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Module IV


Requirements of a control system
Stability,accuracy&speed of response are the three requirements of a
control system
(a)STABILITY:A system is said to be stable if the output of the system after
fluctuations, variation or oscillations if any, settles at a reasonable value for any
change in input or change in disturbance
(b)ACCURACY: A system is said to be 100 percent accurate if the error is zero. An
accurate system is costly. There is no point in going for 100 percent accurate systems
when that much of accuracy is not really required.
Eg, when a variation of say 0.2 degree centigrade cannot be sensed by a human
being ,there is no need to have a home a home heating system of temperature variation
equal to zero.
(c) SPEED OF RESPONSE: This refers to the time taken by the system to respond to
given input & give that as output. Theoritically the speed of response should be
infinity, ie the system should have an instantaneous response. This requirement is of
prime concern with follow up systems.


If in a physical system there is no automatic correction of the variation in its output,it
is called an open loop control system.That is, in this type of system,sencing of the
actual output and comparing of this with the desired input does not take place.
The system on its own is not in apositon to give the desired output and it cannot take
into account the disturbances.In these systems the changes in the output can be
corrected only by changing the input manually.
Figure: Open Loop Control System
The system are simple in construction,stable and cost cheap.
But these systems are inaccurate and unreliable .Moreover these systems do not take
account of external disturbances that affect the output and they do not initiate
corrective actions automatically.

Examples of open loop control system

(a) automatic washing machine
(b) traffic signal system
(c) home heating system
Any known feedback control system can be considered as afeedback control
system.If it is under the provision of someone.Although openloop control system
have economical components and are simple in design ,they are largely depend on
human judgement.
The feedback control systems are classified as
(a) regulator systems.
(b) Follow up systems
(c) Servo mechanisms
(d) Continuous data systems
(e) Sample or discrete data systems
(a) Regulator systems:
This is a feedback control system where the input is not
changed home heating or cooling system.
(b) followup systems:
This is a feedback control system where the input changes at
every instant of time and hence the output should closely follow the input.
Eg:tracer mechanism on a lathe,spacecrafts.
(c) Servo mechanism:
This is a feedback control system with a mechanical quantity
as the final output.Here the control variable is mechanical position or
time derivatives of of load over a certain distance.
(d)Continuous data feedback control systems:
In this system the signals
at various parts of the system are all functions of the continuous time
variable.In general in an AC system the signals are modulated and in
DC systems the signals are unmodulated.The DC provided is amplified
and given as field excitation for the DC motor.Thus the speed of the
motor is controlled.
Figure: DC Servo Motor

(e)Sampled or Discrete data control system:

In this systems the signals involved are
mostly in the form of pulses or numerical code.This systems receives data only at
certain time intervals.Hence the system may receive only intermittently.The output of a
sampler has a train of pulses whose amplitude is in direct proportion with analog
The techniques used in sampling are
(a)periodic(after specific intervals of time)
(b)cyclic(sampling points are cyclic)
(c)multi rate(rate of sampling varies)
(d)Random(without order)
(e)pulse width modulated(variation in width of pulse)


Figure: Induction Disc Relay
It is similar in construction to the watt hour or energy meter. It has an
electromagnetic core around which the exciting coil is wound. There is a disc mounted
on the shaft and suspended b/w the gaps in the electromagnetic core on one end and is
enclosed in the magnetic field on the other end. When a voltage is applied across the
coil ,a magnetic field is produced .Now the disc is acted upon by two magnetic fields
,which produced an electro mechanical torque. This torque on the disc causes it to
rotate and with suitable coupling. This rotary motion can be interpreted as the linear
motion of a relay switch that can be used to activate the circuit breaker
The induction disc relay is comparatively slower in
operation as the electromechanical torque generated takes sometime to drive the
disc.The induction disc relay has a factor of coupling of the shaft to the relay switch
which may have some losses.Inorder to improve the response, the disc was replaced by
an inverted cup and led to the induction cup relay.
The main advantages of an induction cup relay is
(a)fast in operation
(b)very quick response
(c)higher torque
(d)less contact chatter

Figure: Induction Cup Relay

Figure: Output of induction Cup Relay
Electronic systems are widely used in automatic control devices
due to there easy fabrication assembling and most important easy compatibility to all
other systems .Operational amplifiers are most widely used electronic control elements
in any electronic systems .These are more flexible and versatile than and pneumatic
system elements with ever increasing reliabity of integrated circuits the use of
electronic control syste in industry has increased in recent times
Figure: Op-Amp Circuit
The OP AMP can be operated in two modes
-inverting mode
-non inverting mode
In inverting mode the output is given to the inverting input terminal of the OP AMP
Figure: Inverting Mode of Op-Amp
In non inverting mode the input is given to the non inverting input terminal
Figure: Non Inverting Mode of Op-Amp
Important control appl: using OP AMPS are,
-voltage regulators
-phase locked loops
-comparator circuits
A voltage regulator is a electronic circuit where a
stable DC voltage ,independent of load current ,temperature and AC line voltage
variations .The series pass transistor is in series with the input unregulated voltage V
in and the output regulated voltage Vo .It absorbs the difference b/w the two when
there is any fluctuation b/w both. The transistor is connected as an emitter follower
and gives enough gain to drive the load. The output voltage Vo is sampled by R1- R2
divider and feedback to the inverting terminal of the control element. The reference
voltage is compared by giving to the non inverting terminal using a zener diode. The
output of the error amplifier drives the series pass transistor Q1.If V0 increases the
sampled voltage Vo also increases

This reduces the output voltage Vo of error amplifier which is applied to base of Q1
which is an emitter follower. Thus Vo followers Vo ie, it reduces. Similar vice versa
action takes place if Vo decreases.