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Chapter 10 Key Terms

By James Reid
1. Adware- is secretly installed on your computer and produces unwanted pop-
up ads based on your history of internet usage and also may collect private

2. Antivirus (AV) software- Utility programs that prevent infection or scan a

system to detect and remove viruses

3. Authentication- proves that an individual is who he says he is and is

accomplished by a variety of techniques like your fingerprint

4. Authorization- privileges and rights the individual has are assigned to the
identity of the individual

5. Boot sector virus- A virus that is made to change the boot sectors of the hard
drive on a computer

6. Browser hijacker- Changes your home page and other browser settings, set
unwanted bookmarks, redirect your browser to a porn site when you key in a
wrong URL, and produce pop-up ads
7. CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol)- Protocol used to
encrypt account names and passwords that are sent to a network controller
for validation

8. Data migration- moving data from one application to another application or

from one storage media to another and most often involves a change in the
way the data is formatted.

9. Dialer- software installed on your PC that disconnects your phone line from
your ISP and dials up an expensive pay-per-minute phone number without
your knowledge.

10.Encryption File System (EFS)- A way to use a key to encode a file or folder on
an NTFS volume to protect sensitive data.

11.Encryption virus- Virus that transforms itself into a non-replicating program in

order to avoid detection.

12.Encryption- technology for encrypting folders/files

13.File virus- hides in an executable program or in a word-processing document

that contains a macro.
14.Grayware- (PUP) potentially unwanted program

15.Infestation- Any unwanted program that is transmitted to a computer without

the user’s knowledge and that is designed to do varying degrees of damage
to data and software

16.Kerberos-A protocol used to encrypt account names and passwords that are
sent to a network controller for validation

17.Key fob-A device, such as a type of smart card, that can fit conveniently on a
key chain.

18.Keylogger- Type of spyware that tracks all your keystrokes, including

passwords, e-mail messages, documents, etc

19.Logic bomb- dormant code added to software and triggered at a

predetermined time or by a predetermined event.

20.Macro- a small program contained in a document that can be automatically

executed either when the document is first loaded or later by pressing a key
21.Macro virus- the most common viruses spread by e-mail which hides in
macros of attached document files.

22.Malicious software- also called Malware

23.Malware- any unwanted program that means you harm and is transmitted to
your computer without your knowledge

24.Multipartite virus- is a combination of a boot sector virus and a file virus and
can hide in either.

25.Passphrase- A type of password that contain a phrase where spaces are

allowed and is stronger that a one-word password.

26.Phishing- type of identity theft where the sender of an e-mail message scams
you into responding with personal data about yourself.

27.PKI (Public-key Infrastructure)- The standards used to encrypt, transport, and

validate digital certificates over the Internet

28.Polymorphic virus- a virus that when it replicates it changes its

29.Rootkit- Malware that loads itself before the OS boot is complete for the
purpose to mask itself from AV software and hijacks internal Windows
components for masking purposes.

30.Scam e-mail-E-mail used by scam artists intended used to lure a user into a

31.Script virus- A virus that hides in a script, which might execute when you click
a link on a Web page or in an HTML e-mail message

32.Smart card- any small device that contains authentication information that
can be keyed into a logon window by a user or can be read by a smart card
reader when the device is inserted in the reader.

33.Smart card reader- Device that reads authentication information off a smart
card when inserted.

34.Social engineering- The practice of tricking people into giving out personal
information or allowing unsafe programs into the network or computer

35.Spam- junk e-mail that you don't want, that you didn't ask for, and that gets
in your way.
36.Spyware- software that installs itself on your computer to spy on you, and
collects personal information about you that it transmits over the Internet to
Web-hosting sites that intend to use your personal data for harm.

37.Stealth virus- Virus that temporary removes itself from an infected file about
to be scanned and hides a copy of itself elsewhere on the drive

38.Trojan horse- Malicious software that does not need a host program to work;
rather, it substitutes itself for a legitimate program

39.Virus- is a program that replicates by attaching itself to other programs. Can

cause a range from minor damage to full hard drive

40.Virus hoax- (AKA e-mail hoax) is e-mail that does damage by tempting you to
forward it to everyone in your e-mail address book with the intent of clogging
up e-mail systems or to delete a critical Windows system file by convincing
you the file is malicious

41.Virus signature- The distinguishing characteristics of a virus

42.Worm- a program that copies itself throughout a network or the Internet
without a host program and creates problems by overloading the network as
it replicates.

43.Zero-fill utility- A utility provided by a hard drive manufacturer that fills every
sector on the drive with zeroes.