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DAMAGE ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURE UNDER SEISMIC FORCES

Seminar Report
For

Master of Technology in Structural Engineering


(1st yr odd)
by

Amit Kumar Baroi


14/CE/413
Under the guidance of
Dr. Aloke Kumar Dutta

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, DURGAPUR
DECEMBER 2014

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First, I would like to give Almighty God the Glory, Honors, thanks and praise for his presence,
love, sustenance, and grace for the initiation of my project.
I express my gratefulness and sincere gratitude to my guide Assoc. Prof. Dr. ALOKE KUMAR
DUTTA, Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, for his
guidance and encouragement from the beginning of the project.
I have great pleasure to express my deep sense of gratitude and heartfelt thanks for the incessant
encouragement, guidance and dedicated help received from my Prof. Dr. SOUMYA
BHATTACHARYYA, Head of Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of
Technology, Durgapur. I am greatly indebted to him for allowing me to take on this project.
I also owe thanks to the Asst. Prof. Dr. DIPTESH DAS, Department of Civil Engineering,
National Institute of Technology, Durgapur who helped me in identifying the problems related to
my project, my parents and my friends.

CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1.................................................................................................................. 4
INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................ 4
1.1

BACKGROUND............................................................................................. 4

1.2

PROBLEM STATEMENT..................................................................................5

1.3

SCOPE OF WORK.......................................................................................... 5

CHAPTER 2.................................................................................................................. 7
LITERATURE SURVEY................................................................................................ 7
2.1

PAPER ACCESSED FROM JOURNALS...............................................................7

CHAPTER 3................................................................................................................ 10
DEVELOPMENT OF THE WORK.................................................................................10
3.1

APPROACH FOLLOWED FOR THE WORK......................................................10

REFERENCES............................................................................................................. 12

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND
Damage analysis of the structure is required to understand the serviceability of the
structure. Gradually with time the structure gets damaged due to ageing of the
components and the structure with such damages are easily detectable and acceptable
too.
But what happens to a structure when unexpected forces which acts on them especially
during a natural disaster like earthquakes, tornados, tidal forces etc. Most of the forces
acting are usually horizontal. Seismic forces among these are considered to be the
most complex forces acting on the structure since the direction of motion is not only
horizontal but vertical and rotational too.
Hence the main structural components gets affected i.e. the beams and columns. The
forces acting during the earthquake are along the X, Y and Z axis i.e. two horizontal
and one rotational. Due to rotation another component that gets damaged are the shear
walls.

Designing buildings to behave elastically during earthquakes without damage may


render the project economically unviable. As a consequence, it may be necessary for
the structure to undergo damage and thereby dissipate the energy input to it during the
earthquake. Therefore, the traditional earthquake-resistant design philosophy requires
that normal buildings should be able to resist as shown in the figure above:
a) Minor (and frequent) shaking with no damage to structural and non-structural
elements;
b) Moderate shaking with minor damage to structural elements, and some damage
to non-structural elements; and
c) Severe (and infrequent) shaking with damage to structural elements, but with
NO collapse (to save life and property inside/adjoining the building).

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT


Earthquakes are unpredictable so as the seismic forces acting on the structure. These
sudden forces reduce the serviceability and life of the structure. If we consider the
heritage structure which have stood through the times are already damaged due to
ageing of the materials, moreover the seismic forces affect these structure badly and
reduce their expected serviceability life. Damages can be structural and non-structural
damages. Hence there is a need to identify these damages separately. Quantification of
damage is required in detail.

1.3 SCOPE OF WORK


The scope of work to achieve the above problem included:
a) Problem identification.
b) Carrying out the detailed literature survey.
c) To find out the intensity of damage in the structure after a natural disaster like
earthquake
d) Quantification of damage.
e) Assumptions made for the analysis must be minimal.
f) To identify and locate the major structural damages appeared in the structure.
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g) Analyse the damages in a more precise manner and simulating the results with the
real time world.

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE SURVEY
2.1 PAPER ACCESSED FROM JOURNALS
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Plastic Damage Model for Cyclic Loading of Concrete Structures


Jeeho Lee1 and Gregory L. Fenves2 (1998) [1] tells about a new plastic-damage model
for concrete subjected to cyclic loading is developed using the concepts of fractureenergy-based damage and stiffness degradation in continuum damage mechanics. Two
damage variables, one for tensile damage and the other for compressive damage and a
yield function with multiple harden variables are introduced .to account for different
damage states. The uniaxial strength functions are factored into two parts,
corresponding to the effective stress and the degradation of elastic stiffness. The
constitutive relations for elasto-plastic responses are decoupled from the degradation
damage response, which provides advantages m the numerical Implementation. In the
present model, the strength function for the effective stress is used to control the
evolution of the yield surface, so that calibration with experimental results is
convenient. A simple and thermodynamically consistent scalar degradation model is
introduced to simulate the effect of damage on elastic stiffness and its recovery during
crack opening and closing. The performance of the plastic-damage model is
demonstrated with several numerical examples of simulating monotonically and
cyclically loaded concrete specimens.
Inelastic Damage Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Frame Shear Wall Structures
Y.J.Park, et.al. (1987) [2] speak about the drawbacks of the currently available
programs for inelastic dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete structures. The
equivalent static analysis determines the component properties including the
identification of inelastic behavior and failure mode under monotonic loads, as well as
the determination of natural period of the structure. A comprehensive testing program
on columns and shear walls revealed that loading history may also affect the
deformation and damage charactericts considerably. Based on the information based
on the hysteretic behavior of components, numerous studies have been carried out to
obtain a realistic prediction of the inelastic dynamic response of reinforced concrete
frames utilizing matrix analysis techniques.
Seismic Damage Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Buildings
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Young Ji Park et.al. (1985) [3] reviews the method for evaluating structural damage of
reinforced concrete buildings under random earthquake excitations is proposed.
Extensive damage analysis of SDF systems and typical MDF reinforced concrete
buildings were performed. On the basis of these results, a simple relationship between
the destructiveness of the ground motions, expressed in terms of the "characteristic
intensity," and the structural damage, expressed in terms of the "damage index," is
established. Reinforced concrete buildings that were damaged during past earthquakes
were used to calibrate the proposed damage measure; on this basis, practical limits of
structural damage are defined.
An Approximate Method for Seismic Damage Analysis of Building
P. Gaspersis et.al, (1992) [4] approached a relatively simple method for nonlinear
seismic analysis of buildings oscillating predominantly in the first mode (the N2
method) has been extended in order to include the computation of seismic demand
expressed in terms of dissipated hysteretic energy. Based on the results of extended
method, the structural behavior can be estimated by using advanced damage models
including cumulative damage. A 7-storey RC frame building was used in the test
example. Some partial results were obtained using the N2 method were compared with
results obtained by the nonlinear dynamic analysis of MDOF mathematical model. The
comparison indicated reasonable accuracy of approximate results, provided that the
higher mode effects are not important.
Structural Analysis and Damage Evaluation of Existing Masonary Buildings by
Dynamic Experimentation and Numerical Modelling
S. Chiostrini et.al. (1992) [5] the paper deals with analysis of the dynamic behavior
and evaluation of seismic damage of masonary buildings. For such a purpose a special
non-linear time-domain identification approach is proposed based on comparison
between experimental time-histories and numerical results. The proposed method is
applied to an existing four story masonary building in Florence which has been tested
dynamically by the authors in the elastic and post-elastic range of response. The same
building has been modeled through finite-element nonlinear numerical approach; some
of the parameters of the model have been estimated according with proposed
identification method based on the comparison between numerical and experimental
results.
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Analysis of Damage Data of Low Rise Buildings Subjected To a Shallow Mw6.3


Earthquake
Bajarni Bessason et.al. (2014) [6] In May 2008 a shallow Mw6.3 earthquake struck
South Iceland with an epicenter close to two small towns. Nearly 5000 low-rise
residential buildings were affected. The recorded maximum PGA was 0.88g. A great
deal of damage occurred, but there was no loss of life. In Iceland all buildings are
registered in a detailed official data base and insurance against natural disasters is
obligatory. As the repair costs for every affected building had to be assessed for
insurance purposes this provided an unusual opportunity to review structural
performance across the whole population of buildings in the affected area. The
estimated repair cost was classified in a number of sub-categories covering structural
and non-structural damage for five different residential building typologies. Study of
these buildings showed that non-structural damage dominated the overall damage. The
main monetary damage was cosmetic damage of partition wall sand flooring. The
structural systems performed quite well and no buildings collapsed.

CHAPTER 3
DEVELOPMENT OF THE WORK
3.1 APPROACH FOLLOWED FOR THE WORK
This work begins with explanation of the importance of the project (identify the
problem) and literature review, followed by objectives and scope of the work.

Dynamic analysis of the work is needed to be carried out for the whole frame
structure. The above flow chart represents the general path in which project will get
through. Starting from the problems related to damage analyses which are identified.
Based on the problem the literature survey was done on the issue.
The various methods of analysis were found out among which some or any one can be
chosen to perform the future analysis. Various software were also taken into account
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for performing the analysis. ANSYS and ABACUS was the most common tool used
for supporting the analysis.

REFERENCES
[1]

Jeeho Lee1 and Gregory L. Fenves2 , Plastic Damage Model For Cyclic Loading Of Concrete
Structures , Journal Of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE, Page no: 892-900, August 1998

[2]

Y.J.Park, A.M. Reinhorn and S.K. Kunnath, Inelastic Damage Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Frame
Shear Wall Structures, National Centre for Earthquake Engineering Research, ISSN 1088-3800, JULY
1987.

[3]

Young Ji Park, Alfredo H.S. Ang and Yi Kwei Wen , Seismic Damage Analysis Of Reinforced
Concrete Buildings, Journal Of Structural Engineering, Volume 3, ISSN 0733-9445, 4th April 1985.

[4]

P. Gaspersis, P. Fajfar and M. Fischinger, An Approximate Method For Seismic Damage Analysis Of
Building , Earthquake Engineering, Tenth World Conference , ISBN 905410605, 1992.

[5]

S.Chiostrini, P. Foraboschi and A. Vignoli, Structural Analysis And Damage Eveluation Of Existing
Masonary Buildings By Dynamic Experimentation And Numerical Modelling, Earthquake Engineering,
Tenth World Conference , ISBN 9054100605 , 1992.

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[6]

Bajarni Bessason, Jon Orvar Bjarnson, Ari Gudmundsson, Julius Solne and Scott Steedman, Analysis
Of Damage Data Of Low Rise Buildings Subjected To A Shallow Mw6.3 Earthquake, Soil Dynamics
and Earthquake Engineering 66 , 28th June 2014.

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