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.::'1. vOL.96 NO.2
SPRING l99r

***
,}IBLEY CONVINCED DAVIS THAT IT growing breach between the North and He had, for example, supported the ter-
was possible to raise an army in Texas South on issues of states' rights and the ritorial legislature's passage of the slave
and lead it on a victorious march through expansion of slavery. Under the com- code of 1859 in an effort to win favor from
New Mexico. His ambitions. however. promise
- actually a series of bills - Southern congressmen and thus
extended far beyond New Mexico. California became a free state, the New influence legislation favorable to New
Whether he confided the scope of his Mexico and Utah territories were admit- Mexico.
plans to Davis is uncertain. But once in ted to the Union without restriction on Howeveq, except for a handful of
the field, he let his men know he wanted slavery, and the long-standing Texas- prominent political figures, most New
to conquer mineral-rich Colorado and to New Mexico boundary dispute was Mexicans remained at least passively
extend the Confederate boundaries to resolved. loyal to the Union, and many served as
California's blockade -free ports. Until the Compromise of 1850 New volunteer troops, militia, and scouts for
AIl this could be accomolished Mexico's sentiments tended to lie more the regular army during the Civil War.
-
claimed Sibley
- with littlecost to the with the North than with the South.2 But Some of that loyalty might be traced to
cash-poor Confederate treasury. Sibley's in the next few years, a gradual shift in New Mexicds antipathy for neighboring
men would be able to live off the land as attitude took place. In 1856, the territory Texas, which was part of the Confeder-
they won the hearts and provisions of a acy. When Texas declared its independ-
sympathetic populace along the way. ence from Mexico in 1836, it claimed all of
Sibley's assumptions regarding the loyal- New Mexico to the Rio Grande. In addi
ties of the residents of New Mexico, tion, Texans thought New Mexicans had
Colorado, Utah, and California can be mistreated the men captured during the
dismissed as the wishful projections of disastrous Texas-Santa Fe Expedition of
an ambitious man. But, as a former U.S. 1841. An objective of that expedition
-
Army officer in New Mexico, he should dispatched by Mirabeau Lamar, presi-
have seen the flaws in his New Mexico dent of the new Republic of Texas
- was
strategy. to seize the trade caravans on the Santa
Fe Trail. New Mexico forces caotured the
*** remnant of the Texas expedition that
managed to reach New Mexicq and those
BpronE THE ouTBREAK oF THE who were not executed were sent in
Civil War, most New Mexicans were chains to Mexico City. Subsequent Texas
apathetic about the conflict that was reprisals only added fuel to the fire.
developing.l People were, for the most Nevertheless, when the Civil War
part, more concerned about the details of began, the southern portion of the New
daily life than national affairs, particu- Mexico Territory defected to the South.
Iarly those that were somewhat remote By the 1850s, the fertile Mesilla Valley
from New Mexico's interests. had become the principal agricultural
Howeve4 the slavery issue did affect and population center for the area. The
the course of affairs in New Mexico. The region, obtained from Mexico in 1853
region had made its first bid to become a through the Gadsden Purchase, had
state in 184$ following the end of the passed a law curtailing the rights of free been settled mostly by Texans. Isolated
Mexican War. At that time, New Mexico blacks. Three years later, the territorial from the territorial government in Santa
went on record opposing slavery. A fac- legislature passed the New Mexico slave Fe, these southern New Mexicans had
tion of prominent New Mexicans code, which provided punishment for tried unsuccessfully in the 1850s to
- act-
ing upon a suggestion made by Senator those who helped slaves escape. In addi- become a separate territory. In March
Thomas Hart Benton, the influential Mis- tion, the code also spelled out how slaves 186'1,, after learning Texas had seceded
souri politician who was an advocate of were to be treated and punished. By from the Union, residents organized a
the West * drew up a memorial to Con- 186O as a result of these laws, many convention and announced the forma-
gress requesting a territorial form of gov- observers believed New Mexico would tion of the Arizona Territory. The area
ernment and protection from the side with the Southern states. included all the land below the 34th
introduction of slavery. In addition, an In the winter of 1861., Congress degree of latitude in present New Mexico
unratified constitution drafted in 1850 debated the Crittenden Compromise, and Arizona and extended west to
banned slavery in New Mexico. Because which would have extended siavery to California. The residents organized a
of these actions, the Southern bloc in the Pacific. Under that compromise, New government and unsuccessfully peti-
Congress wouldn't support New Mex- Mexico would have been in the slavery tioned the Confederacy to admit it as a
ico's bid for statehood, effectively killing extension zone. Miguel A. Otero, New territory. Gradually, Federal authority in
the territory's efforts to be included in Mexico's delegate to Congress, indicated southern New Mexico waned.a
the Union. Instead, New Mexico was that this was acceptable to the territory.3
admitted to the United States as a terri- Otero, who was married to a Southern Unidentified slover, Borker lexos Hislory
tory under the Compromise of 1850 an woman, had aligned himself with the Cenler, Generul [ibrcriec, Universily of leror
agreement that attempted to stem the South while serving in Washington, D.C. cl Austin.

IO SPRINC I99I
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EL PALACIO TI
"WE Sptro Tnt ABs AcomtilG..."
lltAs R. BotEs wAs A illlttrEElt-YEAR.otD New Mexico Tbritory, Feb. 28, 1862
third rorporol in Conrpony D of fhe 4th Regi-
menl lexoe fflounted Yolunteerc when he Dear Mother and Father,
foughl in lhe Boftle of Volverde, lhe firrl
noior Civil Wor engogenent in the It is with pleasure that I embrace the present opportunity of z.vriting to you. I haoe
Southwest. sotne oery good news. . .We haae had a oery hard battle. It utas called the Battle of
Bolel's rompony, originolly rolled lhe Valaerde, zahich by being interpreted, is Green Valley. It is situated fiae miles abooe
Son Andres light Horee (ompony, wos roiced Ft. Craig on the Rio Grande. On Sunday the 16th, roe zuas to march up the Rio
in llilom County, Terur, by Chorles llluion Grande from 12 miles belozo Ft. Craig. We hail marched within three miles of the fofi
lesueur, who berome o roptoin ol fhe rom- when a large force of caoalry and infantry came to meet us. We only had afew men, I
pony. The unil, romposed of men fron tlilom suppose about 1,000. . .The Abs (Abolitionists) came toward us and we showed fight to
Counly os well os neighboring Williomron them and they backed off, we suppose to try to get us to follow them to the fort, but zue
(ounly, wos enrclled on Septernber 7, | 861,
zuas a little too bold for them. We did not return and started off and they charged
in ltlilon County. ll wcs nuslered into Con- (Lieutenant Colonel lohn R.) Baylor's men and fired on them but did no harm. The bogs
federole servire for the wor nine doys loler ot returned the compliment and killed one man and utounded one, We all zoent
Conp Sibley, neor tcn Anlonio, cr (onpcny back 1lz miles and camped and stayed. The next day and the nerct u)e crossed the iaer
D, 4th Reginrenf feroc tlounled Volunleers.
and camped on the other side. . .The next day zoe trazteled about 4 miles, and about
Cornpony D look porl in lhe bdlles of Yol-
sundown, zne spied the Abs acoming. . .We run and formed ourseloes on the hill front-
verde ond Glorieto ond the skirmish d Per-
ing them antl commenced firing on them with our artillery. We killed tu:o men anil (the
olto. 0f the e:ghty-nine nren on lhe ronpony
Federal troops) fought back to their whole. We then camped, and next morning
roll, lhree were rnedirrlly dischorged, lwo
zrte started on. . . About 8 o'clock they attacked us . . .The first regiment was in
ioined rhe Regimentol Artillery, ond one who adztance and zuas exposed to the
trunclerred in wos promoled fo regimenfcl rer. fire of the Yanks sometime before we got any help. Then
Col. (Thomas lefferson) Green came to our assistance. Our compafly lr,as on the right
geonl ncior prior lo the norrh lo llew Mex-
wing zaith 3 others. We was in a aery strong natural position with that noble man
ico. One lrooper wor lelt behind sirk ot furt
(Lieutenant Colonel William R.) Scuny in command. We lay there with our horses
Bliss ond loler died, leoving eighty-two sold-
exposed to the fire of the cannon. We held that position for t hour when we lr)as ordercd
ierr in lhe ronpony for the invorion. Du:ing
to the left rning to the relief of Maj. (Samuel A.) Lockridge. We then mounted our horses
lhe ronrpcign, one nrn died of direme, eight
and proceeded, and just as we got there rt)e Tnere ordered to take a position in a gully
were killed {three ot Volverde ond fiye ot
Oloriefo), eight were wounded (two ot Yol.
that gaae us great shelter from the fire of their cannon and small arms. Wewas
verde ond six ot Gloriefo|, ond eleven were
under a heaay fire for 4 hours, but you must recollect that zoe zaere doing some shooting
token prisoner, induding four of lhose too. Col. Green z.oas the commanding offieer; he was znhipped nt the time, but the men of
wounded ot Glorielo. Iwo nen died ol dis- the first regiment tolil him that they was not whipped and then feel faulted. His
eose ol lhe end of the conpoign. lfith lhe artillery (was) right in front of our company. He said he zoanted to be zohere there zaas
relurn ol lhe fwo men fron lhe Regimenfol men that would stand up to (them) anil he zoould giae (the Federals) some hard pills to
Adillery, Compony D orrived botk in Son swallozu, so lDe commenced firing. Then the Yankees planted their battery 600
Anlonio following the llew llexiro ronpoign yards from us; there znere three 12 pounders, one 8 pounder and tzoo 6 pounders, We
with sixly-fwo nen fif for duty. Elios Boles stood there 15 minutes and a charge znas ordered. Then our eompany zoent in front of the
wos one of lhese. battery and 4 companies (were) on the left. We fioe companies took the cannon, all six
Boles'c leller to his pcrenfr, writlen pieces, and turned them on the Yankees. Good gracious the Abs does run, . , We
shorfly ofter the Boltle of Volverde, ronfoinr gained a complete oictory, run the Yankees anil kept the field. There was 4,500 Yankees
on the field and 1,500 of us. We killed and mortally znounded 400 men. We lost
the thoughts of o leror-fornboy-turned-
or mortally usounded
- killed
between 40 (anil) 50; 120 (zoere) slightly wounded. There were
lenporory.soldier who is in the midct of the -
greolesl udvenlure ol his life co ftr. His tuto killed in our company. They was Daniel Gilleland and Sim Slaughter. There zaas
-
youthful exdtenenl over lhe boflle ond hic oery many wounded. They zoere killed dead in the charge on the battery. They died as
enlhusiocn in reloting itr detoils to hir por. braoe as Caesar. lack Gove says, and fohn Sadler, and (lohn M.) Strailer and fames
enls ore lourhing. Stephens, and all the boys say they zuant you to tell their folks that they are well and
Chorler Bennell, orsislonl direrlor ond that they did not get hurt in the Battle. I haoe not got time to zorite any more of
rurotor of rollerlions, Polore of the Governore, importance, My candle is glimmeilng. I hazte not told you half I could but we hazte to
lronsrribed Boler'r leller, whirh ic in the tol- send our letters through the mountains for zoe are 40 miles aboae Craig and the Yankees
lertion of fhe History librory ot the Polore ol are there and our mails cannot get belozo. We will starve them out after zohile.
lhe Oovernors. The letler hos been ediled for Write soon,
epelling, gmmmdl, ond eoee in reoding. lhe
infornolion ir porenlheeer wos odded by the Yottr son, P.S.: The battle lasted t hours.
edifor. E.R. Boles E.R.B

12 SPRINC I99I
After the outbreak of the Civil Wat, the 1850s while serving under Edward Fort Union had been captured and the
territorial officials in New Mexico feared R.S. Canby, the Federal officer he would troops resupplied, the Confederates
a Confederate force from Texas might oppose in the invasion of the territory. would proceed north, seize the mines of
invade the territory. In fact, an unsigned Canby had also been best man at Sibley's Colorado, turn west, pick up the support
and undated letter, attributed to Nicol6s wedding and was married to Mrs. of the Mormons in Utah, and then take
Pino, a Galisteo resident who had been a Sibley's cousin. The Federal command of southern California, giving the South at
leading participant in numerous com- the Military Department of New Mexico least one port on the Pacific.
mercial, military, and political events in had been given to Canby, then a colonel,
New Mexicg expressed that fear.s The just before the Confederate invasion. tk**
letter, written in code, was recently As the first shots were fired on Fort
deciphered by Los Alamos National Lab- Sumter, Southern sympathizers in Texas Tun crvn wAR BATTLES IN THE
oratory: were already raising troops to secure the trans-Mississippi West turned out to be
southern tier of the American West, run- warfare in its rawest state. Ill-equipped
SE]TOR, POR ESTE PAIS CORREN ning through Arkansas to the Pacific and poorly trained armies trudged hun-
RUMORES QUE LOS CONFEDERADOS
coast. Sibley, who had convinced Jeffer- dred of miles across inhospitable moun-
ESTAN ORGANISANDO UNA FUERSA
tains and deserts to fight the enemy, and
QUE MARCHARA SOBRE N.M. ESTO
NECISITA CONFIRMASION I SI ES QUE LA upon defeat they would fall back across
HAIA I LLEGUE A MI NOTISIA, POR SER distances half the breadth of Texas. The
AQUI TAN REMOTAS ESTAS, U SERA Western Civil War campaign would have
INFORMADO. UN SERBIDORDE U shocked the soldiers who fought in the
major Eastern battles such as Gettysburg
SIR, RUMORS ARE THAT THE CONFEDER- and Shiloh.
ATES ARE ORGANIZING A FORCE THAT
In the spring of1861,, Confederate
WILL MARCH THROUGH NEW MEXICO.
troops seized Fort Bliss in El Paso, and
THIS WILL NEED CONFIRMATION. IF
SUCH NEWS EXISTS AND GETS TO THIS the residents of Mesilla, near present Las
REMOTE AREA OF MINE, YOU SHALL BE Cruces, were flying the Confederate flag.
INFORMED. YOUR SERVANT. Expecting a Confederate invasion of
southern New Mexico, Canby immedi-
Actually, the future of the entire ately strengthened Fort Fillmore on the
American Southwest was much in doubt Rio Crande near Mesilla.
with the beginning of the Civil War. The On July 23, a 254-man detachment
Confederate government wanted the of Lieutenant Colonel John R. Baylor's
region and was planning to seize it. With battalion of 2nd Regiment Texas Mounted
gold from Western mines, the South Rifles crossed into present-day New
could purchase arms and other materi6l Mexico from El Paso and seized Fort
abroad. And California ports would give Fillmore, effectively clearing southern
the South an outlet on the Pacific that New Mexico of Union control. However,
wasn t subject to Federal naval blockades the detachment was too small to con-
as were those on the Atlantic and Gulf of tinue its offensive. Nevertheless, on
Mexico. The federal government also son Davis to let him lead a force to drive August 1, Baylor issued a proclamation
realized the importance of the South- the Union soldiers out of New Mexico, establishing the Confederate Territory of
west. The Union's treasury needed the arrived in San Antonio, Texas, in the Arizona with Mesilla as its capital. No
gold and silver resources; additionally, summer of 1861., and immediately began bashful fellow, Baylor also seihimself up
the North did not want the Southwest, recruiting the Confederate Army of New as governor.
especially the Pacific coast, to fall to the Mexico, a brigade of three mounted regi- The recruitment of volunteers in
South and become a slave-holdinq area. ments. Volunteer soldiers
- as opposed
to regulars or professional army soldiers
New Mexico to bolster the Union troops
in the territory had begun in the summer
*** - were paid, nonprofessional troops of 1861., but the response had been tor-
recruited by both sides in the Civil War pid. On September 9, territorial Gover-
Tsn crvn waR BATTLES IN NEw for a specific purpose/ such as Sibley's nor Henry Connelly issued a proclama-
Mexico pitted against each other two campaign, and for a set period of time. tion in both English and Spanish urging
men who had been cadets together at the Sibley's army was to subsist off the the people to arms. This time the
United States Military Academy at West land in New Mexico, obtaining local sup- response was good: five regiments of vol-
Point and fellow officers in the U.S. port and seizing Federal supplies, espe- unteers, a regiment of militia, a battalion
Army. Henry Hopkins Sibley was a Mex- cially those at Fort Union, an important of militia, and three independent cavalry
ican War hero who was commissioned a military supply depot on the Santa Fe companies were raised. Ninety-seven
brigadier general when he joined the Trail near Las Vegas. Fort Union was a
Confederate Army. Sibley had become principal supply depot that provided
familiar with New Mexico while cam- food, furniture, and weapons to all the tloior Oenercl Edword R. S. Conby, United
paigning against the Navajo Indians in military posts in the Southwest. Once Stotee Arny {librory ol Congress}.

EL PALACIO 13
percent of these volunteers were vert one regiment to infantry. "It's truly a Union's commander the year before, and
Hispanic.
Sibley and his Confederate Army of
sad day
- to hear the groans of the
wounded and witness the burial of the
he was familiar with the post's defenses.
He was not aware, however, that a new,
New Mexico left San Antonio on October lamented dead wrapped in a blanket as a stronger earthwork fortification had been
22.The force numbered about 9700 men. coffin!" Private William R. Howell, a constructed the previous fall. Sibley also
After marching across Texas, the army twenty-year-old Confederate soldier did not know that Federal troops from
regrouped in late January 1862near wrote after the battle. The Battle o{ Val- Colorado and California had begun
Mesilla and prepared to march up the verde was a Confederate victory, and the heading for New Mexico to counter the
Rio Grande into the heart of New Mex- route to the interior of New Mexico was Confederate invasion. In late February
ico. Ninety miles to the north was Fort opened for the Confederate advance. and early March, companies of the lst
Craig, a complex of adobe and stone Two days later the Confederate army Regiment Colorado Volunteer Infantry
buildings where Canby had gathered a continued its forward movement uo the had set out for New Mexico. Most of the
force of 4,000. These troops were regular Rio Grande Valley. Within a week, Colorado volunteers were miners and
Federal soldiers, New Mexico volunteers advance units covered the 100 miles to frontiersmen eager for adventure. Freez,
including a regiment commanded by Albuquerque, seizing Federal supplies ing temperatures and snow made their
Christopher "Kit" Carson, some militia, march difficult. When they learned of
and a company of Colorado infantry vol- the Union defeat at Valverde, they quick-
unteers. ened their pace to a remarkable 40 miles
When Sibley's Confederate army a day. They learned while crossing Raton
arrived in the vicinity of Fort Craig on Pass that Albuquerque had fallen. The
February 16, Canby refused to be drawn 1,300-man force that arrived at Fort
into battle. Instead, he remained at the Union had marched 172miles through
fort, awaiting attack. Sibley decided to deep snow and over high mountain
bypass the fort, crossing the Rio Grande passes in only five days.
below the fort and fording the river again The commander of the Colorado Vol-
six miles north at Valverde. Sibley's plan, unteers, Colonel John P. Slough, ignored
if it worked, would isolate the Union Canby's orders to remain and defend
troops, cut their supply route and render Fort Union. Instead, he assumed charge
them ineffectual. But Union troons were of the post by virtue of his rank and
dispatched from Fort Craig to stop the made immediate plans to march against
Confederates as they prepared to recross the Confederates. On March22, 1,348
the Rio Grande. The result was the first men the Fort Union troops, the
major clash of the Civil War in the South-
-
Colorado volunteers, and a company of
west, the Battle of Valverde, on February the 4th Regiment New Mexico Volunteers
21.,1862.
Confederates engaged Union troops
- departed the fort and marched south
on the Santa Fe Trail toward Santa Fe.6
early in the day, and a Confederate Meanwhile, Sibley and his troops were
charge nearly succeeded. But it was moving up the Santa Fe Trail toward Fort
repulsed by the Colorado infantry, which Union.
rallied when its commanding officer that had not been burned or removed. On March 26, near the narrow
shouted, "They are Texans; give them The Confederates then moved to Santa mouth of Apache Canyon, about 15
hell!" Several Union attacks were beaten Fe, entering the capital on March 10. The miles from Santa Fe, forward units of the
off by the Confederates before they made territorial governor had already departed two armies clashed. The Colorado volun-
a rush of their own. Canby arrived at the to establish a temporary seat of govern- teers charged the Confederate ranks and
battlefield to take personal command of ment in Las Vegas, New Mexicq and a forced a retreat. Thirty-two Confederate
the Union troops late in the afternoon. 120-wagon army train, escorted by all the soldiers were killed, forty-three
He ordered an assault, but before he Federal troops in Santa Fe, had removed wounded, and seventy taken prisoner;
could mobilize his men, the Confeder- the remaining military supplies from Union casualties were five killed and
ates attacked, throwing the Federal ranks Santa Fe to Fort Union. With the caDture fourteen wounded. Although small in
into disorder. Confederate soldiers of Santa Fe, the Confederate conqu-est of scale, the Battle of Apache Canyon was
charged again, overrunning the Union New Mexico was almost complete; only the first Federal victory in New Mexico.
artillery battery. Canby soon ordered his Fort Union remained before the Con- Two days lateq, Union and Confeder-
troops to withdraw to Fort Craig. The federates could move on to the Colorado ate troops fought again, this time in the
Confederates pursued, inflicting addi- Territory. partially wooded depression called
tional Union losses. After taking Santa Fe, Sibley pre- Pigeons Ranch, a hostelry on the Santa
The Union reported 68 killed, 160 pared to march on Fort Union. According Fe Trail consisting of a series of adobe
wounded, and 25 taken prisoner, while to his spies, Fort Union was garrisoned
the Confederates reported 36 dead and with 800 men. Sibley believed his numer-
150 wounded. The Confederates also lost ically superior force could easily defeat Chrislopher "Kil" Corson, lrt Regiment llew
half their cavalry mounts and had to con- those troops. Siblev had been Fort tlexiro Volunteers. flllllUl lleg. llo. 58388.

14 SPRINC I99I
buildings on the east side of Glorieta his men continued their march north of Albuquerque, but this is viewed as
Pass. The Battle of Glorieta lasted six from Fort Craig toward Albuquerque. He further Union encouragement for the
hours, included 850 Union and 1,200 hoped these movements would force the Confederates to depart New Mexico Ter-
Confederate troops, and consisted of Confederates to abandon Santa Fe and ritory. Sibley and the Confederate army
artillery strikes, cavalry and infantry concentrate their strength at Albuquer- continued their retreat, making a brutal
charges, sharpshooters, bayonet assaults, que to protect the remaining Confederate 100-mile, eight-day detour around Fort
and hand-to-hand combat with pistols supplies stored there. As expected, the Craig though deserts and mountains. By
and knives. Sharpshooter's Ridge, a high Confederates abandoned Santa Fe for the first week of May, most of the Con-
rock outcrop was a strategic objective Albuquerque on April 7 and 8. Union federate army had left New Mexico; only
during the battle. Federal troops first troops entered the capital soon after- a few rear guard detachments remained.
held the ridge, but the Confederates later ward, and immediately marched south By the second week of July 1862, all Con-
won the position. From it, they were able to join Canby's force near Albuquerque. federate troops had vacated New Mexico
to fire down upon the Federal artillery, Although a major clash in or near Territory. Sibley's original force of 3,700
forcing the Union soldiers to withdraw Albuquerque seemed imminent, the men had been reduced through
-
death, wounds, illness, capture, and
eastward to the final battle line. When Confederates decided to abandon the
the fight was ovel, the Confederates were desertion to slightly more than 1,500
-
holding the field. An estimated thirty- during the six-month Confederate cam-
eight Union soldiers had been killed, paign in New Mexico.
sixty-four wounded, and twenty cap- The collapse of Sibley's New Mexico
tured, while thirty-six Confederates had campaign ended the Confederacy's
been killed, sixty wounded, and twenty- grand scheme of expansion to the Pacific.
five captured. Many Federal soldiers For the duration of the Civil Wat, New
assumed they had lost. Mexico Territory remained firmly in
However, during the battle, a contin- Union hands. *
gent of 400 to 450 Union troops circled
through the mountains around the bat-
l. Bancroft, Hubert Howe, Arizona and Nm Muico,
tlefield and destroyed the Confederate 1530-1888 (San Francisco: The History Co., 1889) p. 680.
supply train, which had been left behind
2. For the story of New Mexico's pursuit of state-
so it wouldnlt restrict the force's move- hood, W, Nm Muico's
see Larson, Robert Quest for
ments. The Union troops were led by Statehood, 1846-1912 (Albuquerque: University of
Colorado Volunteers Major fohn M. New Mexico Press, 1968).
Chivington and guided by Lieutenant 3. Beck, Warren, New Mexico: A History in Four Centu-
Colonel Manuel Chaves, a New Mexican ries (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1968).
familiar with the area. The destruction of 4. Hall, Martin Hardwick, SiblE's Nau Mexico Cam-
the supplies necessary to continue the paign, (Arstin: University of Texas Press, "1962), pp.
invasion forced the Confederates to fall 145-147.
back to Santa Fe. In addition, Union 5. This document is in Miscellaneous Records: Per-
troops were marching north from Fort sons, Pino, Nicolds, July 1857, New Mexico State
Craig to attack Sibley's army. These com- Records Center and Archives. Marian F. Love {ound
bined factors left the Confederates no campaign and withdraw from New Mex- the letter while conducting research for a biography
of Pino. The letter was deciphered by Louise Carlson
choice but to abandon their advance. ico. Low on supplies, with no reinforce-
and Clara Chavez, PA-3 Volunteer Services in the
The Battle of Glorieta has been ments forthcoming, and without the Community Relations Department, Los Alamos
described as the "Gettysburg of the support of New Mexico residents that National Laboratory Los Alamos, New Mexico.
West" because it turned the tide of Con- Sibley had been counting on, the Con- 5. A complete list of the troops who fought in the
federate intentions in the West, much as federates evacuated Albuquerque on Battle of Glorieta isinthe Santa Fe Gazette, Apr1l26,
the 1863 Battle of Gettysburg stopped the Aprtl12 and began the long march back 1862.
Confederate thrust into the Union states. to Texas. 7. For a detailed story of the battles and personalities
In a last attempt to save the campaign, Canby has been criticized for not of the campaign, see: Alberts, DonE., Rebels on the
Sibley wrote the governor of Texas from engaging the Confederates with his Rio Grande: The Ciail War Joumal of A.B. Peticolas
(Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press,
Santa Fe requesting reinforcements, but numerically superior and better
1984); Whitford, William Clarke, Colorado Volunteers
to no avail. equipped force. However, many in the Ciuil War: The Nao Mexico Campaign in 1862
Canby, who set out from Fort Craig historians believe Canby's objective was (Denver: the State Historical and Natural History
with 1,200 Federal troops, learned the to harry the Confederate retreat and Society, 1905, republished in 1963 by Pruett Press,
outcome of the Battle of Glorieta when avoid a battle in which he would capture Boulder, Colorado); and Hall, Martin Hardwick,
Sibley's New Mexicl Campaign (Atstin: University of
he reached Socorro. There, he devised a Confederate soldiers and incur responsi-
Texas Press, 1960) and The Confederate Amy of Nm
strategy to force the Confederates from bility for the care of a large number of Mexlco (Austin: Presidial Press, 19Z8).
Santa Fe, then Albuquerque, and finally prisoners.T
all of New Mexico. Union troops did fight the Confeder-
Canby ordered troops from Fort ates in a skirmish sometimes referred to Colonel llonuel Chovee, 2nd Reginent llew
Union to march toward Santa Fe while as the Battle of Peralta a few miles south llleriro Yolunteers. lt|llfll lleg. llo. 9833.

EL PALACIO T5