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Australian Government

Civil Aviation Safety Authority

PPL & CPL (Aeroplane) Workbook


Version 1 - 01 September 2014

The Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) owns copyright of this workbook.
The workbook is only for use in training for the associated CASA PPL and CPL
examinations, and is not to be used for any other purpose.
After use in a CASA examination, the workbook must not be removed from the
examination room, but must be left with the PEXO examination Invigilator for
destruction. Failure to comply with these instructions may give CASA grounds for
taking action against the candidate under CAR 298A, which action could lead to the
outcome indicated in CAR 298A (5).

CONTENTS 2

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CONTENTS
Company Policy
Figs 1 / 2 : Aerodrome Markers/Markings
Fig 3 - Take-off Weight Chart
Fig 4 - Landing Distance Chart
Fig 5 Take-off Weight Chart
Fig 6 - Landing Chart
ALPHA
Loading System Alpha: Instructions
Fig 7 - Loading System Alpha
BRAVO
Loading System Bravo: Instructions
Fig 8 - Loading System Bravo
CHARLIE
Loading System Charlie: Instructions
Loading System Charlie: Index Units
Fig 9 - Loading System Charlie
ECHO
Loading System Echo: Instructions
Loading System Echo: Instructions (continued)
Fig 10 - Loading System Echo: Index Units
Fig 11 - Loading System Echo: Centre of Gravity Envelope
Fig 12 - Take-off Weight Chart: Aircraft Echo
Fig 13 - Landing Weight Chart: Aircraft Echo
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COMPANY POLICY 3
EXTRACT FROM COMPANY OPERATIONS MANUAL
Fuel Reserves
Fuel Reserves (for all flights) shall be carried in accordance with Civil Aviation Advisory Publication,
CAAP 234-1 (1) dated November 2006.

Aeroplane Landing Areas


Selection of and operation into landing areas other than licensed aerodromes, shall be in accordance with
Civil Aviation Advisory Publication, CAAP 92-1 (1) dated July 1992.

Helicopter Landing Sites


Selection of and operations into helicopter landing sites (HLS), which are not licensed aerodromes, shall
be in accordance with the Civil Aviation Advisory Publication, CAAP 92-2 (2) dated February 2014.

AERODROME MARKINGS 4

(i)

(ii)

AERODROME
MARKERS

AERODROME
MARKINGS

Figure 1

Figure 2
(i)

(ii)

(iii)
(iii)

(iv)

(iv)

TAKE-OFF WEIGHT CHART 5


TAKE-OFF WEIGHT CHART
Figure 3

LEVEL

UP

4
1500
1400
1300
1200
1100
1000
DOWN

900
800

700

600

500

400

8000
6000
START
HERE

4000
2000
SL

40 30 20 10 0 -10
SHADE
TEMP
C

LONG WET GRASS SURFACE


LONG DRY OR SHORT WET GRASS SURFACE
REFERENCE LINE SHORT DRY GRASS SURFACE
1090 KG
1100
(B)
HEAD

TAKE-OFF WEIGHT - KG

AIRFIELD PRESSURE HEIGHT - FT

TAKE-OFF DISTANCE AVAILABLE - METRES

SLOPE PERCENT

1050
(A)
1000
5

10

20

950
900
TAIL
850
AMBIENT WIND COMPONENT - KNOTS

NOTES:
(1) THE GROSS WEIGHT AT TAKE-OFF SHALL
NOT EXCEED THE LESSOR OF (A) AND (B).
(2) THE MAXIMUM TAKE-OFF WEIGHT = 1090 KG

POWER TO BE USED
FLAP SETTING
TAKE-OFF SAFETY SPEED
TAKE-OFF DISTANCE FACTOR

FULL THROTTLE
10 DEGREES
60 KIAS
1.15

CLIMB LIMIT WEIGHT - KG

20

30

SHADE TEMPERATURE C

10

S.L.

40

2000

4000

6000

50
2

SLOPE PERCENT

REFERENCE LINE

4000

AIRFIELD PRESSURE
HEIGHT - FEET

5000

10

20

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

FLAP SETTING
40 DEGREES
APPROACH SPEED
65 KT IAS
LANDING DISTANCE FACTOR 1.15

AMBIENT WIND
COMPONENT - KT

REFERENCE LINE

-10

1050
1055
MAX

1000

NOTE:
LANDING WEIGHT MUST
6000 NOT EXCEED CLIMB
WEIGHT LIMIT BELOW

LANDING DISTANCE CHART 6

LANDING DISTANCE CHART


Figure 4
NOTE:
LANDING DISTANCE REQUIRED
IS INDEPENDENT OF LANDING
WEIGHT.

LANDING DISTANCE REQUIRED - METRES

CLIMB LIMIT WEIGHT - KG

20

30

40

SHADE TEMPERATURE C

10

SLOPE PERCENT

REFERENCE LINE

10

20

AMBIENT WIND
COMPONENT - KT

6 5 0

REFERENCE LINE

-10

200

00
40

00
60

LONG WET GRASS

SURFACE

SHORT WET OR LONG DRY GRASS


SHORT DRY GRASS
REFERENCE LINE HARD SEALED SURFACE

AIRFIELD PRESSURE HEIGHT - FEET

1055

1000

950

900

60

850

50
00

40
00

TAKE-OFF WEIGHT - KG

TAKE-OFF WEIGHT CHART


Figure 5

1050

1000
1000

950
950

900
900

850
850

800
800

750
750

TAKE-OFF WEIGHT - KG

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

2200

2400

1055
1050

00

NOTE:
TAKEOFF WEIGHT MUST NOT EXCEED
CLIMB WEIGHT LIMIT BELOW

ZERO
FLAP SETTING
64 KT IAS
TAKEOFF SAFETY SPEED
FULL THROTTLE
POWER SETTING
NOT LESS THAN 2350
RPM
1.15
CHART DISTANCE FACTOR

TAKE-OFF WEIGHT CHART 7

TAKE-OFF DISTANCE AVAILABLE - METRES


1055

LANDING CHART 8

LANDING DISTANCE REQUIRED - METRES

LANDING CHART
Figure 6
SLOPE PERCENT
2

LEVEL

2
DOWN

4
650

600
550
500

UP
450

0
10
20
5
TAIL
HEAD
AMBIENT WIND COMPONENT - KNOTS

400

8000
6000
4000
40
2000
SL

SHADE
TEMP
C

30 20

10

0 -10

AIRFIELD PRESSURE HEIGHT - FT

AIRFIELD PRESSURE HEIGHT - FT

CLIMB WEIGHT LIMIT

8000

1080
KG

6000
4000
2000
800

(A)

900

1000

1100

LANDING WEIGHT - KG

NOTES:
(1) THE GROSS WEIGHT AT LANDING SHALL
NOT EXCEED (A).
(2)
LANDING DISTANCE REQUIRED DOES NOT
VARY SIGNIFICANTLY WITH WEIGHT

FLAP SETTING
APPROACH SPEED
LANDING DISTANCE FACTOR

30 DEGREES
58 KIAS
1.15

LOADING SYSTEM ALPHA 9


LOADING SYSTEM ALPHA
CONFIGURATION: 6/7 SEATS
INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE OF LOADING SYSTEM
1

Obtain Basic Empty Weight and Index Units from current Section of 6.2 of Flight Manual.

Mark Basic Empty Weight Index Units on top scale. Enter Basic Empty Weight at top of righthand column.

Enter weights of load items required for flight in appropriate squares of right-hand column.
Maximum weights for load items are indicated on Index Unit scales.

Total weights in right-hand column to obtain Zero Fuel Weight and Take-Off Weight. **

Draw horizontal lines on CG Envelope graph corresponding to Zero Fuel Weight and Take-Off
Weight.

Draw a line vertically down from point marked on Basic Empty Weight Index Units scale to first
load item scale.
* Move to the left or right on this load item index scale as per arrow directions, and mark point as
appropriate to the load indicated in the right-hand column.
(e.g. 154 KG load @ 77 KG/div. = 2 div.).

Draw a line vertically down from the point marked on the first load item index scale to the second
load item index scale and continue as per * above. Continue down the scales to Rear Baggage.
Draw a line vertically from the Rear Baggage point down to intersect the Zero Fuel Weight line
and Take-Off Weight line previously marked on the CG envelope graph.

The two intersection points as per 7, above must not exceed the boundaries of the CG envelope
graph. If they do, re-organise the load in the aircraft and start again with steps 3 to 7.

**

DO NOT EXCEED MAXIMUM TAKE-OFF WEIGHT AS SHOWN ON CG ENVELOPE


DIAGRAM OF THIS LOADING SYSTEM.
_____________________________________________________

EXAMPLE:
Basic Empty Weight
Empty Index units
Row 1
Row 2 (forward facing)
Row 3
Nose baggage
Rear baggage
Fuel

Note:

1050 KG
-260
150 KG (2 persons)
160 KG (2 persons)
120 KG (2 persons)
40 KG ----------------- Zero Fuel Wt = 1520 KG
Nil
113 KG ---------------- Take-Off Wt = 1633 KG

Basic Empty Weight includes unusable fuel and full oil.

LOADING SYSTEM ALPHA 10


LOADING SYSTEM ALPHA
Figure 7
EXAMPLE

-400

-300

AIRCRAFT BASIC INDEX UNITS


-200

-100

+100

+200
WEIGHT (KG)

50 KG/DIV
ROW 1
OCCS

ROW 2
OCCS

ROW 2
OCCS

77 KG/DIV
50 KG/DIV

(FORWARD FACING)

77 KG/DIV
50 KG/DIV

(AFT FACING)

77 KG/DIV
50 KG/DIV

ROW 3
OCCS

77 KG/DIV
10 KG/DIV

(45 KG MAXIMUM)
NOSE
BAGGAGE

10 KG/DIV

(45 KG MAXIMUM)
REAR
BAGGAGE

ZERO FUEL WEIGHT


FUEL

(MAXIMUM 356 LITRES 252 KG)

1633 KG
MAXIMUM TAKE-OFF WEIGHT

NIL SCALE
TAKEOFF WEIGHT
1633 KG
1600 KG
1500 KG
1400 KG
1300 KG
GROSS WEIGHT (KG)
1200 KG
1100 KG

LOADING SYSTEM BRAVO 11

LOADING SYSTEM BRAVO


CONFIGURATION: 4 SEATS
INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE OF LOADING SYSTEM
To check the loading of the aircraft before take-off, calculate the total weight and total moments as shown
in the example below.
Plot the total weight and moment on the Centre of Gravity Envelope chart, and if the intersection point
is within the envelope, the loading is acceptable.

AIRCRAFT LIMITATIONS
Maximum take-off weight
Normal category:
Utility category:

1000 KG / 2200 lbs


841 KG / 1850 lbs

Maximum baggage compartment baggage: 53 KG / 120 lbs


Notes:
1
2
3

The aircraft is fitted with standard tanks (37 US Gallons at 6 lbs / gallon)
Empty weight includes unusable fuel and undrainable oil
Obtain Moment / 1000 inch pounds from the loading graph
_____________________________________________________

EXAMPLE:

Empty weight
Oil
Fuel (141 litres)
Pilot & Co-Pilot
Rear seat passengers
Baggage
Take-Off Weight

WEIGHT (LBS)
1260
15
222
320
350
25

ARM (IN)
80
32
91
91
126
151

2192

Check CG is within the envelope

MOMENT/1000 IN LB
100.80
.48
20.02
29.12
44.10
3.78
198.30

LOADING SYSTEM BRAVO 12

LOADING SYSTEM BRAVO


Figure 8
Add weight of items to be carried to aeroplane licensed
empty weight. Add moment/1000 of items to be carried
to total aeroplane moment/1000. Use Centre of Gravity
Envelope to determine acceptibility.

LOAD - WEIGHT IN POUNDS

500
LOADING GRAPH
PILOT AND COPILOT

400

CARGO

STD FUEL (37 gal. useable - 6 lbs/gal.)


OPT FUEL (51 gal. useable - 6 lbs/gal.)

300

REAR SEAT PASSENGERS

200
100
BAGGAGE

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

200

210

MOMENT/1000 INCH POUNDS

LOADING GRAPH
CENTRE OF GRAVITY ENVELOPE

CA
TE
GO
RY

2100

NO
RM
A

2000
1900

CA
TE
G

OR
Y

1800
1700

UT
IL
IT
Y

LOADED AIRCRAFT WEIGHT IN POUNDS

2200

1600
1500
1400
120

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

MOMENT/1000 INCH POUNDS

CENTRE OF GRAVITY ENVELOPE

50

55

LOADING SYSTEM CHARLIE 13

LOADING SYSTEM CHARLIE


CONFIGURATION: 4 SEATS
INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE OF LOADING SYSTEM
To check the loading of the aircraft before take-off, carry out a summation of weight and index units as
shown in the example below. Check the centre of gravity of the aircraft at Zero Fuel Weight and TakeOff Weight by use of the formula:
CG (mm aft of datum) = Index unit x 100
Weight
The CG must be within the envelope given at all times.

AIRCRAFT LIMITATIONS
Maximum take-off weight
Normal category:
Utility category:
Maximum baggage compartment baggage:

1115 KG
925 KG
122 KG

Notes:
1
2
3

Aircraft empty weight includes unusable fuel and undrainable oil


All arms are in mm aft of datum
1 index unit = 100 KG mm
_____________________________________________________

EXAMPLE:

Aircraft empty weight


Full oil
1 pilot + 1 passenger Row 1
2 passengers
Row 2
Baggage
Zero Fuel Weight
Fuel 140 litres
Take-off Weight

CG check

KG
687
7
140
160
20
1014
99
1113

IU
19,522
86
3,850
5,760
842
30,060
2,920
32,980

1.

At Zero Fuel Weight = (30,060 x 100) / 1014 = 2965 mm OK

2.

At Take-Off Weight = (32,980 x 100) / 1113 = 2963 mm OK

LOADING SYSTEM CHARLIE 14

LOADING SYSTEM CHARLIE


INDEX UNITS
Fuel

ARM: 2950

20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
216

14
28
43
57
71
85
99
114
129
142
153

BAGGAGE

413
826
1,268
1,682
2,095
2,507
2,920
3,363
3,806
4,189
4,513

ARM: 4210

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
122

421
842
1,263
1,684
2,105
2,526
2,947
3,368
3,789
4,210
4,631
5,136

OCCUPANTS
KG

ROW 1
ROW 2
ARM: 2750 ARM: 3600

40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90

1,100
1,237
1,375
1,512
1,650
1,786
1,925
2,062
2,200
2,338
2,475

1,440
1,620
1,800
1,980
2,160
2,340
2,520
2,700
2,880
3,060
3,240

OIL ARM : 1230


US Quarts

LITRES

KG

INDEX UNITS

6
7
8

5.7
6.6
7.6

5.0
6.0
7.0

62
74
86

LOADING SYSTEM CHARLIE 15


LOADING SYSTEM CHARLIE
Figure 9
1200
1150

MAX AUW 1115 KG

1100
1050

950

AFT LIMIT 2896 mm

900
850
UTILITY CATEGORY

800
FWD LIMIT

KILOGRAMS

AFT LIMIT 3004 mm

NORMAL CATEGORY

1000

750
700

2680

2720

2760

2800

2840

2880

2920

2960

3000

CENTRE OF GRAVITY POSITION (mm AFT OF DATUM)

ALLOWABLE CENTRE OF GRAVITY ENVELOPE


CONVERSION FACTORS
1 inch = 25.4 mm
1 foot = 0.305 metre
1 lb = 0.454 KG
1 Imp gal = 1.201 US gal = 4.546 litres
100/130 aviation gasoline: Specific Gravity = 0.71

LOADING SYSTEM ECHO 16

LOADING SYSTEM ECHO


CONFIGURATION: 6 SEATS
INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE OF LOADING SYSTEM
1

Moment Index chart (fig 10, page 20) may be used to determine the balance of the aeroplane.
Locate the weight (in KG) of a particular load item on the vertical scale and move horizontally to
the line representing the location of that item. From that point drop vertically to read off the
Moment Index for that item.

Obtain the aeroplane basic empty weight and index units from the examination question. Add up
the required total weight (Gross Weight) of the aeroplane and the corresponding Total Moment
Index.

Refer to the Centre of Gravity chart (fig 11, page 21). Locate the Gross Weight of the loaded
aeroplane (in KG) on the vertical scale and move horizontally to meet the vertical line
representing the Total Moment Index of the loaded aeroplane. If the point of intersection, which
represents the Centre of Gravity, falls in the shaded area, the aeroplane is correctly loaded.
Note: The Centre of Gravity must lie in the shaded area at ALL stages of flight.
Weight Limitations:

Balance Data:

Maximum Take-off Weight


Maximum Landing Weight
Maximum Zero Fuel Weight

2950 KG
2725 KG
2630 KG

The Mean Aerodynamic Chord (MAC) data is as follows:


Length of chord
1900 mm
Location of leading edge
2190 mm aft of datum
Centre of Gravity range is a follows:
2400 mm to 2680 mm at 2360 KG or less
2560 mm to 2680 mm at 2950 KG
Linear variation between the points given

Loading Data:
Location
Maximum Permissible Load
Seating:
Row 1 (Seats 1 & 2)
Pilot + 1 Passenger
Row 2 (Seats 3 & 4)
2 Passengers
Row 3 (Seats 5 & 6)
2 Passengers
Cargo & Baggage Compts:
Forward Compt
55 KG
Left wing Compt.
55 KG
Right wing Compt.
55 KG
Rear Compartment
155 KG
Floor loading intensity
(All Compts) 450 KG/m2
Fuel:
Left main tank
50 gal
Right main tank
50 gal
Left auxiliary tank
40 gal
Right auxiliary tank
40 gal

Load Arm (mm Aft of Datum)


2290
3300
4300
500
3550
3550
5000

1780
1780
2800
2800

LOADING SYSTEM ECHO 17

LOADING SYSTEM ECHO (continued)


Note: All passenger seats weigh 5 KG each and may be removed to permit the carriage of additional
cargo or baggage in the cabin.
The maximum permissible load in the area otherwise occupied by a passenger seat is 82 KG.
If a passenger seat is removed, adjust the empty weight and empty moment.

EXAMPLE:

Aeroplane Basic Empty Weight


Row 1 (2 passengers)
Row 2 (2 passengers)
Row 3 (2 passengers)
Rear compartment
Zero Fuel Weight
Fuel in Main tanks
Take-off Weight
Fuel Burn-off
Landing Weight

WEIGHT
(KG)
1970
150
140
130
100
2490
200
2690
80
2610

MOMENT INDEX
(Refer to Figure 10)
478.0
34.0
46.3
56.0
50.0
664.3
35.5
699.8
14.3
685.5

Refer to the Centre of Gravity Chart (Fig 11, page 21) to assess whether the horizontal line from the
Gross Weight in question intersects the vertical line from its corresponding Total Moment Index in the
shaded area.

LOAD - KG

50

100

150

200

250

300

FWD COMP

10

20

30

40

50

PS
OM
C
NG
WI

ROW 1
(SEATS 1 AND 2)

MOMENT INDEX

MAINS FUEL

60

70

REAR COMP

ROW 3
(SEATS 5 AND 6)

ROW 2
(SEATS 3 AND 4)

AUX FUEL

80

LOADING SYSTEM ECHO 18

LOADING SYSTEM ECHO


Figure 10

GROSS WEIGHT - KG

2000
450

2100

2200

2300

2400

2500

2600

2700

2800

2900

3000

500

550

TOTAL MOMENT INDEX

600

650

CENTRE OF GRAVITY ENVELOPE

700

750

1 INDEX UNIT = 10,000 KG mm

LOADING SYSTEM ECHO 19

LOADING SYSTEM ECHO


Figure 11

TAKE-OFF WEIGHT CHART 20


TAKE-OFF WEIGHT CHART
AIRCRAFT - ECHO Figure 12

0 10 20

DOWN

5
2950
2900
2800
2700
2600
2500
2400
2300
2200
2100
2000

2
3
4
5
6

4000
6000

10
40

8000

30

20

400

AIRFIELD PRESSURE
HEIGHT - FEET

SL
12000

2000

4000

START
HERE

6000

8000

10000

500
600

700

900
800

1000

1100

1400
1300

1200

TAKE-OFF DISTANCE
AVAILABLE - METRES

DENSITY HEIGHT - FEET

-10

2000

SHADE
TEMP
C

LONG WET GRASS


SHORT WET OR LONG DRY GRASS
REFERENCE LINE - SHORT DRY GRASS

10000

LEVEL 1

TAKE-OFF WEIGHT - KG

SURFACE

SLOPE PERCENT

TAIL

AMBIENT WIND
COMPONENT - KNOTS

TAKE-OFF SAFETY SPEED


KNOTS - IAS
98
96
94
92
HEAD
90
88
86
84
82
80
5 0 10 20

ZERO DEGREES
SEE SCALE
1.22
3200 RPM
37.4 IN Hg

UP

FLAP SETTING
TAKE-OFF SAFETY SPEED
DISTANCE FACTOR
POWER TO BE USED
RPM
MAN PRESS

6000

AIRFIELD PRESSURE HEIGHT


FEET

0
12000

2000

4000

START
HERE

LANDING DISTANCE AVAILABLE


METRES

10000

8000

30

6000

20

10

4000

DENSITY HEIGHT - FEET

40

2000

-10

SHADE
TEMP
C

500

2950
2900
2800
2700
2600
2500
2400
2300
2200
2100
2000

SLOPE PERCENT

8000

600
5

TAIL

10 20

UP

0 10 20

AMBIENT WIND
COMPONENT - KNOTS

HEAD

DOWN

80

82

84

86

88

90

92

94

45 DEGREES
SEE SCALE
1.26

10000

700

900
800

1000

FLAP SETTING
APPROACH SPEED
DISTANCE FACTOR

1100

1200

1300

1400

1500

1600

1
2
3
4
5
6

LEVEL 1

SLOPE PERCENT

LANDING WEIGHT CHART 21

LANDING WEIGHT CHART


AIRCRAFT - ECHO
Figure 13
APPROACH SPEED
KNOTS - IAS

LANDING WEIGHT - KG

SCRIBBLE PAGE - 22

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