpay items appearing
accordingto the plansand specification
in the Bill of Quantitiesand in term of the prescribedunits providedfor the
severalpay items. Only acceptedwork shall be includedfor paymentand
the measuredquantityshall be based on the dimensionof componentas
shownon the plansor as directedin writingby the Engineer.
-100.A..t.2

Pavment

The quantitiesmeasuredas providedabove shall be paid for at the unit


pricesbid for the severalpay items appearingin the Bill of Quantitieswhich
payment and prices shall be full compensationfor furnishing,preparing,
fabricating,transporting,placingand erectingall materialfor the complete
structure;for all labour,equipment, tool and all other items necessaryfor
the completionof work. Such payment shall constitutefull payment for
completed structure ancl no allowance will be made for cofferdam
form lumber,falsework and otherincidentalexpenses.
construction,

400(A)-3

ITEM 401
401.1

CONCRETE
DESCRIPTION
This work consistsof furnishingplacing,
curing,finishingincludingtransport
'approved
'indof cement concrete made from
typ6 of cem-ent,watei, fine
coarse aggregates all in accordance with the requirementsin these
speciflcationsand conforming.tolhe lines, grades, bnd typical sections
shown on the Drawingsor called for in the special provisiohsand to the
approvalof the Engineer.

40r.r.l

CLASSESOF CONCRETE
The classes of concrete recognized in these specificationsshall be
designated:
A,B,C,D1,D2,D3,Y
and Lean concrete.The class of concrete
to be used shall be as called for on the Drawingsor as directedoy tne
Eng.ineeror specified.,in
the speciar provisiors. Thlefoilowingrequirtfieiiii
shallgovernunlessotherwiseihown on the Drawings.
class 41 concrete shall be used everywhere, for non-reinforcedand
reinforcedconcretestructures,,
except as-noted below or directed-byth;
Engineer.concrete placedunderwaier shail be class 42 with a minimum
cement content of three hundredfifty (350) kg per cubic meter of concrete
r,yith..q
slump bgtyegl ten (10)and fiftebnlisy-cin. concreteptacedroi pitei
shall be class43 with a minimumcement'cohtentof four huhdreo
laoo) rg
per cubicmeter.
ClassB Concreteshallbe used onlywherespecified.
class c concreteshallbe usedfor cribbing,or as otherwisedirectedby the
Engineeror specifiedin the Specialprovisi6hsor on tne Orawings.
class D1,D2 or D3, concreteshall be used for pre-stressedand posttensionedelements,as indicatedon drawings.
class Y concreteshall be used as a filler in steel grid bridgefloors,in thin
reinforcedsections,or as othenvisespecifiedin the-speciatFrovisions.
Lean concrete shall be used in thin layers underneathfootinqsand when
calledfor on the Drawingsor directedny tne Engineer.
The concreteof the variousclassesshall satisfy the requirementsshown in
Table401-1

IABLETI0LI
Po
Classof
Concrete

Min. Cement
Kg/Cubic
Meter

t Conc
Max. Size
of Coarse
Aggregate
(mm)

A1
A2
A3

B
(D1
D2
D3
Lean Concrete

300
350
400
250
275
450
500
550
400
175

28 days
Compressive
Strength(Min)
(Cylinder)
(Ke/Sq.cm.)

20
25
38
51
38
25
25
25
13
51

210
245
280
170
210
350
425
500
210
100
401-1

Conristency
Maxlmum
Consistency
Permissible
(Range in Slump) Water - Cement
Vibrated
Ratio
(mm)

25-75
100-150
100-150
25-75
25-75
50-100
50-100
50-100
25-75

0.58
0.58
0.58
0.65
0.58
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.58

40t.\.2

TYPES OF CONCRETE WORIG


Under Ground Concrete
concrete pouredbelowNaturalsurface Levelwith or withoutshutteringand
shoring.
On Ground Concrete
concretepouredby erectingformworkwith necessarybracingson ground.
Elevated Concrete
concrete poured by erecting props, bracing and towers to support the
formworkat higherlevels.

401.2

MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS

401.2.1

PortlandCement
cement remainingin bulk storageat the mill, prior to shipment,for more
than six (6) monthsor cement stored in local storage by contractorfor more
than three (3) months after shipment from the factory may be retested
before use and shall be rejected if it fails to meet any of the speciflcation
requirements.
Portland cement shall conform to the requirements of the standard
specifications for Portland cement, AASHTO Designation Mgs (ASTM
Designationc150). The type of the cement to be used, unless otherwise
shown on the Drawings,shall be type l.
sampling of cement shall be in accordancewith AASHTO Designatioh

r-127.

Millcertificates
shallaccompany
deliveryof the materialto thework.
cementshallbe deliveredin sufficientquantitiesto ensurethat thereis no
suspensionof the work of concretingat any time. Differentbrand or
differenttypesof cementfromthe samemill,or the samebrandor typefrom
differentmills shallnot be mixedor used alternatelyin the same item of
constructionunlessauthorizedby the Engineer,after preparingnew mix
design.
40r.2.2

Fine Aggregate

The fine aggregateshall consist of sand, stone screenings;


or other
approvedinert materialswith similar characteristics,
or a l;ombination
thereof,havingclean, hard, strong, sound, durable,uncr.rated
grains
-shale
fr.ee. from injuriousamountof dust, lumps,soft or flaky particles,
alkali,organicmatter,materialreactivewith alkalisin the cementloamor
otherdeleterious
substances,
and shall not containmore than three (3)
percentof materialpassingthe No.200sieveby washingnor morethanone
percentof claylumpsor one(1)percentof shale.The.useof beachsandis
prohibited
withoutthewrittenconsentof theEngineer.
401-2

The coarseaggregateshall be of uniformgradingwith maximumsizes as


requiredfor the variousclassesof concreteas shown in Table 4O1-2and
when tested in accordancewith AASHTO DesignationT-11 & T-27 shall
meetthe followinggradingrequirements.
TABLE 40T.2
GRADING OF COARSEAGGREGATES
Percentageby Weight Passing LaboratorySieves
H a v i n qS q u a r eO p e n i n g s ,i n I n c h e s

Designated
Sizes

z12

111

1nn

1 1l z - i n t. o N o ,4
100

N o .4

100

90-100

10-30

35-70
35-70

J5-/U

0-15

0-5
0-5

10-30

90-100 20-55 0-15

0-10
0-10

25-60

95-100

95-100

95-100
1nn

11lz-in.3lq-in.

20-55

1 0 0 90-100
,1nn

1 - i n .t o N o .4

2 - i n .t o 1 - i n .

tlo

'100 30-1 0 0 40-70 0-15

t/r-in. No. 4
to
t/o-in. No.4
to

2 - i n .t o N o .4

0-5

0-5

Not morethan five 5 percentshallpassNo.8 sieve.

Coarseaggregateshall containnot more than one (1) percentby weight of


materialpassingthe No.200 sieve by washingand not more than five (5)
percentof soft fragments.
It shall have an abrasionloss of not more than forty (40) percentat five
when testedin accordancewith MSHTO T-96.
hundred(500)revolutions,
When testedin accordancewith AASHTOT-104,for five cycle,the loss with
the sodiumsulphatesoundnesstest shallbe not morethan 12 percent.
Natural aggregatesshall be thoroughlywashed before use. Testing of
coarseaggregateis specifiedunderltem 401.3.9of these Specifications.
reactivewhere the concreteis to be
The aggregateshall be non-alkalilsilica
pouredunderwateror exposedto humidconditions.In case the Contractor
characteristics
proposesto use the aggregatehavingthe alkaline/siliceous
with the intentionto use it with Blast FurnaceSlag Cement, he will under
take to carryout the job with out any extracost and shall arrangeto conduct
the necessarytestsas directedby the Engineer.
101.2.1

CombinedAggregate
The coarse and fine aggregate shall be combined in the proportions
accordingto the approvedtrial mixesfor each classof concrete.

401-4

For exposedwork, the fine aggregateshall be free from any substancethat


will discolourthe concretesurface.
The fine aggregate shall be uniformlygraded and when tested in
accordancewith AASHTO DesignationT-11 and T-27 shall meet the
followinggradingrequirements:
GRADING OF FINE AGC;REGATES

SieveDesignation
3/8 inch

PercentagePassingby Weight.
100

N o .4

95-100

N o .1 6

45-85

No.50

10-30

N o .1 0 0

2-10

No.200

0-3

In case if fine aggregates fail under Fineness Modulus or Gradation


howevermaterialpassingNo. 4 in combinedaggregate,qualifiesfor these
requirements,
then the materialcan be accepted.
Fine aggregatesshall be of such qualitythat mortar specimens,prepared
with standardPortlandcement and tested in accordancewith AASHTO
Designation
T-71,shalldevelopa compressivestrengthat 7 days of not less
than 90 percentof the strengthdevelopedby a mortarpreparedin the same
mannerwith the same cement6nd gradedsand havinga finenessmodulus
of 2.3 to 3.1. Naturalaggregatesif requiredshall be thoroughlyand
uniformlywashedbeforeuse. Sand equivalent(T-176)shall be 75 min.
For the purposeof determiningthe degreeof uniformity,a finenessmodulus
determination
shall be made upon representative
samplessubmittedby the
Contractorfrom such sourcesas he proposesto use. Fine aggregatefrom
any one sourcehavinga variationin finenessmodulusof greaterthan 0.20
eitherway from the finenessmodulusof mix designsamplessubmittedby
the Contractormay be rejectedtill new trial mixes are preparedand tested
by the contractor.
Testing of the aggregate is specified under ltem 401.3.9 of these
specifications.
401.2.3

CoarseAggregate
The coarse aggregateshall consist of crushedor broken stone, gravel or
otherapprovedinert materialswith similarcharacteristics,
or a combination
thereof,havingclean,hard, strong,sound,durableuncoatedparticles,free
from injuriousamount of soft, friable,thin elongated,or laminatedpieces,
alkali, organic or other deleterious matter and conforming to the
requirements
of theseSpecifications.

401-3

.101.2.5

Rubbleor CyclopeanConcrete
Rubble or cyclopeanconcreteshall consist of tough, sound, and durable
rock. The stone shall be free from coatings, seams, or flaws of any
character. In general,the percentageof wear shall not exceed fifty (50)
when tested in accordancewith the Standard Method of Testing for
Abrasionof CoarseAggregateby the use of the "Los Angeles Machine",
ASTM C535.

401.2.6

Storageof qlment andAggreqates


a) All cement shall be stored,immediatelyupon arrivalon the site of the
work, rn weather-proofbuilding, which will protect the cement from
dampness. The floor shall be raisedfrom the ground. The buildingsshall
be placed in locationsapprovedby the Engineer. Provisionsfor storage
shall be ample, and the shipments of cement as received shall be
separately stored in such a manner as to provide easy access for
and inspectionof each shipment. Storagebuildingsshallhave
identification
capacityof a sufficientquantityof cement for at least thirty (30) days use.
Bulk cement,if used,shall be transferredto elevatedair tight and weatherproof bins. However,if approved,sacked cement on small jobs may be
storedin the open, upon a raisedplatformprovidedthat ample wa+erproof
coveringis ensured. Storedcementshall meet the test requirements
at any
time after storagewhen retestis ordered by the Engineer.At the time of use
all cement shall be free flowingand free of lumps. Cement bags shall be
weighedat randomto checkfor variation.
Copiesof cementrecordsshall be furnishedto the Engineershowing such
detailas, the quantityused duringthe day run or at each part of the work.
Cement held in storage for a period of over sixty (60) days, or cement
which,for any reasonthe Engineermay suspectof beingdamaged,shallbe
subjectto a retest beforebeing used in the work.
b) The handlingand storingof concreteaggregatesshall be such as to
preventsegregationor the inclusionof foreignmaterials.The Engineermay
require that aggregates be stored on separate platforms at satisfactory
locations.
In orderto securegreateruniformityof the concretemix, the Engineermay
requirethat the coarse aggregatebe separatedinto two or more sizes.
Differentsizes of aggregateshall be storedin separatebins or in separate
stock pilesto preventthe materialat the edges of the pilesfrom becoming
intermixed.
lf aggregatesare storedon the groundthe bottom layer of aggregateshall
not be disturbed or used without.recleaningand as approved by the
Engineer.

401-5

10L.2.1

Water
The waterfor curing,for washingaggregatesand for mixingshall be subject
to the approvalof the Engineer.lt shallbe free from oil and shallcontainnot
more than one thousand(1,000)partsper millionof chloridesnor morethan
one thousandthree hundreds(1,300)partsper millionof sulfates(SO+). In
no case shall the water containan amount of impuritiesthat will cause a
changein the settingtime of Portlandcementof more than twentyfive (25)
putceintnor a reduCtionin the compressivestrength of mortar at fourteen
to the result
it+; O"ys of more than five (5) percent when compared
obtainedwith distilledwater.
ln non-reinforced concrete work, the water for curing, for washing
aggregates,and for mixingshall be free from oil and shall not containmore
ttrantwo thousands(2,000)parts per millionof chloridesnor more than one
thousandfive hundreds(1,500)partsper millionof sulfatesas soa.
water for curing concreteshall not
In additionto the above requirements,
of the
to cause discolouration
amount
containany impuritiesin a sufficient
surface.
the
of
produce
etching
concreteor
when requiredby the Engineer,the quality of the mixing water shall be
determinedby the StandardMethod of Test for Quality of Water to be used
T 26.
in concrete,AASHTOMethodsof samplingand Testing,Designation:

401.2.8

Admixtures
Admixturesshallonly be allowedto be usedwith writtenpermissionfrom the
agents,water reducingagents,set retardersor
Engineer. lf air-entraining
to be used, they shall not bb used in
are'peimitted
stringth accelerators
greater dosages than those recommended by the manufacturer,or
for each
[ermitted by the Engineer,and shalt conformto the requirementF
of the agenfs specifiedby the manufacturer'

,101.3

CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS
The manufacturing,transport, handling and placing of concrete shall
conformwith the requirementsgiven hereinafter.
Unlessotherwisespecified,ordinaryPortlandcement shall be used for all
types of concrete. When sulphateresistingcement or_othertype of cement
ii'required,it will be specifiedon the Drawings/orin BOQ or orderedby the
Engineer.

.t01.3.1

of Concrete
Proportioning
All concreteshall be proportionedby wbighing,except as specifiedherein.
The proportionsby weight of cement,fine aggregates,coarse aggregates
and water necessary to produce concrete of the required strength and
consistencyshall be approvedby the Engineer. such approvalmay be
withdrawnat any time, and changesin the proportionsmay be requiredfor
durabilityand
the purposeof iequiredworkability,density,impermeability,
strength.
401-6

Based on the approvedmix proportions,the contractorshall prepare lists


showingthe numberof kilogramsof the variousmaterialto be used in the
batch size adopted. The requiredconsistencyshall also be shown. such
lists are subjectto approvalby the Engineer,and shall be posted at the
mixer.The amount of water in the mix is the total amount of free water,
includingthe free waterheld by the aggregates.
No concreteshallbe placedin the works untilthe resultsof the twenty eight
(28) days test indicatethat the design proporlionsare satisfactoryas per
requirementsunder ltem 401.3.10 "Testing of compressive sirengih".
Adjustmentof the proportionsshall be subjectlothe followingprovisions:
a) Adjustmentfor variationin workability- lf it is found impossibleto obtain
concrete of the
.desired workability with the proportions originally
approved,the Engineershall make such changesas aie necessary.
b) Adjustmentfor new materials- No changein the sourceor characterof
the materialshall be made withoutdue noticeto the Engineerand no
new materialsshall be used until the Engineer has aicepted such
materialsand has approvednew proportionsbasedon triarmixes.
The contractor'sattentionis drawn to the time requiredto prepare and test
trial batchesand the contractorshall be responsiblefor productionof trial
batches at a sufficienilyearly date so that the progressof the work is not
delayed.
401.3.2

Consistency
concrete shall have a consistencysuch that it will be workable in the
requiredposition. lt shall be of such a consistencythat it will flow around
reinforcementsteel but individualparticlesof the toarse aggregatewhen
isolatedshall show a coatingof mortarcontainingits proportl6nate
amount
of sand. The consistencyof concreteshall be deierminedto be as dry as it
is practicableto satisfy the requirementsfor transportationand placing
of
the concreteas describedhereinafter.
consistency of concrete shall be determined as specifiedin AASHTO
T-119. The consistencyof concreteat the time of deliveryshall be as
shownin Table 401.1or as designatedby the Engineer.

401.3.3

Mixing Concrete
a) Mixins General
The concreteshallbe mixedonly in the quantityrequiredfor immediateuse.
Concretethat has developedan initialset shallbe rejected.
concreteshallbe thoroughlymixedin a mixerof an approvedsize and type
that will ensurea uniformdistribution
of the materialsthroughoutthe mass.

401-7

All concreteshall be mixed in mechanicallyoperatedmixers. Mixingplant


and equipmentfor transportingand placingconcreteshould be arranged
with an ample auxiliaryinstallationto provide a minimumsupply of concrete
in case of breakdownof machineryor in case the normalsupplyof concrete
should be disrupted.The auxiliarysupply of concreteshall be sufficientto
joint .
completethe castingof a sebtionup to a construction
Equipmenthaving componentsmade of aluminum or magnesiumalloys,
which would have contacted with plastic concrete during mixing,
transportingor pumpingof Portlandcementconcrete,shallnot be used.
Concrete mixers shall be equipped with adequatewater storage and a
controllingthe quantityof
devicefor accuratelymeasuringand automatically
water used.
Materialsshall be measuredby weighing,except as otherwisespecifiedor
where other methods are specificallyauthorizedby the Engineer.The
apparatusprovidedfor weighingthe aggregatesand cement shall ensure
of each ingredient.
accuratemeasurement
The accuracyof all weighingdevicesexceptthat for watershall be such that
successivequantitiescan be measuredto within one (1) percentof the
desired value. Cement in standard packages (bags) approved by the
Engineer need not be weighed. The water measuringdevice shall be
accurateto plus or minus half percent1 0.50%. All measuringdevicesshall
be subjectto the approvalof the Engineer. Scalesand measuringdevices
shall be tested at the expense of the Contractoras frequentlyas the
Engineermay deem necessaryto ensuretheir accuracy.
Weighingequipmentshallbe isolatedso that vibrationor movementof other
operatingequipmentdo not effectthe accuracyof reading.When the entire
plant is running,the scale readingat cut-offshall not vary from the weight
designatedby the Engineermore than one (1) percentfor cement,one and
half (1.lz) percentfor any size of aggregate,or one (1) percentfor the total
aggregatesin any batch.
are authorizedby the Engineer,the weight
Wherevolumetricmeasurements
proportionsshallbe convertedto equivalentvolumetricproportions.In such
cases, suitableallowancesshall be made for variationsin the moisture
condition of the aggregates,including the bulking effect in the fine
aggregates.Boxesor similarcontainersof the exact volumerequiredshall
be filled and struckoff. Measurementby wheel barrowvolumeswill not be
permitted.
b) Mixine at Site
Concretemixersmay be of the revolvingdrum or the revolvingblade type
and the mixing drum or blades shall be operateduniformlyat the mixing
speed recommendedby the manufacturer. The pick-upand throw-over
blades of mixer shalt be restoredor replacedwhen any part or sectionsis
worn two and half (2.5) cms. or below than the original height of the
design. Mixersand agitators,which have an accumulation
manufacturer's
of hard concreteor rnortar,shallnot be used.

aot-a

When bulk cement is used and volume of the batch is one cubic meter or
more, the scale and weigh hopperfor Portlandcement shall be separate
and distinct from the aggregate hopper or hoppers. The discharge
mechanism of bulk cement weigh hopper shall be interlockedagainst
openingbeforethe full amountof cementis in the hopper.The discharging
mechanismshall also be interlockedagainstopeningwhen the amountof
cement in the hopper."js underweightby more than one percent or
overweightby morethan three(3) percentof the amountspecified.
When the aggregatescontainmore water than the quantitynecessaryto
produce a saturatedsurface-drycondition,representativesamples shdll be
taken and the moisturecontentdeterminedfor each kind of aggregate.
The temperatureof mixedconcrete,immediatelybeforeplacing,shallbe not
more than thirty two (32) degreeC. Aggregatesand water shall be cooled
as necessaryto produce concrete within this temperatures limit. lf ice is
used to cool the concrete,dischargeof the mixer will not be permitteduntil
all ice is melted.
The batch shall be so charged into the mixer that some water will enter in
advanceof cementand aggregates.All water shall be in the drum by the
end of the firstquarterof the specifiedmixingtime.
Cementshall be batchedandt,charged
into the mixer by meansthat will not
result in loss due to the effect of wind, or in accumulationof cement on
surfaces of conveyorsor hoppers, or in other conditions which reduce or
vary the requiredquantity of cementin the concretemlkture.
The entire contentsof a batch mixer shall be removedfrom the drum before
materials for a succeeding batch are placed therein. The materials
into the
composinga batchexceptwater shall be depositedsimultaneously
mixer.
Allconcreteshall be mixedfor a periodof not less than one and half (1.112)
minutesafter all materials,includingwater, are in the mixer. During the
periodof mixing,the mixer shall operateat the speed for which it has been
designed.
Mixersshall be operatedwith an automatictimingdevicethat can be locked
by the Engineer. The time device and dischargemechanismshall be so
interlockedthat during normal operation no part of the batch will be
dischargeduntilthe specifiedmixingtime has elapsed. In case of failureof
the timingdevice,the Contractorwill be permittedto operatewhileit is being
repaired, provided he furnishes an approved timepiece equipped with
minuteand secondhands. lf the timingdeviceis not repairedwithintwenty
'four(24) hours, further use of the mixer will be prohibiteduntil repairs are
made.
The first batch of concrete material placed in the mixer shall contain
cement,sand,and water in excessto the requirementof mix, to ensurethat
the drum does not extract mortar from the mix changing its design
characteristics.When mixingis to stop for a period of one hour or more,the
mixershallbe thoroughlycleaned.

401-9

c) PlantMixins
At centralmixing plant, batchesshall be dischargedfrom the weighing
container
hopperintothe mixereitherdirectlyby gravityor by an elevating
largeenoughto containthe batch. The plantshallbe arrangedto ensure
thatthereis no lossof cementduringtransferfromweighinghopperto the
mixerdrum.Themixingtimeshallneitherbe lessthanfifty(50)second,nor
morethanninety(90)seconds.
The plastisizer,acceleratoror retarderor water reducingadmixture,if
required,shall be fed separatelyat the rate recommendedby the
by laboratory
trials.
or as established
marrufacture,
d) TransitMixine
shallbe of the
by the Engineer,
authorized
Truckmixers,unlessotherwise
andso constructed
thatthe concretecan be
type,watertight,
revolving'drum
the mass.All
of materials
throughout
mixedto ensurea uniformdistribution
solidmaterialsfor the concreteshallbe accuratelymeasuredand charged
plant.The truckmixershallbe equipped
intothe drumat the proportioning
with a deviceby whichthe quantityof wateraddedcan be readilyverified.
The mixingwatermay be addeddirectlyto the batch,in casethe concrete
batchis pouredwithintwentyfive (25)minutesof addingwater.
sizeof batchin truckmixersshallnot exceedthe maximum
The maximum
and stampedin
ratedcapacityof the mixeras statedby the manufacturer,
for not lessthanfifiy
metalon the mixer. Truckmixingshallbe continued
water,are in the drum. The
including
(50)revolutions
afterall ingredients,
mixingspeedshallnotbe lessthansix(6)rpm,normorethanten (10)rpm.
Mixingshatl begin withinthirty (30) minutesafter the cementhas been
butwhencementis chargedintoa
addedeitherto the wateror aggregate,
mixer drum containingwater or surface-wetaggregateand when the
is abovethirtytwo (32)degreeC, this limitshallbe reducedto
temperature
of the
(15)
in time betweenthe introduction
fifteen
minutes.The limitation
may
waived
of
the
mixing
be
and
the
aggregate
beginning
cementto the
free
the aggregateis sufficiently
when,in the judgmentof the Engineer,
so thattherewill be no harmfuleffectson the cement.
frommoisture,
e) Partial Mixins at the CentralPlant
When a truck mixer, or an agitatorprovidedwith adequatemixing blades, is
the mixingtime at the stationaryplant mixer may be
usedfor transportation,
reduced to thirty (30) seconds and the mixing completed in a truck
mixer/agitator.The mixingtime in the truck mixeror agitatorequippedwith
adequatemixingbladesshallbe as specifiedfor truck mixing.
O Stiff Concrete]|Iix
For mixingconcreteof zero slump to be laid by pavers,gravitymixer shall
not be used.Only force mixer of movingbladesshall be allowedto ensure
homogenousmix.

401-10

s) Hand Mixine
Hand mixingof materialsshallnot be allowedin any case.

40r.3.4

Hauling and Delivervof Mixed Concrete


a) Hauling
Mixedconcretemay be transportedto the deliverypointin truck'agitators
or
truck mixers operatingat the speed designated by the manufacturer,
provided the consistencyand workabilityof the mixed concrete upon
discharge at the delivery point is suitable for adequate placementand
consolidation
in place.
Truck agitators shall be loaded not to exceed the manufacturerlsrated
capacity.They shallmaintainthe mixedconcretein a thoroughlymixedand
uniformmassduringhauling.
Bodies of non-agitatinghauling equipment shall be so constructedthat
leakageof the concretemix, or any part thereof,will not occur at any time,
and they shallbe self-cleaning
duringdischarge.
For zero slump concreteto be laid be paver, concretewill be allowedto be
hauledin open trucks.Howeverconcretehauledin open{op vehiclesshall
be protectedduringhaulingagainstrain, or exposureto the sun for more
than twenty (20) minuteswhen the ambient temperatureexceedstwenty
five (2S)degree
C.
No additionalwatershall be incorporatedinto the concreteduringhaulingor
after arrivalat the deliverypoint.
The rate of dischargeof mixed concretefrom truck mixer agitatorsshall be
controlledby the speed of rotationof the drum in the dischargedirection
with the dischargegatefullyopen.
when a truck mixer or agitatoris used for transportingconcreteto the
deliverypoint,dischargeshall be completedwithinone hour, or beforetwo
hundredfifty (250)revolutionsof the drum or blades,whichevercomes first,
after the introductionof cement to the aggregates. Under conditions
contributingto quick stiffeningof the concrete,or when the temperatureof
the concreteis thirty(30) degreec or above,a time less than one hour will
be requiredexceptwhen retarderis used in which case it shall be one (1)
hour.
when non-agitatinghaulingequipmentis used for transportingconcreteto
the deliverypoint,dischargeshall be completedwithin one hour after the
additionof the cementto the aggregates. Under conditionscontributingto
quick stiffeningof the concrete,or when the temperatureof the concreteis
thirty (30) degreec or above,the time betweenthe introductionof cement
to the aggregatesand dischargeshallnot exceedfortyfive (45) minuteb.

401-11

b) Deliverv
The organizationsupplyingconcreteshall have sufficientplantcapacityand
transportationvehiclesto ensure continuousdeliveryat the rate required.
The rate of the deliveryof concreteduring concretingoperationsshall be
such as to providefor the proper handling,placing,and finishingof the
concrete.The rate shallbe such that the intervalbetweenbatchesshallnot
exceed twenty (20) minutes. The methodsof deliveringand handlingthe
concreteshall be such as will facilitateplacingwith the minimumrehandling
and withoutdamageto the structureof the concrete.
c) RetemDering
The concreteshall be mixed only in such quantitiesas are requiredfor
immediateuse and any concretethat has developedinitialset shall not be
used. Concretethat has partiallyhardenedshall not be retemperedor
remixed.
401.3.5

Handlingand PlacineConcrete
a) Generdl
In preparationfor the placing of concrete all sawdust, chips and other
constructiondebrisand extraneousmattershall be removedfrom insidethe
formwork,and struts,staysand bracesservingtemporarilyto holdthe forms
in correct shape and alignment,pendingthe placing of concreteat their
locations,shall be removedwhen the concrete placing has reached an
elevationrenderingtheirservicesunnecessary.Thesetemporarymembers
shall be entirelyremovedfrom the formsand not buriedin the concrete.
No concreteshall be used that does not reach its final positionin the forms
withinthe time stipulatedaboveunderltem 4O1.3.4"Haulingand Deliveryof
MixedConcrete".
Concreteshall be placedso as to avoidsegregationof the materialsand the
displacementof the reinforcement.The use of long troughs,chutes,and
pipesfor conveyingconcreteto the forms shall be permittedonly on written
authorization
of the Engineer.In any case the Engineerwill rejectthe use of
equipmentfor concretetransportationthat will allow segregation,loss of
fines, or in any other way will have a deterioratingeffect on the concrete
quality.
Open troughs and chutes shall be of metal or metal lined; where steep
slopesare required,the chutesshallbe equippedwith bafflesor be in short
lengthsthat reversethe directionof movement.
All chutes,troughsand pipesshall be kept clean and free from coatingsof
hardenedconcreteby thoroughlyflushingwith water after each run; water
usedfor flushingshallbe dischargedclearoff the structure.

401-12

When placingoperationswould involvedroppingthe concretemore than


one and half (1.v2) meters, it shall be conveyedthrough sheet metal or
otherapprovedpipes. As far as practicable,
the pipe shall be kept buriedin
the newly placedconcrete. After initialset of the concretethe forms shall
not be jarred and no loadingof any kind shall be placed on the ends of
projectingreinforcementbars.
The concreteshall be placedas nearlyas possibleto its final positionand
the use of vibratorsfor extensiveshiftingof the mass of fresh concretewill
not be permitted.
b) PneumaticPlacing
Pneumaticplacingof concretewill be permittedonly if authorizedby the
Engineer. The equipmentshall be so arrangedthat no vibrationwill occur
that mightdamagefreshlyplacedconcrete.
Where concrete is conveyed and placed by pneumatic means, the
equipmentshall be suitablein kind and adequatein capacityfor the work.
The machineshall be located as close as practicableto the work. The
dischargelinesshallbe horizontalor inclinedupwardsfrom the machine.
At the conclusionof placingthe concrete,the entire equipmentshall be
thoroughlycleaned.
c) Pu{npine
The placingof concreteby pumpingwill be permittedonly if specifiedin the
SpecialProvisionsor if arjthorizedby the Engineer.The equiprnentshall be
so arrangedthat no vibrationwill occur that might damage freshly placed
concrete.
Where concreteis conveyedand placedby mechanicallyappliedpressure
the equipmentshall be suitablein kind and adequatein capacityfor the
work. The operationof the pump shall be such that a continuousstreamof
concretewithoutair pocketsis obtained.When pumpingis completed,the
concreteremainingin the pipeline,if it is to be used,shall be ejectedin such
a mannerthat there will be no contamination
of the concreteor separation
of the ingredients. After this operation,the entire equipment shall be
thoroughlycleaned.
d) PlacingConcreteUnderWater
Concreteshall not be placedunder water exceptwhere inevitablein which
case approvalmust be soughtfrom the Engineerand the work carriedout
under his immediatesupervision.In this case the methodof placingshall
be as hereinafterspecified.
Concretedepositedunderwater shall be classA concretewith a minimum
cementcontentcf three hundredfifty(350)Kg per cubicmeterof concrete.

401-13

(10) and fifteen(15)


The slumpof concreteshallbe maintainedbetweenten
p|aced
in a.compactmass,
cm. To preventsegregation,it sha||be careful|y
bucket,or other
bottom-dump
a
in iir nn"f positionlby-means of a tremie,
placed.water
being
after
disturbed
be
approvedmeans, and it shall not
surface'
concrete
past
fresh
the
mustnot be allowedto flow
25 cm
A tremieshallconsistof a tube havinga diameterof not less than
gaskets
with a
with
constructedin sectionshavingflangedcouplingsfitted
hopperatthetop.Thetremiesha||besupportedSoaSto.permitfree
the work and
movementof the dischargeend over the entiretop surfaceof
the flow of
or
stop
retard
to
necessary
lo ,. to permitrapid loweringwhen
so as to
work
of
start
the
at
closed
be
shall
concrete.'The dischargeend
preventwaterenteringthetubeandshallbecomp|ete|ysubmergedin
of the
concreteat all times;tie tremie tube shall be kept full to the bottom
sha|l
hopper. When a batchis dumpedintothe hopper,the f|ow of concrete
in
the
it
keeping
by slightlyraisingthe dischargeend,but always
Oe'ihOuceC
completed'
work.lS
pfaceO.on"r"te.lhe flo* shallbe continuousuntilthe
of the
when the concreteis placed with a bottom-dumpbucket,the top
and
downward
freely
open
shalt
doors
bucketshall be open. The bottom
slowly
and
filled
be
completely
shall
bucket
The
outwardwhen tripped.
on the
loweredto avoid backwash. lt shall not be dumped until it rests
discharged
when
and
deposited
be
to
is
concrete
the
which
,rrf""" upon
shallbe withdrawnslowlyuntilwell abovethe concrete'
and
Dewatertngmay proceedwhen the concreteseal is sufficientlyhard
from
removed
be
shall
material
strong. nii taitanceor other unsatisfactory
will not
the eiposed surfaceby scraprng,chippingor other means, which
injurethe surfaceof the concrete.
e) ComPaction
thoroughly
concrete, dunng and immediately after placing shall be_
deposited
concrete
and
footings
under
compacted,except lean concrete
placed in
be
shall
etc.
columns,
beams,
walls,
under water. concrete in
as
except
(30)
centimeters
thirty
than
more
trorizontatlayers not
.thick
placed in one
is
layel
complete
a
than
less
when
provided.
hereinafter
shall be
oput"tion,it shall be terminatedin a verticalbulkhead. Each layer
initial
set to
placedand compactedbeforethe precedinglayer has taken
separation
of
avoid surfaces
br""L.t injury to the greel concrete and
to avoid the
betweenthe-layers. iach layer shall be compactedso. ?s.
not taken
has
which
preceding
layer,
joini
with a
formationof a construction
an initialset.
shall
The compactionshall be done by mechanicalvibration.The concrete
given
is
methods
other
of
authorization
spetiat
unless
be vibratedinternally
design,
ov fi.]" Engineeror is providedherein. Vibratorsshall be of a type,
be
shall
and frequencyapprovedby the Engineer.Theiintensityof vibration
radius
over
a
iuctr as'visiblyto affecta mass of ioncretewith a 3 cm slump
numberof
of at leasthalf a meter. The Contractorshall providea sufficient
placed
in the
is
it
after
vibratorsto properlycompacteach batchimmediately
thoroughly
to
so
as
forms. Vibratorsshall be manipulated
401-14

work the conirete aroundthe reinforcement


and embeddedfixturesand into
the corners and angresof the torms
ano shail be appriedat the point of
placingand in the a-reaof freshrypt""J"on"r"t".
The vibratorssha, be
insertedinto and withdrawntromirre
srowry.The vibrationshail be
of sufficientdurationand intensityto"on"r"t"
compactthe concretethoroughrybut
shail not be continuedat any'onepoint
to tre extentthat rocarized,areas
of
grout are formed. Appricaiionoi
vibratorsshail be
poinis uniformry
spacedand not fartherapart than twice
the
'notradiusover"twhich the vibration
is visibty effective. Vibration srrari
be appried direcry to the
reinforcement
or to sectionsor layersof concretethat
have hardenedto the
degreethat the concreteceasesto o" pr*ti.
undervibration.rt shailnot be
used to make concretefrowin the forml
over oistancesso greatas to cause
segregationand vibratorsshail not be
used to transport
'!'u' 'svv' r vvr
concrete
rurEr neitherin
the forms nor in troughsor chutes.
Vibrationshall be supplemented
by such externalvibratoras is necessary
to
ensure smooth surfacesand dense concrete
arong form surfacesand in
cornersand locationsimpossibleto reach
with the no"*"ruior"i-r.
401.3.6
a) General

The concrete in
integrarpart of
"r"lcontraciorwiit'not a structure shat be praced
continuousry,
and the
oe arroweJio
workon
any such part unresssufficienfly
"oi.ri"n""
inspected
ano approvJ
mJteriatfor the
concreteis at hand'
?rd manpowerand equipmentare sufficientto
comprete
the partwithout
interruption
in thepracing'or
the
"on-"r"t".
construction
jointsshailbe ailowedonrywhere
specifiedon the pransor
otherwiseapproved.rf not detaireooir
the prans,or in the case of
emergency,
construction
jointsshailbe pracedas directed.
shearKeysor
inclinedreinforcement
strbttbe used*n!r" necessary
to
transmit
shearor
bondthetwosections
together.wnen snearkeysor inclinedreinforcement
are notprovided,
theconcrete
shailbe roughened
as directed.Jointsin the
concretedue to discontinuity
of workshailbe avoided;il;
as possibre.
suchjoints,whennecessary,
shailbe constructed
to
meet
the
approvar
of
the Engineer.
pracing
of concrete
rstemporariry
discontinued,
Ih"n the
the concrete
after
fjp e.nouoh,to
retain
it.
dr'ape,'shail
be
9."-"*i,n.g
creaned
of
raitance
and
otherobjectionabre
materiar
to a sufficient'depth
to
expose
sound
concrete.
where a "feathered
edge"mightoe prooiceoat a constru"tion
;oint, in
the stopedtop surfaceof a w-ng*uit, an
insetformwork;;;i be used
". to
producean edge thicknes"oi not'ress
than
15
centimeters
in the
succeedingrayer. work sha, not
be discontinued;iil;
fifty
(50)
gf th1lop of any face; untessprovisionhas been macre
:::9",,^":
for
a
coprngressthan s0 centimeters
thick,in which.;;, ; p"rrii"o by the
Engineer,
theconstruction
jointmayoe''maoe
at the ,nc"rrii" oicoping.

401-15

I t- tot
'suolsl^old
lepads eLllulJo sueldotli uo uMotlsaq llBqs
'suolleJaplsuoc
ubtsap,tq pe:tnbetaJoqA
alaieuoc
eql
acuanbos6urceld
'sueds snonurluocJoJ 'sJoIBl
dn lqbno.rqpue lapll6
ul
^luona
leluozlJoq
aql lo q16ua;llnJeql :o; r{;tuto;runpelrsodepoq lleqs s:eptt6 ul a}ol3uo3
'spua aql piemol Jeluac oql uoJl butllom pue ueds eql ]o Jaluac oq]
'sueds alduts ro3
fq palrsodepaq Ilqerelerd 1leqsalalcuoo
1e Ouruur6eq
(p
sulunloJpuB'sq8IS'sJoprlc
aut;punolb
oq
pasodxa
aql
ul
olqlsl^
acel
oLll
aql o^oqe llervr6u6n Jo
ll$ lutof ou leql
'slutofuol}cnJlsuo3
polecolos pue leluozuoL{
aq lleqs 'slqeploneunolaqn
'Iun slLl}louor.lle sP palsrulsuoc aq
qcea ',alqrssod11
lleqs llerrnoulM
'qelslanooeqlOutroqcuelo1sllemapls
'asec sltll ul 'peceldsl qels do1aql
aql ur uel aq lletls sr{a) aleudoldde
u;
arojaqlas ol pomollBpue paceldaq lleqssllPMaql ul olalcuoceq11q61eq
ul
aLll
uollcrulsuoc
sJalau (Vtt't):apenb pue ouo uelll aloul spanlncxoq lo
'Uallnc oql

lo slxe er.llo] selDue]qbt:le pue leclyo^aq lleqs


'pesn sl uollcnilsuoc potllotll sltll uaLlM
fuessecau
uorlcnrlsuoc
slurof
lo
'lq6teq
'lrun crL{}rlouour
e se polcnr}suo3eq deu qels dol pue sllerdoplsaq1
ul ssalJo s;alaul (Vtt ) layenb pue ouo spa^lncxoq Jo uollcrulsuocaql ul
'1utoIuotlcrugsuoc
'luanald o1 se
'olqlssod
se .re1se
eq1 q6no:ql rale/\Alo uotle;ocladeql
pasleJ}o sueou r(qIlqe-relard'eseqUa^lnc
pelcruisuocos s{a1 ;eurpn1r6uol
'asec
aql ol slle^opls eq1 Durpuoqlo, opeul oq lleqs uotstnold.olqellns
slql ul pelcnllsuoc sl ua^lnc aql lo lepuleulol aql alolaq las ol pa^Aolle
'1e:auabu;
pue peceld aq lleqs sya^lnc xoq Jo s6urloollo qels aseq aql
'Uanlnceq] stxe eq1o1selDue
leclyon
lq6tl le aq llellsslutoluot1cru]suoc
]o

sFrin5mBTr
'aut1punolOoql a^oqe
aq]
llennbutrur
pue
pa]ecol
os
le]uozlJot1
lo ocej pasodxaaql ul alqlslnaq lllMlutofou ]eq]
'{;lectq1l;ouoru
6utmut slutofuol]cnJ]suoC
alaqM s1;ean
aq lleqsalqeproneun
'suolslnord
palcru]suocaq lleqs sllem uteUncpue a1e1dpaq alelsuoo eqJ
'slleM
y.ulnqe {Luoseu }o uol}cnllsuocaLllJa}lV
lercadgur perllcedsse
'pauelssr alojcuocpasJolulalaql oJoJaql9s o] poMolle
'leleua6 u1
pue paceld aq lleqs uotiepunolaq] Molaq alal3uoc ueal oq)
Sire^lr-5n-BISlQ'
'alalcuosaLll ocelns oql leou puoq
io
'loa]s outctolute:aq]
lo outueelc
laols alajcum aLll lealq lo elnfut o1 lou
eull 6uunp 'pospJaxoaq lleqs aleC oloJcuoolasun oql olut palppndeq
'panoulolaq
lleqs sulo1 lo sacepns
lou lleqslsnp pup sdttlclepou paPC
eql pue laels butclolulol aql uodn paqselds lepotl Jo suollelnuncce
{1e1etpeutuu1
lle aloJcuoo 6urceld Jo aouenulluocslp oql 6ur'no11o1

concrete in girder haunchesless than one (1) meter in height shall be


placed at the same time as that in the girder stem, and the column or
abutmenttops shall be cut back to form seatsfor the haunches.whenever
any haunch or fillet has a verticalheight of one (1) meter or more, ilre
abutmentor columns,the haunch;and the girder shall be placed in three
successivestages;first,to.lowerside of haunch;second,to the lower side
of thb girder;and thirdto completion.
For haunchedcontinuousgirders,the girder stem (includinghaunch)shall
be placedto the top of stem. where the size of the poui is such that it
cannot be made in one continuousoperation,verticalconstructionjoints
shall preferablybe locatedwithin the area of contraflexure.
concretein slab spansshall be placedin one continuousoperationfor each
span unless otheruvise
provided.The floors and girdersof through girder
superstructuresshall be placed in one continuous operation unless
otherwisespecified,in which case a special shear anchorageshall be
providedto ensuremonolithicactionbetweengirderand floor.
concretein T-beamor deck girderspans may be placedon one continuous
operationor may be placed in two separateoperations;each of which shall
be continuous;first, to the top' of the girder stems and second. to
completion.ln the latter case, the bond belween stem and slab shall be
providedby suitableshear keys or by artificiallyrougheningthe surfaceof
the top of the girderstem. In general,suitablekeys may be formed by the
use of timberblocks approximatelyfive (5) byten (10) cm in cross-settion
and havinga lengthof ten (10) cms less than the wiotn orthe girderstem.
These key blocksshall be spaced along the girderstems as riquired, but
the spacingshall be not greaterthan thirty (30) cms centerto center.The
blocks shall be removedas soon as the concretehas set sufficientto retain
its shape.
concretein box girdersmay be placedin two or three separateoperations.
In either case the bottom slab shall be placed first. dond betweenthe
bottom slab and stem shall be positiveand mechanical. lf the webs are
Pfaceoseparatelyfrom the top slab, bond betweenthe top slab and webs
shall be securedin the same manner as for T-beams. Requirementsfor
shear keys for T-beamsshall also apply.to box girders,except that keys
need not be deeperthan the depthto the top of bottomslab reiniorcement.
concrete in columnsshall be placed in one continuousoperation,unless
othenvisedirected. The concreteshall be allowedto set ai least 24 hours
beforethe caps are placed.
when frictioncollarsare usedto supportcap forms,the concreteof columns
shallhave been pouredat leastseven(7) days earlier.
Unless otheruise permitted, no concrete shall be placed in the
superstructureuntil the column forms have been strippedsufficienflyto
determinethe characterof the concretein the columns. The load ol the
superstructure
shall not be allowedto come upon the bents until the test
cylindersrepresentingthe bents have obtainedthe minimumcompressive
strengthbut in no case in lessthan seven (7) days.

401-17

e) ConstructionJoints

Constructionjoints shall be made only where shown on the Drawingsor


called for in the pouring schedule, unless otherwise approved by the
joints,also in cases
Engineer. lf not detailedon the Drawings,construction
of emergencyshall be placedto meet the approvalof the Engineer. Shear
keys or reinforcement
shall be used,unlessotheruvise
specified,to transmit
shearor to bondthe two sectionstogether.
Before depositing new concrete on or against concrete, which has
hardened,the forms shall be retightened. The surface of the hardened
concreteshall be roughenedas requiredby the Engineer,in a mannerthat
will not leave loose particles of aggregate or damage concrete at the
surface.' lt shall be thoroughlycleaned of foreign matter and laitance.
When directedby the Engineer,the surface of the hardenedconcretewhich
will be in contactwith new concreteshall be washed with water to ensure
an excessof mortarat the junctureof the hardenedand the newlydeposited
concrete,the cleanedand wateredsurfaces,includingverticaland inclined
surface, shall first be thoroughly covered with a coating of mortar of the
same proportionof sand and cement as the class of concreteused against
which the new concrete shall be placed before the grout or mortar has
attainedits finalset.
The placingof concreteshall be carriedout continuouslyfrom joint to joint.
The face edges of all joints,which are exposed,to view shall be carefully
finishedtrue to lineand elevation.
f) Rubbleor CicloneanConcrete
Rubbleor cyclopeanconcreteshall consistof Class B concretecontaining
large embeddedstones.The stone for this class of work shall be placed
carefullyso as to avoid damageto the forms or to the partiallyset adjacent
concrete. Stratifiedstone shall be placed upon its natural bed. Stone shall
be washed and saturatedwith water beforeplacing.
The total volumeof the stoneshall not be greaterthan one third of the total
volume of the portionof the work in which it is placed.For walls of piers
greater than sixty (60) cms in thickness,stone of such size that one man
can handle it, shall be used. Each stone shall be surroundedby at least
fifteen(15) cms of concreteand no stoneshall be closerthan thirty(30)cms
to any top surfacenor any closerthan fifteen(15) cms to any coping.For
walls or piersgreaterthan one (1) meterin thickness,largerstone(50 Kg or
more) may be used. Each stone shall be surroundedby at leastthirty(30)
cms of concrete,and no stoneshall be closerthan sixty(60) cms to any top
surfacenor closerthan twenty(20) cms to any coping.
g) ConcreteExposedto SeaWater

provided,concretefor structuresexposedto
Unlessotherwisespecifically
sea water shallbe ClassA. The clear distancefrom the face of the
concrete
to the nearest
faceof reinforcement
steelshallbe notlessthan10
cms.The concreteshallbe mixedfor a periodof not lessthan2 minutes
and the watercontentof the mixtureshall be chrefullycontrolledand
401-18

6L-LjV
'ruioJtun
aq lleLlspaloosos ele0aJ66eaql Jo
'Duuelenn
Iq e1e6e:66e
]ualuocJelemoq] ]eql papt^old
os;eoc1o 6ur1oo3(rr

]o aurl aL*]e acruorl aar,aq relrsraleMaq]]",r1p$il:fY::ll*::;

lo uorlrppe{q :o slloc a6ueqcxaleaq {q ra}em o}arcuocJo bultttqC(l


:suotleltutl
s^oqe
aLllA olaq alalcuoc1o a.lnleledualeq1daal ol pasn eq IeLu 6urnnol;o1
eq1
'Ilr1enbuo
]oo1laleluaul:lap.raqlo{ue Ourcnpo.rlur
}noq}marnge:edue1
Ll6lq lo slcal;a leluotxulop aleutulla o1 'fuo1ce1stles
aq o] leul alecs
llnJpue s1selfuoletoqel^q umoLlsseq aq qctqMuotpodoldur pue aleu e
'Jaststlseld
e xlu aLllut selelodlocurJolselluocaql ssalun'6ur,ie1
lo
Jo atuu
aql le C ae:6ap (Zg)orrnlr{ylq1peecxa}ou lleLlsalaJOUoc
1oelnletaduo}orll_
reqlEaiAloH u! IJOA\(!!!
'a3epnsalolouoc
aql Jo rlsemJoMoll 6ur6euepJoJepou a3elns
aql ol aOeutepluanaldot paprno:dsr uorlcelo:dalenbapessalunpaddolsaq
aq} ,ulelJo suo4tpuo3lapun
lleqsio oclaululoclou lleL{sa}alcuoo1oOurceld

f itssio-iETtriili!
'esuedxa
s;olcelluoOeql 1epacelda.r
pue panoujaloq lleqsolalcuocpaberuep{ue pue Isu s,Joleel}uo3
oq} }e
aq lleqs iaqleam p;oc 6uunpto raqleamloq 6uunp paceldelercuoc,tuy
'suorlelado6uunc
pue 6urceld6uunp suot]tpuocleluauluoJtnua
Jaqlo Jo laqleam ol anp
a6etuepuol1 alaJcuoclcalold ol papoause ualel aq lleqs suotlne3aJd

iffiuE$'1
;uorlrpuoJIBluaruuoJrlutr
uto{ aloJJuoJJo uorlJeloJdt
.JoljeaJaq]
s:noq (72) onnl,{luenas }seel le 1o por:ad e lo, pue luaulace;d6uunp
alajcuosaLllr.ll!^]celuocut aq lou llellssltoslo leleM oullellv .la^allaleM
ro punolb anoqe 'sLuc(gg) Iyll 1seelJe st alolcuoc aLllltlun lo uotlcasoLll
1o uotla;duoclllun snonutluooaq lleqs burcegd,alqtssodJa^aJaqM utaJeq
suotlecrlrcads
Ll]lMocuepJocceut 1 ace;d ol uale] aq lleqs elec lelcads
'sposJo Jalemautlelle
lo uotlce oql ol pesodxaaq Aeu aleJcuoColaqM
ralBA\llB{lv ro slrosrlE)IIvol pesodxgalalruo3 (Q
'paqJnlstpun
'sulloJall] ulolJ
ual aq lleLls
'aoe1.lns
.s{ep
soruocalor3uocaql se
(Oe)IUtLltueq} ssol }ou
eq1
;eur6r.ro
1o poued e Jo] olalcuoc aLll rlltn loeluoc ut atuo3 lou lleLlslolem eas slanal
aseql uaenlag ':eaur6u3or.llIq pauruJalapse lelem q6rq aureLlxopue
ralemMol suaJlxo lo slanaluaer/Uaq
pauloJ oq lleqs sluro[uorlcntlsuocoN
'poproneeq
pue
palceduoc
slelcod
lte
Ilq6noroql eq lleqs alalcuoo
lleqs
al11 '{lrpqeeruladultunultxeu }o a}alcuoc ecnpold o} se os pa1e1n6eL

iii) Reclaimingof aggregatefrom stock piles by the tunnel methodto avoid


usingthe surfacelayerof the stockpilewith shadeand wind protectionof
conveyorelevatingto batchingplant.
iv) Night work provided that (i), (ii) and (iii) are proved inadequateor
unsatisfactory
in their resultsand providingalso that the Engineerhas no
otherreasonfor refusingpermissionfor nightwork.
The Engineer shall have power to order the suspension of concrete
productionin case of not taking precautionary
measuresby the contractor
as mentionedabove.Underno circumstances
will the Contractorbe entiiled
to ieceive any additionalpaymentfor complyingwith the requirementsof
thisclause.
iv. Work in Cold Weather
Exceptby writtenapprovalof the Engineer,concretingoperationsshall not
be continuedwhen a descendingair temperaturein the shade and away
from artificialheat falls below five (5) degree c, nor resumed until an
ascendingair temperaturein the shade and away from artificialheat
reaches two (2) degree c. In such cases, the mixing water and/or
aggregatesshall be heatedto not less than twenty one (2i) degree c nor
more than sixtysix (66) degree c, priorto being placedin the mixer by an
approved type of heating device so that the temperatureof the concrete
shall not be less than ten ('10)degreec, nor more than twenty seven (27)
degreec, at the time of placing.No materialscontainingfrost shall be used.
cement or fine aggregatescontaininglumpsor crustsof hardenedmaterials
shallnot be used.
401.3.7

ConcreteSurfaceFinishing/Rendering
O_General
Concretesurface finishesshallbe classifiedas follows:
BridgeDeckSurfaceFinish
SidewalkSurfaceFinish
OrdinarySurfaceForm Finish
Class1 SurfaceForm Finish
The bridgedeck surfacefinish shall be given to the surfaceof the bottom
slabsof all box type underpassstructures.
The requirementsfor sidewalksurfacefinish apply to the surface of the
bottom slabs in box culverts,except that the acceptablevariationfrom a
three-meterstraightedge
shallbe 10 mm, and broomingshall be omitted.
The ordinary surface form finish shall be the final finish applied to all
surfacesafter removalof forms, unlessotherwisespecifiedor calledfor on
the drawings.
The class 1 surfaceform finishshall be appliedonly wherespecified,or as
requiredby the Engineerwhen the ordinarysurfacefinishdid not produce
the requiredsmooth,even surfaceof uniformtextureand appearances.
441-20

b) BridseDeckSurfaceFinish
A smooth ridingsurfaceof uniformtexture,true to the requiredgrade and
cross-section,shall be obtained on all bridge roadway decks. The
Contractormay use hand tools, or finishingmachinesor a combinationof
both, conformingto the requirementsspecifiedherein for finishingbridge
roadwaydeck concrete.
Finishingof concreteplaced in bridge decks shall consist essentiallyof
compactingand strikingoff the surface of the concrete as placed and
floatsthe surfaceso struck.off.
floatingwith longitudinal
The placingof concretein bridgeroadwaydecks will not be permitteduntil
the Engineeris satisfiedthat the rate of producingconcretewill be sufficient
to complete the proposed placing and finishing operationswithin the
scheduletime, that experiencedfinishingmachineoperatorsand concrete
finishersare employedto finish the deck, that fogging equipmentand all
necessaryfinishingtoolsand equipmentare on hand at the site of the work
and in satisfactoryconditionfor use. Finishingmachinesshall be set up
sufficientlyin advanceof use to permitinspectionby the Engineerduringthe
daylighthoursbeforeeach Pour.
The adjustmentand operationof deck finishingmachinesshall be verified
by movingthe machineover the full lengthof the deck sectionto be placed
and traversing the float completely across all end bulkheads before
placementof concreteis begun.
Unless adequate lightingfacilitiesare provided by the Contractor,the
placingof concretein bridgedecks shall cease at such time that finishing
operationscan be completedduringdaylighthours.
Rails for the supportand operationof finishingmachinesand headersfor
hand-operatedstrick-off devices shall be completely in place and firmly
securedfor the scheduledlengthfor concreteplacementbeforeplacingof
concrete. Railsfor finishingmachinesshall extendbeyondbothends of the
scheduledlength for concreteplacementto a sufficientdistancethat will
perrnitthe float of the finishingmachineto fully clear the concreteto be
placed. Railsor headersshallbe adjustablefor elevationand shallbe set to
elevations,with allowancefor anticipatedsettlement,camber,and deflection
of false work, as requiredto obtain a bridge roadway deck true to the
Rails or headersshall be of a type and
requiredgrade and cross-section.
or deflectionwill occur under the
that
no
springing
be
so
installed
sftall
weight of the finishingequipmentand shall be so locatedthat finishing
equipmentrnay operatewithoutinterruptionover the entirebridgeroadway
deck to be finished.
Railsor headersshall be adjustedas necessaryto correctfor unanticipated
whichmay occurduringfinishingoperations.
or deflection,
settlement

401-21

eventsoccur,whicir in the opinion


Shouldsettlementor other unanticipated
of the Engineerwould preventpouringof bridge deck conformingto the
requirementsof these specifications,placing of deck concrete shall be
discontinueduntil correctivemeasuressatisfactoryto the Engineer are
provided.In the eventsatisfactorymeasuresare not providedpriorto initial
set of the concretein the effectedarea, the placingof concreteshall be
discontinuedand a bulkhead installedat a location determinedby the
Engineer.All concretein placebeyondthe bulkheadshall be removed.
Unlessotherwisepermittedby the Engineer,bridgedeck concreteshall be
parallelio the bridgepier or bent
placedin a uniformheadingapproximately
caps. The rate of placingconcreteshall be limitedto that which can be
finishedbeforethe beginningof initialset exceptthat concretefor the deck
surfaceshallnot be placedmorethanthree(3) metersaheadof strickoff.
After the concrete has been placed, compacted,and consolidated,the
surfaceof the concreteshall be carefullystruck off by means of a handoperated strick board operatingon headers,or by a finishing machine
operatingon rails. A uniformdeck sudace true to the requiredgrade and
shallbe obtained.
cross-section
Following strike off, the surface of the concrete shall be floated
longitudinally.In the event strike-offis performedby means of a handoperated strike board, two (2) separate hand-operatedfloat boards for
longitudinalfloatingshall be provided. The first float shall be placed in
operationas soon as the conditionof the concrete will permit and the
secondfloat shallbe operatedas far back of the first float as the workability
of the concretewill permit.
In the eventthe strikeoff is performedwith a finishingmachine,longitudinal
floatingof the concreteshall be performedby means of a hand-operated
woodenfloat.
floatboardor a finishingmachineequippedwith a longitudinal
woodenfloaton the finishingmachineshall have a length
The longitudinal
of not less than two and half (2.5)metersnor more than three and half (3.5)
meters. When both strikeoff and longitudinalfloatingare to be performed
by finishingmachines,one machine,with operator,shall be used for strike
off and a second machine,with a second operator, shall be used for
floatingmay be performedwith the same
longitudinal
floating. Longitudinal
finishingmachinethat is used for strikeoff providedthat the lengthof deck
'10metersand
unit being placedis not more than
the strikeoff operationis
completedfor said deck unit beforethe conditionof the concreterequires
that longitudinal
floatingbe started.
Finishingmachinesused for strike off havinga wheel base 1.8 metersor
less shall be followed by 2 separate hand-operatedfloat boards for
longitudinal
floating. All the provisionsin this ltem pertainingto handoperated float boards shall apply to the 2 separate float boards for
longitudinal
floating.

401-22

Longitudinal
floats,either hand-operated
or machine-operated,
shall be
used with the long axis of the ffoat parallefto the center line of the bridge
roadway. The float shall be operatedwith a combinedlongitudinaland
transversemotion planing off the high areas and floating the material
removedinto the low areas. Each pass of the float shall lap the previous
pass by one-halfthe lengthof the float. Floatingshall be continueduntil a
smoothridingsurfaceis obtained.
In advance of curing operations,the surface of the concrete shall be
texturedby broomingwith a stiff bristledbroomor by othersuitabledevices,
which will resultin uniformscouring.The operationshall be performedat a
time and in a manner to produce a hardenedsurface havinq a uniform
texture.
Hand-operated
float boards shall be from three and half (3.S)to five (5)
meters long, ribbedand trussedas necessaryto providea rigid float and
shallbe equippedwithan adjustable
handleat eachend. The floatshallbe
wood, not less than two and half (2.5)cms thickand from ten (10) cm to
twenty(20) cm wide. Adjustingscrewsspacedas not to exceed60 cms on
centersshall be providedbetweenthe float and the rib. The float board
shallbe maintainedfree of twistand true at all times.
Hand-operatedfloat boards shall be operatedfrom transversefinishing
bridges. The finishingbridges shall span completelythe roadway area
beingfloated& a sufficientnumberof finishingbridgesshall be providedto
permit operationof the floats without undue delay. Not less than two (2)
transversefinishingbridges shall be providedwhen hand-operatedfloat
boardsare used. When a finishingmachineis usedfor longitudinal
floating,
one finishingbridgeequivalentto the transversefinishingbridgespecified
hereinshallbe furnishedfor use by the Engineer.
All finishingbridges shall be of rigid constructionand shall be free of
excessivewobbleand springingwhen used by the operatorsof longitudinal
floatsand shallbe easilymoved.
lmmediatefollowingcompletionof the deck finishingoperations,the
concretein the deck shall be cured as specifiedin ltem 401.3.8"Curing
Concrete"hereinafter.
The finished surface of the concrete shall be tested by means of a
straightedge
three (3.0) meterslong. The surfaceshall not vary more than
three (3) mm from the loweredge of the straightedge.All high areas in the
hardenedsurfacein excessof three (3) mm as indicatedby testingshall be
removedby abrasivemeans. After grindingby abrasivemean has been
performed,the surfaceof the concreteshall not be smooth or polished.
Ground areas shall not be of uniformtexture and shall presentneat and
approximately
rectangularpatterns.
Where the concreteof the bridge deck is to be covered by bituminous
surfacing,earth,or other cover,two and half 2.5 cms or more in thickness,
the surfaceof the concreteshall not vary more than nine (9) mm from the
loweredgeof the three(3) meterstraightedge.

401-23

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After completionof the ordinarysurfacefinish,areas which do not exhibit


the requireosmooth,even surfacecif uniformtextureand appearance
shall
be sanded with power sanders or other approved abrasive means
until
smooth,even surfacesof uniformtextureano appearanceare obtained.
The
use of power carborundumstones or disks'will be requiredto remove
bulgesand otherimperfections.
class '1surfacefinishshall not be applieduntil a uniformappearance
can
be obtained.
class 1 surfacefinish may be requiredto be appliedas the finat finish
for
the followingsurfaces,unressotherwisedirectedby the Engineer:
i) All form finish surfaces of bridge super-structures,
except the under
surfacesbetweengirdersand the insideverticalsurfacesof r girders.
ii) All surfacesof bridgepiers,columnsand abutments,and retaining
walls
gb9y" finished ground and to at reast three tenth (0.3) meter berow
finishedground.
iii) All surfacesof openspandrelarch rings,spandrelcolumnsand abutment
walls.
iv) All surfacesof pedestrianundercrossings,
exceptfloorsand surfacesto
be coveredwith earth.
v) surface above finished ground of culvert headwalls,endwalls
and
retainingwalls.
vi) sur^faceinsideof culvert barrels having a height of one and
half (1.5)
meters or more for a distanceinside the barrel at least equar
to the
heightof the culvert.
vii)Allsurfacesof railinqc
fl SurfaceRendeIinE
All faces cl concretewhichare to come in contactwith back fill or pavement
materials.shall be appriedtwo coats of hot bitumenof approvedquarity,
beforeplacingany materialaroundconcrete.
j101.3.8

qutrclslsrsIg
a) General
All newly placed concrete shalr be cured in accordance with
these
specifications,
unlessotherwisedirectedby the Engineer.
b) Methodof Curine
The curing method shail be one or more of the foilowingas described
hereinafter.

441-25

Water Method
CuringcompoundMethod
ReinforcedWaterproofpaper Method if requiredby
the Engineer.
Forms-in-Place
Method
SteamMethod
Polyethytene
SheetingMethod
Water Method
The concreteshallbe kept continuously
wet by the applicationof waterfor a
minimumperiodof seven(7) days afterthe concretehas been placed.
cotton mats,burlaps,rugs,carpets,or earthor sand blankets,may be used
as a curingmediumto retainthe moisture,the entiresurfaceof the concrete
shall be kept damp by applyingwater with a nozzlethat so atomizesthe
flow that a mist and not a sprayis formed,untilthe surfaceof the concreteis
coveredwith the curingmedium. The moisturefrom the nozzleshall not be
appliedunder pressuredirecilyupon the concretein a quantitysufficientto
cause a flow or wash the surface. At the expirationof the curingperiodthe
concretesurfaceshallbe clearedof all curingmediums.
when concretebridge decks and flat slabs are to be cured without the use
of a moistureretainingmedium,the entiresurfaceof the bridgedeck or slab
shall be kept damp by the applicationof water with an atomiiing nozzleas
specifiedin the precedingparagraphuntil the concretehas set, after which
the entiresurfaceof the concreteshall be sprinkledcontinuously
with water
for a periodof not lessthan seven(7) days.
CuringCompoundMethod
surfaces exposed to the air may be cured by the applicationof an
imperviousmembraneif approvedby the Engineer.
The membrane-formingcompound used shall consist of a practically
colourlessliquid.The use of any membraneformingcompoundthat will alter
the naturalcolourof the concreteor imparta slipperysurfaceto any wearrng
surfaceshall be prohibited.The compounoshaltbe appliedwith a pressure
spray in such a manner as to cover the entire concretesurface with a
uniformfilm, and shall be of such characterthat it will harden within 30
minutesafter application.The amountof compoundappliedshall be ample
to seal the surfaceof the concretethoroughly.power operatedspraying
equipment shall be equipped with an operationalpressure gauge and
meansof controlling
the pressure.
The curingcompoundshall be appliedto the concretefollowingthe surface
finishing operation immediately after the moisture sheen begins to
disappearfrom the surface,but beforeany drying shrinkageor craze cracks
begin to appear. In the event of any deray in tne ap[licationof curing

401-26

compound,which results in any drying or cracking of the surface,


applicationof water with an atomizingnozzle as specifiedunder "Water
Method", shall be started immediatelyand shall be continued until
applicationof the compound which shall not be applied over any free
standingwatersurface.Shouldthe film of compoundbe damagedfrom any
causebeforethe expirationof seven(7) days afterthe concreteis placedin
the case of structures,the damagedportionshall be repairedimmediately
withadditional
compound.
curingcompounds
shallnot hardsettlein storage.They shallnot be diluted
or altered in any manner after manufacture.At the time of use, the
compoundshallbe in a thoroughly
mixedcondition.
lf the compoundhas not
been used within one hundred twenty (120) days after the date of
manufacture,
the Engrneermay requireadditionaltesting before use to
determine
compliance
to requirements.
An anti-settlingagent or combinationof anti-setilingagents shall be
incorporated
in the curingcompoundto preventcaking.
The curingcompoundshallbe packagedin cleanbarrelsor steelcontainers
or shallbe suppliedfrom a suitablestoragetank locatedat the job-site.onsite storageta,'ks shall have a permanentsystem designedto completely
re-disperseany settledmaterialwithoutintroducingair or any other foreign
substance.Containersshall be well sealedwith ring seals and lug type
crimplids.The liningsof the containers
shallbe of a character
thatwill resist
the solventof the curingcompound.Eachcontainer
shallbe labeledwiththe
manufacturer'sname, specificationnumber, batch number, number of
gallons,and dateof manufacture,
and shallhavea labelwarningconcerning
flammability.
The labelshall also warn that the curingcompoundshall be
well stirredbeforeuse. when the curing compoundis shippedin tanks or
tanktrucks,a shippinginvoiceshallaccompanyeachload.The invoiceshall
containthe sameinformation
as that required'herein
for containerlabels.
Curingcompoundmay be sampledby the Engineerat the sourceof supply
and at thejob-site.
ILeinlbrcetl
WaterproofParrerMethod
The exposedfinishedsurfacesof concreteshall be sprayed with water,
using a nozzle that so atomizesthe flow that a mist and not a spray is
formed,untilthe concretehas set, afterwhichthe waterproofpapershall be
placed.The paper shall remain in place for a period of not less than 72
nours.
Reinforcedwaterproofpaper shall complywith ASTM c 171 specifications.
It shall be composedof two sheetsof Kraftpapercementedtogetherwith a
bituminousadhesiveand reinforcedwith fibre. The waterproofpaper shall
be formedintosheetsof such widthas to providea completecover of entire
concretesurface.

401-27

All joints in the sheets shall be securelycementedtogetherin such a


manner as to provide a waterproofjoint. The joint seams shall have
minimumlap of ten (10)cm.
The sheetsshall be securelyweighteddown by placinga bank of earth on
to the Engineer.
the edges of the sheetsor by othermeanssatisfactory
Shouldany portionof the sheetsbe brokenor damagedwithinseventytwo
(72) hours after being placed,the broken or damaged potlions shall be
repairedwithnew sheetsproperlycementedintoplace
immediately
Sectionsof sheets,which have lost their waterproofqualitiesor have been
damagedto such an extentas to renderthem unfit for curingthe concrete
shallnot be used.
1\llethod
Forrns-in-Place
Formedsurfacesof concretemay be cured by retainingthe forms-in-place.
The forms shall remainin placefor a minimumperiodof seven (7) days
after the concrete has been placed, except that for members over five (5)
the formsshallbe in placefor a minimumperiodof
cms in leastdimension,
five (5) days.Woodenforms shallbe kept wet by wateringduringthe curing
period
StearnMethod
After placingand vibrating,the concreteshall be allowedto attainits initial
set beforesteamis applied.Duringthe placingof concreteand application
of steam, provisionshall be made to preventsurfacedryingby meansof a
coating of approvedmaterial.The optimum curing temperatureshall not
exceedsixtyfive (65)degreeC.
Method
Polyethylene
Sheeting
The wet surfaceof fresh concreteshall be coveredwith white polyethylene
sheetingas soon as possiblewithoutmarringthe suface and shouldcover
all exposedsurfacesof the concrete.The edges of the sheetingshall be
weightedsecurelywith a continuouswindrowof earth or any other means
satisfactoryto the Engineerto providean air-tightcover.Adjoiningsheets
shall overlapnot less than thirty(30) cms. and the laps shall be securely
weightedwith earlh, or any other means satisfactoryto the Engineerto
providean air-tightcover.
c) CuringStructures
All newly placedconcretefor cast-in-placestructures,other than highway
bridge decks, shall be cured by the water method, the forms-in-place
method, or, as permittedherein, by the curing compound method,all in
in ltem401.3.8(b),"Methodsof Curing".
withthe requirements
accordance

4A1-28

The curingcompoundmethodmay be used on concretesurfaceswhich


are
to be buriedunderground,and surfaceswhere only ordinary surface
Finish
is to be appliedand on which a uniformcolouris not requireoano which
will
not be visiblefrom any publictraveledway.
The top surfaceof highwaybridgedecks shall be cured by both the
curing
compoundmethod,and by the water method.The curing compound
sharl
be applied progressivelyduring the deck finishingopurition immediately
after finishingoperationsare completedon each lndividual portion
of the
deck. The water cure shalr be appriednot raterthan four (4) trours
after
completionof the deck finishingor, for portionsof the decKs on
which
finishingis completedafter normalworkinghours,the water cure be
applied
not laterthan8.00a.m.the followingmorning.
when deemed necessaryby the Engineerduring periodsof hot weather,
water shall be applied to concrete surfaces being cured by the
curing
compound method o.1ov
forms-in-pracemethod, untir the Engineei
-t.he
determinesthat a coolingeffectis no longerrequired.
d) CuringPrecastConcreteMembers
Precastconcretemembersshail be cured for not ress than seven (7)
days
by the water method or by steam curing for a period in which go%
of
strengthachieved,at the optionof the contractor.steam curingfor precast
membersshallconformto the followingprovisions:
After placemenlof the concrete,membersshall be held for a
minimumfour
(4) hoursprecastingperiod.
To prevent moisture ross on exposed surfaces during the presteaming
period,membersshail be coveredimmediatery
aftercast'ingor-in"
surfacesshallbe keptwet by fog sprayor wet blankets.
""po."d
Enclosuresfor steam curingshall allow free circulationof steam
about the
memberand shall be constructedto containthe live steam with
a minimum
moistureloss. The use of the tarpaulinsor similarflexiblecovers
will be
permitted,providedtirey are kept in good repair and
secured in such a
mannerto preventthe loss of steamand moisture.
steam at jets shall be row pressureand in a saturatedcondition.
steam at
Jets.shall not impinge direcflyon the concrete,test cyrinders,or forms.
Duringapplicationof the steam, the temperaturerise within
the enclosure
shall not exceed twenty (20) degree c per hour. The curing
temperature
throughoutthe enctosureshail noi exceedsixtyfive
losy oegi;e c and shall
be maintainedat a constantleveifor a sufficienttime n'"""J""iy
to develop
the requiredcompressivestrength.contror cyrindersshail
be covered to
preventmoistureloss and shallbe placedin a location
where temperatureis
representative
of the averagetemperatureof the enclosure.

401-29

Temperaturerecordingdevices that will provide an accurate continuous


permanentrecordof the curingtemperatureshall be provided.A minimum
of one temperaturerecordingdeviceper sixty(60) metersof continuousbed
lengthwill be requiredfor checkingtemperature.
curing of precastconcretewill be consideredcompletedafter a termination
of the steamcuringcycle.
e) CuringPrecastConcretePiles
All newly placedconcreteprecastpiles, both conventionally
reinforcedand
prestressedshall be cured by the "Water Method"as describedin ltem
401.3.8(b)
exceptthatthe concreteshallbe keptundermoisturefor at least
fourteen(14) days. At the option of the Contractorsteam curing may be
used in whichcasethe steamcuringprovisions
in ltem 401.3.8(b)"Quring
PrecastConcreteMembers"shall apply exceptthat the concreteshall be
kept wet for at least seven (7) days includingthe holdingand steaming
period.
,t01.3.9

Testingof Aggreqates
Samplesof fine and coarseaggregateto be used shall be selectedby the
Engineer.lt shall be the responsibility
of the contractorto designatethe
sourceor sourcesof aggregateand to obtainthe necessarysamplesand
submit them for testing at least thirty (30) days before actual concreting
operationsare to begin.
samplesof aggregatesshall be obtainedand testedin accordancewith the
followingstandardAASHTOmethods:i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)
vii)
viii)
ix)
x)
xi)
xii)
xiii)
xiv)

xv)

xvi)

Samplingaggregates
Sieveanalysis
Amountof materialpassing
the No,200sieve.
Organicimpurities
MortarStrength
Sodiumsulphatesoundness
Friableparticles
Abrasionloss
SpecificGravity
Absorption.
Production
of PlasticFines.
FinenessModulus
SandEouivalent
PotentialReactivityof Carbonate
Rocksfor ConcreteAggregate
(RockCylinderMethod).
PotentialAlkaliReactivityof Cement
-AggregateCombinations
(Morta-BarMethod).
PotentialReactivityof Aggregates
(Chemical
Methods)

401-30

T-2
T-27
T-11
r-21
T-71
T-104
r-112
T-96
T-84
T-85
T-210
T-27
T-17
ASTMC 586
A S T MC 2 2 7
ASTMC 289

No aggregatefor testingduringthe productionof concreteshall be sampled


at the dischargegates of the bins feeding the weight hopper. The
contractor,at his expense, shall provide safe and suitable faciiitiesfor
obtainingthe samples.No concretingwork on the projectwill be permitted
untilthe Engineersignifiesin writinghis approval,
followingthe performance
of the necessarytests,on all the materialsinvolvedin makingconcrete.
J 0 I . 3 .l 0

Testingof Compressir-e
Strength
concretecompressivestrengthrequirements
consistof a minimumstrength
at the age of twentyeight(28) days and the minimumstrengthwhich must
be attainedbefore various loads or stressesare appliedto the concrete.
The variousstrengthsrequiredare specifiedin Table401-1.
The compressivestrengthof concretewill be determinedfrom test cylinders,
which have been fabricated from concrete sampled and tested in
accordancewith AASHTOT 23 and AASHTOT 22
A set of six (6) cylindersshall be taken from each fifty (50) cubic metersof
each class of concreteor fractionthereofplacedeach day, three (3) of the
six (6) cylindersto be testedafter seven (7) days and three (3) aftertwenty
eight(28)days.
a) The minimumaverage28 days test resultof all samplestestedat any
timeshallbe the specified
twentyeight(28)daysstrength.
b) No individualsamplestested after28 days shall show a test resultlower
thaneightyfive(85)percentof the requiredtwentyeight(2g)days.
concreterepresented
by any singletest cylindersthat failsto complywith
the requirementunder(b) abovewill be rejectedunlessthe contractorat his
expense,providesevidencethat the strengthand quality bf tre concrete
placedin the work are acceptable.lf such evidenceconsistsof tests made
on cores taken from the work, the cores shall be obtainedand tested in
accordancewith the specifications
of AASHTOT-24.
Testresultsof the coresshallmeetthe followingrequirements:a) Averagetest resultof the coresshallbe lessthanthe minimumrequired
twentyeight(28) days strength
b) No individualcore shall show a strengthless than Ninety five (95)
percentof the requiredtwentyeight(28)days strength.
Shouldthe abovetest resultsfail to complywith the requirements,
concrere
of that particularpour shall be rejectedand removedas directed by the
Engineer.Further more contractorshall redesign the concrete mix for
approvalof the Engineer.
In case, seven (7) days strengthshows less than seventy(70) percentof
the twentyeight(28) days strength(in case of type-lcement),Engineermay
stop furtherwork on that particularportionof concrete,unlesstwenty eight
(28)days strengthgivessatisfactory
results.
401-31

for Mix Productiotls


T ri:rl B:rtches
The placingof concreteshallnot beginuntiltrialbatchesof the mix design
to be used have been producedby the Contractorand testedand approved
shall be such that the average
by the Engineer.The trial mix proportions
test cylindersshatlbe 20% higherthan the
sirengthof five (5) consecutive
testcylindershall
twentyeight(28)daysstrengthand no individual
speciiieci
be belowthe specifiedstrength.
When concrete compressivestrength is specified as a prerequisiteto
applyingloadsor stressesto a concretestructureor member,test cylinders
will be cured under conditionssimilarto those at the castingsite. The
compressivestrengthof concrete determitredfor such purposeswill be
tests.
evaluatedon the basisof individual
10r."l

UITEJ\{ENTAND PAYNIENT
N{I,],TS

-t01.1.1

l'1e:tsrtre urcnt

The quantityof concreteto be paidfor shallbe the numberof cubicmeters


of concreteof the variousclassescompletein placeand accepted.
In measuringthe uoiurneof concreteic, Oe paid for, the dimensicnto be
thoseshownon the Drawingsexceptwhereothersoroered
appliedshall-,.,e
in writing.
by the Eng,,teer
volumeof concreteshall be made for the
from the theoretical
Deductiorrs
volumesof drainingholes,weep holes,pipes and conduits,etc., in case
areasexceed500 squarecentimeters,
wheretheircross-sectional
of
shallnot includeany concreteusedin the construction
The measurement
falsework.
or
cofferdams
The volumeinvolvedin fillets,scorings,or chamfersten squarecentimeters
when measuringthe
area or less shall be disregarded
In cross-sectional
quantityof concreteto be Paidfor
Concretefor railings,pipe culverts,etc., is not to be measuredunderthis
item,but underseparateitems.
-10l.-1.2

Pavrnetrt
The acceptedquantitymeasuredas providedaboveshallbe paidfor at the
contractunit price respectivelyfor the pay items listed below that as per
shown in the Bill of Quantitieswhich prices and paymentshall be full
compensationalso for such works as curing, surface finishing and/or
jointsand any such work
renderingas required,formationof construction
worksthat are paid
except
item
the
necessaryto complete
and incidentals
pay
items
for underother

401-32

For all concretestructuresor portions,thereof,no separatemeasurement


or
paymentshall be made for false work, centering,formwork
or any other
temporary work to complete the concrete structure or portion thereof,
paymentfor all such temporaryworksshallbe deemedto be included
in the
contractpricepaid undervariousitemsof concretework.

Pay ltem
No.
401a

401b
401c

401d

401e
401f
4 0 1g

Description.

U n i to f
Measurement

ConcreteClass .. ..
(i) UnderGround
(ii) On Ground
(iii) Elevated
ConcreteClassB
ConcreteClassC
(i) Underground
(ii) On Ground
(iii) Elevated

CM
CM
CM

(i) ConcreteClassD1
(ii) ConcreteClassD2
(iii) ConcreteClassD3
ConcreteClassY
Lean Concrete
PrecastConcrete,Class......

CM
CM
CM
CM
CM
CM

401-33

CM
CM
CM
t- tvl

rTtM -r02
{ 0 2 .I

F'ALSEWOITKAND CENTERINC FOR BITIDGES.

pIsc'lUPTtoN
This work shallconsistof ihe desrgn,suppiyand construction
of falsework
whichwill providethe necessaryrigidityto supportthe roadsimposed,
and
producea structure,
finishedto the linesand gradesindicatedon the plans
or as requiredby the Engineer.

J02.2

N,lATERIALREOUIREMENTS
Timberand lumberto be used for falseworkshallbe of sound
lumberand
complywiththe requirement
in AASHTOM 168.
structuralsteelto be used for falseworkshall complywith the requirements
of standardspecifications
for StructuralsteetAASFiTo M 1g3. Fieinforcrng
steel if it is to be used for falseworkshall complywith the requirements
of
AASHTOM 3r - 82. concretewhen usedshallconformto ltem'401
of these
specifications.

{02.3

CONSTRUCTION
REQUIREMENTS

{02.J.l

FalservorhDesignandDrawings
Detailedworkingdrawingsand backupcalculations
of the falseworkshallbe
furnishedby the contractorto the Engineer.No falseworkconstruction
shall
start until the Engineerhas reviewed and approvedthe drawings.
The
contractorshall providesufficienttime for the Engineerto
comptetethis
review.such time shall be proportionate
to the complexityof the falsework
designand in no caseshallbe lessthanone (1) week.
The contractormay revise the farseworkdrawingsat any
time provided
sufficienttime is allowedfor the Engineer'srevieir before construction
is
startedon the revisedportions.
Assumptionsused in designof the falseworkshall includebut
not be limited
to the following:i ) For designing
falseworkand centering,a weightof 2,400 kg. per cubic

meter shall be assumed for green concrete.Ail farsewoik


shail be
designed arrd ccnstructedto provide the necessary rigidity
and to
supportthe ii-ieci..r
without appreciablesetflementor bero-rmaiion.
The
Engineermay rcquirethe contractorto emproyscrewjacksor
approved
wedgesto jake up any settlementin the formworkeitherbefore
or during
the placirrgof ,:j0ncrete.

i i ) The entire superstructurecross-section,except


rairing, shall be

con-qrdereci
to he placedat one time, exceptwhen in the o-pinionof the
Enoirper a podionof the roadis carriedby girderspreviousty
cast and
ir::i,,ii1q
aitaineda cerlainstrenqth.

402-1

Z-ZOV
laour6uf aql ^q Outlunn
'sueld
ur penorddessalunuol1aloLllpeptulJadaq lllMuotletnapou
lcelluoO
'uotlecol
e aJoqMleql idacxe
io] alnpeLl3s
sr olarcuoc6utcegd
orl] uo uAAoLls
lurof uorlcnJ]suoopue ecuenbes 6urceld a]olcuoo pasodotd 6unnoqs
e apnlout lleqs sOunnelpllomosleJ aqI
uerberp 6urceld e:n1cn:1s:adns
'sroquraur6utlreL
anticelold
(69)
slaquou
{yrql
aq
sLuc
Jeal3
fuerodLual
lronnas;e3(ttt
iseel }e
lleqs
Jo
cqJer]ctlqndo1luecefpelo lano lenouloJpue uotlcnl]suoc
lroMasleJ Jo sa6els lle 6uunp posn aq lleLls DutceLqelenbapy (tt
'6uruuer1
:o dec llomaslej
paroL{cue
e
ut
labut.tlslotJa}xaLlsef (t
{;arnces oq lleLtsueds
aq] o]
6utnno11o1
eq] ol paltultlaq tou lnq apnlcullleLls
urnuirurLU
:suorsrnord
aql
pelrnberare s6uruedoptes alaLlmsuotlecolaLll]e u6tsap)JomasleJ
'salctqa^Aq
llomasleJ
lceduutol palcefqns]t alqe]saq ll1ltn
eLll ]eql arnsua o] papoau )lom aql lo] soJnlealleuotltppe{ue aptnold
'ctgel] Dututeluteut
to; peltnbelale sOutuedollomosleJ
lleLlsJolcerluoCaLll
araLlMs,{ennpeor o1 luacefpe pue la^o lloMasle} Jo uol}cnj}suo3aL.lllol
Llcnsse peu6rsappue
pue
poJaprsuoc
butpoddnsslutop(xt
sqels
sbueqrono
aq
aslej
se
lleqs
)JoA
'sasroJ
aql ^q pasnec speol palsnlpeelto peseoJoul{ue poddns
Dursserlsard
'possallsaLdeq o] sl alalsuoc aql
o1 pau0rsapoq lleqs IJoMasleJaql
Jl(lllA
'suorlepueuluocalesaql 6ur,ilra^elep JaLllolo san6olelecqsluln]
'reautbu3otl] ^q palsanbal suollepuaulLuooal
Jl
lleqs rojcerluo3aLll
poacxa
oLl]
s,Jarnlcejnueui
]ou lleLlssacl^ap polnlcelnueullaLllo pue
'slalcerq's1ce[uo pasnsuot]cagap
'suLunloc
pue Dutpeol
ulnlulxeulaql(!lA
'un6eqseq burceldaq)ralJelncco ,{eu qctqan
'luaual]Ies
panoldde
lqbrps{ue }calJocpue dn ale} o} Japlo ul s>1cef
'polcalp uaqry1 6ulyoddns-1;asqcre
uo paceld eq lleLls 6ur:eluac
'sexoq
aq] ropuaro] sraluac1o 6uuanno;
lenpel6aq] Jo] saslnoplaLllolo
'sa6pam
pues
alqe]rnsJo sueau Aq apeu oq lleqs suolsl^old sueld
6uualuacpeno:ddeaq1o16urploccepal3nllsuocaq ;;eqs6utLeluacqcLy (tn
alll uo paieclpulJo pa4lcads
s6utnnetg
(n
reque3 aL{} 'ern}onl}s pallstuU aq1 anrD o} }os aq lleqs >1lo,tnas;e3
lo sanle^6ut:eeqllospoleulllsa
alqemolle
sluaulel]]as
Ourpaacxalnol.l]tmuuaql uodn pesodt-utspeol oqi {llec o1 paubtsap
aq lleqss6utlool1ro^aslel sbutnnelp
)ro^ asle;aq] uo lo]3elluoCaql ^q
pue
peleubrsap
oq lleqs(I.rp
lenn)suorllpuoc
llospue sonle^Outleaqllos (^l
apdLadsuo](0;) ual peecxaasecou ul pue sepdaqllo1anle^Outleeq
oql lauueurpanoLdde
oll] paecxe]ou lleqsseltd:aquutluo pesnOurpeol
'6ut;tduo papoddns
pue 'uanup'pecedsaq lleqsqcrqan
ue ur pa^oLUaJ
')lo^ asle3 (lll
'6utiooi
e uo papunoiaq louues qslLl^
fuolce1st1es
aq lleqs

The falseworkdrawingsshall show any pedestrianopenings,which are


requiredthroughthe falsework.
Anticipatedtotal settlementsof falseworkand forms shall be indicatedby
the Contractoron the falseworkdrawings.Theseshouldincludefalsework
footingsettlementand joint take-up.Anticipatedsettlementsover two (2)
cms will not be allowedunlessotherwisepermittedby the Engineer.Deck
slab forms between girders shall be constructedwith no allowancefor
settlementrelativeto the girders
Detailedcalculations
by the Contractorshowingthe stresses.deflections,
and camber necessaryto compensatefor said deflectionsin all load
supporting
membersshallbe includedin the worktngdrawings.
After approvingthe Contractor'sfalseworkdeflectioncamber,the Engineer
will furnish to the Contractor the amounts of camber necessary to
compensate
for vedicalalignmentor anticipated
structuredeflection,
if this
is not shown on the drawings.The total camber used in constructing
falseworkshallbe the sum of the aforementioned
cambers.
102.3.2

FalservorkConstruction
and Dran'ings
The falseworkshall be constructedto conformto the falseworr drawings.
The materials
usedin the falseworkconstruction
shallbe of the quantityand
qualitynecessaryto withstandthe stressesimposed.The workmanship
used in falseworkconstructionshallbe of such qualitythat the falseworkwill
supportthe loads imposed on it without excessivesettlementor take-up
beyondthat shownon the falseworkdrawings.
Falseworkshall be foundedon footings,capableof supportingthe loads
imposedon it.
When falseworkis supportedon piles,the pilesshall be drivento a bearing
value, equal to the calculatedpile toadingas shown on the falsework
drawings.
Suitablejacks or wedges shall be used in connectionwith falseworkto set
the formsto theirrequiredgradeand to take up any excessivesettlement
in
the falseworkeitherbeforeor duringthe placingof concrete.
The Contractorshall provide tell-talesattachedto the soffit forms easily
readableand in enoughsystematically-placed
locationto determinethe total
settlementof the entire portion of the structurewhere concreteis being
placed.
Shouldeventsoccur,includingsettlementsthat deviatemore than + 2 cms
from thoseindicatedon the falseworkdrawings,whichin the opinionof the
Engineer would prevent obtaining a structure conforming to the
requirementsof these specifications,the placing of concrete shall. be
discontinued
untilcorrectivemeasuresare providedto entiresatisfactionof
the Engineer.In the event, satisfactorymeasures are not taken to
correctnessof excessivesettlements,
the contractorshall not be relievedof
responsibility
for conformingto the requirements
of thesespecifications.
402-3

{02.3.3

ItemovingFalsc*'orlr
Unlessotherwiseshown on the drawings,or permittedby the Engineer,
falseworksupportingany span of a simple span bridges shall not be
releasedbefore 14 days after the last concrete,excludingconcreteabove
the bridgedeck, has been placed.Falseworksupportingany span of a
continuousor rigidframe bridgeshall not be releasedbefore 14 days after
the last concrete,excludingconcreteabove the bridge deck, has been
placed in that span and in the adjacentportionsof each adjoiningspan
wherefalseworkis to be released.
Falseworksupportingdeck overhangsand deck slab betweengirdersshall
not be releaseduntil seven (7) days after the deck concrete has been
placed.
In additionto the above requirement,no falseworkfor bridges shall be
releaseduntil the supportedconcretehas attaineda compressivestrength
of atleasteighty(80) percentof the requiredtwentyeight (2g) days strength.
Falseworkfor cast-in-placeprestressedportionsof structuresshall not be
releaseduntilafterthe prestressing
steelhas beentensioned.
All falseworkmaterialsshall be completelyremoved.Falseworkpilingshall
be removedatleastsixty (60) cms belowthe surfaceof the originalground
or stream bed. when falseworkpilingis driven within the limitsof ditch or
channelexcavationareas, the falseworkpiling within such areas shall be
removedto atleastsixty (60) cms, belowthe bottomand side slopesof said
excavatedareas.
All debrisand refuseresultingfrom work shallbe removedand the premises
left in a neat and presentablecondition.

402.-l

MEASUREMENT
AND PAYMENT
For all concrete structures,prestressedconcrete structuresor oortions
thereof,no separatemeasurementor paymentshall be made for falsework
supportingsuch structures.All falseworkcosts shall be consideredas
includedin the contractpricespaid (cost/cMor LM of structuralmembersor
lump-sum) for the various items of concrete work and no additional
compensation
will be allowedthereof..

402-4

ITEM 403

403.1

FORMWORK

DESCRIPTION
Theworkshallconsistof providing,
erecting
andremoving
concrete
formsof
sufficientstrengthwith all necessarybracings,fasteners,etc. and in
conformity
withthe requirements
hereinafter
specified.

403.2

MATERIALREOUIREMENTS
Formsshallbe of wood,metalor otherapproved
materials
andshallbe built
mortartightand of sufficientrigidityto preventdistortiondue to the pressure
of theconcreteandotherloadsincidentto the construction
operations.

403.3

CONSTRUCTION
REOUIREMENTS

403.3.r

FormworkDesignandDrawines
The contractorshall prepareworkingdrawings,backupcalculationsand
materialdatafor the formworkandshuttersto be submittedto the Engineer
for approvalunlessotherwisedirected.
The requirements
for designof formworkare the sameas describedunder
Item402.3.1- FalseworkDesignandDrawings.

403.3.2

FormworkConstruction
concreteforms shall be constructedand maintainedso as to prevent
warpingand the opningof jointsdue to the shrinkageof the lumberand
shallbe true to the dimensions,
linesand gradesof the structureand with
the sufficientstrength,rigidity,shapeand surfacesmoothnessas to leave
the finishedworkstrueto the dimensions
shownon drawingsor requiredby
the Engineer
andwiththe surfacefinishas specified.
Formsfor exposedsurfacesshallpreferably
be linedwith metal,plywood,or
otherapprovedmaterial,or maywiththe Engineer's
permission,
be madeof
dressedlumberof uniformthickness.Forms shall be filled at all sharp
corners(Minimum
two (2) cms triangular
fillets)and shallbe givena levelor
draftin the caseof all projections,
suchas girdersand copings,to ensure
easyremoval.
Formfastenersconsistingof form bolts,clampsor otherdevicesshall be
used as necessaryto preventspreadingof the forms during concrete
placement.
The use of ties consisting
of twistedwire loopsto holdformsin
positionwill not be permitted.Metalties or anchorage
withinthe formsshall
be so constructed
as to permittheirremovalto a depthof at leastfive(s)
cmsfromthefacewithoutinjuryto theconcrete.

403-1

Fittingfor metalties shallbe of suchdesignthat,upontheirremoval,the


cavitiesthat are leftwill be of the smallestpossiblesize.The cavitiesshall
be filledwith cementmortarand the surfaceleft sound,smooth,even,and
uniformin colour.Anchordevicesmaybe castintothe concretefor lateruse
formsor for liftingprecastmembers.The useof driventypesof
in supporting
anchoragesfor fasteningforms or form supportsto concretewill not be
permitted.
The insidesurfacesof formsshallbe cleanedof all dirt,mortarand foreign
coatedwith
shallbe thoroughly
Forms,whichwilllaterbe removed,
material.
form oil priorto use.The form oil shallbe a commercialqualityform oil or
otherapprovedcoatingwhichwill permitthe readyreleaseof the formsand
will not discolourthe concrete.All exposedsurfacesof similarportionsof a
concretestructureshall be formedwith the sameformingmaterialor with
materialswhich producesimilar concretesurface textures,colour and
appearance.
with
Concreteshallnotbe depositedin the formsuntilall workin connection
required
be
to
completed,
all
materials
the forms has been
constructing
poured,
placed
and
to
be
been
for
the
unit
concrete
have
in
the
embedded
andapproved
saidformsandmaterials.
hasinspected
the Engineer
The rate of depositingconcretein forms shall be such as to prevent
permitted
of theformsor formpanelsin excessof the deflections
deflections
Maximumdeflectionalloweddue to propsettlement
by thesespecifications.
with 3
is 5 mm and due to bendingof shuttersis 3 mm, whenmeasured
meterstraightedge.
Formsfor all concretesurfaces,whichWillnot be completelyenclosedor
hidden below the permanentground surface, shall conform to the
hereinfor forms for exposedsurfaces.Interiorsurfacesof
requirements
undergrounddrainagestructuresshall be consideredto be completely
enclosedsurfaces.
Whenlumber
Formworkfor concreteplacedunderwatershallbe watertight.
is used,thisshallbe planedandtonguedandgrooved.
sq
Formsfor exposedconcretesurfacesshallbe designedand constructed
in
any
excessively
does
not
undulate
formed
surface
of
the
concrete
thatthe
directionbetweenstuds,joists,form stiffeners,form fasteners,or wales.
exceedingeithertwo (2) mm or 11270of the centerto center
Undulations
formfasteners,or waleswill
distancebetweenstuds,joists,formstiffeners,
be consideredto be excessive.Shouldany form or formingsystem,even
though previouslyapprovedfor use, producea concretesurfacewith
excessiveundulations,its use shall be discontinueduntil modifications,
satisfactoryto the Engineerhave been made. Portionsof concrete
in excessof the limitshereinmay be
structureswith surfaceundulations
rejectedby the Engineer.

403-2

Forms shall be set and maintainedtrue to the line designateduntil the


concreteis sufficientlyhardened.Forms shall remain in place for periods,
which shall be determined,as hereinspecified.When forms appearto be
in any way, either beforeor during the placingof concrete,
unsatisfactory
will order the work stopped until the defects have been
Engineer
the
corrected.
The shape, strength,rigidity,watertightness,and surface smoothnessof
reusedforms shall be maintainedat all times.Any warpedor bulgedlumber
must be resized before being reused. Forms that are unsatisfactoryin any
respectshallnot be reused.
For narrowwalls and columns,wherethe bottomof the form is inaccessible,
the lower form boards shall be adjustableso that they may be removedfor
cleaningout extraneousmaterialimmediatelybeforeplacingthe concrete.
403.3.3

Removalof Formwork
ln the determinationof the time for the removalof falseworkand forms,
considerationshall be given to the location and chara;ter of the structure,
the weather, and other conditionsinfluencingthe setting of the concrete,
and the materialsused in the mix.
lf field operationsare not controlledby beam or cylindertests, the following
periods,exclusiveof days when the temperatureis below five (5) degree C,
for removal of forms and supportsshall be used as a minimum subject to
the approval of the Engineer and to the requirements of ltem 402.3.3.
RemovingFalsework.

Arch Center
CenteringUnderBeams
SupportsunderFlatSlabs
FloorSlabs
VerticalWallSurfaces
Columns
Sideof Beams
Top SlabsR.C.Box Culverts

14 Days
14 Days
14 Days
14 Days
24 Hours
24 Hours
12 Hours
14 Days

beams,girders,columns,or othermembers
Sideformsfor cast-in-place
wherethe formsdo not resistdeadload,bendingshallremainin placefor at
leastforty(40)hoursafterplacingconcretefor the members.Sideformsfor
precastmembersmay be removedthe next day after placingconcrete
therein.
cement,
lf highearlystrengthcementis usedor by the use of additional
theseperiodsmaybe reducedas directed.
are controlled
by cylindertests,the removalof forms,
\Men fieldoperations
of heatingand curing(where
andthe discontinuance
supports
and housing,
may beginwhen the concreteis foundto have the required
applicable)
strength,providedin no case shall supportsbe removedin
compressive
lessthanseven(7)daysafterplacingthe concrete.
403-3

All formsshallbe removed,exceptwhenno permanent


accessis available
to the cells,the formssupporting
the deckof boxgirdersand the formsin
hollowabutmentsor piersmay remainin place.prior to completionof
formingfor the deckforms,the insideof box girdersshallbe clearedof all
loosematerialandsweptclean.
Methodsof formremovallikelyto causeoverstressing
of the concreteshall
not be used. In general,the forms shall be removedfrom the bottom
upwards.Formsand theirsupportsshallnpt be removedwithoutapproval.
supportsshallbe removedin sucha manneras to permitthe concreteto
uniformlyandgradually
takethe stressesdueto its ownweight.
In general,archcenteringor falseworkshall be struckand the arch made
setf-supporting
beforethe railingor coping is placed.This precautionis
essentialin oiderto avoidjammingof the eipantionlointsjnd' variationsin
alignment.
For filledspandrelarches,such portionsof the spandrelwalls
shallbe leftfor construction
subsequent
to the strikingof centeis,as may be
necessary
to avoidjammingof the expansion
joints.
centersshall be graduallyand uniformlyloweredin such a manneras to
avoidinjuriousstressesin any partof the structure.In archstructures
of two
or more spans,the sequenceof strikingcentersshallbe approvedby the
Engineer.
403.4

MEASUREMENT
AIID PAYMENT
For all concrete structures,
. prestressedconcrete structures,precast
concrete elementsor portionsthereof, no separate measurementor
paymentshall be made for formworksupportingsuch structures.All
formworkcostsshallbe considered
as includedin the contractpricespaid
(cosucMor LM of structuralmembersor lump-sum)
for the variousitemsof
concreteworliandno additional
compensation
will be allowedthereof.

403-4

ITEM 404

404.1

STEEL REINFORCEMENT

DESCRIPTION
This work shall consist of furnishing, fabricating and placing of steel
reinforcementof the type, size, shape and grade required in accordance
with these specifications,and in conformitywith the requirementsshown on
the Drawingsand SpecialProvisionsor as directedby the Engineer.

404.2

IUATERIAL R.E,OUIRE]UENTS
All materials shall conform to the requirements hereinafter given. Test
reports from approved sources shall be submitted to the Engineerfor all
steel reinforcementused. These reports shall show the results of chemical
and physicaltestsmade

r)

DeformedBilletSteelBars (Grades40 and 60) for Concrete


AASHTOM-31(ASTM4-615)
Reinforcement

ii)

Deformed Steel Wire for ConcreteReinforcement-AASHTO


M-225(ASTMA-496)

iii)

WeldedSteelWire Fabricfor ConcreteReinforcement-AASHTO


M-55(ASTMA-185)

iv)

Steel Bar Mats for ConcreteReinforcementAASHTO


M-54
(ASTMA-184)

v)

Cold-DrawnSteelWire for ConcreteReinforcement-AASHTO


M-32(ASTMA-82)

vi)

Welded Deformed Steel Wire Fabric for


Reinforcement-AASHTO
M-221(ASTMA-497)

vli)

Structural
Shapesfor ConcreteReinforcement
ASTMA-36

404.3

CONSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS

4043.r

Fabricationof Bent Bars

Concrete

a) Order Lists
Before materials.areordered all order lists and bending diagrams shall be
furnishedby the Contractor,for the approvalof the Engineer.The approval
of order lists and bendingdiagramsby the Engineershall in no way relieve
the Contractor of responsibilityfor the correctness of such lists and
diagrams.Any expenses incident to the revisionsof material furnished in
accordance with such lists and diagrams to make it comply with the
drawingsshall be borne by the Contractor.

404-1'

b) Storinsand SurfaceConditionof Reinforcement


Steel reinforcementshall be stored above the surface of the ground on
platforms, skids, or other supports and shall be protected as far as
practicable from mechanical injury and surface deteriorationcaused by
exposure to conditions producing rust. When placed in the work,
reinforcementshall be free from dirl, detrimentalrust, loose seals, paint,
grease, oil, or other foreign materials.Reinforcementshall be free from
injuriousdefectssuch as cracks and laminations.Surfaceseams, surface
irregularities,or mill scale will not be cause for rejection,providedthe
minimumdimensions,cross-sectionarea, and tensilepropertiesof a handwire brushedspecimenmeets the physicalrequirementsfor the size and
gradeof steelspecified.
c) Fabrication
Bent bar reinforcementshall be cold bent to the shapes shown on the
drawingsor requiredby the Engineer.Bars shall be bent around a pin
havingthe followingdiameters(D)in relationto the diameterof the bar (d):
Stirrups& columntie bars

D=4xd

Otherbarshaving
d<3.5cm(1-3l8")(No.1
1 bar)
d>3.5cm(1-3l8")
404.3.2

D=Sxd
D = 10xd

Placing and Fastenins


a) Protection of Material

Steelreinforcement
shallbe protectedat all timesfrom injury.When steel,
placedin positionas shownon the Drawings,
has easilyremovable
and
detrimental
rust,loosescale,or dust, it shall be cleanedby a satisfactory
method,
approved
bythe Engineer.
b) PlacineandFastening
Reinforcing
steelshall be accuratelyplacedin the positionshownon the
Drawings
andfirmlyheldduringthedepositing
andfinishing
of theconcrete.
cover,the distancebetweenthe externalfaceof the barandthe faceof the
finishedconcrete,shallbe as indicatedon th Drawings.Reinforcing
steel
barsembeddedin concreteshall not be bentafterthey are in place.Bars
shallbe tiedat all intersections
with 16 gaugeblackannealed
wireexcept
that wherespacingis less than 1 ft (0.3m)in each direction,alternate
intersections
needto be tied.All intersections
shallbe tied in the top mat of
pladedon bridgedecks and the top slabs of box culverts.
reinforcement
Abruptbendsshall be avoidedexcept where one steel bar is bent
aroundtheother.

444-2

the outsideof mainbarsand be


stir.rupsand ties shallalwayspassaround.
shallbe securelyheldat the
steel
,""ur"fy attachedthereto.Att ieinforcing
in place by means of
remain
which
forms,
from steel
;rp";'d;t""ce
steel,
All reinforcing
forms.
the
placed
on
or
chairs
latvanizeosteel bars
proper
distance
at
the
held
securely
be
shall
above,
E*""pt as mentioned
steel
galvanized
fromthe formsby meansof templates,concreteb|ocksor
be
will
which
surfaces,
Metalchairsshallnotbe usedagainstformed
Blocks
for
are
stripped.
forms
"f.r"i6. in the finishedstructureaftei tne
"*p"i"O
away from contactwith the forms shall be precast
troiOingreinforcement
blocksof approvedshape,and dimensionsand shall have 16"on"rJt"
wiresembeddedin them.The precastconcrete
g""g" br"il annealed'tie
strengthequalto that specifiedfor the class
blockshallhavea compressive
by
of concreteto be placedin the work.Layersof bars shallbe separated
approvedmetalchairsor bolsters.
before
Any brokenor damagedconcretespacerblocksshall be removed
brick,
or
stone
broken.
pieces
of
pebbles,
of
use
iS placed.T"he
Reinforcing
permitted'
be
not
will
"lii"r"t"
spacers
as
blocks
r"t"r pip" or wooden
foreign
steefwn'enplacedin the workshailbe free fromflakerust,dirt and
materialandbeforeanyconcreteisp|aced,anymortarwhichmaybe
shall be
aoneringto the reinforcingsteel shall be removed.No concrete
reinforcing
placing
the
of
J"p".it,iO until the Engin6erhas inspectedthe
shallallow
to placethe concrete.The Contractor
steeland givenpermisJion
in place
are
forms
and
reinforcement
the
tne enginlerfour hourstime after
shallbe
shape
or
length
size,
incorrect
of
bar
Any
the inspection.
to condluct
or
spaced
located
bar
Any
bars.
correct
wi*i
ilmoueo and replaced
given
is
permission
before
correctly
spaced
or
relocated
shallbe
incorrectly
the
be
at
and correctionsshall
to placetoncreteand such replacements
provisions
contractor'sexpense.All concreteplacedin violationof these
shallbe rejectedandremoved'
c) Splicine
shall be furnishedin the full lengthsindicatedon the
All reinforcement
splicingof bars,exceptwhereshown
unlessotherwisepermitted.
oi"*ing,
-drawings,
withoutthe writtenapprovalof the
permitted
be
not
will
on the
as far as possibleandwitha minimum
;;g;;;";. SptiJeisnattbe staggered
morethan
seiarationof not less than fort' (aO)times bar diameters.Not
except
on! tnirO(1/3)ofthe barsmay be splicedin the samecross-section,
whereshownon thedrawings.
with a
Unlessotherwiseshownon the Drawings,bars shall.be lapped
the
splices'
lapped
In
diameter.
the
bir
(40)
times
,ini*rrn overlapof forty
will.not
splice-s
Lapped
together.
wired
and
placed
in
tontict
barsshallbe
to
be permittedat locationswhere the concretesection is insufficient
third
and
one
of one bardiameteror one
frouiO"a minimumcleardistance
aggregatebetweenthe spliceand the_
coarse
of
size
maximum
ir_ila1 the
if
i""r"rt adjacentbar..Weldingof reintorclngsteel shall be done only
Spiral
writing'
Engineer.in
ihe
by
detailedon the Drawingsor if-authorized
shallbelplicedby lappingai leastoneand one half(1-112)
reinforcement
shownon the Drawings.
irrn, ot"by buttweldingunlessotherurise

404-3

d) Lanningof Bar Mat


sheet of mesh or bar-matreinforcementshall overlapeach
other sufficienfly
to maintaina uniform strength and shall be secureiy fastened
at the ends
and edges.The overlapshall not be lessthan one mesh in
width.
e) Covering
The minimum covering,.measuredfrom the surface of
the concrete to the
face of any reinforcement bar shail, unress otherwise
shown on the
Drawings or directed by the Engineer, be not ress than
s cms except as
follows:
Top of slab
Bottomof Slab
Stirrupsand ties in T-beams

4.0cm
3.0cm
3.5cm

In the_footings
of abutments.andretainingwailsthe minimumcovering
sharl
be 7.5 cm. In work exposedto the action6f sea waterine
mini.n* covenng
shallbe 10 cm.
404.4

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

404.4.1

Measurement
The
.quantity-to be paid for shail be the carculatedtheoreticarnumber of
metric tons of reinforcementsteer bars, mesh or mats
as determinedfrom
the approved bar bending diagrams and incorporated
in the concrete and
accepted,exceptwhen reinforcementis paid foi under
pay-it"rs.
ot
"i
The weight of prainor deformed bars or bar mat wiil
be computedfrom the
theoreticalweight of plain round bars of the same nominal
size as shown in
the followingtabulation:

Size
mm
6
8
10
12
13
16

Weightin
Kilograms
perMeter
0.222
0.395
0.616
0.888
1.042
1.578

Size
mm.
20
22
25
32
35
40

Weight in
Kilograms
per Meter
2.466
2.984
3.853
6.313
7.553
9.865

clips,tiesseparators,
and othermaterialusedfor positioning
andfastening
the.reinforcemenJin
praceand structurar
steershailnot be incruoedin thJ
for paymentunderthis item.rf barsare substituted
yreiojrtcalcutated
upon
the contractor'srequestand as a resultmoresteeris used
than specified,
on|ytheamountspecifiedsha||bemeasuredforpayment

404-4

When laps are madefor splices,otherthan those shownon the Drawingsor


required by the Engineerand for convenienceof the Contractor,the extra
steelshallnot be measurednor paidfor.
When continuousbarsare shownon the Drawings,withoutthe splicesbeing
shown the necessarysteel in the spliceswill be paid for on the basisof the
individualbarsnot beingshorterthan twelve(12)meters.
For bent bars,the lengthalongcentre-lineof bar will be paid.
404.4.2

Payment
The acceptedquantitymeasuredas providedabove shall be paid for at the
contractunit prices respectivelyfor the pay items listed below and shown in
for
the Bill of Quantitieswhich priceand paymentshall be full compensation
furnishing materials, labour, equipment and incidentals necessary to
comoletethe item.
Pay ltem
No.

Description.

Unitof
Measurement

as perAASHTOM 31
Reinforcement
Grade40

Ton

Reinforcement
as perAASHTOM 31
Grade60

Ton

404c

as perAASHTOM-225
Reinforcement

Ton

404d

as perAASHTOM-55
Reinforcement

Ton

404e

as perAASHTOM-54
Reinforcement

Ton

404f

Reinforcement
as perAASHTOM-32

Ton

4049

as perAASHTOM-221
Reinforcement

Ton

404h

(Structural
Shapes)
Reinforcement
as perASTMA-36.

Ton

404a

404b

404-5

ITEM 405
405.1

PRESTRESSED
CONCRETE STRUCTURES
DESCRIPTION
This work shall consist of prestressingprecast or cast-in-placeconcrete by
furnishing,placingand tensioningof prestressingsteel in accordancewith
detailsshown on the plans, and as specifiedin these specificationsor as
directedby the Engineer.
This work shall also include the furnishing and installationof any
appurtenantitem necessary for the particular prestressingsystem to be
used, includingbut not limitedto ducts, anchorageassembliesand grout
usedfor pressuregroutingducts.

405.2

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS

405.2.7

PrestreSSinE
ReinfoicementSteel
Prestressing steel shall be hightensile wire conforming to ASTM
Specification 4-421 or AASHTO Designation M-204; strand or rope
conformingto ASTM specificationA-416 or AASHTo DesignationM-203 or
hightensilealloybarsas follows:
High{ensile-strength
alloy bars shallbe stressrelievedand cold stretchedto
a minimumof 9,100 Kg/sq.cm.After cold stretchingthe physicalproperties
shall,be as follows:

r)
ii)

iii)
iv)
v)
vi)

Minimum
Ultimate
tensilestrength
Minimum
yieldstrength,
measured
bythe 0.7 percentextensionunder
loadmethodshallbe notlessthan
Minimum
mgdulusof elasticity
Minimum
elongbtion
in 20 bardiameter
Diameters
afterrupture
Diameters
tolerance

16,5T0Kg/sq.cm
g,100Kg/sq.cm
1.75x 10 Kg/sq.cm
'
4 percJnt
- 0.75mm
- 0.25mm

The steelshallbe free from injuriousdefectsand shall have a smooth


surface.Material,which shows injuriesdefectsduring or prior to its
installation
in thework,shallbe rejected.
wire and strandshallbe suppliedin coilsof sufficient
diameterto ensure
thattheylieoutstraight.
The Engineermaycallfor a relaxation
teston prestressing
steelin case,he
is not satisfiedwith the sourceof manufacture.
Relaxation
for prestressing
steelshallbe measured
overa periodof thousand
(1000)hoursstressed
at
seventy(70) percentof its ultimatetensilestrengthgivingless than six (6)
percent
elongation.
a) Testins

All wires,strands,or barsto be shippedto the siteshallbe assigneda lot


numberandtaggedfor identification
purposes.
Anchorageassemblies
to be
shipped
shallbe likewise
identified.
405-1

of the lot to be furnished.


All samplessubmittedshallbe representative
All of the materialsbpecifiedfor testing shall be furnishedfree of cost and
shall be deliveredin time for teststo be made well in advanceof anticipated
time of use.
The contractorshall furnishfor testingthe followingsamplesselectedfrom
each lot as ordered by the Engineer.The selectionof samples shall be
plantby the Engineeror his representative'
made at the manufacturer's
PretensioninqMethod Samplesat least 2.10 M long shall be furnishedof
eachwtrepr strandsize.A sampleshall be takenfrom each and everycoil'
Post-Tensioninq Method Samples of the following lengths shall be
furnished:
For wires, sufficientlengthto make up one parallel-laycable one and half
(1.5) M long consistingof the same number of wires as the cable to be
iurnistred.For strands,one and half (1.5)M lengthshallbe furnished.
For bars to be furnishedwith threadedends and nuts,one and half (1.5) M
betweenthreadsat ends.
Anchorage Assemblies Two anchorage assembliesof each size of
anchorageto be usedshall be furnished,completewith distributionplates.
405.2.2

Concrete
The materialsfor concreteshall conformto the requirementsof item 401.
The concreteshall be Class D as shown in table 401-1 unless otheruvise
shownon the Plans.

405.2.3

Steel
Reinforcement
of item404.
steelshallconformto the requirements
Reinforcement

405.3

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS
General
Unless otherwiseordered by the Engineer,the Contractorshall certify for
the Engineer's approval that a technician skilled in the approved
prestressingmethod will be availableto the Contractorto give aid and
instructionin the use of the prestressingequipmentto obtainthe required
results.
The tensioningprocess shall be conducted so that the tension being
suppliedand the elongationmay be measuredat alltimes.
operations,standingbehindor underjack will not be
Duringthe prestressing
allowedin orderto ensurethat no one is injuredby the flyingspindle,tendon
or the jack in the eventof a breakoccurring.

405-2

40s.3.
t

Prestressing
Method
Themethodof prestressing
to be usedshallbe optional
withthe contractor,
providedhe introduces
no changein the positionof centroidof the total
prestressing
forceover the lengthof the memberand in the magnitudeof
the final effectiveprestressing
force as prescribedin the Drawings.The
prestressing
systemchosenby the Contractor
shallhavebeenindicated
in
the tender.This optionshail be subjectto arr requirements
hereinafter
specified.
lndependently
from the prestressing
systemto be applied,the foilowing
pointshaveto be ensured.
(i)

The safety.g.f
t!" anchorage
of the prestressing
tendonsand
their suitability
for the transmission
of forcest6 tne concrete
underall loadswhatsoever.

(ii)

Thatthe actuallossesdueto frictioncoincidewiththe calculated


onesforthe prestressing.

(iii)

The suitability
of the proposedsteelfor the chosenprestressing
system.

(iv)

The lengthof transmission


of the forceto the concreteand the
minimumstrengthof the ratternecessaryfor prestressingin
systems,wherethe prestressing.erementi
are fuily or partiaily
anchoredto the concretethroughbondandfriction.

(v)

Thesuitability
of measurestakento protectprestressing
tendons
fromcorrosion
untirthefinartensioning
is carriedout.

The contractorshailsubmitwell in advanceto the Engineerfor


approval
complete
detailsof the methods,materials,
and equipmEnt
he proposes
to
usein the prestressing
operations.
suchdetailshailouflinethe methodand
sequenceof stressing,completespecifications
and details of the
prestressingsteer and anchoringdevicesproposed
for use, anchoring
stresses,type of encrosures,and ail oirrei data p"rtrining
prestressingoperation,incrudingthe proposedarrangementto the
of the
prestressing
unitsin the members.
An agreement
certificate
for the prestressing
systemshallbe submittedand
approvedby the Engineerbeforeany structurilmemberto be prestressed
may be tensioned;this agreemenicertificatemust ne issrleo
by an
authorisedtestinglaboratoryotherwisethe Enginee,,"y oioer
such an
agreementcertificate
lrom a laboratoryof hislnoice at'tfre cost of the
contractor.All rulesrgferrlng
to this agieementcertificatehere in afterare
subjectto theapproval
of the Engineer.
405.3.2

PrestressingEquipment

Hydraulicjacks shail be equippedwith accuratepressuregauges.


The
contractormay electto.substitutescrewjacks or ot'hertypes
ior
nyoraulic
jacks.ln thatcase,provingringsor otheripproved
devicesshallbe usedin
405.3

connectionwith the jacks. All devices,whether hydraulicjack gauges or


otherwise, shall be calibratedso as to permitthe stressin the prestressing
steel to be computed at all times. A certified calibration curve shall
accompanyeach device. Safety measuresshall be taken by the contractor
to preventaccidentsdue to possiblebreakingof the prestressingsteel or the
process.All equipmentsshall be
slippingof the gripsduringthe prestressing
thoroughlywashed with clean water at least once every three (3) hours
duringthe groutingoperationsand at the end of use for each day.
405.3.3

Enclosures

steel shall be accuratelyplacedat locations


Enclosuresfor prestressing
by the Engineer.
shownon theplansor approved
shallbe of ferrousmetallicmaterialand shallbe completely
All enclosures
with the exceptionthat the contractor,at his option,with the
mortar-tight
approvalof the Engineer,may form the enclosuresby meansof coresor
ductscomposedof rubberor othersuitablematerialwhichcan be removed
priorto installing
Enclosures
shallbe s[rong
reinforcement.
the prestressing
theirshapeundersuchforcesas will be imposedupon
enoughto maintain
them.Theyshallbe six (6) mm. largerin internaldiameterthan the bar,
cable, strand or group of wires, which they enclose.Where pressure
groutingin specified,
coresor ductsshallbe providedwiththe pipesor other
suitable connectionfor the injection of grout after the prestressing
havebeencompleted.
operations
405.3.4

Pl?cine Steel

All steel units shall be accuratelyplacedin the positionshown on the


andfirmlyheldduringthe placingand
Drawings
or required
by the Engineer
settingof theconcrete.
by stays,blocks,ties, or
Distancefrom the forms shall be maintained
hangersapprovedby the Engineer.Blocksfor holdingunitsfrom contact
with the forms shall be precastmortar blocksof approvedshape and
dimensions.
Layersof unitsshallbe separatedby mortarblocksor other
devices.
Woodenblocksshallnotbe leftin theconcrete.
equallysuitable
if required,
horizontal
andverticalspacersshallbe provided,
Suitable
to hold
in theenclosure.
thewiresin placein trueposition
405.3.5

PlacingConcrete
Concreteshall be controlled,mixed, and handled as specified in other
articlesof this sectionunlessotherwisespecifiedherein.
Concreteshall not be pouredin the forms untilthe Engineerhas inspected
the placingof the reinforcement,conduits,anchorages,and prestressing
steeland has givenhis approvalthereof.
The concreteshallbe vibratedinternallyor externally,or both,as orderedby
the Engineer.The vibratingshall be done with care in such a manneras to
conduits,or wires.
avoiddisplacement
of reinforcement,

405-4

405.3.6

Pretensioning
The pretensioningelements shall be accurately held in position and
stressed by jacks. A record shall be kept of the jacking force and the
elongationproducedthereby.Severalunits may be cast in one continuous
line and stressedat one time. Sufficientspaceshall be left betweenends of
units, if necessary, to permit access for cutting after the concrete has
attained the required strength. No bond stress shall be transferredto the
concrete,nor end anchoragesreleased,until the concretehas attaineda
compressivestrength,as shown by cylindertests, of at least two hundreds
and eighty(280) kg/sq.cmand as approvedby the Engineer.The elements
shallbe cut or releasedin such an orderthat lateraleccentricityof prestress
w i l l b em i n i m u m .

405.3.7

Post-Tensioning
Tensioningshall be carriedout only in the presenceof the Engineeror his
representative unless permission has been obtained to contrary.
lmmediatelybefore tensioning,the contractorshall prove that all tendons
are free to move between jacking points and that members are free to
accommodatethe horizontaland verticalmovementsdue to the applications
of prestress.
Tensioningof prestressing
reinforcement
shall not be commenceduntiltests
on concretecylinders,manufacturedof the same concreteand cured under
the same conditions,indicatethat the concreteof the particularmemberto
be prestressed has attained a compressive strength of at least 280
Kg/sq.cm.
After the concrete has attained the required strength, the prestressing
reinforcementshall be stressed by means of jacks to the required tension
and stresstransferredto-the end anchorage(s).Stressingshall be from both
ends unless otherwiserequired in the Contract or agreed by the Engineer.
The tensionihgprocessshall be so conductedthat the tensionbeingapplied
and the elongationof the prestressingelements'maybe measuredat all
times. The friction loss in the elements,i.e., the differencebetweenthe
tensionat the jack and the minimumtensionin the prestressingsteel shall
be determinedby the formula:
F,=2(Fn-acE)
d
Where
tI tr -

totalfrictionloss

p
,=
-t

Observed
tensionat thejack

a=

cross-sectional
areaof theprestressing
element.
observed
elongation
of theelementwhentheforce
at thejackis F.,.
405-5

E =

secantmodulesof elasticityof the elementfor the


stress F1 as determinedfrom the stress-strain
diagramof the element.

d =

distancefrom the jack to the point of lowesttension


in the element.Wherejackingis donefrom bothends
of the members,the pointof minimumtensionis the
centerof the member.Wherejackingis donefrom one
end only,d is the distanceto the otherend of the
member.

Any surpluslengthof tendonshall be cut off by an approvedmethodwhich


will not affect the strengthof the stressedtendon, with particularcare if the
use of spark erosion or oxyacetylene burning methods of cutting are
approvedby the Engineer.
A recordshall be kept of gauge pressuresand elongationat all times and
submittedto the Engineerfor his approvalwith in twenty four (24) hours of
each tensioning operation. The tendons shall be maintained in such a
condition that they can be re-stressed until the Engineer has given final
approvalafterinspectingthe tensioninglog.

40s.3.8

Groutins of BondedSteel
Post{ensioned prestressed bridge' members preferably shall be of the
bondedtype in which the tensionedsteel is installedin holes or flexible
metal ducts cast in the concreteand bondedto the surroundingconcreteby
fillingthe tubes or ducts with grout. The grout shall be a mixture of cement
and fine sand (passiriga No.30 sieve) in the approximateproportionof one
part cementto 0.75 part sand, the exact proportionsto be adjustedto form a
shall the
grout havingthe properconsistencyand under no circumstances,
water cement ratio exceed 0.45. The compressivestrengthof the hardened
groutshall not be less than one hundredand seventy(170) Kg/sq.cmafter
seven (7) days at a temperatureof eighteen (18) degree C, when making
preliminarytrialsfor quality.The grout shall be mixedfor a minimumof two
(2) minutesand untila uniformconsistencyis obtained.
All prestressingreinforcementto be bonded shall be free of dirt, loose rust,
grease,or otherdeleterioussubstances.Beforegrouting,the ducts shall be
free of water, dirt or any other foreign substance.The ducts shall be blown
out with compressedair until no water comes throughthe duct. For long
memberswith drapedstrandsan open tap at the low point of the duct may
be necessary.
The groutshall be fluid (consistencyof thick paint)but proportionedso that
free water will not separateout of the mix. Unpolishedaluminumpowder
may be added in an amount per sack of cement as approved by the
Engineer. Commercial plasticisers used in accordance with the
manufacturer'srecommendationmay be used provided they contain no
ingredientsthat are corrosiveto steel. Sufficientpressureshall be used in
groutingto force the grout completelythroughthe duct, care being taken
that rupturingof the ductsdoes not occur.

405.3.9

Handlins
Precast prestressedconcrete members shall be transported in an upright
positionand the points of support with respect to the member shall be
approximatelythe same during transportationand storage as when the
member is in its final position.In the event that the contractor deems it
expedientto transportor store precastgirdersin other than this positionit
shouldbe done at his own risk.
care shall be taken duringstorage,hoisting,and handlingof the precasting
unitsto preventcrackingor damage.Unitsdamagedby improperstoringor
handlingshall be replacedby the Contractorat his expense.
Prestressedstructuralmembersshall be constructedin conformrtywith the
drawingsgoverningthe particulirtype of structureto oe ouittor as required
by the Engineer.

40s.3.10

Manufactureof Prestressed
Membersoff the Site
i) The details of the method of manufactureshall be approved by the
Engineerbeforework is started.When the methodhas been approved,
no changesshall be madewithoutthe consentof the Engineer.
ii) The contractor shall inform the Engineer in advance of the date of
commencementof manufactureand the dates when tensioningof
tendons,castingof membersand transferof stresswill be undertakenfor
the first time for each type of beam.
iii) The contractorshall send to the Engineernot more than seven (7) days
after the transfer.of stress, a certificateshowing the force and strain in
the tendons immediatelyafter they were anchored,the strengthand age
of the test cubes cast in accordancewith specified procedure and the
minimumage in hoursof the concreteat the time the stresswas applied
to the member. A copy of all twenty eight (28) days cube test results
relating to the work shall be sent to the Engineer as these become
available.Records shall be kept so that the identityof those who stress
the tendons,cast the concreteand transferthe stress on any memberor
line of memberscan be traced.
iv) where the Engineer'sRepresentativerequirestests to be carriedout, no
beams to which the test relateshall be dispatchedto the site until the
tests have been satisfactorilycompleted.

405.3.1r

ComnositeSlabBridses
a) The manufacturingtolerancesfor the precast membersshall no-vrhere
exceedthose given for the length,cross-sectionand straightnessin BS
code of PracticecP116(1969).The structuraluse of precastconcrete.ln
addition,where beamsare laidside by side in a deck:
(i)

The differencein soffit level betweenadjacentunits beforethe in


situ concrete is placed shall no-where exceed five (5) mm for
unitsup to five (5) metersnor ten (10) mm for longerunits.
405-7

(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)

The width of the deck soffitshallbe withinplustwentyfive 1+25;


mm of that describedin the Contract.
In adjacentspans, the continuityof line of the outside beams
shallbe maintained.
The width of the gap betweenindividualbeams shall not exceed
twicethe nominalgap describedin the contract.
The alignmentof transverseholesshallpermitthe reinforcement
tendonsto be placedwithoutdistortion.
or prestressing

b) The in-situ concrete shall be placed in such a sequence that the


advancingedge of the freshly depositedconcreteover the full width of
joints is approximatelyparallel
deck or betweenlongitudinalconstruction
to the deck supports.
c) Beamsshallbe preventedfrom movinglaterallyduringthe placingof the
in-situconcrete.
405.3.12

Samplinqand Testins
a) Testing of PretensionedBeams
(i)

Any beam requiredby the Engineerto be subjectedto a load test


will be selected after transfer and wherever possible before the
beam has been removedfrom the castingyard to the storage
area. The Contractorshall not proceedwith a load test until he
has obtained the approval of the Engineer to the detailed
arrangements.Exceptwhere otherwiseagreed by the Engineer,
the load test shall be carriedout not less than twenty eight (28)
days after casting.The cost of the load test shall be born by the
Contractor.

(ii)

The beam shall be supportedat its designpointsof bearing.The


specifiedtest loads shall be appliedequallyat the third pointsof
the span in not less than ten (10) approximatelyequal stages.
The maximumload shall be sustainedfor five (5) minutesand
then removed in not less than five (5) approximatelyequal
stages.The mid-spandeflectionrelativeto a straightreference
line joining the points of supportshall be measuredfor each
valueof the load and five (5) minutesafterremovalof the load.
Loadsshall be measuredwith an accuracyof + two (2) per cent
or 50kg and deflectionswith an accuracyof + decimalfive (0.5)
millimeter.
graphshall be plottedfrom these valuesand
The load-deflection
shall show no appreciablevariationfrom a straightline. lf after
five (5) minutesof removalof the loadthe beam does not show a
recovery of at least ninety (90) per cent of the maximum
deflectionrecorded during the test, the test loading shall be
repeated.The beam shallbe consideredto have failedthe test if
the recoveryfive (5) minutesafter removalof the test load for the
secondtime is not at leastninety(90) per cent of the maximum
deflectionrecordedduringthe secondtest.

(iii)

(iv)

405-8

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

The result of the test shall be deemed to apply to the other


beamscast in the same productionline but in the eventof failure
any additionalbeam may be separatelytestedat the contractor's
option.
The contractorshallsupplyto the Engineerrecordsheetsof the
test showingthe age of the beam at the time of the test, loads,
deflections,load-deflectioncurves and calculated value of
Young'sModulesof Elasticity(E).
In addition,the recordsheets suppliedby the contractorto the
Engineershall show the temperaturesof the top and bottom
surfacesof the beam measuredat the time of the test.

b) Testingof Prestressing
Anchorages
Anchoragesfor post-tensioningshall be tested in accordancewith the
proceduredescribedin 854447 or as approvedby the Engineer.For each
anchoragesystemusedin the works, the characteristic
valuefor anchoraqe
efficiencyshall be not lessthan ninety(90) percent.

40s.3.13

CuringConcrete
a) General
For all prestressedconcreteoperationsthe curing proceduresshall be well
established and properly controlled. Curing shall be commenced
immediatelyfollowinginitialset or completionof surfacefinishing.Members
shall be keptwet duringthe entireperiodof curing.
b) Method of Curins
The curingmethodsshallconformto thosedetailedunderitem401.3.g.

405.4

MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

405.4.r

Measurement
Measurementand paymentsfor the various items in prestressconcrete
work shall be made in accordancewith appropriateitems of relevant
sections,as depictedin the drawings.

405.4.2

Pavment

405.4.2.1
The quantityto be paid for shall be the number of prestressedconcrete
structuralmembersof the severaltypes and sizes,constructedand installed
in place, as per drawingscompletedand accepted.Each member shall
includethe concrete,reinforcementand prestressingsteel, enclosuresfor
prestressingsteel, anchorage, plates, nuts, formwork, shuttering and
centeringif required,and othersuch materialcontainedwithinor attachedto
the unit.

405-9

405.4.2.2

Prestressed
Cast-in-Place
Concrete
work as
The work to be paidfor underthis item will be only the prestressing
specifiedhere and shown on the Drawingsor requiredby the Engineerand
shall include supply and installationof prestressinQsteel, spacers,
enclosures,anchorages plates, nuts and other such material deemed
necessaryto completethe work. Steel reinforcement,concrete,falsework,
and formworkwill, unless otherwiseprescribed,be measuredand paid for
accordingto item No.401and404 respectively.
Pay item No. Descriptionand Unit of Measurementfor PrecastPrestressed
Concrete Members and Castin-Place Prestressed Concrete will be
covered,under specifiedBOQ item numberprovidedin specialprovisions,
as per drawingsand otherrelateddocumentsfor followingitem separately.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

ConcreteMember(includinggrouting)
Prestressedropes/strands,
Size .....
Prestressed
Wire Size .....
PrestressedHardware,includingSheets,
Male/FemaleCone and Anchorsetc.

405-10

CM.
Ton.
Ton.
Ton.

ITEM 406

406.1

JOINTS AI\D BEARING DEWCES FOR CONCRETE


STRUCTURES

DESCRIPTION
The work coveredin this item shallconsistof furnishingall plant,equipment,
materials and labour in performing all operations in connection with
furnishingand placing(in concretestructures)all deck expansionjoints and
seals, metal bearingpads and elastomericbearing pads completeand in
accordancewith the specifications,the Drawings,and or as requiredby the
Engineer.

406.2

MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS

406.2.1

ConcreteJoint Filler
a. PreformedExpansionJoint Filler
Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer preformed joints filler shall
conformto the requirements
of AASHTOM-213.

b. NeonreneRubberSheetwith BitumasticSeal
Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer, neoprene rubber sheets six
(6)mmin thickness,meetingthe requirementsof ltem 406.2.3,shallbe used
as a joint fillercoveredwith a bitumasticseal as shownin the Drawings.

406.2.2

Steelfor DeckExnansionJoint Seals


Plates,anglesor otherstructuralshapesincludinganchorboltsrequiredfor
the expansionjoint seals shall conform, unless otherwise directed by the
Engineer,to the requirementsof AASHTO M-160 and shall be hot zinc
sprayed (galvanized)with the exceptionof the nuts and washerswhich shall
be in stainlesssteel.

406.2.3

Elastomerfor DeckExnansionJoint Seals


Elastomershall be of the componentas neopreneor of polyvinylchloride
(PVC), at the option of the Contractor.Neopreneshall be manulactured
from a vulcanizedelastomericcompoundcontainingneopreneas the sole
elastomer and shall have the following physical characteristicsin
accordancewith ASTM MethodD15. Part B.

406-1

Hardness,DurometerA,
ASTM D 2240.

406,2.4

45 + 5 points

TensileStrength,
ASTM D 412
min.

127 Kgs/squarecentimeter

Elongationat Break

400 percentmin.

CompressionSet, 22 Hoursat
70 degreeC. ASTM D 395, MethodB.

20 percentmax.

ASTM D 746
Low Temperature,

Notbrittleat 40 degreeC.

OzoneResistance,Exposureto
100 PPHMOZonefor 70 hoursat
38 degreeC. Sampleunder
20 percent.ASTM D 1149.

No cracks

- Volumeincrease
Oil Deterioration
aftersoakingin ASTM oil No. 3 for
70 hoursat 100 degreeC. ASTM D 470

120percentmax.

Metal BearinsDerices
Unless othemrisedirected by the Engineer or provided in the Special
Provisions,the requirementsfor metal bearings shall conform to the
following:

406.2.5

a)

AASHTOM 107 for bronzeueai-iirg.

b)

AASHTOM 108 for rolledcopperalloy bearings.

c)

ASTM B 438 for sinteredmetal powder bearings.

d)

AASHTO M 160 for galvanizedsteel bearings.

ElastomericBearinsPads
General

Elastomericbearingsas herein specifiedshall includeplain bearings


(consisting
of layers
bearings(consisting
only)and laminated
of elastomer
by bondedlaminates.
of elastomerrestrained
at theirinterfaces
for bearingpads shall conformto
The reinforcing
steei plateslaminations
of AASHTOM 183.
therequirements
in these
Elastomeric
bearingpads shall conformto the requirements
Provisions.
specifications
the
Special
and

406-2

Pads twelve (12) mm'and less in thicknessmay be either laminatedor all


elastomer.
Pads over twelve(12) mm in thicknessshall be laminated.
Laminatedpads shall consist of alternate laminationsof elastomerand
metalor elastomerand fabricbondedtogether.
The thicknesscalledfor an elastomericbearingpad is deemed to be the
totaleffectivethicknessof the elastomericlaminations.
The outsidelaminationsshall be metalor fabric.The outsideedges of metal
laminationsshallbe coatedover with elastomernot morethan three (3) mm
in thickness.
The edges of the steel reinforcingplates of the bearing pads shall be
carefullytreatedto preventnotch effects.
Steelplatesshallbe fullyenclosedin elastomerso that thereis no dangerof
corrosion.
Laminationsof elastomershall be 12 mm + 3 mm thickness.Variationin
thicknessof an individualelastomerlaminationshall not exceedthree (3)
mm withinthe width or lengthof a pad and the variationin thicknessof all
elastomerlaminationswithin a pad shall be such that each metal or fabric
laminationwill not vary by more than three (3) mm from a plane parallelto
the top or bottomsuface of the pad.
The total overallthicknessof a pad shall not be less than the thickness
shown on the plan nor more than six (6) mm greaterthan that thickness.
Variationof total thicknesswithin an individualpad shall not exceedthree
(3) mm.
The lengthand width of a pad shall not vary more than three (3) mm from
the dimensionsshownon the Drawings.
Where elastomericbearing pads over twelve (12) mm, in thicknessare
shown on the Drawingsor requiredby the Engineers,such pads may be
manufactured
as a moldedlaminatedpad, or at the optionof the Contractor,
may be madeup by stackingindividuallaminatedpads.
When laminatedpads are stacked,their contactsurfacesshall be cleaned
prior to stacking and an approved method shall be used to hold the
individualpads in the stack in proper alignment.Pads of all elastomeror
with fabric laminationsmay be cut from large sheets. Cutting shall be
performedin such a manner as to avoid heating of the materialand to
producea smoothedge with no tears or otherjaggedareasand to cause as
littledamageto the materialas possible.
Cornersand edges of molded pads may be roundedat the option of the
Contractor.Radiusat cornersshall not exceed ten (10) mm and radius of
edgesshallnot exceedthree(3) mm.

406-3

such that,when a
The bond betweenelastomerand metalor fabricshall be
elastomerand
the
within
occur
shall
failure
separation,
,urpr" is testedfor
not betweenthe elastomerand metalor fabric'
Metal laminationsshall be rolledmild steel sheetsnot less
gaugein thickness.

than twenty(20)

synthetic polymer
Fabric laminationsshall be either, (1) a long chain
"uno
o n t i"r"inthalic
, i n i n g a t | e aacii
s t e i girh tQ)
y f i vi etong
(85)p
chain
e r c esynthetic
n t o f p o | y po-lym.eric
e s t e r f r o mamid
e t h yfrom
|eneg|yco|
have a
shall
ply
fabric
of
Each
frexametnyenediamineand adipiCacid.
of width in both
breaking ltrength of not less ihan 125 Kg' per cm'
bottomsurfaces
and.
ply
top
ai
single
be
shall
directions.Fabriclaminations
ottrrepaoandeitherdoub|ep|yordoub|estrengthwithinth-epad'
and shall
The sole potymerrn the elastomericcompoundshall be neoprene
compound'
be not lessthan sixty(60) percentby volumeof the total

Thee|astomer,asdeterminedfromtestspecimens,sha||conformtothe
following:
ASTM

Test

Requirements

tion

Tensilestrength,Kgs/sq.cm

D412

1 6 0M i n .

Elongationat break,Percent

D412

350Min.

Compressionset,22 hrs. at 67
degreeC, Percent(MethodB)

D 395

25 Max.

D 624(DieC)

1 3M i n .

Tear Strength,Kgs Percmt

D 2240

Hardness(ShoreA)
Ozoneresistance20% strain,100
hrs.at 38 degreeC 1 1001 20
parts I degreeC

6015 points
(exceptNo
Cracksper
100,000,000)

D 1149
Low temPeraturestiffness,
Young'sModulusat 35 degreeC
5
Low temPeraturebrittleness'
C
degree
40
at
hours

406-4

Kgs per cm (2) D 797

350Max.

D 736

Passed

After acceleratedaging in accordancewith ASTM DesignationD s73 for 70


hoursat 100 degreec, the elastomershall not show deteriorationchanges
in excessof the following:
Tensilestrength,percent

+ 15

Elongationat Break,percent

- 50 (but not less than 300% total


elongationof the material)

Hardness,points

+10

ShearTest (withoutverticalload)

7 Kg/sq.cm(Min)

sampling.shall be performedin accordancewith AASHTO M2s1-74 as


appropriatefor the tests requiredduringor immediately
aftermanufacture.
The contractor shall furnish to the Engineer a certificationby the
manufacturerthat the elastomer,and fabric (if used), in the elastomeric
bearingpadsto be furnishedconformsto all of the aboverequirements.
The
certificationshall be supported by a certified copy of the results of tests
performedby the manufacturerupon samplesof the elastomerand fabricto
be used in the pads.
The Engineerwill take a sample of not less than 15 x 30 cm in size for
testing from each lot of pads or batch of elastomer to be furnished,
whicheverresults,inthe greater number of samples.The sampleswill be
selectedat random at the point of manufactureor, at the option of the
contractorat the job site. samples taken at the job site shail consist of
completepads as detailedon the plans, and the contractorshall furnish
additionalcompletepads to replacethose taken for testing.pads shall be
available'forsamplingthree (3) weeks in advance of intended use. All
samplepadsfor testingshall be furnishedby the contractorat his expense.
406.3

CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTS

406.3.I

OnenJoints
open jointsshall be constructedat the locationsshown on the Drawingsor
requiredby the Engineerusing a suitablematerial,which is subsequenily
removed.when removingthe material,care shall be exercisedto avoid
chippingor breakingof concrete.Reinforcement
shall not extendacrossan
openjoint,unlessshownon the Drawings.

106.3.2

Filled Joints
when joints of preformedtype are requiredon the Drawingsor by the
Engineer,the filler shall be placed in correct positionbeforJ concreteis
being placedagainstthe filler.preformedFillerwith holes and cracks shall
not be permittedand shallbe reiected.

406-5

406.3.3

SteelJoints
Plates,anglesor other structuralshapesshall be accuratelyshapedat the
shop, to conformto the sectionof the concretefloor as per drawings.The
fabiicationshall conformto the requirementsin Special Provisions.Care
shall be taken to ensurethat the surfacein the finishedplane is true and
free of warping.Methodsapprovedby the Engineershall be employedin
placingthe jointsto keep them in correctpositionduringthe placingof the
concrete.The openingat expansionjoints shall be that to avoid impairment
of the clearancein any manner.

-t06.3.,1

Water Stops{JointSeals)
Water-stopsshall be furnishedand installedin accordancewith the details
shown on the Drawings or where required by the Engineer and in
accordancewiththe provisionsin thesespecifications.
Water-stopsshall be furnishedin full lengthfor each straightportionof the
joint, without field splices Manufacturer'sshop splices shall be fully
vulcanized.
Reinforcing bars provided to support the water-stops shown on the
Drawingsor as requiredby the Engineershall be securelyheld in position
by the use of spacers,supportingwires, or other approveddevices.such
reinforcingbars shallbe considered,for paymentpurposes,as a part of the
water-stop. lf, after placing concrete, water-stops are materially out of
positionor shape,the surroundingconcreteshall be removed,the waterstop reset,and the concretereplaced,all at the contractor'sexpense.
Field splices for neoprene water-stops shall be either vulcanized,or
mechanical,usingstainlesssteel parts,or made with a splicingunionof the
same stock as the water-stop,at the option of the Contractor.All finished
splicesshall have a full size tensilestrengthof eighteen(18) kg per cm of
width.
Field splicesfor polyvinylchloridewater-stopsshall be performedby heat
sealing the adjacent surfaces in accordance with the manufacturer's
controlledelectricsourceof heat shall
A thermostatically
recommendations.
be used to make all splices.The heat shall be sufficientto melt but not char
the plastic.
Water-stopswhen being installedshall be cut and spliced at changes in
directionas may be necessaryto avoid bucklingor distortionof the web or
flange.

.106.3.5

Metal BearingDevices
steel bearing plates, bars, rockers,assemblies,and other expansionor
fixed devicesshall be constructedin accordancewith the detailsshown on
the plansand shallbe hot-dipgalvanizedafterfabrication.

406=6

Bronzeor copperalloy plates,if specified,shallconformto the requirements


of the SpecialProvisions.
The bearingplatesshall be set level and the rockersor other expansron
devicesshall be set to conformto the temperatureat the time of erectionor
to the settingspecified.
when bearingassembliesor masonryplatesare shown on the Drawingsto
be placed (not embedded)directlyon colcrete, the concretebearingarea
shallbe constructed
slightlyabovegradeand shallbe finishedby grinding
or other approved means to a true level plane which shall not vary
perceptibly
from a straightedge placedin any directionacrossthe area.The
finishedplaneshall not vary more than three (3) mm from the etevation
shownon the Drawingsor that requiredby th,eEngineer.
d06.3.6

Elastomeric
BearingPads
when elastomericbearingpads are shown on the Drawings,the concrete
surfaceson which pads or packingare to be placedsrrait be wood float
finishedto a levelplanewhichshallnot varymorethanone and a half(1.5)
mm from a straightedgeplaced in any directionacross the area. The
finishedplane shall not vary more than three (3) mm from the elevation
shownon the Drawingsor that requiredby the Engineer.

406..1

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT

106.1.r

Measurement
a) Filled ConcreteJoints
The quantityto be paid for shall be in square metersof either expansion
joint
preformedjoint filleror expansionjoint with neoprenerubbersheet
-with
six (6) mm thick and coveredwith bitumasticseal,completedand accepted
in work.
b) SteelJoints
The quantityto be paidfor shallbe the numberof kilogramsof steelfor steel
joints fabricated,galvanized and placed in the work completed and
accepted.
c) Water Stotrs
The quantityto be paid for shall be the numberof linear meters of waterstop placedin the work, completedand accepted.
d) BearingDevices
The quantityto be paid for shall be the number of cubic centimeterof
bearingdeviceseithersteel bearingor elastomericbearingpads installedin
the work completedand accepted.

406-7

e) AsphalticFelt
The quantityto be paid shall be in squaremeterof 3 ply rating-Fibre/Fabric
naseo asphalticfelt weighingforty one 41 kg to forty five (45) kg per 20
square meter includingltr,ifing coat/paintcoat and flood coat of special
as approvedby the Engineer,laid in
industrialbitumenand sand OtinOing
placeas directedbYthe Engineer.
406.1.2

Payment
The acceptedquantitymeasuredas provideda-boveshall be paid for at the
contractunit pricerespectivelyfor the pay items listedhrelowand shown in
for
the Bill of Quantitieswhich priceand paymentshall be full compensation
any
and
incidentals
and
furnishingall materials,labour, equrpment,tools
tOjoints and bearingsand which is not paid for separately'
work pertaininE
necessaryto comPletethe item'

Pay ltem
No.

Description.

Unitof
Measurement

PremouldedJointfiller
12 mm thickwith Bitumastic
JointSeal.

SM

NebpreneRubberJoint Filler
12 mm thickwith Bitumastic
JointSeal.

SM

406c

SteelExpansionJoints.

Kg

406d

WaterStops6" Size

406e

ElastomericBearingPads (Accordingto size and thickness)

Cubiccm.

406f

AsphaltFdlt (3 Ply)

SM

4069

SteelormetalBearingDevices

Each

406a

406b

406-8

ITEM 407

407.1

PILING

DESCRIPTION

This work shall consist of performingall operationsin connectionwith


furnishing,driving,cuttingoff and loadtestingof pilesto obtainthe specified
bearing value complete in place and stricfly in accordancewith these
Specifications
and as shownon the Drawinos.
The contractorshallfurnishthe precastpilesin accordancewith an itemized
list,whichwill be providedby the Engineer,showingthe numberand lengths
of all piles.when cast-in-place
concretepilesare specifiedon the orawiigs,
the Engineerwill not furnish the contractor,an itemizedlist showingthe
numberand lengthof piles.when test piles and load tests are requiredin
conformancewith sub-items 407.3.9and 407.3.9 respectively,the data
obtainedfrom suchtest loadswill be used in conjunctionwith otheravatilable
subsoil informationto determinethe number and lengths of piles to be
furnished.The Engineerwill not preparethe itemized'iistof piies for any
portionof the foundationarea until all loadingtests represeniativeof that
portionhave been completed.
The contractor shall provide an oufline of his proposed method for:
constructinglarge diameterpile when submittinghis tender;the proposed
methodof boringbeingstated.
Not less than two weeks before the contractor proposes to commence
piling,detailedpropos.alfor the piling shall be deiiveredto the Engineer.
These proposalsshall include full details of materials,equipment and
methodto be used in the construction
of piles.
lf it is proposedto use bentoniteslurry,this shallalso be describeo.
work on piling shall not commenceuntil the contractor,sproposalshave
beenapprovedby the Engineerand communicated
to the contractor.
The requirementsherein are minimum. Strict compliance with these
requirements
will not relievethe contractorof the responsibility
for adopting
whateveradditionalprovisionsmay be necessaryto ensure the successful
completionof the work.
The kind and type of piles shall be as shown on the Drawingsand/or as
specified.No alternatetypes or kinds of piling shall be used, exiept with the
writtenapprovalof the Engineereachtime.

407-1

407.2

MATERIAL

407.2.1

Types of Piles

REQUIREMENTS

a Untreated Timber Piles


Untreated timber piles shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M
168.
b. Treated Timber Piles

of AASHTOM 133
Treatedtimberpilesshallconformto the requirements
and M 168."Unless
otherwise
calledfor on the drawings,
the timberpiles
shallbe treatedwith creosoteaccordingto the StandardAWPA Pl of the
Association.
AmericanWood-Preservers
c. Reinforced Concrete Cylindr
Diameter of reinforced concrete piles shall be as shown on the Drawings

lining,as shownon the drawing.


andmayor maynothavepermanent
Reinforcing
Steelshallconformto the requirements
underltem 404 - Steel
Reinforcement.
Concreteshall meet all the requirements
for specifiedClass as provided
underltem401andshallbe of Class-Dunlessotherwise
specified.

d. StructuralSteelPiles
Structuralsteelpilesshall be rolledsteelsectionsof the type, weightand
shape calledfor on the Drawings.The piles shall be structuralsteel
conforming
of ASTMA 7 and ASTMA 36, exceptthat
to the requirements
processshallnotbe used.
by theAcid-Bessemer
steelproduced
The steelpilesshallbe coatedwithred leadpaintconforming
to AASHTO
M 72 as instructed
by the Engineer,
unlessotherwise
specified.
e. PrecastConcretePiles
Concretefor piles shall meet all the requirements
for the specifiedclass as
providedunder ltem 401 - Concrete.The concreteshall be of Class-Dl
unlessotherwisespecified.
ReinforcingSteel shall conformto the requirementsunder ltem 404 - Steel
Reinforcement.

Prestressedconcrete piles shall conform to ltem 405


ConcreteStructures.

407-2

Prestressed

Precast piles shall be made in accordance with the Drawings,.and


reinforcement
shall be placedaccuratelyand securedrigidlyin such manner
as to ensureits properlocationin the completedpile.The concretecoveras
measuredto the outsideface of ties or spiralsshall not be lessthan five (5)
cm.
The pilesshall be cast separatelyor, if alternatepiles are cast in a tier, the
intermediatepilesshall not be cast untilfour (4) days afterthe adjacentpiles
have been poured. Piles cast in tiers shall be separatedby tar paper or
other suitable separatingmaterials.The concrete in each pile shall be
placedcontinuously.
The completedpilesshall be free from stone pockets,
porousspots, or other defects,and shall be straightand true to the form
specified.The forms shall be true to line and built of metal, plywood,or
dressedlumber.A two and half (2.5)cm chamferstrip shallbe formedon all
edges. Forms shall be watertightand shall not be removedwithin twenty
four (24) hours after the concreteis placed.Piles shall be given a surface
finishaccordingto ltem 401.3.7- ConcreteSurfaceFinishing.
Pilesshallbe curedin accordance
withthe requirements
of ltem401.3.8(e)
- CuringPrecastConcretePiles.
Piles shall not be moved until the tests indicatea compressivestrengthof
eighty (80) percent of the design twenty eight (28) days compressive
strengthand they shall not be transportedor drivenuntilthe tests indicatea
compressive strength equal to the design twenty eight (28) days
compressivestrength
When concretepiles are lifted or moved, they shall be supportedat the
points shown on the Drawingsor, if not so shown, as instructedby the
Engineer.
40'7.2.2

Pile Shoes

Pile shoeswhen requiredshall be of the designas calledfor on the


Drawings
or by the Engineer.
407.2.3

Pile Splices
Materialsfor pile splices,when splicingis allowed,shall be of the same
qualityand characteristics
as the materialsused for the pile itselfand shall
followthe requirementsgivenon the Drawingsunlessotherwisedirectedby
the Engineer.

407.3

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS

407.3.1

Driven Piles
a. Locationand SitePreparation
Piles shall be used wherq.indidatedon the Drawingsor as directedby the
Engineer.

407-3

All excavationsfor the foundationin whichthe pilesare to be drivenshall be


completed before the driving is begun, unless otherwise specified or
approved by the Engineer. After driving is completed, all loose and
displaced materials shall be removed from around the piles by hand
excavation,leaving clean solid surfaces to receive the concrete for
foundations.
tr. Determinationof Pile Length
The criteriafor pile length and bearingcapacitywill be determinedby the
Engineeraccordingto the resultsfrom test piles and load tests. The piles
shall be driven to such depths,that the bearingloads indicatedon the
Drawingsare obtained.
The criterionfor pilelengthmay be one of the following:
1)

Piles in sand and gravel shall be driven to a bearingvalue


determinedby use for the pile drivingformulaor as decidedby
the Engineer.

2)

Piles in clay shall be driven to the depth ordered by the


Engineer.However,the bearingvalue shall be controlledby the
appropriatepiledrivingformulaif calledfor by the Engineer.

3)

Piles shall be driven to refusalon rock or hard layer when so


orderedby the Engineer.

The contractorshall be responsiblefor correct pile lengths and bearing


capacitiesaccordingto the criteriagivenby the Engineer.
c. PileDrivins
All pilesshall be drivenaccuratelyto the verticalor the batteras shown on
the drawings.Each pile shall,atterOrivingj,
be withinfifteen(15) cm from the
theoretical location underneath the pile cap or underneath the
superstructure
in the case of pile bents.All pilespushedup by the drivingof
adjacentpilesor by any othercauseshallbe drivendown again.
Pilesshall be used only in placeswhere a minimumpenetrationof three (3)
metersin firm materials,or five (5) metersin soft materials,can be obtained.
Where a soft stratumoverliesa hard stratum,the piles shall penetrateto
hard materialupto a sufficientdistanceto fix the ends rigidly.
All pile driving equipment is subject to the Engineer's approval. The
Contractoris responsiblefor sufficientweightand efficiehcyof the hammers
to drive the piles down to the required depth and bearing capacity.
Hammers shall be gravity hammers, single acting steam or pneumatic
hammersor diesel hammers.Gravityhammersshall not weigh less than
sixty (60) percentof the combinedweightof the pile and drivinghead and
not lessthan 2,000 Kg. The fall shallbe adjustedso as to avoid injuryto the
pileand shallin no caseexceedone (1) m for timberand steelpilesand one
half (0.5) M for concretepiles unlessotherwisespecifiedor approved by
the Engineer.The plantand equipment
furnished
for steam
407-4

hammers shall have sufficient capacity to maintain, under working


The
conditions,the pressureat the hammerspecifiedby the manufacturer.
gauge
pressure
an
accurate
boileror pressuretank shall be equippedwith
and anothergaugeshall be suppliedat the hammerintaketo determinethe
drop in pressure between the gauge and the hammer. \A/hen diesel
hammersare used,they shall be calibratedwith test pilingand/ortest loads
in accordancewith ltem 407.3.9.
Water jets shall be used only when permittedin writing by the Engineer.
When water jets are used,the numberof jets and the nozzlevolume and
pressureshall be sufficientto erodethe materialadjacentto the pile freely.
The jets shall be shut off at a depth not less than three (3) M beforefinaltip
elevation is reached, and the piles driven solely by hammer to final
penetrationas requiredby the Engineer.
Piles shall be supportedin line and positionwith leads while being driven.
Pile driving leads shall be constructedin such a manner as to afford
freedomof movementof the hammer,and shall be held in positionby guys
or steel bracesto ensurerigid lateralsupportto the pile duringdriving.The
leadsshall be of sufficientlengthto make the use of a followerunnecessary,
and shall be so designedas to permit proper placingof batter piles.The
drivingof piles with followersshall be avoided if practicableand shall be
done only underwrittenpermissionfrom the Engineer.
The method used in drivingpiles shall not subjectthem to excessiveand
undue abuse producingcrushingand spalling of the concrete,injurious
splittingand broomingof the wood,or deformationof the steel.Manipulation
of pilesto force them into properposition,if consideredby the Engineerto
be excessive,will not be permitted.
The pile tops shall be protectedby driving heads, caps or cushions in
from the manufacturerof the pile
accordancewith the recommendations
The drivinghead shall be
Engineer.
of
the
hammerand to the satisfaction
providedto maintainthe axis of the pile in line with the axis of the hammer
and providea drivingsurfacenormaltothe pile.
Full-lengthpiles shall be used where practicable.Splicingof piles when
permittedshall be in accordancewith the provisionsof ltem 407.3.5.All
drivenunlessotherwiseallowedby the Engineer.
pilesshallbe continuously
d. Pile Drivins Formulae
Pile driving formulasmay be used to determinethe number of blows of
hammerper unit of pile penetrationneededto obtainthe specifiedbearing
capacityfor pilesdrivenin the sub-soilsat the site. Pilesshall be drivento a
final resistanceas indicatedon the plans determinedby the following
formula:

407-5

For drop hammer


Qatt

WH/[6(S+2.5)]

For single-acting
steamor air hammers.and
for diesel
Hammershavinqunrestrictedreboundof rams.
Qatt

wH/[6(S+0.25)]

Qa,

WH/[6{S+0.25(WDA
/S)}l

(Usewhen driven
weightsare smaller
than strikingweights)
(Usewhen driven
weightsare largerthan
strikingweights)

Fordouble-acting
steamor airhammers
dnddieselhammers
havingenclosed
rams
Qall

E/[6(S+0.25)j

(Usewhen driven
weightSare smaller
than strikingweights).

Qarr

E46{S+0.25(WDM/S)}]

(Usewhen driven
weightsare larggrthan
strikingweights)

In the aboveformulas:
Qatt

pileloadin Kilograms.
Allowable

IA'
vv

Weightof striking
partsof hammerin Kilograms.

The heightof fall in centimeters


for steam,and air
hammers,and the observedaverageheightof fall in
centimeters,
of blowsusedto determinepenetration
for
dieselhammers
withunrestricted
reboundof hammer.

per blow in centimeters


Averagenet penetration
for the
last 10 to 20 blowsof steam,air, or dieselhammer,or
for thelast15centimeters
of drivingfor a drophammer.
The actualenergydeliveredby hammerper blow in
- centimeter.
Kilogram

WD

Drivenweightsin Kilograms

Note: Ratioof drivenweightsto strikingweightsshouldnot exceed


three.
WS

Weightof strikingpartsin Kilograms.

Modifications
of basicpiledrivingformula:

407-6

a)

For piles driven to and seated in rock as high capacity-endbearing piles: Drive to refusal (approximatelyfour (4) to five (5)
blows for the last 0.625 centimetersof driving). Re-drive open
end pipe piles repeatedlyuntil resistancefor refusal is reached
withintwo and half (2.5)centimetersof additionalpenetration.

b)
'

For piles.driventhrough stiff compressiblematerialsunsuitable


for pilebearingto an underlfingbearingstratum:
Add blows attained before reaching bearing stratum to required
blowsattainedin bearingStratum.

c)

For pilesinto limitedthin bearingstratum:

Driveto predetermined
tip elevation,and determineallowableload by
load test.
The bearing power as determined by the appropriateformula in the
foregoing list will be considered effective only when it is less than the
crushingstrengthof the pile. other recognizedformulafor determinigrg
pile
bearing power may be used when given in special specification.However,it
shall be understoodthat the relativemeritsand reliabilityof any of the pile
formulacan be judged only on the basis of comparisonswith the resultsof
loadtests.
407.3.2

Cast-in-Place
Piles
Piles, cast-in-place,
shall consistof one of the types either shown on the
drawingand/ords specified.The tbrm shaft whereverused in this section.
shall mean eitherpilesor shafts.
a. Woriring i)rawines
At least 4 weeks before work on shafts is to begin, the contractor shall
submitto the Engineerfor reviewand approvgl,an installationplan for the
constructionof drilledshafts.The submittalshall includethe following:
i.

ii.
iii.
iv.

vi.
vii.
viii.
tx.

List of proposed equipment to be used includingcranes, drills,


augers, bailing buckets, final cleaning equipment, desanding
equipment,slurry pumps, samplingequipment,tremiesor concrete
pumps,casingetc.
Detailsof overallconstructionoperationsequenceand the sequence
of shaftconstruction
in bentsor groups.
Detailsof shaftexcavationmethods.
When slurry is required,details of the method proposedto mix,
circuldteand desandslurry.
Detailsof methodsto cleanthe shaftexcavation.
Details of reinforcement placement including support and
centralization
methods.
Detailsof concreteplacement,curingand protection.
Detailsof any requiredloadtests.
Otherinformation
shownon the plansor requestedby the Engineer.
407-7

8-10'
leql alrdoq] oprslnoposJo burueyos"ro buruesoollnJuJeqasne3 ol se
qcns aq lou lleLlse:npeco.rdeq1 '{pedo.rd:eq1oJo sactruos'saln}cnlls
luecelpe o1 :o se;rd palelduoc l;lerped lo palalduoc o1 abeuep
ut 6u11;nse:
suorlerqrA
osnecol se qcnsaq lou llBqssuotletedoleqlo pue
eloqoroqJo uorlnooxaur pasn alnpecordTpoqlaul
otlf 'suotleledo6uuoq
'1se1
Jo peoqeio 6ur:np lno pauec eq o1 (palrnber1r)
ltos alts ut pue
uolel oq o1 seldues lros smolle ]eLll r.lcnseq lleqs poqlaLuaq1
'asuadxe
pollgoq lleLlssalol{eJoq
srLlle rolcerluocr{qololouocueal L.l}tM
pelcefey ':eeurbu3 aLll ^q panoldde ro parlnads ostmloqlo ssalun
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dll eqt o] polltJpoq lleqs seloq llv
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aql uels lou lleqs rolceJluoc aLlI

has to be filled with concrete.The equipmentused for executionof


boreholeshall be adequateto ensure that each pile penetratesto the
requiredfoundinglevel.
.
Use of Casinq
Suitablecasings shall be furnishedand placed when requiredto
preventcavingof the hole beforeconcreteis poured.Casing,if used
in drillingoperationsshall be removedfrom the hole as concreteis
pouredunlessotherwisespecified.The bottomof the casingshall be
maintainednot less than fifty (50) cm belowthe top of the concrete
duringwithdrawaland pouringoperationsunlessotherwisepermitted
by the Engineer. Separation of the concrete during withdrawal
operationsshallbe avoided.

.@!
if calledforshallconform
Reinforcement
to therequirements
under
item 404. The steel shells/pipesshall be of sufficientstrengthand
rigidityto permit driving to the required bearing value or depth
withoutinjury.The steel may be either cylindricalor tapered,step
tapered or a combination,plain, circularor fluted. All types shall
conform to the correspondingASTM standards. The minimum
averagetensile strengthof steel shall be 3500 Kg/sq.cm(50,000
psi).
When called for on the Drawings or by the Engineer, the steel
shells/pipesshall be factorycoatedon both interioror exteriorsurfaces
by red lead paintconformingto AASHTOM-72 or as statedin the special
specifications.The coating shall not cause any hindrance while
assemblingthe pilesectionduringweldingoperations.
ii) TemnorarvCasinsMethod
The temporarycasing of appropriatediameterfor locatingthe pile and
pilotingthe boreholeshall be pitchedat the exact locationsas given on
the drawingsto ensurethat the casingwhen sunk is withinthe specified
tolerances.The casing shall be sunk to sufficientdepthby approved
methods.The depth shall be at least sufficientto preventthe ingressof
alluviumor otherloose materialsinto the bore when executedbelowthe
bottomlevel of the casing. In addition,the depth shall be such as the
contractor considers nepessary for the stability of the casing and/or
temporaryworks system during constructionin general and for the
followingconditionsand operationsin particularduringall conditionsof
rivercurrentwhichmay occurduringthe periodof works:
a:

Opentemporarycasingto ensureagainstblow-inof soil.

b:

Concretingof the pile,untiltemporarycasingis extracted.

407-9

Safetv of Casinq
The contractorshall take all such measures and provide such
and bracingas is necessaryand to the approvalof the
strengthening
enginLer to ensure that the temporary.casing is not disturbed,
overturned, over-stressedor under-eroded in any condition of
temporarycasingshall be such that it will not disturbthe freshlycast
concreteand/orpermanentlrningand/orreinforcement.
Where the use of temporarycasing is approvedfor the purposeof
maintainingthe stabilityand over-rapidwithdrawalof the boringtools
.which could lead to excessive removal of soil and water and
disturbanceof the surroundingground and when boringthroughany
permeablestratum(includingsilt),the water level in the boringshall
be maintainedbetweenone (1) meter and two (2) metersabovethe
the engineerdirectsotherwise.
externalwaterlevel,unleSS
The temporarycasingsshallbe free from significantdistortionand of
uniform cross sectionsthroughouteach continuouslength. During
concretingthey shall be free from encrustedconcreteor any internal
projections
which mightpreventthe properformationof the piles.

PermanentCasinsMethod
The permanentcasingconstructionmethodshall be used when required
by the plans. This method consistsof driving or drillinga casing to a
piescribeddepth beforeexcavationbegins.lf full penetrationcannot be
attained,the Engineermay requireeither excavationof materialwithin
the embeddedportionof the casingor excavationof a pilothole aheadof
the casing until the casing reachesthe desired penetration.In some
to the outside diameter of the casing may be
cases, ovrer-reaming
requiredin orderto advancethe casing.
The casing shall be continuousbetweenthe elevationsshown on the
plans.Unliss shownon the plans,the use of temporarycasingin lieu of
or in additionto the permanentcasing shall not be used except when
authorizedby the Engineerin writing.
After the installationof the casing and the excavationof the shaft is
complete,the casingshall be cutoffat the prescribedelevationand the
reinforcingsteel and shaft concrete placed within the portion of the
casingleft in place.
iii) BentoniteSlurrv
Where the use of bentoniteslurry is approved for the purpose of
maintainingthe stabilityof the walls and base of bore, the contractor's
proposalsin accordaniewith (sub clausevi) hereofshall includedetails
of the slurry.Theseshallincludeinter-alia:
a.
b.
c.

The sourceof the bentonite


of the slurry.
The constitution
Specificgravity,viscosity,sheerstrengthand PH valueof slurry'

407-10

d.
e.

The methods of mixing, storing, placing, removal and


recirculating
the slurry,and
The provisionof stand-byequipment.

Tests shall be carriedout to ensurethat the proposedconstitutionof the


slurryis compatiblewith the groundwater.Proposalsfor the constitution
and physicalpropertiesof the slurryshall includeaverage,minimumand
maximumvalues.The specificgravityof the slurryshall not be less than
one and three hundredth(1.03)in any case at any time. The contractor
shall use additives where necessary to ensure the satisfactory
functioningof the slurry.
ManufacturersCertificate
A manufacturer'scertificate showing the properties of the bentonite
powder shall be delivered to the Engineer for each consignment
deliveredto site. Independenttests shall be carried out at labbratory
approvedby the Engineeron samplesof bentonitefrequenfly.
Testson BentoniteSlurrv
The contractorshall carry out tests during the course of the piling to
checkthe physicalpropertiesof the bentoniteslurryin the works.These
tests shall include,inter-alia,density,viscosity,shear strengthand pH
tests. The test apparatusand test methods shall be those given in
"RecommendedPractice" standard by American petroleum lnstitute,
New York City,1957,referenceAPI RP29,Section-l, ll and Vl.
The frequencyof tests shall be that which the contractor considers
necessaryto ensure that the bentoniteslurry is in accordancewith his
proposalsand as such othertimes as the Engineermay direct.
shouldthe physicalpropertiesof any bentoniteslurrydeviateoutsidethe
agreedlimits,such slurry shall be replaced,irrespectiveof the number of
time it has been used by new bentonite slurry of correct physical
properties.
Adequate time shall be allowed for proper hydrationto take place,
consistentwith the methodof mixing,beforeusingslurryin the works.
Precautions
The contractorshallcontrolthe bentoniteslurryso that it does not cause
a nuisanceeitheron the site or adiacentwatenvaysor other areas.After
use it shallbe disposedin a mannerrothe approvalof the Engineer.
The level of the slurry in the bentoniteshall be maintainedso that the
internalfluidpressurealwaysexceedsthe externalwaterpressure.
lf chiselingis used when boring through hard strata or to overcome
obstructions,the stability of the excavationshall be maintainedby
methodsacceptableto the Engineer.
iv) ExcavationFrom Boreholes
The soil and debrisfrom insidethe pile boreholesshall be removedby
bucket,auguror circulatingbentoniteslurryprovidedthat no jettingat the
407-11

foot of the boreholeshall be permitted.Methodsof excavation,which in


the opinionof the Engineermay damagethe permanentliningof the pile,
shallnot be emPloYec.
Shouldthe excavationrevealany soil stratumbelowthe bottomof a pile
which.,is,in the opinionof the Engineer,unsuitablefor supportingthe
loadsthat will be imposedon it, the Contractorshallremoveall such sub
of the Engineerand shalllengthenthe pile
soil stratumto the satisfactton
lengtheningshall be paid as per this
such
any
of
if necessaryand cost
contract.
Excavationshall be carriedout as rapidlyas possiblein orderto reduce
to a minimum the time in which any strata are exposed to the
atmosphere,bentoniteslurry or water. In any case, a pile shall not
remain unfilledwith concretefor period exceedingeighteen(18) hours

of0".31:'3
aftercompletion

The materialsfrom pile excavationshall be disposedso that the same


does not interferewith any part of the permanentworks of this project,in
neat and workmanlikemanner.
v) Samplesand Tests
The Contractorshalltake soil samplesas given belowor as directedby
the Engineerto the designedtip elevationof the pile and shall carry ou{:
insitu StandardPenetrationtests within, and ahead of boreholeon the
line of verticalaxis of the pile at these locationsafter one and half (1.5)
meter interval.The costs of tests and collectionof samples shall be
deemedto be includedin the unit rates quoted by the Contractor.Each
Af the
disturbedsampleshall,as far as possible,be truly representative
without
is
taken,
grading of insitu soil at the point from which it
five (5) Kg in
6ontaritnationby other material.lt shall be approximately
immediately
container
air
tight
weight and shall be placed in a strong
as soon
be
sealed
shall
container
The
aftei its removalfrom the sampler.
the
site
to
taken
be
shall
placed
and
in
as the sample has been
tests.
Limits
Atterberg
and
content
grading,
moisture
laboratoryfor
Test shall be
The apparatusand procedurefor the StandardPenetration
in accordancewith the provisionsof ASTM D 1586 PenetrationTest and
split-barrelsamplingof soils and/orASTM D 1587 thin-walledsampling
oi soils, (exceptinsofaras any such provisionsmay conflictwith other
of the contract).
requirements
vi) Limitationsof Boring Sequence
Piles shall be constructedin such a mannerand sequenceas to ensure
that no damage is sustainedby piles already constructedin adjacent
positions.The Contractorshall submitto the Engineerfor his approvala
programmeshowingsequenceof constructionof variouspiles'

407-12

vii) Tolerances
Followingconstruction
tolerancesshallmaintained
a.
b.
c.

d.

e.

f.
g.

The drilledshaft shall be within 3 inchesof the plan positionin


the horizontalplaneat the plan elevationfor the top of the shaft.
The verticalalignmentof the shaftexcavationshail not very from
the plan alignmentby morethan 1/4 inch per foot of depth.
After all the shaft concrete is placed, the top of the ieinforcing
steel cage shalr be no more than 6 inches above and no more
than 3 inchesbelowplan position.
when casingis used, its outsidediametershall not be less than
the shaftdiame_ter
shownon the plans.when casingis not used,
the minimumdiameterof the drilledshaft shall be tne diameter
shown on the prans for diameters24 inch6s or ress, and not
more than 1 inch less than the diametershown on the plantsfor
diametersgreaterthan24 inches.
The bearingarea of bellsshall be excavatedto the plan bearing
area as a minimum.All other plan dimensionsshown for the
bells may be varied, when approved, to accommodatethe
equipmentused.
The top elevationof the shaft shall be within 1 inch of the plan
top of shaftelevation.
The bottomof the shaftexcavationshall be normalto the axis of
the shaft within 3/4 inch per foot of shafl diameter.

viii) Inspection
After the borehole has reached its final stipulated positions, after the
samples have been taken out, as requiredby the'Engineer, and the
boreholehas been completelycleanedof all loose mattei and othenrvise
made ready to receivethe reinforcementand thereafterthe concrete.the
contractorshallso informthe Engineer.
The Engineershall inspectthe soil samples and test results thereon,
check the elevation of the bottom of the borehole and the amount and
direction,if any, by whichthe top of the casingis out of position,or outof-plumbhavingsatisfiedhimselfon theseand on any other pointswhich
he may consider relevant shall sign permission authorizing the
contractor to proceed with the placing of the reinforcement. The
contractor shall under no circumstancesproceed with the placing of
-first
reinforcementor with the subsequent concreting without having
obtainedthe authoritysignedseparatelyfor each ind every boreholeby
the Engineer.
ix) Pile Reinforcement
The reinforcement
for each pile shall be assembledand securelytied by
of
binding
wire
and by weldedreinforcementrings of twentyfive
TgSns
(25) mm diameterbar as shownon the drawings,in sucii a manner
as to
form a rigidcage.

407-13

shall be maintainedby
The requiredconcretecover to the reinforcement
suitablespacerssecurelyattachedto the reinforcementand of sufficient
cage into
strengthto resistdamageduringhandlingof the reinforcement
the pile. The distance between the spacers shall be such that the
required cover is maintained throughout and that there is no
displacementof the reinforcementcage in the course of the concreting
operation.
cage assembly
Shouldthe Contractorpreferto lower the reinforcement
into the boreholein sections,he may do so providedthe same lapping
requirementsas for assemblyon the ground are followed,namely,the
shall be lappedas shownon the drawingsand
reinforcement
longitudinal
the spiral reinforcementshall be doubledover the lap zones. Spacers
maintaining concrete cover shall be located immediately below and
absvethe laps at 4 pointsspacedaroundthe cage.
407.3.3

Concretingof Piles
In general, item 401 of the General Specificationsshall be followed,
shallbe observed.
however,the followingparticularrequirements
i) Materials
Compressivestrength of concrete in piles shall be of class 43 as
prescribedin ltem 401, exceptif otherwiseindicated.
Suitableretarder,plasticisermay be addedas approvedby the Engineer.
The Contractorshall submitthe detailedproposedadditivefor approval,
which shall be approvedafter laboratorytrial mix results.The dosing of
retardersshall ensure initialsettingtime of not less than five (5) hours
correspondingto the ambient temperatureat which the concretingis
proposedto be carriedout.
of Concreting
ii) Commencement
Priorto placingany concrete
a.

Any heavycontaminatedbentoniteslurry,which could impairthe


free flow of concretefrom the tremie pipe, shall be removed.

b.

Any loose or soft material/watersoil shall be removed from the


bottomof the bore by methodsacceptableto the Engineer.

The Contractorshall not proceedwith the concretingof the pile until the
Engineergivesspecificpermitto do so aftersatisfyinghimselfof the:
!f Adequacyof the Contractorsequipmentand arrangement.
r-f Proficiencyof his personnel.
!) Cleanliness
of the borehole.

407-14

Contractorshallhave a suitablelightingarrangementsat all timesfor


inspectingthe entirelengthof the shells,pipeor hole beforeplacingthe
reinforcingsteel or concrete.
Priorto the concretinga pile,sampleof slurryshall be takenfrom the
baseof the boreholeusingan approvedsamplingdeviceand its specific
gravityshall be determined.
iii) Placingof Concrete
The tremie shall be of not less than two hundred and fifty (250) mm
diametermade of watertight constr0ction.
The means of supportingthe
tremieshallbe such as to permitthe free movementof the dischargeend
in the concretein the pile. The tremie pipe shall be fitted with travelling
plug, which shall be placed at the top of the pipe before chargingthe
tremie pipe with concrete as barrier between the concrete and water or
bentoniteslurry,so as to preventwater or bentoniteslurry enteringthe
tube and mixingwith the concrete.The tremieshall be carefullylowered
into the borehole so that the end of the tube shall rest at about one
hundred and fifty (150) mm above the bottom of the borehole,with
reinforcementin the borehole,and the hopper end of the tremie tube
shallbe filledwith concreteas aforesaid.lt shall be slighflyraisedso that
when the concretereachesthe bottomit flows out of the lower end of the
tube, and fills the bottom of the borehole. Thereafter, the rate of
withdrawalof the tremieshall be gradualso as to ensurethe end of the
tremie pipe is always one and half (1.5) meters below the top of the
concretein the borehole.An allowanceshall be made for the top five
hundred (500) mm of qoncretein borehole during concretingbeing
unsatisfactory.
when the next batch is placed in the hopperthe tremie
shall'be slightlyraised but not out of the concreteat the bottom, until the
batch dischargesto the bottom of the upper. This operationshall be
controlledby calculatingthe volumeof concreterequiredto fill one linear
meter of pile and then by measuringthe rate of withdrawalof the tube
corresponding
to the volume of the batch in the hopper.The flow shall
then the retarded by lowering the tube. The depth of the concrete in
borehole shall be measured at intervalsto keep a constant check that
the tremiepipe bottomis immersedin concrete.
concretingin each pileshall be carriedout in a continuousoperationwithout
stoppagesuntilthe pile has been completed.
lf the bottomof the tremie pipe ceasesto be immersedin the body of the
concrete in the pile and the seal is broken, concreting shall cease
immediatelyand such remedialmeasuresas the Engineermay accept or
directshall be carriedout. The contractorshall take precautionsto ensure
that the concreteis free of voids and shall preventthe entry of water and/or
collapseof soil into concrete.lf any soil or other deleteriousor extraneous
materialsfall into any pile excavationpriorto or duringconcreting,it shall be
removedimmediately.
concretingshall continueuntil the concretehas reaehedan elevation
five hundred (500) mm higher than the designatedpile cut off level
shownon the drawings,or as othenr'uise
directedby the Engineer.
407-15

The concreteshallbe plaied in one continuousoperationfrom tip of cutcjff


elevationand shallbe carriedout in such a manneras to avoidsegregation.
The methodof placingthe concretearidthe consistency(slump)shall
of the
of ltem 401 or to the satisfaction
conformto the requirements
Engineer.
No shellor pipeshall be filledwith concreteuntilall adjacentshells,pipesor
piles within a radius of three (3) M or five (5) times the pile diameter,
whicheveris greater,have been drivento the requiredresistance.
After a shell or pipe has been filled with concrete,no pile shall be driven
withinseven(7) metersthereofuntilat leastseven(7) days have elapsed.
J07.3.1

Withdrawal of TemporaryCasing
lf the methodof constructioninvolvespartialwithdrawalof temporarycasing
as concretingproceeds,a sufficienthead of concreteshall be maintained
above the bottom of the temporary casing to ensure that no voids are
formed within the pile and to preventthe entry of ground water and to
preventthe collapseof soil intothe concrete.
lf such entry or collapseshould occur, the temporarycasing shall be redriven before the concrete has set and all defective concrete shall be
removedor the constructionof the pile shall be abandoned,in which case
the provisionof the clause herein which refers to "DefectivePiles" shall
apply.
The withdrawalof the temporarycasing shall be carried out before the
adjacentconcretehas taken its initialset.
The methodand timing of withdrawalmust be such as to ensure that the
space betwe'enthe pile and the surroundingground shall be filled with
concrete.

407.3.5

Splicineof Piles
Splicingof piles,when permittedby the Engineer,shall be made as shown
on the Drawingsor as specifiedwith materialshaving same quality and
as for materialsused for the pile itself.
characteris.tic
i) PrecastConcretePiles
For precastconcretepiles,the splicingshallbe done accordingto one of the
specified;'
followingmethodsunlessotheruuisp
1)

Using prefabricatedjoints mounted in the forms and cast


togetherwith the pile sectionsand joined togetheras specified
by the manufacturerand approvedby the Engineer.The joints
shallbe of the designand type as shownon the Drawings.

2)

By cuttingaway the concreteat the end of the pile, leavingthe


reinforcementsteel exposedfor a length of forty (40) times steel
bar diameters. The final cut of the concrete shall be
perpendicular
of the same
to the axis of the pile.Reinforcement

407-16

size as that used in the pile shall be welded to the projecting


steel and the necessaryformworkshall be placed, care being
takento preventleakagealongthe pile.The concreteshallbe of
the same qualityas that used in the pile. Just prior to placing
concrete,the top of the pile shall be wetted thoroughlyand
covered with a thin coating of neat cement, or other suitable
bondingmaterialto the satisfactionof the Engineer.The forms
shall remainin placenot lessthan seven (7) days.The pile shall
not be drivenuntilthe28-daysdesignstrengthis reached.
3)

Any other methodshown on the Drawingsor approvedby the


Engineer.

ii) SteelPiles.Shellsor pipes


For steelpilesshellsand pipe,the splicingshallbe as under:
lf the orderedlengthof the steel pile, pipe, or shell is insufficientto obtain
the specified bearing value, an extension of same cross-sectionshall be
spliced to it. Unless otherwiseshown on the Drawings,splices shall be
made by butt-weldingthe entirecross-section
to form an integralpile using
the electricarc method.The sectionsconnectedshall be properlyalignedso
that the axis of the pile will be straight.Piles bent or othenrrrise
injuredshall
be rejected.
407.3.6

Cuttins of Piles
Tops of piles shall be embeddedin the concretefooting as shown on the
drawings.
Concretepiles shall,when approvedby the Engineer,be cut off at such a
level that at least five (5) cm of undamagedpile can be embeddedin the
structureabove. lf a pile is damagedbelowthis level,the contractorshall
repair the pile to the satisfactionof the Engineer. The longitudinal
reinforcementof the piles shall be embeddedin the structureabove to a
lengthequalto at least (40)times the diameterof the main reinforcingbars.
The distancefrom the side of any pile to the nearestedge of the footing
shallnot be lessthan twenty(20) cm.
when the cut-offelevationfor a precastconcretepile,steelshell,pipe or for
a cast-in-place
concretepile is belowthe elevationof the bottomof the pile
cap, the pile may be built up from the butt of the pile to the elevationof the
bottom of the cap by means of a reinforcedconcreteconstructionaccording
to ltem 401,tf approvedby the Engineer.
cut-offs of structuralsteel pilesshall be made at right anglesto the axis of
the pile. The cuts shall be made in clean,straightlines and any irregularity
due to cutting or burning shall be leveled off with deposits of weld metal
priorto placingbearingcaps.

407-17

101.3.7

Piles
Defective
Any pile deliveredwith defects such as damaged during driving or cast
insitu',placed out of its proper location,incapableor partiallycapable of
permanentlycarryingthe load which it is intendedto carry,drivenbelowthe
elevationfixed by the Drawing or by the Engtneer,due to the immature
of the borehole
settingof the concretein the pile or due to caving/collapse
be sole judge
shall
Engineer
of
which
fully o-rpartially,or due to any cause
by
one of the
expense
contractor's
at
the
corrected
to deteiminesfrattUe
Engineer:the
by
approved
followingmethods
a) The pile shall be withdrawn and replaced by a new and when
bYlongerPile.
necessary,
b) A secondpile shallbe drivenor cast adjacentto the defectivepile.
c) The pile shall be splicedor builtup as otherwiseprovidedhereinor the
undersideof the footingloweredto properlyimbedthe pile'
as the Engineer
The contractorshallundertakesuchadditionaltests/works
the defective
to
supplement
foundations
provide
additional
to
may specify
pile! and so modifythe structureto be supportedas to ensurethat loadwill
be transferredsafelyto the additionalfoundationsof existingpile'The
contractorshallbe responsiblefor the cost of such additionalfunctionsand
to the
testsand/orof the extrawork carriedout in such modification
structure.
A concretepile shall be considereddefectiveif it has a visible crack or
cracks,extendingaroundthe four sidesof the pile, or any defect,which, in
the opinionof the Engineeraffectsthe strength,or life of th'epile.
When a new pile is drivenor cast to replacea rejectedone, the Contractor,
at his expense,shall enlarge the footing as deemed necessaryby the
Engineer.

407.3.8

TestPiles
Test piles which are shown on the Drawingsor ordered by the Engineer
shall conformto the requirementsfor piling as specifiedand shall be so
located that they may be cut-off and become a part of the completed
structure.
Test oilesto be load tested in accordancewith ltem 407.3.9shall be driven
in locationsdeterminedby the Engineer.These piles shall not be utilizedin
the structureunlessotherwisedirected.
Test piles driven by the Contractorfor his own use in determiningthe
lengthsof pilesto be furnishedmay be so locatedand they may be cut-off
and-becomea part of the completedstructureprovidedthat such test piles
conformto the requirementfor pilingin thesespecifications.

407-18

Any pile,whichafterservingits purposeas a test pile is found unsatisfactory


for utilizationin the structure,shall be removed if so ordered by the
Engineer,or if approvedby the Engineerit shall be cut-offbelowthe ground
line and footings, but such approval does not in any way relieve the
Contractorof his responsibilities.
Test piles shall generallybe drivenwith the same equipmentthat is to be
used for driving foundationpiles. When required,the ground shall be
excavatedto the elevationof the bottomof the footingbeforethe test pile is
driven.
When diesel hammers are to be used for driving end bearing piles, or
friction piles where the bearingcapacityshall be checked by pile driving
formulas,the Contractorshallin advancecarry out test pilingor load teststo
determinethe energydevelopedbv the hammer.The Contractormay elect
one of the followingmethodsfor the calibration:
a)

By test drivingthe same type of piles successivelywith diesel


hammerand gravityor singleacting hammer,or by drivingtwo
differentpiles with diesel hammer and gravity or single acting
hammerrespectively.

b)

By drivingtest pilesto a depth determinedby the Engineerand


loadtestingthe same pilesin accordancewith ltem 407.3.9.

c)

Calibrationtestsshall be made at leastat two differentsites until


the resultsare satisfactory
to the Engineer.

Calibrationof dieselhammersmay not be requiredif the hammerhas been


previouslycalibratedundersoil conditionsand for the same size and type of
pile,providedthat the calibrhtion
data is acceptedby the Engineer.
407.3.9Load Tests
A load test shall consistof the application
of a load equalto a minimumof 2
times the specifiedbearingcapacityor as otherwiseprovidedfor hereinor as
directedby the Engineer.Loadtestsshallbe made where specifiedand/orwhere
calledfor by the Engineer.Unlessotherwisepermittedby the Engineer,the load
tests shall be completedbeforethe remainingpiles in the same structureare
drrvenor cast.
Loadtestsshallbe madeby methodsapprovedby the Engineer.
The contractor
shallsubmitto the Engineerdetailedplansof the loadingsystemand apparatus
he intendsto use at leastthree (3) weeks in advance.The apparatusshall be so
constructedas to allowthe variousincrementsof the load to be placedgradually
withoutcausingvibrationto the test piles.Tensionanchorpilesif used,shallbe
of a designand drivento a depth satisfactoryto the Engineer. steel shellsor
pileswhosewallsare not of adequatestrengthto withstandthe test loadingwhen
empty,shall havethe requiredreinforcement
and concreteplacedbeforeloading.
The load test shall not be started until the concretehas attaineda minimum
compressivestrengthof ninetyfive (95) percentof the designtwenty eight (2g)
days compressivestrength.lf he so elects,the contractor may use high early
strengthcementin the concreteof the loadtest pile and the tensionpiles.

407-19

Suitableapprovedapparatusfor determiningaccuratelythe load on the pile


and the settlementof the pile undereach incrementof load shall be supplied
The apparatusshall have a working capacityof three
by the C,ontractor.
times the design load for the pile being tested. Reference points for
measurementof pile settlementshall be sufficientlyaway from the test pile
to precludeall possibilityof disturbance.
All pile load settlementsshall be measuredby adequatedevices,such as
level.Increment
of
gauges,and shallbe checkedby meansof an Engineer's
deflectionshall be read just aftereach lgad incrementis appliedand at 15minuteintervalsthereafter.The safe allowableload shall be consideredas
50 percentof the load which, after48 hours of continuousapplication,has
causednot more than 6 mm of permanentsettlement,measuredat the top
of the pile.
The firstloadto be appliedto the test pile shallbe 50%, of the piledesign
loadand the firstincrementshallbe up to the pile designload by applying
A minimumperiodof 2 hours
additionalloads in three equal increments.
increment,except that no
of
each
application
between
the
shall intervene
of lessthan one tenth(0.1)mm
shallbe addeduntila settlement
increment
intervalunderthe previouslyappliedincrement.
is observedfor a 1S.-minute
lf thereis a qu'estionas to whetherthe test pilewill supportthe test load,the
load incrementsshall be reducedbyfifty (50) percent,at'the directionof the
Engineer,in order that a more closely controlledfailure curve may be
plotted.The full test load shall remainon the test pile not less than forty
eight(48)hours.The fulltest loadshallthenbe removedand the permanent
settlementread.
When directedby the Engineerload tests snall then be continuedbeyond
the doubledesignload in 1O{onincrementsto failureor a maximumof three
(3) timesthe designload.
The pile may be consideredto have failed when the total permanent
settlementexceeds(6) mm.
407.3.10

Backfilling EmntyBorine
When each pile has been cast, the empty bores remainingshall not be
back{illed unless required by the constructionproceduresand activities
followingthe completionof pilingwork.

407.3.r1

Pile Records
The Contractorshall keep recordsof the pilesdrivenor installed.A copy of
the recordshall be givento the Engineerwithintwo (2) days after each pile
is driven.The recordform to be used shall be approvedby the Engineer.
on the following:
The pilerecordsshallgive full information

407-20

Driven Piles

Cast-in-PlacePiles

Piletypeand dimension.

Piletype and nominaldimensions.

Drivingequipment,
type,weight,
reach-andefficiencyof hammeretc.

Date of boring commenced,level


reachedeach day and date of
casting.

Dateof casting(forconcrete
piles)and driving.

Soil samplestakenfrom pileboring


operationand soil test results.

Detailsof Reinforcement.

ground
Strata
and
water
encounteredwith levels,description
shall be in accordance with
B . S . C . P2.0 0 1 .

Test resultson concrete

Length of finished pile and tip


elevation

Depthdriven& tip elevation.

Dia of borehole.

For gravityand single-acting


hammers:the heightof drop.

Elevationof the bottomof borehole.

For doubleactinghammers:the
frequencyof blows.

Dateof placingconcrete;
theoreticaland actual quantitiesof
concreteused in pile.

Finalset for last20 blowsfor every


10 pilesand when the Engineerso
requiresthe penetration
alongthe
wholedrivendepthshallbe
recorded.

Lengthsand diameterof temporary


casingand permanentliningand
the elevationof the tip of temporary
casingand of permanent
lining.

Detailsof any interruption


in
driving

Detailsof Reinforcement.

Levelof piletop immediately


after
driving,and the levelwhen all
pilesin the groupare driven.

Detailsof penetration
duringboring
operation or driving of steel shell
(drivingrecordsas for drivenpiles).

Detailsof re-driving.

Quality,consistencyand othertest
resultson concrete.

Any otherrelevantinformation.

Time interval between boring or


drivingand concreting.
Anv otherrelevantinformation.

407-21

On completionof the pilingfor each structure,the Contractorshall deliverto


the Engineera drawingrecordingthe exact locationand the final depth (tip
elevation)
of all piles.
407.3.L2

ConfirmatoryBoring
The contractorshall carry out confirmatoryboringat bridgesite at locations
indicatedby the Engineer.
Boringshall be carriedout with ASTM D 1s86 penetrationTest and split
barrelsamplingof soil.Additionally,
when undisturbedsamplingis required,
the procedureshallconformto ASTM D 1587,Thin walled samplingof soil.
Diameterof boreholesshall be twenty(20) centimeterscasedthroughout its
length and shall be down to the designatedelevation.In-situ standard
penetrationtest shall be carriedout at one and half (1.5) meters interval
from designatedtop elevationto the bottom of the hole. Undisturbed
samplesshall be takenfrom substratum.lf clay is encountered,undisturbed
sampleswill be takenat intervalof three(3) meters.
At leasttwo boringsare requiredat each bridgesite.The boringshallextend
to a depth of at least three (3) meters below the pile tip elevationas
indicatedin the drawings.

491.4

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT

407.4.1

Measurement
The quantitiesto be paid for shall be the numberof linear metersof piles,
completedand accepted,measuredfrom the pile tip elevationto the bottom
of pile caps, footings or bottom of concretesuperstructure
in the caseof
prlebents.In case the bottomof pilecaps or footingor bottomof pile bent is
aboveN.s.L and methodof fabrication
is suchthat the work aboveN.s.L is
done as that of columh,the same shall be measuredas concreteand steel
for column.No allowanceshallbe madefor cut-offsor the requiredlengthof
concreteor reinforcement
steel placedinto the concretestructureas called
for on the drawings.Any additionalpile lengthsthat may be necessaryto
suitthe contractor'smethodof operationor for any otherreasonshallnoi be
includedin the measurements.
For cast-in-situpiles,helicaland verticalsteelwill be measuredin Tons.
Pile casing where ever providedwill be measured in linear meters.
Measurementshallbe madefor permanenilyplacedpile casings shown
on drawings.lf the contractor likes to use temporarycasing for the
convenienceof preparingof boreholes,the same shallnot be measured
whetherleft at site or withdrawnaftercompletingthe boreholes.
Test piles when ordered by the Engineer,whether or not utilizedas
service piles in the structureshall not be inctuded in the above
measurements.
Acceptedtest pileswill be measuredseparatelyas the
numberof linearmeters.

407-22

Pileshoeswhen calledfor on the Drawingsor by the Engineershallbe


measuredby the numberacceptedin place
Splicingof pilesif not shown on the drawingswill not be allowedexcept
that the lengthof reinforcement
is to exceed 12 meterin which case the
splicingwill not be measuredor paid directlybut the cost thereofshall
be consideredas includedin the unit pricefor piling.
Load tests shall be countedas the number of completeand acceoted
foadtestsas describedin ltem 407.3.9.
Concretefootings or pile caps shall be measuredand paid for as
providedunder ltem 400 "Structures".
Additionalquantitiesof concrete,
reinforcementand formwork caused by incorrectlocationof piles or
additionalpiles necessaryto replace defectivepiles shall be to the
Contractor's
exoense.
107.4.2

Payment

The quantitiesof pilingleft in place in the acceptedstructuremeasured


as providedabove shall be paid for at the contractunit price per linear
meterof pilesof the differenttypes listedbelowand shown in the Bill of
Quantities.
For cost-in-situpiles,rate per linear meter will includeall items except
for helicaland verticalreinforcement,which will be paid as per steel
reinforcement
item404.
.

For pre cast piles,the cast of steel shall be includedin the rate per
linearmater.

Pile casing will be paid at the contractunit price per linear meter for pile
casrng.
Test piles whetheror not used in the completedstructureor constructed
adjacentto structureas per requirementsof the contractdocumentshall be
paidfor at the contractunit pricefor pile installation.
Load tests shall be paid for at the contractunit price for pile load Tests,
eitherone and half (1.5)times or two (2) times the designload.The unit
pricefor test loadingto three (3) timesthe designload shall includethe total
loadtestwithall loadincrements
as describedin ltem407.3.9.
Paymentfor tubular steel piles left in place shall includethe cost of the
concretecore of the specifiedclass of concreteand the steel reinforcement
of the said concretecore.
The quantityto be paidfor confirmatoryboringshall be the numberof linear
metersof the boringcompletedand accepted.

407,23

Such prices and payment shall be considered full compensationfor


furnishing all materials, performingstandard penetrationand all other
relevantlaboratorytests, labour,equipment,tools, fuel, welding,if needed
and other incidentalexpensesincludingsplicing,caging providingcovers
etc. necessaryto completethe item as directedby the Engineer.

Pay ltem
No.

Description.

Unit of
Measurement

4O7a

UntreatedTimberPiles

407b

TreatedTimberPiles

407c

PrecastConcretePilestype

407d

Cast-in-place
ConcretePiles,type

407e

StructuralSteelPiles,type _-

407f

PileShoes,type_

Each

4O7g

Test Piles,type_

407h

PileLoadTeststo 1.5timesthe
designload

407i

Pile LoadTeststo 2 times


the designload.

407i

Each

Each

Pile LoadTeststo 3 timesthe


designload.

Each

407k

Boring
Confirmatory

4071

Permanent
PileCasing,type_

4O7m

TemporaryPileCasingtype_

407-24

ITEM 408

408.1

SHEET PILING

DESCRIPTION
This item shall consist of furnishing,driving,cutting off and removal, if
required,of sheet piles in accordancewith the Drawings,or as designated
by the Engineer.sheet piles for cofferdamsin connectionwith foundations
for structuresshall be included in the unit price for ltem 1O7-Structural
Excavation.sheet pilingshall be a separatepay item only when stated in
the Bill of Quantities.

408.2

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS

408.2.r

Timber Sher!-Piles
The timber, unless otherwisedefinitelynoted on the Drawingsor in the
special Provisions,may consist of any species,which will satisfactorily
standdriving.lt shall be sawn or hewn with squarecornersor with tongueand-groovejoint as directed by the Engineerand shall be free from holes,
loose knots, wing shakes, decay or unsound portions, or other defects
whichmightimpairits strengthor tightness.

408.2.2

ConcreteSheetPiles
concrete, reinforcement,and manufactureof concrete sheet piles shall
conform to the specificationsgoverningPrecastconcrete piles under ltem
407 - Piling.Jointdetailsshall be as indicatedon the Drawings.

408.2.3

SteelSheetPiles
steel Sheetpilesshall be of the type and weightindicatedon the Drawings.
The steel shall conform to AASHTO M 223 or AsrM A s7z. permanent
steel sheet piles shall be coated with red lead paint conformingto AASHTo
M 72 as instructedby the Engineer.

-{08.2.4

Bracine
Bracings or anchors for sheet piles shall be made of wood or steel
accordingto the Drawingsor as designatedby the Engineer.
For temporarysheet piling like cofferdamsfor excavations,the contraetor
shall be solely responsiblefor the design and constructionof the bracing.
The Drawingsshall have the approvalof the Engineer,but such approval
does not in any way relievethe Contractorof his responsibility.

408-1

408.3

CQNSTRUCTION REOUIREMENTS

408.3.1

Installation
Timberand concretesheetpilesshall be sharpenedat theirlowestends.
All sheet pilesshall be drivento the elevationshown on the Drawingsor as
directedby the Engineer.Where it is impossibleto drive to the elevation
shown on the Drawingsdue to sub-surfaceconditions,the piles may be
stoppedat a higherelevationwith the written permissionof the Engineer.
However,beforegrantingsuch permissionthe Engineershall investigateto
ascertain that the Contractor has adequate equipment for the required
drivingand that the pilescan not be drivento the elevationshownwith the
properuse of this equipment.
The tops of a permanentsheet pilingshall be driven or cut-offto a straight
lineat the elevationindicatedon the Drawings.
The requirementsgoverningthe installationof sheet pilingshall conformto
thosegoverningpilesas set forthunderltem 407.3.3and 407.3.11.

408.3.2

Removal
Temporarysheet pilingshall be removedor cut off at the streambed or the
originalgroundwhen directedby the Engineer.
In case when the Engineerorderssheet pilingto be left in placefor erosion
protection,the Contractorand the Engineershall agree on an equitable
price.

408.4

MEASURET{ENTAND PAYMENT

408.4.1

Measurement
When statedas a separatepay item in the Bill of Quantities,sheetpilingwill
be measuredby the square meters of sheet piling or as a Lump Sum as
shown on the Drawingsor directedin writing by the Engineer,completein
place and accepted.Measurementof piling, which has been delivered
accordingto Drawings and cannot be driven to the directed elevation
becauseof subsurfaceconditionsshall be measuredb the drivenelevation.

408.4.2

Payment
Paymentof TimberSheetPiles,ConcreteSheet Pilesand SteelSheetPiles
as determinedundermeasurementshall be made at the contractunit price
per square meter or as a Lump Sum for the pay items listed below and
'the
Bill of Quantities.Such prices and payment shall be'
shown in
consideredfull compensationfor all materials,labour, equipment,tools
paint, bolts, Wales and incidentalsnecessaryto completethe item. All
necessary bracings,whether shown on the drawings or not, shall be
includedin the contractprice.

408-2

The undermentionedpay itemsand pricesshallnot applyto the equitable


rate for sheet piling left in place for erosion protectionaccordingto ltem
408.3.2.

Pay ltem
No.

Description.

Unit of
Measurement

40Ba

TimberSheetPiles

SM

40Bb

ConcreteSheetPiles

SM

408c

SteelSheetPiles

SM

408-3

ITEM 409

409.1

WELL FOUNDATION
DESCRIPTION
This item shall consistof performingall operationsin connectionwith the
constructionof a well to be used as a foundationfor a pier or abutment'The
1)the castingof
work shallbe comprisedof five separatemain operations:
by stages3) the
steening
well
of
erection
position.
2)
the
proper
in
kerb
well
sinkingof the erectedkerb and well steeningto the requiredelevation 4)
the pr6perpluggingof the well, and 5) the constructionof the transomslab
and the Drawingsor as directedby the
all in accordalcewitlrspecifications,
Engineer.

409.2

MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS

409.2.1

StructuralSteel
of AASHTOM 183 (ASTM
Structuralsteelshallconformto the requirements
specified)'
otherwise
unless
A
36
DESIGNATION:

409.2.2

ReinforcingSteel
Reinforcingsteel shall conformto the requirementsunder item 404 Steel
Reinforcement.

409.2.3

StructuralConcrete
Structuralconcrete shall conform to CIaSSA concrete requirementsas
specifiedunderltem 401-Concrete.

409.2.4

Brickworh
Brick work shall conformto the requirementsas specifiedunder ltem 410BrickMasonryof thesespecifications.

109.2.5

Fill Sand
Fill sand shallconsistof naturalsand free from deleteriousmaterialssubject
to the approval of the Engineer and as specified and shown on the
Drawings.

409.3

CONSTRUCTIONREQUIREMENTS

409.3.1

EquiPment
Construction
All equipmentto be used in constructionshall be on the Site in first class
and shall have been approvedby the Engineerbefore
working'condition
is started.
construction
The numberof units,the sizes,etc.,of all equipmentshallbe adequateto
ensurecompletionof the work withinthe time specifiedin the Contract.
409-1

No equipmentshall be removedfrom the site without


the writtenapprovalof
the Engineer.
All equipment, toors and machinery used shail
be maintained in a
satisfactory
workingconditionthroughoutthe requiredperiodof therr
use.
409.3.2

StructuralSteelWork
(a) Notice of Ro'ing jrn4 Fabrication The
contractor shail give ampre
advancenoticeto the.Engineerottre neginningoiin"
*oirlt ihe miil and
9h.og,9o .that inspectionmay be providid. NJ materiatsnarr'be roiled or
fabricatedbefore the Engineerhas been notitieJ
v*rere-it,l'oro"r. nru"
been placed.
for
The contractorshail furnishail faciritiesfor the
fbl
:Irittttes
Inspection
of materialsand workmanshipin the miil
,r,op,
inspector
shallbe allowedfree accessto the necessarypartsof
"nJ
"no
the premises.
ofF
,\

el\/vr

rro

of structure.
Ail structurar
steerworksshariconform
to
l"liy"-y,?!,11
"^s]9.
the
applicable
ASTMrequirements
as shownunder

item 413.rn casethese


requirements
arenotmet,the materiarthus
fabricated
shailbe iejected.

(d) rfandlinsMembers
The fieldassembling
of the component
partsof the
structureshail be done by the use of iwistint, n",ioi"g
tr 'otherwise
deforming
the metar.,
No memberssrighilybent6r twisted"shattoe put in
placeuntiltheirdefectsarecorrecteo
a'ncany membersseriously
damaged
in handling
willbe rejected.
(g)Finish.of
structuralSteelwortr Theworkmanship
andfinishshallbe first
classand equarto the bestpractrce
in mode.rn
bridge.r.,op..sn""ring and
""rr
clippingshallbe done neaflyand accurately
and
po,iion-ofthe work
exposed
to viewshallbe neaflyfinished.
409"3.3

SnecialConstructionOperations
(a) casrting.wellKerbs.Thecuttingedge
of the well kerb will be structural
steel pre-fabricated
and suppriedin segmentsconvenientfor siie assembry
by boltingtogetheras per rinesand d'imensionsshown
on ttre Drawings.
The segmentsof the cutting edge shail be interchang"ror".
The fitting
togethershall be checkedat the site of fabrication
work by the assembryof
at least two compretecuttingedges, formed of segments
at random
beforetheseare acceptedfor dispatchto the site of
work."t,or"n
None of the steel
work is to be paintedand no surfacepreparationis
calledfor otherthan the
removalof the rust and looseadheringmillscale.
Reinforcing
steerworkin the cuttingedge wiil be properryborted
to the steel
work and placedand assembledas shownon the Drawinos.

409-2

Structuralconcretefor the cuttingedge will be of the requiredstrengthand


shallbe finishedto the form and dimensionsshownon the Drawings.'
(b) Well SteenineWell steeningshall be made eitherof brick work in (1:3)
cementmortaror Portlandcementconcreteof the requiredstrengthand of
the form and dimensionsas shownon the Drawings.
Reinforcingsteel work will continuefrom the cutting edge into the well
steeningwith spacersmade of structuralsteelwork consistingof mild steel
platesof the size and dimensionas shownon the Drawings.'
(c) Well Sinking:Well sinkingincludesall operationsrequiredto sink the
wellin positionand to the yequired
elevation.
(1) Positionins:Each well kerb shall be correctlypositionedin place and
approvedby the Engineerbeforecommencement
of furtherwork.
(2) Surrrrort:
Well kerb shall be adequatelysupportedto preventshift.ortilt
duringthe initialoperationand on excavationand sinkingwhetherthe well
has beenstartedon made up groundor in waterin excavation.
(3) Excavation
of Sinhins:The soil from insidethe well shall be removedby
mechanicalgrabbingor by otherdevicesas approvedby the Engineer.The
accuracyof the sinkingwill be the rbsponsibility
of the Contractor.
(4) Dewaterins:The Contractorwill be requiredto pump out the water from
insidethe wells in such a way as shall be approvedby the Engineer;but
notwithstanding
any dewateringaid that the Contractormay use to assistin
the operationof sinkingthe wells,the safetyof plantand labourwill remain
the responsibility
of the Contractor.
(5) Limits of TiIt and Shift: The limit of departurefrom true vertical position
of any well shall not exceed one unit measuredhorizontallyin a vertical
distanceof sixtyunits.
The maximumhorizontaldisplacementof any well away from its correct
positionshallnot exceedtwenty(20) cm.
(6) CorrectineTilt etc: lt will be entirelythe responsibility
of the Contractorto
keep the tilt and shiftwithinthe specifiedtolerances.lf the above limitsare
exceeded,the Contractorwill be requiredto adopt measuresto overcome
the adverseaffectsof such shiftsand tilts. ln any case maximumpressure
at the baseof foundationsafteraccountingfor all shiftsand tilts shallremain
withinthe specifiedlimits.The measurestakenshallbe allowedonly afterits
approvalhas beenreceivedfrom the Engineer.
(7) Kentledse:
The use of railsand other , reavyweightsis permissiblein well
sinkingand in correctingerror of tilt and horizontaldisplacement.But the
Contractormudttake care not to damagethe well in the process;and in any
case he mustobtainthe approvalof the Engineerfor his proposedmethod.

409-3

(8) Limits of Well Sinkine:Each and every well shall be sunk to the level
indicatedon the Drawings.But in no case shall the Contractorstop well
sinkingunlesshe has firstobtainedthe approvalof the Engineer.
(d) Plueeineof Well: When the well has reachedthe final elevattonto which
it is to sink and has been approvedby the Engineer,the bottomof the well
will be pluggedby the depositingconcreteof the requiredstrength.
(1)ConcreteUnderWater: The concretedepositedunder water shall have
ten (10) percent excess cement. To prevent segregjationit shall be
carefullyplacedin the final positionby meansof a dump bucketor other
approvedmethodand shall not be disturbedafter being deposited.The
concreteshallbe placedunderthe supervisionof the Engineer.
(2)Continuous
Placing:The concreteshail be placed in one continuous
operation.
(e) SandFiiline:When the well bottomhas been plugged,the well hole will
be filledwith sand as specifiedand shown on Drawings.The sand shall be
free from deleteriousmaterials.
(0 TransomSlab:When the well bottomhas been plugged,the welltop will
be providedwith a transom slab made of structuralconcreteof required
strength,and reinforcingsteel work, all accordingto the lines, dimensions
and form shownon the Drawinos.

-r09.4

SAMPLINGAND TESTING
The contractorwill have adequatearrangementsto the satisfactionof the
Engineerto collect disturbedsamplesof soil at every one and half (1.5)
meterelevationand at everychangeof soil strataand to deliverit in proper
bagsto the representative
of the Engineer.
The contractorwill also be requiredto obtainthree samplesof the natural
soil at the elevationat which the well kerb has been stoppedand another
samplethree(3)metersbelowthat elevationbeforehe is allowedto plug the
well.

.109.5

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT

409.5.r

Measurement
a) General
For the various items of work constructedunder this ltem, measurement
shall be made as narratedunderthe respectiveitems. The quantityto be
paid for shall be the original plan quantity measured as provided for
respectiveitems,exceptwhere changeshave been made by the Engineer
and order has been given in writing.
No measurementsfor or otherallowanceswill be made for work or materials
for forms,falseworks,supports,bracings,kenfledgeor pumping.
409-4

b) StructuralSteel
The quantityof strueturalsteel enteringinto and becominga part of the
completedstructure,and acceptedby the Engineershall be the computed
weightin metrictons of this materialenteringintothe completedstructureof
item of work.
The unitof measurementof structuralsteelwork shallbe metrictons.
The weightsof the rolled shapes,bars, platesand pipe railingshall be
computedon the basis of nominalweight as given in the manufacturer's
shownon the drawings.The weightshall
hand books,usingthe dimensions
be computedon the basis of dimensionsand orderedoveralllengthsfor all
structuralshapes.No deductionsfrom the computedweight of rolledsteel
shall be made for caps, clips,shearededges,punchingborinEs,drillings,
millingor planingand no allowanceshall be made for the weightof weld
metalor for overrunin weight.

c) ReinforcingSteel
For well kerb, steening and transom slab reinforcingsteel shall be
of ltem 404.
measuredand paidfor accordingto the requirements

d) StructuralConcrete
For well kerb, steening,pluggingof well and transom slab construction,
concreteshall be measuredand paid for accordingto the requirements
under ltem 401. The unit rate includesthe cost of ten (10) oercentextra
cementto be usedwhere required.
e) BrickWork
ln (1:3) cement mortar for steening shall be measured and paid for
of ltem410.
accordingto the requirements
fl Well Sinhine
For any item of work carried out under this head, measurementshall be
made per linearmeter of twin or singlewell of specifiedexternaldiameter,
sunk belowthe bed level shownon the Drawings.The unit of measurement
shallbe one linearmeter.The unit ratefor sinkingtwin or singlewell shall
includeexcavation,pumping,supports,bracings,kentledge,tilt correction
given in ltem 409.3.3and
soil samples,all accordingto the requirements
409.4.
s) Fill Sand
The well hole shall be measuredas the volumeof well hole requiredto be
shallbe in cubicmeters.
filled.The unitof measurement
409-5

409.5.2

Payment
Payment will be made in accordancewith the unit prjcibin the Bill of
Quantitiesfor the various items in accordancewith the..specifications
and
shallconstitutefull compensation
for furnishingall material,equipment,and
labour and for performingall operationsnecessaryto completethe work.
Provision delivery of materialsto site, handling and storage and all
incidentalsshall be includedin unit pricesfor variousitems.

Pay ltem
No.

Description.

Unit of
Measurement

409 a

Structural
Stdel

Ton

409 b

Reinforcing
Steel

Ton

409 c

Structural
Concrete

CM

409 d

Brickwork

CM

409 e

WellSinking

CM

409 f

FillSand

CM

409-6

ITEM 410

410.1

BRICK MASONRY

DESCRIPTION
This work shall consist of furnishingall materials,equipmentand labour
required for constructing brickwork as shown on the drawings and in
accordancewith thesespecifications.

41o.2

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS

410.2.1

PortlandCement
Portlandcement shall conform to the requirementsset forth under item
401.2.1.

4t0.2.2

Sand
Sand for mortar used in brickworkshall conform to the requirementfor the
fine aggregatespecifiedin item 401.2.2except that the grading shall be
accordingto AASHTOM 45.

410.2.3

Water
The waterused in the preparationof mortarshall be free from objectionable
quantitiesof silt, organicmatter,saltsor other impurities.No water shall be
usedwithoutthe approvalin writingof the Engineer.

410.2.4

Mortar
The mortarfor all brickwork''shall
consist.ofone (1) part of Portlandcement
to three (3) parts of sand by volume and of sufficientwater to producethe
properconsistencyfor the intendeduse.

410.2.5

Bricks
The size of the bricksshall be standardsize (9"x4 112"x3")22.86
cm x 11.43
cmx7.62 cm. They shall be well-burntwithoutbeingvitrified.They shall be
of uniformcolour,regularin shapeand size with sharp and squarecorners
and parallelfaces.They must be homogeneousin textureand emit a clear
ringingsound when struck.They shall be free from flaws and cracks.They
shallnot absorbmore than 1/6thof theirweightof water afler beingsoaked
for one hour, and shall show no signs of efflorescenceon drying.
Compressivestrengthshall not be lessthan 1j0.62 kg/sq.cm(2000psi).

410-1

{10.3

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENIS

-l10.3.
r

Mixingof Mortar
Methodsand equipmentused for mixingmortarshall be such that each
ingrediententeringinto the mortar shall be subjectto the approvalof the
Engineer.lf a mixeris used,it shallbe of approveddesignand the mixing
time after all the ingredientsare in the mixer, except the full amount of
water,shallbe not lessthan two minutes.
Mortar shall be mixed only in sufficientquantitiesfor'immedrateuse. All
mortar not used withinthirty(30)minutesafter additionof the water to the
mix shall be wasted. Retemperingof mortar will not be allowed.Mixing
troughs and pans shall be thoroughlycleanedand washed at the end of
each day'swork.

1r0.3.2

Brick Layins
Brick work shall not be placedduringheavy or prolongedrain to wash the
mortar from the bricks. Mortar already spread, diluted by rain shall be
removedand replacedbeforerestoringthe work.
All bricks to be used in brickworkwith mortarjoints shall be immersedin
waterfrom three (3) to four (4) hoursbeforeuse.
All bricks shall be skillfullylaid with level courses, uniformjoints, square
corners,plumbverticalsand true surface,exceptwhere otherwiseshownon
the Drawings.

All walls and abutments shall be provided with weep holes. Unless
otherwiseshown on the Drawingsor directedby the Engineer,the weep
holes shall be placed at the lowest points where free outlets can be
obtainedand shall be spacednot morethan two (2) meterscenterto center.
All surfaces exposed to weather.shall be struck pointed to give a good
workmanlikeappearanceand to sealthe cavitiesin mortarjoints.

J l0.J.J

Curing
All brickworkshall be cured for at least seven (7) days after laying.The
curingmethodshallbe to the satisfaction
of the Engineer.

410-2

-110.4

MEASUREMENTAND PAYMENT

410.4.1

Measurement
Measurementof brickworkshall be made to the lines of the structuresas
shown on the Drawingsor as modifiedby the Engineerfor the appropriate
itemsin which such brickworkis incorporated.
The quantitiesto be measuredshall be the number of cubic met'ersof
brickworklaidand accePted.

410.4.2

Pavment
The quantitiesmeasuredas providedaboveshall be paid for at the contract
unit orice listedbelowand shown in the Bill of Quantities,which pricesand
payment shall be full compensationfor furnishingall materials,labour,
equipmentand incidentalsfor performingall the work involvedunder this
item:

Pay ltem
No.

410

Description.

Unit of
Measurement

Brickwork

CM

410-3

ITEN'I ,lI l
4l l.l

B4NDUM AND DRESSEDUNCOURSEDSTONEMASONRY


DESCRIPTION
The item shall consistof Randomand Dresseduncoursedstone Masonry
with or without mortar. Dimensionsof such masonry may vary as per
drawingsor as directedby the Engineer.

4tL.2

MATERIAL REOUIRENTENTS

1rt.2.l

Stone
Randomor dressedstoneshallbe of approvedquality,soundand durable,
free from segregation's,seams, cracks and other structuraldefects or
imperfectiontendingto reduceits resistanceto weather.lt shallbe free from
roundedor weatheredsurfaces.

111.2.2

Mortar
Mortar for laying stone and pointing shall be composedof one part of
Pottland cement and .four parts of sand unless otherwiseshown on the
drawings.Portlandcement shall meet the requirementsof MSHTO M-gs
and sand shall meet the requirementsof AASHTO M-45. water used in
preparationof mortarshall conformto the requirementset forth under item
401.2.7.

-tI 1.3

CONSTRUCTIONREOUIREMENTS

-111.3.r

StoneSizeand Shape
lndividualstones shall have a thicknessof not less than twenty (20) cms
and a widthof at leastone and a half(1.1/2)timesthe thickness-and
length
of atleastone and a half (1 1/2)timestheirwidth
shape of stonesmay be irregularin randommasonry,howeverfor dressed
uncoursedmasonry,stones shall be cut in such a way that a well locked
masonrycan be laid.The size and shape of ring stonesfor archesshall be
as shownon the drawinqs.

. f1 1 . 3 . 2

Dressingof Stones
For 'A-class" Masonry,stones shall be dressedio exactsizesand shapes
and cut to lay on beds with top and bottomtruly parallel.Hallowbeds shall
not be permitted.Beds of face stoneshall be fine finishedfor a depthof not
less than thirty (30) centimetersVerticaljoints of face stone shall be fine
finished and full to the squarefor a depth of not less than twentyfive (25)
centimeters.
Exposed surfacesof face stoneshall be accordingto the plans,with edges
pitched to true lines and exact batter,chiseldraftJfour (4) centimeters
wide
shall be cut at all exteriorcorners.
41 1-1

Stonesfor B-ClassStoneMasonryshallbe roughlysquaredon joints,beds


and faces.Selectedstones,roughlysquaredpitchto lineshallbe usedat all
arrglesand endsof wall.
I r1.3.J

Stretchers
Stretcher
shallhavea widthof bed not lessthan one and a half(1.1/2)times
theirthickness,and lengthof bed not less than twice nor more than three
and half (3.112)times their thicknessbut in no case less than ninety
Stone masonrvin cementmortarshall be cured for at least
centimeters.
seven(7) days.

Jl1.3.1

Hcaders

I I r.J.5

Header,placedin each course.shallhave width not less than one and a


'1.2rneters
or
half (1 1/2)timestheirthickness.ln wallshavingthicknessof
less,the headersshallextendentirelythroughthe wall. In wallsof greater
thickness,
the lengthof headersshallbe not lessthantwo and a half(2112)
is fortyfive(45)centimeters
or lessin
timestheirthicknesswherrthe coLrrse
height,and not less than 1.2 metersin coursesof greaterheight.Header
shall bond with the core or backingnot less than thirty (30) centimeters.
Headershallhold in the heartof the wall spacednot furthera partthan2.5
meters center to center.There shall be atleast one header to everv two
streichers.
Coresand Backing
Coreand backingshallconsisteitherof roughlybeddedandjointedheaders
and stretchers,as specifiedabove or concreteas may be specified.When
of the stoneshall
stoneis usedfor coresof backing,at leastone-half(1.112)
as the face stoneand with parallelends.
be of the samesizeand character
No courseshallbe less than twenty(20) centimeters
thick.Concreteused
for coresand backing shall conform to the requirementsspecifiedin
Item 401. The headersand stretchersin walls,havinga thicknessof one
meteror less shallhave a widthor lengthequalto the full thicknessof the
wall.No backingwill be allowed.

ll1.3.6

[-avingStone

{r r.3.7

as specifiedin ltem 41?-.2.g.


lt shallconformio the requirement
Arches
R e f e tr o l t e mN o . 4 1 2 . 2 . 1 4

ll LJ

l\l EASURF-NtENl' Air-D PA\' \l EN'I'

-tr l.-1.I

Lfeasurcnrent
The quantityof stonemasonryto be paidfor shall be the numberof cubic
metersmeasuredin the completedwork and the limitingdirnensions
shall
not exceedthan those shown on the drawingsor fixed in writingby the
Engineer.

411-2

as per dimensions
ClassC or leanconcreteshallbe measuredseparately
shown on the drawingsor as directedby the Engineer.No separate
measurementshall be made for stuck pointingwhich is deemed to be
included in stone masonry with rnortar, however roll pointing shall be
measuredseparately
in squaremeter.

lr l.{.2

Pav!nent
The quantitiesdetermlnedas providedabove shall be paid for at the
contractunit price respectivelyfor each of the particularpay items listed
below and shown in the B.O Q., which price and paymentshall be full
to complete
equipmentand incidentals
compensation
for labour,materrals,
the item as describedabove

Pay ltem
No.

Description.

U n i to f
Measurement

4 1 1a

StoneMasonryRandomDry

CM

4 1 1b

StoneMasonryRandomwith mortar.

CM

4 1 1c

StoneMasonryDressedUncoursedDry C M

4 1 1d

Stone'MasonryDressedUncoursed
with mortar.

CM

4 1 1e

ConcreteClass-C.

CM

4 1 1f

Leanconcrete

CM

4 1 1g

RollPointing

SM

411-3

ITEM J12

lt2.l

DRESSED COURSED STONE MASONRY

DESCRIPTION
This item shall consist of Dressed coursed stone masonry with mortar.
Dimensionsof such masonrymay vary as per drawingsor as directedby
theEngineer.

J12.2

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS

"|2.2.1

StoneSize
Theyshallnot be
stonesshallbe largeand well proportioned.
The individual
(50)
in
thickness.The
cms
less than twenty (20) nor more than fifty
to top of
from
bottom
diminish
regularly
if
varied,
shall
thicknessof courses,
plans.
on
the
be
as
shown
arches
shall
stones
in
size
of
ring
wall.The

112.2.7.

Mortar
set forth under ltem 411.2.2.
Moriarshallconformto the requirement

112.3

CONSTRUCTIONREQUIRI MENT

{ 12.3.1

SurfaceFinishesof Stone
For the purpose of this specificationthe surface finishes of stone are
definedas follows:Havinga surfacein whichthe variationsfrom the pitchline
Smooth-finished:
d o n o te x c e e d0 . 1 5c m .
Havinga surfacein whichthe variationsfrom the pitchline
Rough-finished:
do not exceed1.25cm.
Scrabbled:Havinga surfacein which the variationsfrom the pitch line do
not exceedtwo (2) cm.
Rock-faced:Having an irregularprojectingface without indicationof tool
marks.The projectionsbeyondthe pitch line shall not exceed seven and
half(7.5)cmand no partof the face shallrecedebackof the pitchline.

112.3.2

DressingStone
Stones shall be dressedto exact sizes and shapes before being laid and
shall be cut to lie on their naturalbeds with top and bottomtruly parallel
The bottombed shallbe the full size of
Hollowbedswill not be permitted.
the stone and no stone shall have an overhangingtop. In rock-face
constructionthe face side of any stone shall not present an undercut
contouradjacentto its bottomaxis givinga top-heavy,unstableappearance
when laid.
412-1

Beds of face stone shall be fine-finishedfor a depth of not less than thirty
(30)cm.
Verticaljointsof face stoneshall be fine-finishedand full to the squarefor a
depthof not lessthanfifteen(15)cm.
Exposed surfaces of the face stone shall be given the surface finish
indicatedon the plans,with edges pitchedto true linesand exact batter,
Chiseldraftsfour (4) cm wide shall be cut at all exteriorcorners.Face stone
forming the starlingor nosing of piers shall be rough-finished
unless
otherwisespecified.
Fiolesfor stonehooksshallnot be permittedto show in exposedsurfaces.
I12.3.J

Stlctchers

Stretchersshallhave a widthof bed of not less than one and halt (1.112)
timestheirthickness.
They shallhavea lengthof bed not lessthantwicenor
more than three and hal'f(3.112)times theirthickness,and not less than
ninety(90)cm
J1 2 . 3 . {

Headcrs
Headersshallbe placedin each courseand shallhave a widthof not less
thanone and half(1 112)timestheirthickness.
In wallshavinga thicknessof
1 2 meters or less. the headersshall extend entirelythr-oughthe wall. In
wallsof greaterthickness.
the lerigthof headersshallbe not lessthan two
and half (2.112)
timestheirthicknesswhen the courseis fortyfive (45) cm.
or less in height,and not lessthan 1.2 metersin coursesof greaterheight.
Headersshallbond with the core or backingnot less than thirty(30) cm.
Headersshallhold in the heartof the wall the same size shown in the face
and shall be spacednot furtherapart than 2.5 meterscenterto center.
Thereshallbe at leastone headerto evervtwo stretchers.

I r2.3.s

C ores and Baelti

Cores and backingshall consist either of roughly bedded and jointed


headers and stretchers,as specified above. or concrete, as mav be
specified.
Whenstoneis usedfor coresof backing,at leastone-halfof the stoneshall
be of the samesizeand characteras the face stone,and with parallelends.
No courseshallbe lessthan twenty(20) cm. thick.
Concreteused for cores and backing shall conform to the requirements
specifiedin ltem40'1.
The headersand stretchers
in wallshavinga thicknessof one meteror less
shall have a width or length equal to the full thicknessof the lryall.No
backingwill be allowed.

412-2

lTEi\{ J12

1L2.1

DRESSEDCOURSEDSTONEMASONRY

DESCRIPTION
This item shall consist of Dressed coursed stone masonry with mortar.
of such masonrymay vary as per drawingsor as directedby
Dimensions
the Engineer.

1r2.2

MATERIAL REOUIRENTENTS

412.2.1

StoneSize
Theyshallnot be
stonesshallbe largeand well proporlioned.
The individual
(50)
(20)
fifty
cms
in
thickness.The
more
than
nor
less than twenty
to top of
from
bottom
shall
diminish
regularly
if
varied,
of
courses,
thickness
wall.The sizeof ringstonesin archesshallbe as shownon the plans.

t12.2.?.

Mortar
Mortarshallconfonnto the requirementset forth underltem 411.2.2.

1t2.3

CONSTRUCTION R.EQUIREMENT

J 1 2 . 3t .

SurfaceFinishesof Stone
For the purpose of this specification the surface finishes of stone are
defined as follows:-

Havinga surfacein whichthe variationsfrom the pitchline


Smooth-finished:
do not exceed0.'15cm.
Havinga surfacein whichthe variationsfrom the pitchline
Rough-finished:
do not exceed1.25cm.
Scrabbled:Havinga surfacein which the variationsfrom the pitch line do
not exceedtwo (2) cm.
Rock-faced:Havingan irregularprojectingface without indicationof tooi
marks.The projectionsbeyondthe pitch line shall not exceed seven and
half (7.5)cm and no partof the face shallrecedebackof the pitchline.
1L2,3,2

DressinsStone
Stonesshall be dressedto exact sizes and shapesbeforebeinglaid and
shall be cut to lie on their naturalbeds with top and bottomtruly parallel.
The bottombed shallbe the full size of
Hollowbedswill not be permitted.
the stone and no stone shall have an overhangingtop. In rock-face
constructionthe face side of any stone shall not present an undercut
contouradjacentto its bottomaxis givinga top-heavy,unstableappearance
when laid.
411-l

1r2.3.6

Miring l\'lortar
The mortarshall be hand or machinemixed,as may be requiredby the
mortar,the sand and cement
of hand-nrixed
Engineer.In the preparation
clean,
tight mortar box until the
in
a
sfrattOe thoroughlymixed together
shall be added in such
water
clean
which
after
colour,
mixtureis of uniform
quantityas to form a stiff plastic mass. Machine-mixedmortar shail be
preparedin an approvedmixerand shall be mixed not less than one and
minutes.Mortarshallbe usedwithinfortyfive (45)minutesafter
half ('1.1/2)
mixing.Retemperingof mortarwill not be permitted.

tr2.3.7

LavingStonc
(a)General
Stone masonryshall not be constructedin freezingweatheror when the
stone contains frost. except by written permissionof the Engineerand
subjectto such conditionsas he may require.Stone Masonryin Cement
mortarshallbe curedfor a minimumperiodof seven(7) days.
(b) FaceStonj
Stoneshallnot be droppedupon.or slid over the wall,nor will hammering,
rolling,or turningof stoneson the wall be allowed.They shallbe carefully
set wrthoutjarringthe stonealreadylaid and they shall be handledwith a
thatwillnot causedisfigurement
Lewisor otherappliance
Each stone shall be cleanedand thoroughlysaturatedwith water before
being set and the bed, which is to receiveit, shall be cleanedand well
moistened.All stonesshall be well bedded in freshlymade mortarand
settledin placewith a suitablewoodenmaul beforethe settingof the mortar.
Wheneverpossible,the face loints which can not be so pointedshall be
preparedfcr pointingby rakingthem out to a depthof five (5) cm. beforethe
mortarhas set. The face surfacesof stonesshall not be smearedwith the
mortarforcedout of the jointsor that used in pointing.No pinningup of
stoneswith spawlswill be permittedin beds.
Jointsand beds shallbe not lessthan one (1) cm. nor morethan one and
quader(1.114)
cm. in thicknessand the thicknessof the jointor bed shallbe
uniformthroughout.
The stonein any one courseshallbe placedso as to form bondsof not iess
than thirty (30) cm. with the stonesof adjoiningcourses.Headersshall be
placed over stretchersand, in general,the headers of each course shall
equallydividethe spacesbetweenthe headersof adjoiningcourses,but no
headersshall be pla(Obover a joint and no joint shall be made over a
header.

412-3

(c) StoneBackingand Cores


stone backingshallbe laid in the same manneras specifiedabovefor face
stone,with headersinterlocking
with face headerswhen the thicknessof the
wall will permit.Backingshall be laid to break joints with the face stone.
stone cores shall be laid in full mortar beds so as to bond not less than
thirty(30)cm. withface and backingstoneand with each other.Bedjoints in
cores and backingshall not exceed 4.5 cm and verticaljoints shall not
exceedten (10)cm. in thickness.
(d) ConcreteCoresandBacking
The operationsinvolvedin the handlingand placingof concreteused in
cores and backingshall conformto the requirementsspecifiedrn ltem 401.
However,the puddlingand compactingof concreteadlacentto the ashrar
masonryfacingshallbe done in a mannerthat will eniure the fillingof all
spacesaroundthe stonesand securefull contactand efficientbond with all
stonesurfaces.
412.3.8

LevelingCourses
stone coresand backingshall be carriedup to the approximatelevel of the
face coursebeforethe succeedingcourseis started.

412.3.9

The conskuctionjoints produced in concrete cores or backing by the


intermittentplacingof concreteshall be located,in general,not less
than
fifteen(15)centimetersbelowthe top bed of any
of masonrv.
"orri"
Resetting
ln case any stoneis movedor the joint broken,the stoneshall be taKenup,
the mortarthoroughlycleanedfrom bed and joints,and the stcne reset in
fresh mortar.

412.3.10

Dorvelsand-llramps
where required,copingstone,stonein the wingsof abutments,and stone in
piers shall be securedwith wrought-ironcrampsor dowelsas
indicatedon
the plans.
Dowel holesshall be drilledthrougheach stone beforethe stone rs placed
and, after it is in place,such dowel holes shall be extendedby dr-illing
into
the underlyingcoursenot lessthan fifteen(.15)cm.
cramps shall'be of the shapes and dimensionsshown on the plans or
approvedby the Engineer.They shall be insetin the stoneso as to be flush
with the surfaces.
cramps and dowelsshall be set in lead. care beingtaken to completelyfill
the surrounding
spaceswith the moltenmetal.

412-4

1r2-3.6

Mixing l\{ortar
The mortarshall be hand or machinemixed,as may be requiredby the
mortar,the sand and cement
of hand-nrixed
Engineer.In the preparation
tight mortar box until the
clean,
snitl Ue thoroughlymixed togetherin a
water
shall be added in such
which
clean
after
mixtureis of uniformcolour,
mortar shail be
quantityas to form a stiff plasticmass. Machine-mixed
preparedin an approvedmixerand shallbe mixednot less than one and
half(1.1/2)minutes.Mortarshallbe usedwithinfortyfive (45) minutesafter
of moftarwillnot be permitted
mixing.Retempering

1r2.3.7

LavingStone
(a)General
Stone masonryshall not be constructedin freezingweather or when the
stone contains frost. except by written permissionof the Engineer and
subjectto such conditionsas he may require.Stone Masonryin Cement
mortarshallbe curedfor a minimumperiodof seven(7) days,

(-!t)-Ease-Dlqle
Stoneshallnot be droppedupon.or slid overthe wall,nor will hammering,
rolling,or turningof stoneson the wall be allowed.They shail be carefully
set withoutjarringthe stonealreadylaid and they shall be handledwith a
thatwill not causedisfigurement
Lewisor otherappliance
Each stone shall be cleanedand thoroughlysaturatedwith water before
being set and the bed, which is to receiveit, shall be cleanedand well
moistened.All stones shall be well bedded in freshly made mortar and
settledin placewith a suitablewoodenmaul beforethe settingof the mortar.
Wheneverpossible,the face jointswhich can not be so pointedshall be
preparedfcr pointingby rakingthem out to a depthof five (5) cm. beforethe
mofiar has set. The face surfacesof stonesshall not be smearedwith the
mortarforcedout of the joints or that used in pointing.No pinningup of
stoneswith spawlswill be permittedin beds.
Jointsand beds shallbe not less than one (1) cm. nor more than one and
quarter(1.114)
cm. in thicknessand the thicknessof the jointor bed shallbe
uniformthroughout.
The stole in any one courseshallbe placedso as to form bondsof not iess
than thirty(30) cm. with the stonesof adjoiningcourses.Headersshall be
placed over stretchersand, in general,the headersof eaCh course shall
equallydividethe spacesbetweenthe headersof adjoiningcourses,but no
headersshall be pla6|ddover a joint and no joint shall be made over a
header.

412-3

4r2.3.11

Copings
sha|lbe carefu||y
Stonesfor copingsof wa|l,pier,and abutmentbridgeseats
than two stones
more
piers,
not
selectedand fuliy dimensionedstones.on
The copings of
coprng'
of
shall be used to make up the entire width
at leastten (10)
extend
to
width
abutmentbridgeseatsshali be of sufficient
cm.underthebacK-wal|.Eachstepformingthecopingofwingwa||shaiIbe
formedbyasing|eStone,whichsha|lover|apthestoneformingthestep
immediatelybelowit at leastthirty(30) cm'
T o p s o f c o p i n g s s h a | | b e g i v e n a b e v e | c u t a t | e a s t f i v ejoints
( 5 ) c m . w ibe
de,and
shall
The vertical
beds, bevelcuts,and tops"shallbe fine-finished.
joints not more than
smooth-finishedand the coping shall be laid with
shall
preferably'
copings'
projecting
of
The undersides
0.6 cm in thickness.
havea driPbead.
less.thana thitly
Joints in copingsshallbe locatedso as to providenot
that no loint will
so
OonOwitn the stonesof the under courseand
i3gl
plates'
masonry
"..r
directlyunderthe superstructure
come

4r2.3.r2

Arches
be as shownon the
The numberof coursesand the depthof voussoirsshall
p|ans.Voussoirssha||bep|acedintheorderindicated.shal|befu||size
the
dressedtrue to templaie,and shall have bond not less than
itrrougtrout,
mortar
and
thickriessof the stone. Beds and joints shall be fine-finished
jointsshallnotexceedtwo(2)cm.inthickness.Exposedsurfacesofthe
indicatedon the
intradosand arch ring shall be given the surfacefinish
plans.
stonesshapedio fit
Backingmay consistof concreteas specifiedor of large
thearch,bondedtothespandrels'and|aidinfu||bedsofmortar.The
be given a finishing
extradosand interiorfaces of the spandrelwalls shall
shall be trawled
which
mortar
sand
(1:3)
cement
coat of one ratio three
waterproofing'
smoothto receivethe
drainage,and fillingshall be as specifiedfor
Arch centering,waterproofing,
concretearches.

412.3.r3

Pointins
pointingshallnot be done in freezrngweathernor when the stone contains
frost
wet wth
Jointsnot pointedat the time the stone is laid shall be thoroughly
shall be
mortar
ct"an water and filledwith mortarafter properraking.The
The
pointing
tool'
well driveninto the joints and finishedwith an approved
wa|lsha|lbekept*"t*nit"pointingisbeingdoneandinhotordryweather
and kept wet for a
the pointedmasonryshall be pro[ectedfrom the sun
periodof at least3 days aftercompletion'
Afterthepointingiscomp|etedandthemortarset,thewa||sha||be
and left in a neatand workmanlikecondition'
thoroughly'cleaned

412-5

112.1

M [ASUIIEIVIENT
AND PAYMENT

ll2.J.t

Mcasurcment
The quantityof stone masonryto be paid shall be the number
of cubic
metersmeasuredin the completedwork and the limitingdimensions
shall
not exceedthan those shownon the drawingsor fixed oy tne Engrneer.
concrete class-c or lean shail be measuredseparatelyas per dimensions
shown on the drawings or as directed by the Engine"i. tto
separate
measurementshall be made for stuck pointing,wrrich is deemed
to be
included in stone masonry with mortar, however rolr pointing
shalr be
measu-red
separatelyin square nreters.No separatemeasurementwill be
madefor dowelsand cramps.

112.1.2

Pavrncnt
The quantitiesdeterminedas providedabove shall be paid for
at. the
contractunit price respectivelyfor each of the parlicularpay items
listed
below and shown in the B.o.e., which price and paymentshail
be furl
compensationfor labour, materials,tools, equipment and incidentals
to
complete the item as described above. Dowels and cramps
shall be
consideredas subsidiaryitem.

Pay ltem
No.

4 1 2a

Description.

Unit of
Measurement

StoneMasonryDressedCoursed
with mortar.

CM

4 1 2b

ConcreteClass-C.

CM

4 1 2c

Lean Concrete

CM

4 1 2d

RollPointing.

SM

412-6

IThNI {13

STEELSTRUCTURES

J1 J . I

DESCRIPTION

Jl3.l.l

General
This work shallconsistof steelstructuresand the steelstructureportionsof
compositestructures,constructedin conformitywith the lines, grades and
dimensions
shownon the drawingsor as established
by the Engineer.
The workwillincludeall labour,materials
and equipmentrequiredto furnish,
fabricate,erectand paint structuralmetalscalledfor in these Specifications
or as shown on the plans. Structuralmetalswill includerivet, welding,
specialand alloysteels,metallicelectrodes.
steelforging,and castings,and
iron castings.This work will also includeany incidentalmetalconstruction
not otherwiseprovided for, all in accordancewith these specifications,
Drawingsor as directedby the Engineer.

{13.1.2

Drarvings
The Contractorshall submit to the EngineerworkingDrawingsfor steel
structuresfor approvalpriorto use in construction.
Such workingDrawings
shall be submittedsufficientlyin advanceof the start of the relatedwork to
allowtime for reviewby the Engineerand correctionby the Contractorof the
Drawingswithoutdelayingthe work. Suchtime shallbe proportional
to the
complexity
of the work, but in no case shallsuch time be less than six (6)
weeks.
The workingDrawingsshall show detailsof any permittedoptionsproposed
in the work, detailsfor connectionsnot dimensionedon the plans,the
directionof rollingthe plateswhere specificorientationis required,the
sequenceof shopand fieldassemblyand erection,weldingseluencesand
procedures,
the locationof all buttweldedspliceson a layoutDrawingof the
entirestructure.the locationof any temporarysupportsthat are to be used
and the verticalalignmentof the girder at each stage of the erection.
Substantiating
camber calculationsshall be submittedwith the working
Drawrngs.

113.1.3

I nspcction
Structuralsteelwill be inspectedat the fabricationsite.The Contractorshall
notifythe Engineerwhen materialshave been deliveredto the fabrication
site and shall give the Engineerat least ten (10) days notice before
commencingthe fabricationof any structuralsteel.

4tJ-l

The Contractorshall furnishto the Engineera copy of all mill orders,


certifiedmill test reportsand a Cerlificateof Compliancefor all structural
steelto be used in the work otherthan steel which is to be used underthe
provisionsin ltem 413.2.6."Unidentified
Stock Material".Certifiedmill test
reportsfor steelswith specificimpactvaluesshall include,in additionto
other.test results,the resultsof CharpyV-notch impact tests. When fine
grainsteelis specified,
the test reportshallincludethe grainsize.Copiesof
mill orders shall be furnishedat the time, orders are placed with the
manufacturer.
Certifiedmilltest reportsand Certificatesof Complianceshall
be furnishedpriorto startof fabricationof materialcoveredby thesereports.
The Certificates
of Complianceshall be signed by the manufacturer
and
shall certify to the Engineerthe specificationsto which the materialhas
and tested,and that the materialis in conformancewith
been manufactured
and test requirements.
said specifications
Materialto be used shallbe madeavailableto the Engineerso that the each
piececan be examined.The Engineershallhavefree accessat all timesto
any portionof the fabricationsite where said materialis stored or where
work on said materialis beingperformed.

{13.1.{

Shipping,Handlingand StoringMaterials
Membersweighingmorethantwo and one half (2.5)metrictons shallhave
the weightmarkedthereon.
In handlingand shippingof the steel work, every care shall be taken to
avoid bending,scraping,or overstressingthe pieces. All pieces bent or
otherwiseinjuredwill be rejected.
The loading,'transporting,
and unloadingof structuralmaterialshall be so
conductedthat the metal will be keot clean.Materialto be storedshall be
placedabovethe groundupon platforms,skids,or othersupports.and shall
be kept free from dirt, grease, and other foreign materialand properly
drainedand protectedfrom corrosion.Girdersand beams shall be placed
uprightand shored.Long members,suchas columnsand chords,shallbe
supportedon skids placednear enoughtogetherto preventdamagefrom
deflection.

4r3.1.5

Falsework
Falseworkused for the erectionof structuralsteel shall conform to the
provisionsin ltem 402, "Falseworkand Centeringfor Bridges",exceptthat
dead loads shall consistof the weight of the structuralsteel and any other
portionsof the structureswhichare supportedby the falsework.

413-2

Falseworkand forms supportingthe concretework on steel structuresshall


so that any loadsappliedto girderwebs shall be applied
be constructed
in a
(15)
cms. of a flangeor stiffenerand shall be distributed
withinfifteen
Temporary
struts
produce
the
web.
distortion
of
local
mannerthat will not
to resistlateralloadsappliedto the
and tiesshallbe providedas necessary
prevent
relative vertical movement
appreciable
girder flanges and to
steelgirders.
the
adiacent
form
and
of
deck
betweenthe edge
Loads imposedon existing,new or partiallycompletedstructuresby the
methodsand equipmentshallnot exceedthe load
construction
Contractor's
or portionsthereof,as determinedby the
structure,
of
the
capacity
carrying
Bridges '1967or as specifiedby the
for
Highway
of
Practice
Code
Pakistan
Engineer.
113.1.6

Members
Continuous
Unless otherwisenoted on the plans, structuralsteel girders have been
girderdead load.The Contractormay
designedfor continuityin supporting
for
at his optionerectthe girdersin sucha mannerthat the girdercontinuity
dead load is or is not as assumedin design.Furnishingand erectingthe
in thisltem.
girdersshallbe subjectto the requirements
lf erectionproceduresare to be usedwhich will providethe designedgirder
in
for dead load,memberswithfieldjointsshallbe pre-assembled
continuity
positions.
an
upright
or
a no-loadconditionin a horizontal
lf erectionproceduresare to be used whieh will result in steel girdersnot
attainingthe continuityfor dead load assumedin design,the Contractor
shall furnish to the Engineer for review a statement of steel erection
procedureswith calculations,in sufficientdetail to substantiatethat girder
capacityand geometrywill be correct.
lf erectionproceduresare to be used which will result in steel girdersnot
for dead loadassumedin design,the structureshall,
the continuity
attaining
have
a
load
carryingcapacityat least equal to the designed
erection,
after
structureshown on the plans. The Contractormay increase the crosssectionalarea or changethe steel gradesto providethe specifiedload
Any additionalsteel
carryingcapacitysubjectto approvalby the Engineer.
or higherstrengthsteels requiredto accommodatethe methodof erection
selected shall be consideredto be made for the convenienceof the
paymentwill be madetherefor.
no additional
Contractor"and

113.2

MATERIAL REOUIREMENTS

lr3.2.l

DescriDtion
of ASTM as listed
The variousmaterialsshall conformto the specifications
in the following tabulation with certain modificationsand additions as
specified.

413-3

,-t,rv
',,soleld uotleluatjo,,
Jo
t'eLt uell lo sluaujoltnboleql Lllt^ setldruocuotleluoljooleld aql leql
os lnc aq lleqsa]ts uotlecuqelaql ]e leAlJJe
ol loud ]ncaJdlaols lejnlcnjlsllv
'0

'sleqalo pue
sobueuioJJousoleldla6upr.lpue
'so6ueu
sJeqa{a
oql lo} pasn aq }ou lleqs o}eld loa}s polloC
lo uotlectJqeJ
v pue Lw v

'gt

'laals paddec pou.lrxlj


lo
uer.lllaqlo oq lleLlsz/g
y\lIsv
:suotleuolsac
o] ourLtroluoclaals lprnlcnrtsllv
v

sruc0t ot g
srlc g o] z
srucz o] 0

889V
gB9V :09aperc ',zLgv
889V :09eperc',zlgv ',Lwv
u u!f r,ud rsa(J l4ll)^v-slEtrelE I4l

ssru)lcrqJ.

-:DutMollo,
aql ol ulloluoolleLlslaals
q6rqse sueld eqguo pauOtsaploals lelnlcnlls
lernpnrlsIolle nnolq16ue.r1s
'pailtIS
. ,ittnlJo -l.Llos
raqlre0Z0f q6norql

g 1 9 gs a p e : 6' g 0 t V

'S ro

pnls
sJolcauuoc
g apetc
'6e
aperC
tV
'9
0 tl o : g o p e r c
v:8
(zitdde
crlelsotp{g)
elrdlae1g
lou llt^ 6ur1sa1

'99 y
:l ad{1

r09
ro g opere'009v
0tgzt aperc'/t
'8t v
900ssetS
v
9t-99aperc'/z v
9tv
'899
c ssetc'899
v
c ssetc v
/0e v

0urqnllernlcnllslaals uoqJeC
sbullsecuolt alqeelley!
'' '''''''" ' 's6utlsec
uo:r{et9
sOurlseclaals-uoqieC
slnu utd
6urOtol.ro1;aa1sIogly
slallorpue surd'6ur0lo1
lo, leals uoqJe3
" slnu pue sllo8
nnolq16uatlsqOrg
leaisleinpn:1sAolge
" sJaqseM
pue slnu 's)loqlaalslelnlcnJlsq16ua4sqOr;1
' '' suoiJeolldde
JoJspoJ
Jetauab
pepeorq]pue 'spnls 's]loqlaals qlDuallsrl6rH
Ourplean
loJ alqeltnse1eldlaa1sIol1e
peredual pue paqcuanb'r.l]6uatls
pgall{-q6rg

889 V
gzt,V

6rvv
,19 V
09 aperc

'zlg

IVF V

9ev
uotleu8rsall 6115V

'

laals

,11p.:Y.:n
LUllquTJ:c
{o;;eanolq16ue.r1s
q6rp
''' '
laelsuintpeue^
aseueOueu
q6rg
mo1q16ue.r1s
lelnlcnllsr{o11e
laals lBrnl3ntls
ler.relElAI

All structuralsteel plate used for the fabricationof tensionflanges,eyebars


and hangerplatesand for spliceplatesof tensionflangesand eyebarsshall
meet the longitudinalCharpyV-notchimpact value requirementsspecified
herein. Sampling proceduresshall conform to the provisionsin ASTM
Designation;A 673. The H (Heat) frequencyof testing shall be used for
A 36, A 441,A 572 and
structuralsteelsconformingto ASTM Designations:
A 588. The P (Piece)frequencyof te:;tingstrallbe used for structuralsteel
A 514. CharpyV-notch impactvalues
conformingto ASTM Designation:
E23.
withASTM Designation'.
in accordance
shallbe determined
Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact values shall conform to the following
minimumvalues:(Note:all metricvaluesin this test are roundedto closest
decimal).
Nlaterial

.lf the yieldpointof the mater:alexceeds65.000psi (+569.5Kg/Sq.cm),


the
temperaturefor the CVN impactvaluefor acceptabilityshall be reducedto
15 deg. F. (-9.45deg. C) for each incrementof 10,000psi (703 KgiSq.cm)
above65,000psi (4569.5Kg/Sq.cm).
Stud connector'sshall be producedby cold heading,cold rolling or cold
Finishedstud conneciorsshallbe of uniformoualityand free of
machining.
injuriouslaps, fins, seams,cracks,twists,bends or other dbfects.Studs
shallnot have cracksor burstsdeeperthan one half (112)the thicknessfrom
the peripheryof the head to the shaft.Tensilestrengthof stud connectors
shall be determinedby test of bar stock after drawingor of full diameter
shall
finishedstuds at the optionof the CcntractorStrenothrequirements
conformto the followinq.
413-5

Elongation

TensileStrength

( M i n .6
) 0 , 0 0 0p s i
( 4 2 1 8K q / S q . c m )

(.Min.)20%
in 2 inches{50.8mm)

Reductionof Area
(Min.)

50%

Stud connectorsshall be lurnishedwith arc shields (ferrules)of heatresistantceramicor othersuitablematerialfor welding.


r lJ.2.l

StructuralSteel
steelplates,
Unlessotherwisespecifiedor shownon the plans,all structural
ASTM
Desiqnation:
A
36.
conform
to
shapesand barsshall
girderflangeplatesshownon the plansmay
At the optionof the Contractor,
be increasedin thickness,and may be increasedin lengthprovidedthat the
changecjoesnot involvea decreasein detailedthicknessof any portionof
said plates.For continuousgirders,increasesin lengthof girder flange
plates,which involvechangesin locationsof butt welds betweendifferent
thicknessof flangeplates,shallbe approvedin writingby the Engineerprior
to fabrrcation.
When stud type shearconnectorslcngerthan twenty(20) cms. are to be
used,they may consistof two (2) or more shorterstudsof the type shown
welds.
togetherwiihfull penetration
on the plansconnected
Rolledshapes may be substitutedfor the welded sections,and welded
sectionsmay be substituiedfor the rolled shapes shown on the plans,
providedthat the shapesand sectionsto be substitutedcomplywith the
followingprovisions:
a) The depth,widthand averagethicknessshallbe at leastequalto those
for the shapeor sectionshownon the plans.
b) For welded sections,the flanges shall be welded to the web with
continuousfitletweldson each srdeof the web. All weldingshallconform
in ltem413.2.7,"Welding".
to the provisions
of the materialshall not be reduced
c) The strengthclassifrcation

-ll J.2.3

Castings
ironcastingsshallbe providedwithadequate
Steel,grayiron,and malleable
continuousfillets cast in place in all re-entrantangles.The radius of
curvatureof the exposedsurfaceof a fillet shall definethe size of the fillet.
The sizeof filletsshallnot be lessthan one-half(112)of the thicknessof the
thinnestadjoinedmembernor lessthanone and one quarter(1.25)cms.
The dimensionsof the finishedcastingshallnot be less than the specified.
Castingsshall not be more than seven and half (7.5) percentoverweight
and hammeredovertheirentirearea.No
Largecastingsshallbe suspended
cracks,flawsor otherdefectsshallappearaftersuch hammering.
4 tJ-O

,113.2.1

Pads
B.earing
:r.Mctal BearingDevices
Unlessotherwisedirectedby the Engineer,the materialsfor metalbearing
requirements:
shallconformto the following
AASHTOM 107for bronzebearings.
AASHTOM 108for rolledcopperalloybearings.
ASTM B 438 for sinteredmetalpowerbearings
steelbearings.
AASHTOM 160for galvanized
b. PreformedFabricPads
The preformedfabric pads shall be composed of multiple layers of two
and
hundredand seventy(270)gms/SM(8-ounce)cottonduck impregnated
materials
suitable
of
equivalent
rubber,
or
natural
boundwith high-quality
The numberof ply shall
padsof uniformthickness.
intoresilient
compressed
after compressionand
produce
thickness,
specified
the
as
to
be such
compressionloads
pads
with-stand
shall
finished
The
vulcanizing.
of not lessthan sevenhundred
perpendicular
to the planeof the laminations
in thicknessor extrusion.
reduction
(7OO)
Kg/sq.cmwithoutdetrimental
BearingPads
c. Elastomeric
in ltem 406.2.5,
bearingpadsshallconformto the requirements
Elastomeric
Pads".
"Elastomeric
Bearing

-113.2.5

Joints)
SheetPacking(Concrete
Asbestos
fifteen(15) mm thickunless
Asbestossheetpackingshallbe approximately
otherwiseshown on the plans, and shall be composedessentiallyof
compressedwhitechrysotileasbestosfibresboundtogetherwith a synthetic
rubberbinderand fillers.
The deformationof the sheetpackingundera load of three hundredand fifty
(350) Kg/sq.cmshall be not more than fifteen (15) percent.when tested
between planed steel plates under a load of fifty five (55) Kg/sq.cm,the
sheet packingshall show a static coefficientof frictionless than