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CHAPTER 1

VERTICAL STRESSES
DISTRIBUTION IN SOIL

LESSON OUTCOMES
At the end of this chapter, student should be able to:
a) Explain the meaning of total stress, effective stress and
overburden pressure.
b) Describe the concept of soil response to stress: elastic, plastic and
elasto-plastic.
c) Conduct empirical analysis and evaluate different stresses in soil
due to point load, line load, strip load, triangular strip load, uniformly
loaded circular area & uniformly loaded rectangular area using
Boussinesq Theory, Fadums and Newmark Chart.
nhhanis@gmail.com

The Kissing Silos


What?
Why?
How?

REVISION : STRESS CONCEPT


In ECG303, you have learned about stresses in soil.
Stress is defined as the intensity of loading per unit area.

REMEMBER :
STRESS
CONCEPTWILL
BE USED
THROUGHOUT
THIS COURSE

You also should be able to differentiate in between total stress and


effective stress.
Total stress,

Effective stress,

The stress carried by the soil particles


and pore water, u in the soil void.

The stress carried by soil particles


alone.

=+u

=-u

Short term analysis before pore water


dissipates.

Long term analysis.


Soil deformation, strength and stability
depend on effective stress because
water cannot resist shear stress.

Undrained condition.

Drained condition.

OVERBURDEN PRESSURE
Pressure or stress imposed on the soil by the weight of overlying
material, also known as lithostatic pressure.

Single layer

Multiple layer
Surcharge, q

Unit weight of
soil, (kN/m3)

Depth, z

The vertical stress imposed at point


x is =z
If there is surcharge on the surface,
the total vertical stress at point x
now is

=z+q

z1

z2

3
x

z3

The total vertical stress


imposed at point x is

=1z1 + 2z2 + 3z3

OVERBURDEN PRESSURE
Saturated soil
GWL

Saturated
unit weight,
sat (kN/m3)
x

Depth, z

If the ground water is at the


ground level, then total vertical
stress is =satz
And, the pore water pressure at
point x is u=wz
Therefore, the effective vertical stress

= -u
= satz wz
or = z
where =(sat w)
is

OVERBURDEN PRESSURE
Saturated soil
If the ground water is located deeper in
the soil layer, then vertical stress is =
1

GWL

z1

1z1 + satz2
And, the pore water pressure at point x is

sat

z2
x

u=wz2
Therefore, the effective vertical stress is at

point x is = 1z1 + satz2 wz2


or
= 1z1 + z2
where

=(sat w)

SOIL RESPONSE TO STRESS


Foundation soil fails
in supporting the
load.
An engineer must
ensure that a
geotechnical structure
must not collapse
under exposed
loading have to
determine stress and
strain in soil due to
external load.

SOIL RESPONSE TO STRESS


In mechanics, material response can be demonstrate
using stress-strain curve.
a) Elastic
recovers its original
configuration during
unloading.
b) Plastic
permanent deformation
(irrecoverable)
c) Yield point
beyond this point, the
material start to behave
plastically.

SOIL RESPONSE TO STRESS


What is soil behaviour?
Soil is very complex material. In general, soil is behaving
as an elasto-plastic material.
Elasto-plastic material undergoes both elastic and
plastic deformation during loading.
At small strains, soil behave like
an elastic material and thereafter
like an elastoplastic material

SOIL RESPONSE TO STRESS


WHY it is IMPORTANT????????

Calculate settlement
Proposed suitable foundation system
Remedial work to strengthen up the soil
Suggest for other construction site

STRESSES IN SOIL FROM


SURFACE LOAD.
Point load
Vertical load transferred from
an electric power pole line.
Line Load
Long brick wall

Circular load
Water tannk

STRESSES IN SOIL FROM


SURFACE LOAD.
Strip load
Long road embankment

Triangular load
Side of an embankment
Rectangular load
Structural foundation

STRESSES IN SOIL FROM


SURFACE LOAD.
What factors affecting the stress distribution in
soil?
1 - Size and shape of foundation.
2 Type of Load distribution.
3 - Contact pressure (surcharge load)
4 - Modulus of elasticity Type of soil.
5 - Rigid boundary stress increased is considered if the
depth is less than 4B.

STRESSES CHANGES IN
SOIL FROM SURFACE LOAD.
Why need to learn?
To know how surface stresses are distributed in the soil and resulting
deformation.

Soil is elastic plastic material, so how to calculate stress ?


To do stress analysis on soil, we must assumed that
soil is elastic and modulus of elasticity is constant.
Soil mass is homogeneous, isotropic.
Soil is semi-infinite (elastic half space)
By using this assumptions, we can apply Boussinesqs

Equation.

CHANGE IN VERTICAL
STRESSES UNDER POINT LOAD

= 2

Point load, P (kN)

Where Ip is the Influence Factor

Depth,

3
1
2 1 +

5
2
2

x
Or alternatively, Ip can be
obtained from Table 1.1.

VERTICAL STRESSES
UNDER POINT LOAD
Table 1.1 Influence Factor for Point Load
x/z

x/z

x/z

VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER


POINT LOAD
Figure shows the
distribution of pressure
form point load (After
Craig, 2001).

VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER


POINT LOAD - Example
P1=1200
kN

P2=600
kN

x1=2m

x2=6m

z=2m

Solution (You can tabulated answer for simplicity)


Load

x/z

Ip

z (kN/m2)

P1

0.0844

1200

25.32

P2

0.0015

600

0.225

Vertical stress increased at Point A is

25.55 kN/m2

CHANGE IN VERTICAL STRESSES


UNDER LINE LOAD

P (kN/m)
(kN/m)

Where IL is the Influence Factor

2
1
1+

1
2
2

Alternatively, IL can be obtained


from Table 1.2.

VERTICAL STRESSES
UNDER LINE LOAD
Table 1.2 Influence Factor, IL for Line Load

x/z

x/z

x/z

VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER


LINE LOAD -Example
TWO (2) parallel line loads of 100 kN/m and 50 kN/m respectively and 2 m apart, act
vertically on a horizontal soil surface. Calculate the vertical stress increase at depth of 2
m directly at the middle points between them.

Sketch out the situation

Q2=50 kN/m

Q1=100 kN/m

x1=1m

x2=1m

z=2m

Solution
Load

x/z

IL

z (kN/m2)

Q1

0.5

0.2733

100

13.655

Q2

0.5

0.2733

50

6.83

Vertical stress increased is

20.485

VERTICAL STRESSES
UNDER CIRCULAR LOAD
=

P (kN/m2)
radius

Where Ic is the Influence Factor

= 1

1
1+

3
2
2

Alternatively, Ic can be obtained


from Table 1.3.

VERTICAL STRESSES
UNDER CIRCULAR LOAD
Table 1.3 Influence Factor, Ic for Circular Load
x/a

VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER


CIRCULAR LOAD - Example
A circular area with radius 1.6 m, induced a soil pressure at the surface of 100
kPa. Calculate the pressure at a depth of 3.2 m directly under the center of
=
the circular area.

Solution
Top value

Radius = a = 1.6m

Bottom value

z/a

x/a

3.2

0.106

3
2z

Ic (A+B)1
= 1
2
1 + 2(kN/m )
0.179
0.285
28.5

VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER


UNIFORM STRIP LOAD
P
(kN/m2)

2b

Where IS is the Influence Factor

+ sin + 2

Alternatively, Ip can be obtained


from Table 1.4.

VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER


UNIFORM STRIP LOAD
Table 1.4 Influence Factor, Is for Uniform Strip Load
x/b
0.10
z/b
0.00 1.000
0.20 0.997
0.40 0.977
0.60 0.937
0.80 0.881
1.00 0.818
1.20
0.755
1.40 0.696
1.60 0.642
1.80 0.593
2.00 0.550
2.50 0.462
3.00 0.396
3.50 0.345
4.00 0.306
5.00 0.248
6.00 0.208
8.00 0.158
10.00 0.126
15.00 0.085
20.00 0.054
50.00 0.025
100.00 0.013

0.20
1.000
0.996
0.973
0.928
0.869
0.805
0.743
0.685
0.633
0.585
0.543
0.456
0.393
0.343
0.304
0.247
0.208
0.157
0.126
0.085
0.064

0.40
1.000
0.992
0.955
0.896
0.829
0.766
0.707
0.653
0.605
0.563
0.524
0.445
0.385
0.338
0.301
0.245
0.207
0.157
0.126
0.085
0.064

0.60
1.000
0.979
0.906
0.825
0.755
0.696
0.646
0.602
0.562
0.526
0.494
0.426
0.372
0.329
0.294
0.242
0.205
0.156
0.126
0.084
0.063

0.80
1.000
0.979
0.773
0.691
0.638
0.598
0.564
0.534
0.515
0.497
0.455
0.400
0.355
0.317
0.285
0.237
0.202
0.155
0.125
0.084
0.063

1.00
0.500
0.500
0.498
0.495
0.489
0.480
0.466
0.455
0.440
0.425
0.409
0.370
0.334
0.302
0.275
0.231
0.198
0.153
0.124
0.084
0.063

1.25
0.000
0.059
0.178
0.258
0.305
0.332
0.347
0.354
0.356
0.353
0.348
0.328
0.305
0.281
0.259
0.222
0.192
0.150
0.123
0.083
0.063

1.50
0.000
0.011
0.059
0.120
0.173
0.214
0.243
0.263
0.276
0.284
0.288
0.285
0.274
0.258
0.242
0.212
0.186
0.147
0.121
0.083
0.063

2.00
0.000
0.002
0.011
0.030
0.056
0.084
0.111
0.135
0.155
0.172
0.185
0.205
0.211
0.210
0.205
0.188
0.171
0.140
0.117
0.087
0.062

3.00
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.004
0.010
0.017
0.026
0.037
0.048
0.060
0.071
0.095
0.114
0.127
0.134
0.139
0.136
0.122
0.107
0.078
0.061

5.00
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.002
0.004
0.005
0.008
0.010
0.013
0.022
0.032
0.042
0.051
0.065
0.075
0.083
0.082
0.069
0.056

10.00
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.002
0.003
0.004
0.006
0.010
0.015
0.025
0.032
0.041
0.041

VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER


TRIANGLE LOAD
(kN/m2)

=
Where IT is the Influence Factor

1
sin 2

2
=

Alternatively, Ip can be obtained


from Table 1.5.

VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER


TRIANGLE LOAD
Table 1.5 Influence Factor, Is for Triangle Load
z/c
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80

x/c
-2.00
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.003

-1.50
0.000
0.000
0.001
0.003
0.006

-1.00
0.000
0.000
0.003
0.008
0.016

-0.50
0.000
0.002
0.013
0.031
0.049

0.00
0.000
0.061
0.110
0.140
0.155

0.20
0.200
0.209
0.227
0.023
0.225

0.40
0.400
0.395
0.372
0.334
0.294

0.60
0.600
0.577
0.497
0.409
0.339

0.80
0.800
0.697
0.527
0.414
0.337

1.00
0.500
0.437
0.379
0.328
0.285

1.25
0.000
0.050
0.136
0.177
0.187

1.50
0.000
0.009
0.042
0.080
0.106

2.00
0.000
0.001
0.007
0.018
0.032

1.00
1.20
1.40
1.60
1.80

0.005
0.008
0.011
0.015
0.018

0.011
0.016
0.021
0.026
0.031

0.025
0.034
0.041
0.048
0.053

0.064
0.075
0.083
0.087
0.089

0.159
0.157
0.151
0.143
0.135

0.211
0.195
0.179
0.165
0.152

0.258
0.227
0.202
0.182
0.164

0.286
0.245
0.215
0.190
0.171

0.283
0.243
0.213
0.189
0.170

0.250
0.221
0.197
0.178
0.161

0.184
0.175
0.165
0.154
0.143

0.121
0.126
0.127
0.124
0.120

0.046
0.057
0.066
0.072
0.076

2.00
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00

0.021
0.028
0.033
0.037
0.038

0.035
0.042
0.046
0.048
0.048

0.057
0.062
0.062
0.060
0.058

0.089
0.086
0.080
0.073
0.067

0.127
0.110
0.095
0.084
0.075

0.140
0.117
0.100
0.087
0.077

0.150
0.122
0.103
0.089
0.078

0.155
0.125
0.105
0.090
0.079

0.015
0.124
0.104
0.090
0.079

0.148
0.121
0.102
0.089
0.076

0.134
0.113
0.095
0.085
0.076

0.115
0.103
0.091
0.081
0.073

0.078
0.078
0.074
0.069
0.064

5.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
15.00

0.039
0.037
0.032
0.028
0.020

0.045
0.041
0.035
0.029
0.020

0.051
0.046
0.037
0.030
0.021

0.057
0.049
0.038
0.031
0.021

0.061
0.052
0.039
0.032
0.021

0.062
0.052
0.039
0.032
0.021

0.063
0.530
0.040
0.032
0.021

0.063
0.053
0.040
0.032
0.021

0.063
0.053
0.040
0.032
0.021

0.062
0.052
0.039
0.032
0.021

0.062
0.052
0.039
0.032
0.021

0.060
0.051
0.039
0.031
0.021

0.055
0.048
0.038
0.031
0.021

20.00
50.00

0.015
0.006

0.016
0.006

0.016
0.006

0.016
0.006

0.016
0.006

0.016
0.006

0.016
0.006

0.016
0.006

0.016
0.006

0.016
0.006

0.016
0.006

0.016
0.006

0.016
0.006

VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER TRIANGLE


& STRIP LOAD - Example
A 6 m high embankment with unit weight of 20 kN/m3 is as shown below. Determine the
increase in vertical stress at depth of 3.2 m at points A upon completion of the
embankment.

8m

6m

Triangular load
Embankment loading, = = 20 6 = 120/2
c

z/c

x/c

IT

z (kN/m2)

3.2

14

0.4

1.75

0.0245
?

120(0.0245)
=2.94

By referring to table 1.5, no value 1.75 at row x/c. So, need to interpolate I T.
Interpolation technique:

1.50
Refer row
z/c=0.4

0.042

1.75

IT

2.00

0.007

First, write down the equation


2.00 1.50
2.00 1.75
=
0.007 0.042
0.007
Then rearrange,
(2-1.5)(0.007-IT) = (2-1.75)(0.007-0.042)
3.5x10-3 0.5IT = -8.75x10-3
IT = 0.0245

Triangle load
x/c
z/c

-2.00

-1.50

-1.00

....

1.25

1.50

0.20

0.000

0.000

0.000

....

0.050

0.009

0.40

0.000

0.001

0.003

....

0.136

0.042

0.60

0.001

0.003

0.008

....

0.177

0.080

1.50
Transfer the value
into this diagram

0.042

1.75

2.00

0.001

0.007

0.018

1.75

IT

2.00

0.007

Strip load
Embankment loading, = = 20 6 = 120/2
b

z/b

x/b

IS

z (kN/m2)

3.2

0.53

0.5

0.885

120(0.885)=106.2

By referring to table 1.4, no value 0.5 at row x/b and no value of 0.53 at row
z/b. So, need to interpolate IS three 5(3) times.
Interpolation 1:
(refer to z/b=0.4 and x/b between 0.4 &0.6)

0.4
Refer row
z/b=0.6

0.955

0.5

0.6

0.906

First, write down the equation


0.6 0.4
0.6 0.5
=
0.906 0.955 0.906
Then rearrange,
(0.6-0.4)(0.906-a) = (0.6-0.5)(0.906-0.955)
0.1812 0.2a = -4.9x10-3
a = 0.9305

Strip load
Interpolati
on 3

x/b

Interpol
ation 1

z/b
0.00

0.10

0.20

0.40

1.000

1.000

0.20

0.997

0.40

0.977

0.53

Interpol
ation 2

0.60

0.80

1.000

1.000

1.000

0.996

0.992

0.979

0.979

0.973

0.955

0.906

0.773

0.5

0.60

0.937

0.928

0.896

0.80

0.881

0.869

0.829

0.825

0.691

0.755

0.638

Interpolation 2:
(refer to z/b=0.6 and x/b between 0.4 &0.6)
0.4
Refer row
z/b=0.6

0.896

0.5

0.6

0.825

First, write down the equation


0.6 0.4
0.6 0.5
=
0.825 0.896 0.825
Then rearrange,
(0.6-0.4)(0.825-b) = (0.6-0.5)(0.825-.896)
0.165 0.2b = -7.1x10-3
b = 0.8605

Interpolation 3:
(refer to z/b between 0.4&0.6 and and x/b = 0.5)
0.4

Refer row
z/b=0.6

0.9305

0.53

IS

0.6

0.8605

First, write down the equation


0.6 0.4
0.6 0.53
=
0.8605 0.9305 0.8605

Then rearrange,
(0.6-0.4)(0.8605-IS) = (0.6-0.53)(0.86050.9305)
0.1721 0.2IS = -4.9x10-3
I = 0.885

Total vertical stress induced in the soil mass due to


surface loading is :

= Triangular + Strip
= 2.94 + 106.2
= 109.14 kN/m2

VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER


RECTANGULAR LOAD

Where IR is the Influence Factor


2 2 + 2 + 1 2 + 2 + 2
1 2 + 2 + 2 2 + 1 2 + 2 + 1
=
4
2 2 + 2 + 1
1
+ tan
2 + 2 2 2 + 1
Where m=Longer span, L/z
n=Shorter span, B/z
(L or B can be interchangeable)
Alternatively, IR can be obtained from Table
1.6 or by Using Fadums Chart.

VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER


RECTANGULAR LOAD
Table 1.6 Influence Factor, IR for Rectangular Load
L/z

B/z

0.7

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.4

2.0

3.0

5.0

0.1

0.0047 0.0092 0.0132 0.0168 0.0198 0.0222 0.0242 0.0258 0.0270 0.0279 0.0301 0.0311 0.0315 0.0316 0.0316

0.2

0.0092 0.0179 0.0259 0.0328 0.0387 0.0435 0.0474 0.0504 0.0528 0.0547 0.0589 0.0610 0.0620 0.0620 0.0620

0.3

0.0132 0.0259 0.0374 0.0474 0.0560 0.0630 0.0686 0.0731 0.0766 0.0794 0.0856 0.0887 0.0898 0.0901 0.0902

0.4

0.0168 0.0328 0.0474 0.0602 0.0711 0.0801 0.0873 0.0931 0.0977 0.1013 0.1094 0.1134

0.5

0.0198 0.0387 0.0560 0.0711 0.0840 0.0947 0.1034 0.1104 0.1158 0.1202 0.1300 0.1350 0.1368 0.1374 0.1375

0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9

0.0222
0.0240
0.0258
0.0270

1.0

0.0279 0.0547 0.0794 0.1013 0.1202 0.1361

1.4

0.0301 0.0589 0.0856 0.1094 0.1300 0.1475 0.1620 0.1739 0.1836 0.1914 0.2102 0.2206 0.2250 0.2263 O.2266

2.0
3.0

0.0311 0.0610 0.0887 0.1134 0.1350 0.1533 0.1686 0.1812 0.1915 0.1999 0.2206 0.2325 0.2378 0.2395 0.2399
0.0315 0.0618 0.0898 0.1150 0.1368 0.1555 0.1711 0.1841 0.1947 0.2034 0.2250 O.2378 0.2420 0.2461 0.2465

5.0

0.0316 0.0620 0.0901 0.1154

0.1374

0.0316 0.0620 0.0902 0.1154

0.1375 0.1562 0.1720 0.1850 0.1958 0.2046 0.2266 0.2399 0.2465 0.2492 0.2500

0.0435
0.0474
0.0504
0.0528

0.0629
0.0686
0.0731
0.0766

0.0801
0.0873
0.0931
0.0977

0.0947
0.1034
0.1104
0.1158

0.1069
0.1168
0.1247
0.1311

0.1561

0.1168
0.1277
0.1365
0.1436

0.1247
0.1365
0.1461
0.1537

0.1310
0.1436
0.1537
0.1619

0.1361
0.1491
0.1598
0.1684

0.1491 0.1598 0.1684 0.1752

0.1475
0.1620
0.1739
0.1836

0.1150

0.1154

0.1154

0.1533 0.1555 0.1561 0.1562


0.1686 0.1711 0.1719 0.1720
0.1812 0.1841 0.1849 0.1850
0.1915 0.1947 0.1956 0.1958

0.1914 0.1999 0.2034 0.2044 0.2046

0.1719 0.1849 0.1956 0.2044 0.2263 0.2395 0.2461 0.2486 0.2491

VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER


RECTANGULAR LOAD
FADUMS CHART

The influence values referred to this chart is


strictly for corner of a rectangular loaded
foundation only.
For points other than the corner, value of IR
may be obtained by superpositions of
rectangles

VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER


RECTANGULAR LOAD

SUPERPOSITIONS OF RECTANGLES

(a) Ir = Ir directly from table 1.6 or Fadums Chart


(b) Ir = Ir AFIE + FBGI + GCHI +HDEI
(c) Ir = Ir AEFD + EBCF
(d) Ir = Ir GIAE GHBE GIDF +GHCF

VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER


RECTANGULAR LOAD - Example
Find the vertical stress at z = 2.5 m for a rectangular
loading of q = 100kPa as shown below points R, S, T & U.
(Solid line denotes rectangular loading area)

Loaded
area

Unloaded area

VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER


RECTANGULAR LOAD - Example
Point
R

Where m=Longer span, L/z


n=Shorter span, B/z
(L or B can be interchangeable)

L/z
(m)

B/z
(n)

IR

(kN/m2)

1.5

2.5

0.8

0.6

0.128

25.6

2.5

1.2

0.4

0.108

(0.108)(100)
x 2 =21.6

1
1

2.5
2.5

1.6
0.4

0.4
0.4

0.112
0.06

(0.1120.06)(100)

1.5=B
2=L
3=L

1=B
4=L

T
1=B

Consider
half space

Consider
half space

4
1

x 2 = 10.4

VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER


RECTANGULAR LOAD - Example
Point

L/z
(m)

B/z
(n)

IR

(kN/m2)

2.5

1.6

1.2

0.205

20.5

2.5

1.2

0.4

0.108

10.8

2.5

1.6

0.4

0.112

11.2

2.5

0.4

0.4

0.06

U
(refer
dimension
from
question)

1
3

3
1

Box 2
3

Box 4

Box 1

Box 3

1
1

VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER


RECTANGULAR LOAD - Example

1
3

2
4

The vertical stress increment at point U is :


= [box 1] [box 2]-[box 3]+[box4]
= 20.5 10.8 11.2 + 6
= 4.5 kN/m2

VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER


IRREGULAR SHAPE AREA
The vertical stress are:

= nI
Where
Q= load per unit area
n= number of influence units
I=Influence value
Value of n and I can be calculated from

Newmarks Influence Chart

VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER


IRREGULAR SHAPE AREA - Example
Find the vertical stress at point U at a depth of 10 m with q= 100 kPa using
Newmarks Influence Chart.

Newmarks Influence Chart

VERTICAL STRESSES UNDER


IRREGULAR SHAPE AREA - Example
Given z=10m

1. By using the depth scale at the


bottom right of the chart, scaled
out the foundation and draw with
point U at the center of the chart.,
i.e. length AB=32mm
depth = 10 m as given
so, the scaled is 1 m=3.2mm
if 4m= 12.8mm
if 6m= 19.2mm
if 10m =32mm
if 1m= 3.2mm
2. Calculate the numbers of segment
covered by the foundation.
For example 46.
3. Use the stress equation

= nI
= 100(46)(0.005)
z = 23 kN/m2

SUMMARY OF THE TOPIC VERTICAL STRESS


a) Explain the total stress and effective stress analysis.
b) Solve total stress and effective stress problems due to
overburden pressure.
c) Analyze the empirical analysis for
-point load,
-line load,
-strip load,
-circular load
-rectangular load by
-using Boussinesq theory,
-using Fadums Chart
-using Newmarks Chart.

- able to define x, a, b, c, L, B parameter


- know how to read table for influence factor

- able to do interpolation

HAPPY REVISING. DO WELL IN your


ASSESSMENTS!!!