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Chapter 7

Heat Transfer by Conduction

Theory

As with all transport phenomena, the rate of the transferred quantity is propor- tional to the driving force and inversely proportional to the resistance. For heat transfer by conduction, the driving force is the temperature difference T and the resistance R ¼ x = kA, where x is the wall thickness, k is the thermal conductivity and A is the surface area perpendicular to the direction of transfer. For a cylindrical wall, A is equal to the logarithmic mean surface area, while for a spherical wall, A is equal to the geometric mean surface area. Thus:

Rate of heat transfer

For a single wall

For a composite wall

q ¼ T

R

q ¼ T P R

Resistance to heat transfer

 Resistance, R Surface area, A Plane wall x = kA A A LM ¼ A 1 A 2 ln A 1 = A 2 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Cylindrical wall r = kA LM Spherical wall r = kA G A G ¼ p A 1 A 2

Review Questions

Which of the following statements are true and which are false?

1. Heat is conducted in solids, liquids, and gases by the transfer of the energy of motion from one more energetic molecule to an adjacent less energetic one.

S. Yanniotis, Solving Problems in Food Engineering. Springer 2008

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7 Heat Transfer by Conduction

 2 Fourier’s law is the basic relationship for heat transfer by conduction. 3 Resistance to heat transfer is proportional to thermal conductivity. 4 Air has low thermal conductivity. 5 Metals have higher thermal conductivity than non-metals. 6 Ice has a thermal conductivity much higher than water. 7 The thermal conductivity of gases is higher than the thermal conductivity of solids. 8 Thermal conductivity is a weak function of temperature. 9 In all cases, thermal conductivity varies with temperature gradient. 10 At steady state, the rate of heat transfer is always zero. 11 At steady state, the temperature at various points in a system does not change with time 12 At steady state, the temperature at various points in a system may change with position. 13 The temperature gradient is positive. 14 For the same heat transfer rate, the slope of the temperature gradientin insulating materials is smaller than in non-insulating materials. 15 The temperature distribution in a plane wall varies linearly with distance in the wall if there is no heat generation in the wall and the thermal conduc- tivity is constant. 16 The temperature distribution in a cylindrical wall varies logarithmically with the distance in the wall if there is no heat generation in the wall and the thermal conductivity is constant. 17 The arithmetic mean area differs from the logarithmic mean area by less than 1.4% if A 2 /A 1 < 1.5. 18 In a composite wall at steady state, the heat transfer rate in each layer depends on the thermal conductivity of the layer. 19 The temperature drop in a plane wall is inversely proportional to the resistance. 20 The slope of the temperature gradient in each layer of a composite plane wall depends on the thermal conductivity of the layer.

Examples

Example 7.1

Calculate the rate of heat transfer through a glass window with 3 m 2 surface area and 5 mm thickness if the temperature on the two sides of the glass is 14 8 C and 15 8 C respectively and the thermal conductivity of the glass is 0.7 W/m 8 C. The system is at steady state.

Solution

Examples

Step 1 Draw the process diagram:

T 1

∆x

T 2

57

Step 2 Calculate the resistance of the glass to heat transfer:

R ¼ kA x

¼

0 : 005 m

Þ ¼ 0 : 00238 8 C = W

ð 0 : 7 W = m 8 CÞ 3 m 2

ð

Step 3 Calculate the rate of heat transferred:

Example 7.2

q ¼ T 1 T 2 ¼

R

15 14 8C

W ¼ 420 W

0 :00238 8 C=

Hot water is transferred through a stainless steel pipe of 0.04 m inside diameter and 5 m length. The inside wall temperature is 90 8 C, the outside surface temperature is 88 8 C, the thermal conductivity of stainless steel is 16 W/m 8 C,

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7 Heat Transfer by Conduction

and the wall thickness is 2 mm. Calculate the heat losses if the system is at steady state.

Solution

Step 1 Draw the process diagram:

r 2
T 2
r 1
T 1
A 1

A 2

Step 2 Calculate the logarithmic mean area of the wall:

i)

ii)

iii)

A 1 ¼ 2 p r 1 L ¼ 2 pð 0 : 02 m Þ ð 5 m Þ ¼ 0 : 6283 m 2

A 2 ¼ 2 p r 2 L ¼ 2 pð 0 : 022 m Þ ð 5 m Þ ¼ 0 : 6912 m 2

A LM ¼ A 1 A 2 ln A

¼ 0 : 6283 0 : 6912

ln

0

: 6283

0

: 6912

¼ 0 : 6592 m 2

1

A

2

Step 3 Calculate the resistance of the metal wall to heat transfer:

R ¼ r 2 r 1 ¼

k m A LM

0 :002 m

¼ 0 : 00019 8C = W

ð 16 W = m 8 CÞ 0 : 6592m 2

Step 4 Calculate the rate of heat transfer:

Example 7.3

q ¼ T

R

¼ T 1 T 2 ¼

R

90 88 8 C 0 :00019 8 C =

W ¼ 10526 W

The wall of an oven consists of two metal sheets with insulation in between. The temperature of the inner wall surface is 200 8 C and that of the outer surface is 50 8 C. The thickness of each metal sheet is 2 mm, the thickness of the insulation

Examples

59

is 5 cm, and the thermal conductivity is 16 W/m 8 C and 0.055 W/m 8 C respec- tively. Calculate the total resistance of the wall to heat transfer and the heat transfer losses through the wall per m 2 of wall area.

Solution

Step 1 Draw the process diagram:

T 1

T 2
T 3

x 1

x 2

x 3

T 4

Step 3 Calculate the resistance to heat transfer:

i) Inner metal wall

R 1 ¼ x A ¼

1

k

1

ii) Insulation:

0 :002 m

ð 16 W = m 8 C Þ ð 1 m

2

Þ

¼ 0 : 00013 8C = W

R 2 ¼ x A ¼

2

k

2

iii) Outer metal wall:

0 :05 m

Þ ¼ 0 : 90909 8 C = W

ð 0 : 055 W = m 8 C Þ 1 m 2

ð

R 3 ¼ x A ¼

3

k

3

0 :002 m

ð 16 W = m 8 C Þ ð 1 m

2

Þ

¼ 0 : 00013 8C = W

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iv) Total resistance:

7 Heat Transfer by Conduction

R ¼ R1 þ R2 þ R3 ¼ 0 : 00013 þ 0 : 90909 þ 0 :00013 ¼ 0 : 90935 8 C= W

Step 4 Calculate the heat transfer through the wall:

q ¼ T

P

R ¼ T 1 T 4 ¼ P R

200 50 8C

0 : 90935 8 C = W ¼ 165 W

1) The main resistance to heat transfer (99.97%) is in the insulation layer. 2) The slope of the temperature gradient is steeper in the layer where the resistance is higher.

Exercises

Exercise 7.1

If an insulation of 2 cm thickness with thermal conductivity equal to 0.02 W/ m 8 C is wrapped around the pipe of Example 7.2 so that the outside surface temperature of the insulation is 35 8 C, while the inside wall temperature is still 90 8 C, what would be the heat loss? What will be the outside surface metal wall temperature T 2 ?

Solution

Step 1 Draw the process diagram:

T 3
r 2
T 2
r 1
T 1
A
1
A 2

r 3

A 3

Exercises

61

Step 2 Calculate the logarithmic mean area of the insulation:

i Þ A 3 ¼ ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: m 2

ii Þ A LMi ¼ :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: m 2

Step 3 Calculate the resistance of the insulation layer to heat transfer:

R ¼ ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 8 C = W

Step 4 Calculate the total resistance:

X R ¼ :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

Step 5 Calculate the rate of heat transfer:

q ¼ T R ¼ :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: W

P

Step 6 Calculate temperature T 2. The temperature drop is proportional to the resistance:

T 1 T 2

T 1 T 3

¼ R w

P R

where R w is the metal wall resistance.

Therefore,

T 2 ¼ ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::8 C

Exercise 7.2

The wall of a refrigerator of 4 m 2 surface area consists of two metal sheets with insulation in between. The temperature of the inner wall surface is 5 8 C and that

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7 Heat Transfer by Conduction

of the outer surface is 20 8C. The thermal conductivity of the metal wall is 16 W/ m 8 C and that of the insulation is 0.017 W/m 8 C. If the thickness of each metal sheet is 2 mm, calculate the thickness of the insulation that is required so that the heat transferred to the refrigerator through the wall is 10 W/m 2 .

Solution

Step 1 Draw the process diagram:

T 1

T 2
T 3

x 1

x 2

x 3

T 4

Step 3 Calculate the resistance to heat transfer:

i) Inner metal wall:

R 1 ¼ ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 8 C = W

ii) Insulation:

R 2 ¼ :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 8 C= W

iii) Outer metal wall:

R 3 ¼ ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 8C = W

iv) Total resistance:

X R ¼ ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 8 C= W

Exercises

Step 4 Calculate the thickness of insulation:Since

X R ¼ T

q

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

¼ ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 8 C = W

the thickness of the insulation will be

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x 2 ¼ :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: m

Exercise 7.3

A layer of fat 5 mm thick underneath the skin covers a part of a human body. If

the temperature of the inner surface of the fat layer is 36.6 8 C and the body loses heat at a rate of 200 W/m 2 , what will be the temperature at the surface of the skin? Assume that the thermal conductivity of fat is 0.2 W/m 8 C.

Solution

Step 2 Calculate the resistance to heat transfer:

R ¼ :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 8 C= W

Step 3

Calculate the surface temperature:
Since

q ¼ T

R

the surface temperature of the skin will be

T 2 ¼ :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 8C

Exercise 7.4

A composite plane wall consists of two layers A and B. The thermal conductiv-

ity of layers A and B are 0.02 W/m 8 C and 15 W/m 8 C respectively. If 100 W/m 2 are transferred through the wall at steady state, calculate the temperature

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Solution

7 Heat Transfer by Conduction

Step 2 From Fourier’s law:

Therefore,

and

dT

dx ¼ :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

dT

dx

A

¼ ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 8C = m

dT

dx

B

¼ :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 8 C= m

Exercise 7.5 Find an analytical expression to calculate the heat flux in a plane wall if the thermal conductivity varies with temperature according to the equation k=k o þ aT.

Solution

Step 1 Use the expression for k in Fourier’s law:

q

A ¼ k dT ¼ ð k þ aT Þ dT

dx

dx

o

Step 2 Separate the variables and integrate from x 1 to x 2 and T 1 to T 2 :

Exercise 7.6

Develop a spreadsheet program to plot the temperature distribution in a plane wall, a cylindrical wall, and a spherical wall of 4 cm thickness if the outer surface of the wall is at 20 8 C and the inner surface is at 200 8 C. The inner wall radius for the cylinder and the sphere is 0.1 m, the outer wall radius is 0.14 m, and the thermal conductivity of the wall is 0.02 W/m 8 C. Assume steady state.

Exercises

65

Hint:

The relationships that give the temperature variation as a function of distance in a wall are:

i) Plane wall:

ii) Cylindrical wall:

T ¼ T 1 x kA x 1 q

¼ T 1

x

T

x 2 x 1

iii) Spherical wall:

T ¼

T 1 ln ð r

=

r

1

Þ

2

pkL

T ¼ T 1

1

r

r

1 1

4 pk

q ¼ T 1 ln ð r

=

r

1

ln ð

r

Þ Þ T

2 = r 1

q ¼ T 1 1 r 1 T 1 r 1

r

r

2

Exercise 7.7

Develop a spreadsheet program to plot the temperature distribution in a plane wall of 4 cm thickness and inner wall surface temperature of 200 8 C, at steady state, when a) the thermal conductivity of the wall in W/m 8C varies according to the equation k = 0.0325 þ 0.0004T and 250 W/m 2 of heat are transferred through the wall; and b) the thermal conductivity is constant and equal to the average value for the temperature range of the wall calculated in case a. Calculate the heat transfer rate in case b and compare it to the heat transfer rate of case a.

Hint:

Calculate the temperature as a function of distance in the wall using the expression developed in Exercise 7.5.