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# CHAPTER 1

VERTICAL STRESSES
DISTRIBUTION IN SOIL

LESSON OUTCOMES
At the end of this chapter, student should be able to:
a) Explain the meaning of total stress, effective stress and
overburden pressure.
b) Describe the concept of soil response to stress: elastic, plastic and
elasto-plastic.
c) Conduct empirical analysis and evaluate different stresses in soil
Boussinesq Theory, Fadums and Newmark Chart.
nhhanis@gmail.com

What?
Why?
How?

## REVISION : STRESS CONCEPT

In ECG303, you have learned about stresses in soil.

REMEMBER :
STRESS
CONCEPTWILL
BE USED
THROUGHOUT
THIS COURSE

## You also should be able to differentiate in between total stress and

effective stress.
Total stress,

Effective stress,

## The stress carried by the soil particles

and pore water, u in the soil void.

alone.

=+u

=-u

dissipates.

## Long term analysis.

Soil deformation, strength and stability
depend on effective stress because
water cannot resist shear stress.

Undrained condition.

Drained condition.

OVERBURDEN PRESSURE
Pressure or stress imposed on the soil by the weight of overlying
material, also known as lithostatic pressure.

Single layer

Multiple layer
Surcharge, q

Unit weight of
soil, (kN/m3)

Depth, z

## The vertical stress imposed at point

x is =z
If there is surcharge on the surface,
the total vertical stress at point x
now is

=z+q

z1

z2

3
x

z3

## The total vertical stress

imposed at point x is

## =1z1 + 2z2 + 3z3

OVERBURDEN PRESSURE
Saturated soil
GWL

Saturated
unit weight,
sat (kN/m3)
x

Depth, z

## If the ground water is at the

ground level, then total vertical
stress is =satz
And, the pore water pressure at
point x is u=wz
Therefore, the effective vertical stress

= -u
= satz wz
or = z
where =(sat w)
is

OVERBURDEN PRESSURE
Saturated soil
If the ground water is located deeper in
the soil layer, then vertical stress is =
1

GWL

z1

1z1 + satz2
And, the pore water pressure at point x is

sat

z2
x

u=wz2
Therefore, the effective vertical stress is at

or
= 1z1 + z2
where

=(sat w)

## SOIL RESPONSE TO STRESS

Foundation soil fails
in supporting the
An engineer must
ensure that a
geotechnical structure
must not collapse
under exposed
determine stress and
strain in soil due to

## SOIL RESPONSE TO STRESS

In mechanics, material response can be demonstrate
using stress-strain curve.
a) Elastic
recovers its original
configuration during
b) Plastic
permanent deformation
(irrecoverable)
c) Yield point
beyond this point, the
material start to behave
plastically.

## SOIL RESPONSE TO STRESS

What is soil behaviour?
Soil is very complex material. In general, soil is behaving
as an elasto-plastic material.
Elasto-plastic material undergoes both elastic and
At small strains, soil behave like
an elastic material and thereafter
like an elastoplastic material

## SOIL RESPONSE TO STRESS

WHY it is IMPORTANT????????

Calculate settlement
Proposed suitable foundation system
Remedial work to strengthen up the soil
Suggest for other construction site

## STRESSES IN SOIL FROM

an electric power pole line.
Long brick wall

Water tannk

## STRESSES IN SOIL FROM

Side of an embankment
Structural foundation

## STRESSES IN SOIL FROM

What factors affecting the stress distribution in
soil?
1 - Size and shape of foundation.
3 - Contact pressure (surcharge load)
4 - Modulus of elasticity Type of soil.
5 - Rigid boundary stress increased is considered if the
depth is less than 4B.

STRESSES CHANGES IN
Why need to learn?
To know how surface stresses are distributed in the soil and resulting
deformation.

## Soil is elastic plastic material, so how to calculate stress ?

To do stress analysis on soil, we must assumed that
soil is elastic and modulus of elasticity is constant.
Soil mass is homogeneous, isotropic.
Soil is semi-infinite (elastic half space)
By using this assumptions, we can apply Boussinesqs

Equation.

CHANGE IN VERTICAL

= 2

## Where Ip is the Influence Factor

Depth,

3
1
2 1 +

5
2
2

x
Or alternatively, Ip can be
obtained from Table 1.1.

VERTICAL STRESSES
Table 1.1 Influence Factor for Point Load
x/z

x/z

x/z

## VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER

Figure shows the
distribution of pressure
Craig, 2001).

P1=1200
kN

P2=600
kN

x1=2m

x2=6m

z=2m

x/z

Ip

z (kN/m2)

P1

0.0844

1200

25.32

P2

0.0015

600

0.225

25.55 kN/m2

P (kN/m)
(kN/m)

2
1
1+

1
2
2

## Alternatively, IL can be obtained

from Table 1.2.

VERTICAL STRESSES
Table 1.2 Influence Factor, IL for Line Load

x/z

x/z

x/z

## VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER

TWO (2) parallel line loads of 100 kN/m and 50 kN/m respectively and 2 m apart, act
vertically on a horizontal soil surface. Calculate the vertical stress increase at depth of 2
m directly at the middle points between them.

Q2=50 kN/m

Q1=100 kN/m

x1=1m

x2=1m

z=2m

Solution

x/z

IL

z (kN/m2)

Q1

0.5

0.2733

100

13.655

Q2

0.5

0.2733

50

6.83

## Vertical stress increased is

20.485

VERTICAL STRESSES
=

P (kN/m2)

= 1

1
1+

3
2
2

## Alternatively, Ic can be obtained

from Table 1.3.

VERTICAL STRESSES
Table 1.3 Influence Factor, Ic for Circular Load
x/a

## VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER

A circular area with radius 1.6 m, induced a soil pressure at the surface of 100
kPa. Calculate the pressure at a depth of 3.2 m directly under the center of
=
the circular area.

Solution
Top value

Bottom value

z/a

x/a

3.2

0.106

3
2z

Ic (A+B)1
= 1
2
1 + 2(kN/m )
0.179
0.285
28.5

P
(kN/m2)

2b

+ sin + 2

from Table 1.4.

## VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER

Table 1.4 Influence Factor, Is for Uniform Strip Load
x/b
0.10
z/b
0.00 1.000
0.20 0.997
0.40 0.977
0.60 0.937
0.80 0.881
1.00 0.818
1.20
0.755
1.40 0.696
1.60 0.642
1.80 0.593
2.00 0.550
2.50 0.462
3.00 0.396
3.50 0.345
4.00 0.306
5.00 0.248
6.00 0.208
8.00 0.158
10.00 0.126
15.00 0.085
20.00 0.054
50.00 0.025
100.00 0.013

0.20
1.000
0.996
0.973
0.928
0.869
0.805
0.743
0.685
0.633
0.585
0.543
0.456
0.393
0.343
0.304
0.247
0.208
0.157
0.126
0.085
0.064

0.40
1.000
0.992
0.955
0.896
0.829
0.766
0.707
0.653
0.605
0.563
0.524
0.445
0.385
0.338
0.301
0.245
0.207
0.157
0.126
0.085
0.064

0.60
1.000
0.979
0.906
0.825
0.755
0.696
0.646
0.602
0.562
0.526
0.494
0.426
0.372
0.329
0.294
0.242
0.205
0.156
0.126
0.084
0.063

0.80
1.000
0.979
0.773
0.691
0.638
0.598
0.564
0.534
0.515
0.497
0.455
0.400
0.355
0.317
0.285
0.237
0.202
0.155
0.125
0.084
0.063

1.00
0.500
0.500
0.498
0.495
0.489
0.480
0.466
0.455
0.440
0.425
0.409
0.370
0.334
0.302
0.275
0.231
0.198
0.153
0.124
0.084
0.063

1.25
0.000
0.059
0.178
0.258
0.305
0.332
0.347
0.354
0.356
0.353
0.348
0.328
0.305
0.281
0.259
0.222
0.192
0.150
0.123
0.083
0.063

1.50
0.000
0.011
0.059
0.120
0.173
0.214
0.243
0.263
0.276
0.284
0.288
0.285
0.274
0.258
0.242
0.212
0.186
0.147
0.121
0.083
0.063

2.00
0.000
0.002
0.011
0.030
0.056
0.084
0.111
0.135
0.155
0.172
0.185
0.205
0.211
0.210
0.205
0.188
0.171
0.140
0.117
0.087
0.062

3.00
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.004
0.010
0.017
0.026
0.037
0.048
0.060
0.071
0.095
0.114
0.127
0.134
0.139
0.136
0.122
0.107
0.078
0.061

5.00
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.002
0.004
0.005
0.008
0.010
0.013
0.022
0.032
0.042
0.051
0.065
0.075
0.083
0.082
0.069
0.056

10.00
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.002
0.003
0.004
0.006
0.010
0.015
0.025
0.032
0.041
0.041

## VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER

(kN/m2)

=
Where IT is the Influence Factor

1
sin 2

2
=

from Table 1.5.

## VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER

Table 1.5 Influence Factor, Is for Triangle Load
z/c
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80

x/c
-2.00
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.003

-1.50
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.003
0.006

-1.00
0.000
0.000
0.003
0.008
0.016

-0.50
0.000
0.002
0.013
0.031
0.049

0.00
0.000
0.061
0.110
0.140
0.155

0.20
0.200
0.209
0.227
0.023
0.225

0.40
0.400
0.395
0.372
0.334
0.294

0.60
0.600
0.577
0.497
0.409
0.339

0.80
0.800
0.697
0.527
0.414
0.337

1.00
0.500
0.437
0.379
0.328
0.285

1.25
0.000
0.050
0.136
0.177
0.187

1.50
0.000
0.009
0.042
0.080
0.106

2.00
0.000
0.001
0.007
0.018
0.032

1.00
1.20
1.40
1.60
1.80

0.005
0.008
0.011
0.015
0.018

0.011
0.016
0.021
0.026
0.031

0.025
0.034
0.041
0.048
0.053

0.064
0.075
0.083
0.087
0.089

0.159
0.157
0.151
0.143
0.135

0.211
0.195
0.179
0.165
0.152

0.258
0.227
0.202
0.182
0.164

0.286
0.245
0.215
0.190
0.171

0.283
0.243
0.213
0.189
0.170

0.250
0.221
0.197
0.178
0.161

0.184
0.175
0.165
0.154
0.143

0.121
0.126
0.127
0.124
0.120

0.046
0.057
0.066
0.072
0.076

2.00
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00

0.021
0.028
0.033
0.037
0.038

0.035
0.042
0.046
0.048
0.048

0.057
0.062
0.062
0.060
0.058

0.089
0.086
0.080
0.073
0.067

0.127
0.110
0.095
0.084
0.075

0.140
0.117
0.100
0.087
0.077

0.150
0.122
0.103
0.089
0.078

0.155
0.125
0.105
0.090
0.079

0.015
0.124
0.104
0.090
0.079

0.148
0.121
0.102
0.089
0.076

0.134
0.113
0.095
0.085
0.076

0.115
0.103
0.091
0.081
0.073

0.078
0.078
0.074
0.069
0.064

5.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
15.00

0.039
0.037
0.032
0.028
0.020

0.045
0.041
0.035
0.029
0.020

0.051
0.046
0.037
0.030
0.021

0.057
0.049
0.038
0.031
0.021

0.061
0.052
0.039
0.032
0.021

0.062
0.052
0.039
0.032
0.021

0.063
0.530
0.040
0.032
0.021

0.063
0.053
0.040
0.032
0.021

0.063
0.053
0.040
0.032
0.021

0.062
0.052
0.039
0.032
0.021

0.062
0.052
0.039
0.032
0.021

0.060
0.051
0.039
0.031
0.021

0.055
0.048
0.038
0.031
0.021

20.00
50.00

0.015
0.006

0.016
0.006

0.016
0.006

0.016
0.006

0.016
0.006

0.016
0.006

0.016
0.006

0.016
0.006

0.016
0.006

0.016
0.006

0.016
0.006

0.016
0.006

0.016
0.006

## VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER TRIANGLE

A 6 m high embankment with unit weight of 20 kN/m3 is as shown below. Determine the
increase in vertical stress at depth of 3.2 m at points A upon completion of the
embankment.

8m

6m

c

z/c

x/c

IT

z (kN/m2)

3.2

14

0.4

1.75

0.0245
?

120(0.0245)
=2.94

By referring to table 1.5, no value 1.75 at row x/c. So, need to interpolate I T.
Interpolation technique:

1.50
Refer row
z/c=0.4

0.042

1.75

IT

2.00

0.007

## First, write down the equation

2.00 1.50
2.00 1.75
=
0.007 0.042
0.007
Then rearrange,
(2-1.5)(0.007-IT) = (2-1.75)(0.007-0.042)
3.5x10-3 0.5IT = -8.75x10-3
IT = 0.0245

x/c
z/c

-2.00

-1.50

-1.00

....

1.25

1.50

0.20

0.000

0.000

0.000

....

0.050

0.009

0.40

0.000

0.001

0.003

....

0.136

0.042

0.60

0.001

0.003

0.008

....

0.177

0.080

1.50
Transfer the value
into this diagram

0.042

1.75

2.00

0.001

0.007

0.018

1.75

IT

2.00

0.007

b

z/b

x/b

IS

z (kN/m2)

3.2

0.53

0.5

0.885

120(0.885)=106.2

By referring to table 1.4, no value 0.5 at row x/b and no value of 0.53 at row
z/b. So, need to interpolate IS three 5(3) times.
Interpolation 1:
(refer to z/b=0.4 and x/b between 0.4 &0.6)

0.4
Refer row
z/b=0.6

0.955

0.5

0.6

0.906

## First, write down the equation

0.6 0.4
0.6 0.5
=
0.906 0.955 0.906
Then rearrange,
(0.6-0.4)(0.906-a) = (0.6-0.5)(0.906-0.955)
0.1812 0.2a = -4.9x10-3
a = 0.9305

Interpolati
on 3

x/b

Interpol
ation 1

z/b
0.00

0.10

0.20

0.40

1.000

1.000

0.20

0.997

0.40

0.977

0.53

Interpol
ation 2

0.60

0.80

1.000

1.000

1.000

0.996

0.992

0.979

0.979

0.973

0.955

0.906

0.773

0.5

0.60

0.937

0.928

0.896

0.80

0.881

0.869

0.829

0.825

0.691

0.755

0.638

Interpolation 2:
(refer to z/b=0.6 and x/b between 0.4 &0.6)
0.4
Refer row
z/b=0.6

0.896

0.5

0.6

0.825

## First, write down the equation

0.6 0.4
0.6 0.5
=
0.825 0.896 0.825
Then rearrange,
(0.6-0.4)(0.825-b) = (0.6-0.5)(0.825-.896)
0.165 0.2b = -7.1x10-3
b = 0.8605

Interpolation 3:
(refer to z/b between 0.4&0.6 and and x/b = 0.5)
0.4

Refer row
z/b=0.6

0.9305

0.53

IS

0.6

0.8605

## First, write down the equation

0.6 0.4
0.6 0.53
=
0.8605 0.9305 0.8605

Then rearrange,
(0.6-0.4)(0.8605-IS) = (0.6-0.53)(0.86050.9305)
0.1721 0.2IS = -4.9x10-3
I = 0.885

## Total vertical stress induced in the soil mass due to

= Triangular + Strip
= 2.94 + 106.2
= 109.14 kN/m2

## Where IR is the Influence Factor

2 2 + 2 + 1 2 + 2 + 2
1 2 + 2 + 2 2 + 1 2 + 2 + 1
=
4
2 2 + 2 + 1
1
+ tan
2 + 2 2 2 + 1
Where m=Longer span, L/z
n=Shorter span, B/z
(L or B can be interchangeable)
Alternatively, IR can be obtained from Table
1.6 or by Using Fadums Chart.

## VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER

Table 1.6 Influence Factor, IR for Rectangular Load
L/z

B/z

0.7

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.4

2.0

3.0

5.0

0.1

0.0047 0.0092 0.0132 0.0168 0.0198 0.0222 0.0242 0.0258 0.0270 0.0279 0.0301 0.0311 0.0315 0.0316 0.0316

0.2

0.0092 0.0179 0.0259 0.0328 0.0387 0.0435 0.0474 0.0504 0.0528 0.0547 0.0589 0.0610 0.0620 0.0620 0.0620

0.3

0.0132 0.0259 0.0374 0.0474 0.0560 0.0630 0.0686 0.0731 0.0766 0.0794 0.0856 0.0887 0.0898 0.0901 0.0902

0.4

0.0168 0.0328 0.0474 0.0602 0.0711 0.0801 0.0873 0.0931 0.0977 0.1013 0.1094 0.1134

0.5

0.0198 0.0387 0.0560 0.0711 0.0840 0.0947 0.1034 0.1104 0.1158 0.1202 0.1300 0.1350 0.1368 0.1374 0.1375

0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

0.0222
0.0240
0.0258
0.0270

1.0

## 0.0279 0.0547 0.0794 0.1013 0.1202 0.1361

1.4

0.0301 0.0589 0.0856 0.1094 0.1300 0.1475 0.1620 0.1739 0.1836 0.1914 0.2102 0.2206 0.2250 0.2263 O.2266

2.0
3.0

0.0311 0.0610 0.0887 0.1134 0.1350 0.1533 0.1686 0.1812 0.1915 0.1999 0.2206 0.2325 0.2378 0.2395 0.2399
0.0315 0.0618 0.0898 0.1150 0.1368 0.1555 0.1711 0.1841 0.1947 0.2034 0.2250 O.2378 0.2420 0.2461 0.2465

5.0

0.1374

## 0.0316 0.0620 0.0902 0.1154

0.1375 0.1562 0.1720 0.1850 0.1958 0.2046 0.2266 0.2399 0.2465 0.2492 0.2500

0.0435
0.0474
0.0504
0.0528

0.0629
0.0686
0.0731
0.0766

0.0801
0.0873
0.0931
0.0977

0.0947
0.1034
0.1104
0.1158

0.1069
0.1168
0.1247
0.1311

0.1561

0.1168
0.1277
0.1365
0.1436

0.1247
0.1365
0.1461
0.1537

0.1310
0.1436
0.1537
0.1619

0.1361
0.1491
0.1598
0.1684

0.1475
0.1620
0.1739
0.1836

0.1150

0.1154

0.1154

## 0.1533 0.1555 0.1561 0.1562

0.1686 0.1711 0.1719 0.1720
0.1812 0.1841 0.1849 0.1850
0.1915 0.1947 0.1956 0.1958

## The influence values referred to this chart is

strictly for corner of a rectangular loaded
foundation only.
For points other than the corner, value of IR
may be obtained by superpositions of
rectangles

## VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER

SUPERPOSITIONS OF RECTANGLES

## (a) Ir = Ir directly from table 1.6 or Fadums Chart

(b) Ir = Ir AFIE + FBGI + GCHI +HDEI
(c) Ir = Ir AEFD + EBCF
(d) Ir = Ir GIAE GHBE GIDF +GHCF

## VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER

Find the vertical stress at z = 2.5 m for a rectangular
loading of q = 100kPa as shown below points R, S, T & U.

area

Point
R

## Where m=Longer span, L/z

n=Shorter span, B/z
(L or B can be interchangeable)

L/z
(m)

B/z
(n)

IR

(kN/m2)

1.5

2.5

0.8

0.6

0.128

25.6

2.5

1.2

0.4

0.108

(0.108)(100)
x 2 =21.6

1
1

2.5
2.5

1.6
0.4

0.4
0.4

0.112
0.06

(0.1120.06)(100)

1.5=B
2=L
3=L

1=B
4=L

T
1=B

Consider
half space

Consider
half space

4
1

x 2 = 10.4

Point

L/z
(m)

B/z
(n)

IR

(kN/m2)

2.5

1.6

1.2

0.205

20.5

2.5

1.2

0.4

0.108

10.8

2.5

1.6

0.4

0.112

11.2

2.5

0.4

0.4

0.06

U
(refer
dimension
from
question)

1
3

3
1

Box 2
3

Box 4

Box 1

Box 3

1
1

1
3

2
4

## The vertical stress increment at point U is :

= [box 1] [box 2]-[box 3]+[box4]
= 20.5 10.8 11.2 + 6
= 4.5 kN/m2

## VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER

IRREGULAR SHAPE AREA
The vertical stress are:

= nI
Where
n= number of influence units
I=Influence value
Value of n and I can be calculated from

## VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER

IRREGULAR SHAPE AREA - Example
Find the vertical stress at point U at a depth of 10 m with q= 100 kPa using
Newmarks Influence Chart.

## VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER

IRREGULAR SHAPE AREA - Example
Given z=10m

## 1. By using the depth scale at the

bottom right of the chart, scaled
out the foundation and draw with
point U at the center of the chart.,
i.e. length AB=32mm
depth = 10 m as given
so, the scaled is 1 m=3.2mm
if 4m= 12.8mm
if 6m= 19.2mm
if 10m =32mm
if 1m= 3.2mm
2. Calculate the numbers of segment
covered by the foundation.
For example 46.
3. Use the stress equation

= nI
= 100(46)(0.005)
z = 23 kN/m2

## SUMMARY OF THE TOPIC VERTICAL STRESS

a) Explain the total stress and effective stress analysis.
b) Solve total stress and effective stress problems due to
overburden pressure.
c) Analyze the empirical analysis for
-using Boussinesq theory,