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Proceedings of the FlIst PaCljiIAs/G OjJshOle MeLilall"s Symposium

Seoul, Korea, 24-28 June, 1990


CopYllght 1990 by The IntelllatlOnal Souety of OjJshOle and Palm Engllleeis

THE ANALYSIS OF WAVE-INDUCED DYNAMICS OF OCEAN PLATFORMS


BY HYBRID-INTEGRAL EQUATION METHOD
T MatsuI
:-!agol'a l'niwjsit.l
:-!"gOYd. JAPAN
K Kato
Tm'ol a C'oll('gt' of T('clllloiogy

TOl'Dta. JAP.4S

ABSTRACT

1985) and the ISSC (Eatock Taylor and Jefferys, 1986), however,
suggested that this was not the case for more complicated structures such as a semi-submersible and tensIOn-leg platform (TLP)

A relIable and economical hybrid integral-equation method is proposed for predicting wave-mduced dynamic responses of ocean
platforms of complex geometry ThIs is based on combming a
dIrect boundary element solution of the fluid region close to the
body wIth an eIgenfunction representation of the far field behaviour To achieve accuracy and economy, the boundary surfaces are discretised mto quadratic isoparametnc elements The
validity and accuracy of the proposed method are demonstrated
through several numerical examples, including the results for the
ITTC senn-submersible. It is shown that the use of quadratIc
Isoparametric elements leads to significant improvement of accuracy and efficiency of the hybrid integral-equation method, compared WIth classical boundary integral approaches based on constant element idealisations

The ITTC Ocean Engmeering Committee has performed a comparative study of motions of a senn-submersIble, whIch has been
published by Takagi et al (1985) PredIchons from 34 computer
programs were compared among themselves and WIth model test
results from three orgamsations \Vhile most computer programs
provided reasonable predictions of measured surge and sway, the
computed results for the other motIOns showed substantIal scatter
about the experiment.al data. The three-dImensional dIffractIOn
programs seemed to overestimate the heave added mass, leading to longer natural periods than those predicted by Monson's
formula or experiment The survey for the ISSC, repubhshed
by Eatock Taylor and Jefferys (1986), also demonstrated sigmficant and disturbing variability between the hydrodynamIC loads
and motions predicted for an example TLP by 17 dIffraction programs

KEY WORDS Hybnd integral-equatIon method, Wave dIffractIon, Wave radiation, Hydrodynamic load, Wave-mduced mohon,
Ocean platform

Most of the partIcipating organisatIOns employed a source-smk


dIstnbution or direct, boundary Integral formulation, with an assumed constant distnbution of the governmg vanable (source
strength or potential) over each st;rface panel It would therefore
not be surprising if a large number of panels were required to
represent the complex geometry of the semi-submersible or TLP,
and the compleXIty of associated wave flows accurately. Indeed,
Korsmeyer et al (1988) adopted up to 12,608 constant source
panels to analyse another TLP with six columns Jefferys (1987)
studIed the same TLP configuration WIth different mesh arrangements, and cautioned that the constant source panel method did
not necessarily lead to correct answer, as the number of panels
was increased WIthout limit.

INTRODUCTION
The design of huge ocean platforms depends critically upon the
analysis of wave induced loads and motions. Thus, over the last
fifteen years, substantial efforts have been devoted to the development of reliable and economIcal methods for predicting these
effects, Computer programs based on three-dimensional diffraction theory are now available for evaluating the hydrodynamic
coeffiCIents, loads and motIons for structures of practIcal form
For large bodIes with relatively simple geometry such as a vertical cylinder or sphere, these programs generally provide accurate predictions which compare well with analytical solutions and
model test results. Recent surveys for the ITTC (Takagi et al.,
271

The present work IS motivated by the need to investigate more


relIable and economical numerical methods for predlctmg wavemduced dynamic responses of ocean platforms of complex geometry One such method proposed herein IS the hybrId mtegralequation method involving the use of quadratic Isoparametnc
surface elements. To deSCrIbe the complexity of body geometry and associated wave flows accurately, It appears adequate to
adopt higher-order elements (e g lInear or quadratic) To the
best of our knowledge, higher-order panels have never been used
m conjunction with the classical boundary integral formulatIon,
due to the difficulty in integrating Green's functIon and its graruents multiplied by the higher-order shape functions over each element The rufficulty may be overcome by introducing a free-space
Green's functIOn (Le. a Rankine source) instead of the complete
Green's function This hybrid integral-equation method is based
on combming a duect boundary element solutIOn of the fluid regIOn close to the body wIth an eigenfunction representation of the
far field behaviour. The formulation based on a constant panel
IdealIsation has been gIven by Matsui, Kato and Shuai (1987),
and It IS extended herein to adopt quadratic isoparametric elements. (In our expenence, the use of linear elements does not necessanly lead to the improvement of accuracy) Because of the SImplICIty of the new Green's functIOn, no addItional rufficulty arises
m employmg hIgher-order elements. Following a brief review of
the mathematical formlliation, the validity ,and accuracy of the
proposed method are ,demons'irated through several numerical
examples, mcluding tbe results for the ITTC semI-submersible
C0mpuison is made between our computed r,esults and existing
numerical solutions based on a direct boundary i!ll.tegral (Garrison, 1978) and hybrid finite element method (Yue, Chen and Mci.,
1978)

----

..,I"
(

(1)
The body motion may be represented as a linear superposition of
rigid-body modes, with complex amplitudes Xq (q = 1 to 6). The
indices q = 1 to 6 correspond respectively to surge, sway, heave,
roll, pitch and yaw.

' ~

r
I" SF
1'-.-._

V*

'-

..... -

r,.......

1/

I"

- IS
-S- - _ -<...... --=-~
R

---------

_-----_

...-

IS co ( r+oo
.....) --__~--=l- - -V- - ii

./
-

.....

-_ .....
--------------

--

II

.....

'-

r~ -'i
......_--_.- -.-

'}
./

-_/

, Figure 1 Fluid boundaries and a fictitious cylinder


The complex potential <p can be decomposed mto mcident,
diffracted and radiated components, such that

<P

ZW L Xq<pq

= <Po + <P7 -

(2)

q=1

where <Po is the incident wave potential, <P7 the dIffracted wave
potential, and <pq (q = 1 to 6) are the radiated wave potentials
corresp<mrung to umt OSCillation of the body in the q-th mode in
otherWise calm water.
The boundary-value problems for the diffraction and radiation
potentials can be described by

v 2<pq = 0
fJ<Pq
on

=0

o<pq
-oz - I/<pq

=0

or/>q

a;;: = nq

Governing Equations

With the assumption of ideal and irrotational flow, the wave field
at time t may be defined by a velocity potential

---

I,

REVIEW OF HYBRID INTEGRALEQUATION METHOD


ConSider the problem of diffraction and radiation of water waves
by a three-dimensional floating body. The body is oscillating sinusoidally about a mean position in response to excitation by a
regular incident wave of frequency wand amplitude A. The Cartesian coordinate system oxyz is defined as shown m Figure 1 with
the oxy-plane on the mean free surface and the oz-axis positive
, vertically upwards

----

hm (kr)t

kr_O

(7

q -

zk<pq)

=0

in the fluid

(3a)

on the bottom

(3b)

on the free surface

(3c)

on the body surface

(3d)

at infinity

(3e)

where 9 IS the gravitational acceleration, k is the wave number


which satisfies

w2

1/

== -

= ktanhkh

(4)

for water depth h; nI, n2, n3 correspond to Cartesian components


of the normal vector n into the body surface S; n4, ns, na correspond to the cross products between it and the vector joimng the
point on S to the point about whIch rotations of the body are
o<Po
speCIfied , an d n7 = -a;;:.
Hydrodynamic loads are obtained by integrating fluid pressure
over the surface submerged in the fluid of density p. For linearised problem this leads to wave exciting forces

(5)
272

RpQ denotes the distance between the two points, dS( Q) is a differential area on av, Cp is the solid angle enclosed by av at the
point P, and SB, SF are the portions of bottom and free surface
bounded by SR. Subscript Q on n designates that the normal

and added mass 'ld damping terms, Mqr and Nqr respectively,
gIven by
(6)

denvative is to be evaluated at the point Q.


These are used with Newton's second law in the formulation of
equations of motion.

Discretisation Scheme Using Quadratic


Isoparametric Elements

The hybnd integral-equation method provides an effective numerical solution to the boundary-value problem for q. The fluid
region is divided into the two regions shown in Figure 1. The
mner region V completely encloses the body surface and depth
Irregularities, and is separated from the outer region V by a
fictitious vertical cylinder SR, whose radius is roo The potential . in V may be represented by eigenfunction expansion in
cylindrical coordinates (r, 8, z)
00

To solve the integral equation (12) numerIcally, the boundary surfaces S, SB and SF are discretised respectively into NJ, N2 and N3
quadrilateral isoparametric elements shown in Figure 2. The element 60S, has nodes p,(/) (J = 1 to 8) at its corner and mid.
z;/). All the nodes
side points, whose coordinates are (x~/),
on the whole boundaries are numbered in sequence, such that
P,(a = 1 to N J ) is the a-th node with the coordinates (x"y,-,z,),
where NJ is the total number of nodes. The potential q at the
arbitrary point Q within the element 60S, can be approximated
by

y;'),

00

; = L L (amn cos n8 + ,emn sin n8)Rmn(r)Zm(z)

(7)

n=Om=O

where

q{Q)
H~I)(kr)

~1

H~I)(kro) ,

R...(')

K,,(K:mr)

Kn(K:mro) ,

(13)

,=1

m=O

where M, are the shape functions interpolating q quadratically


between the nodal values. The boundary surfaces may also be
approximated by piecewisely quadratic curved surfaces, such that

(8)
m 2: 1

cosh k(z + h)

Zm(z)

= LM,(Q)q{P,CI)

m = 0

coshkh'
COSK:m(z + h),
COSK:mh

XQ

m>

(9)

= LM,(Q)x~')
,=1
8

YQ

=L

M,(Q)y;/)

(14)

,=1
8

In the above expressions, H~I) is the Hankel function of the first


kind of order n, Kn is the modified Bessel function of the second
kind of order n, and K: m are the positive real roots of the equation

ZQ

=L

M,(Q)z;/)

3=1

where (xQ, YQ, zQ) denote the coordinates of the point Q.

(10)

By substit~ting equations (13) and (14) into equation (12) which


is satisfied at the node P" and truncating the double series of
eigenfunctions in equation (7) at n = Nand m = M, the integral
equation (12) is replaced by NJ algebraic equations of the form

By applying Green's second identity to the inner fluid region V,


and making use of equations (3b-d) and the continuity requirements

(11)
on SR, the boundary-value problem for q is reduced to the integral equation

Cpq(P)

+ II

JJsus B

1 ) dS(Q)
q(Q)-aa (-R
nQ

PQ

+ ffsF q(Q) [a~Q (R:Q)

- II(R: Q )] dS(Q)

+ ffs R[;(Q) a~Q (R:Q)

fis hq(Q) (R: Q) dS(Q)

~~;(Q)(R:J] dS(Q)
(12)

where P and Q designate the reference and integration points on


the boundary surfaces av enclosing V (aV = S U SB U SF U SR),

FIgure 2 A quadrilateral isoparametric element with 8 nodes

273

+L L

when p. is not on the element /),.S,. However, when P, coincides


with one ofthe nodes on /)"S" say ~(I), numerical quadrature may
not be used b.ecause of the singular behaviour of the integrands as
Rp,Q --> 0, and analytical treatment is reqUired to evaluate these
singular integrals. It can be shown that, for flat elements, A~~)
IS zero due to the orthogonality of Rp,Q and ii For sufficiently
small elements where the curvature effect is negligible, one may
therefore assume that

(F.mnCYmn + G.mn/3mn)

n=Om=O

N,

= '"
hq (p(l)
L...J '" B(I)
tJ
J
,

(15)

1=1;=1

where N~ = Nl+N2 and N~ = N~+N3. The influence coefficients


A~~), B;~), F.mn and G.mn in equation (15) are given by
(16)

(23)
To evaluate B~), it is convenient to rewrite equation (17) in the
form

(17)

~::: ) = JfsJa~Q (R;,Q)

(24)

-bmn(R;,Q)] Zm(zQ) ( :~: ) ndS

(18)

where
(25)

where
1

Rp,Q = [(x. - XQ)2 + (Y. - YQ)2 +(Z. - ZQ?]"


e.=tan-l(~:),

bmn

=tan-l(~:)

kH~I)I(kro)

For sufficiently small elements, the mtegral of equation (25) may


be evaluated explicitly, yielding

(19)

B~)' = t

=0

H~I)(kro) ,

m>

and C. is the solid angle enclosed by the boundary surface at the


node p,. For a smooth boundary C. IS 27l', otherwise it can be
a,pq .
h
evaluated from the requirement that = 0 when t e poten-

an

Unknown variables involved in equation (15) are N J potentials


and NR = (M + 1)(2N + 1) coefficients CYmn , /3mn. In order that
the number of equations becomes equal to the number of unknowns, N R additional control points must be placed on SR to
satisfy
N~

N;

L(A~~) - /lB~),pq(p;(I)

L
I=N~+1

1=1 ;=1

+L

t!}tan l!.)
2

(26)

The evaluation of F.mn and G. mn requires more careful consideration because of the oscillatory behaviour of the integrands,
particularly when m is large. For these evaluations, it is convenient to use the Fourier series expansion of the Rankme source.
By substituting this mto equation (18) and integrating explicitly with respect to the azimuthal angle e, the surface integral
over SR in equation (18) is reduced to a line integral, which may
be then evaluated numerically. For full details, see Matsui, Kato
and Shirai (1987). Solution of equations (15) and (21) leads to
the numerical approximations to the diffraction and radiation potentials.

tJals distrIbute uniformly over the whole boundaries.

L L A~~),pq(~(I)

tan

where l" /3" " are as defined in Figure 3, and K takes the value
2 and 3 for the corner and mid-side nodes respectively. Since the
integral involved in equation (24) is regular everywhere, this may
be evaluated by numerical quadrature.

(20)

K:mK~(K:mro),
Kn(K:mro)

l, sin /3, log (

,=1

J=1

L (F.mnCYmn + G.mn/3mn)

n=Om=O

N,

= '"
'" B(I) h (p(l)
L. L..J 'J q
J

'

1=1 J=1

where

(22)

P,
(a)
Figure 3 Definitions of l"
(b) mid-side nodes

The integrals in equations (16) and (17) may be evaluated by


numerical quadrature (e g a four point Gaussian quadrature)

274

/3,

(b)
and ,,{, for (a) corner nodes,

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

0.4.-------------------------------------,

Several numerical examples have been studied to illustrate the vahdity and accuracy of our hybrid integral-equatIOn method Both
constant and quadratic isoparametric element idealisations were
adopted and compared with each other as well as with existing
numerical solutions based on a direct boundary integral (Garnson, 1978) and hybrid finite element formulations (Yue, Chen
and Mei, 1978). In the remainder of this section, the abbreviahons H.LE.M., D.B.I M. and H.F.E.M are used respectively to
stand for the hybrid integral-equation method, direct boundary
Integral method and hybrid finite element method. A constant
and quadratic isoparametric element are referred to as C.E and
Q.E. respectively.

GARRET

<C

0.3

H.I.E.M.{Q.E.)

"

H.I.E.M.{C.E.)

YUEN

&CHAU

'"F

'"a.
......
~

"'

'+-

I-

Z
....

0.2

::E
t!:l

Circular Dock

::>
'"
....
'"
>

The first example studied is a circular dock in shallow water,


for which exact analytical solutions have been obtained by Garret (1971). The dock analysed here has a radius a and a draft
D = 0 5a in water of depth h = 0 75a Due to the double symmetry of the geometry, only one quadrant of the fluid region
bounded by the fictitious cylinder of radius 1.25a has been analysed with boundary element idealisations shown in Figure 4 and
Table 1, and the far field eigenfunction representation truncated
at N = 5 and M = 4, which was sufficient to ensure the convergence of the solution. Our computed results for the wave exciting
moment are compared with the analytical solutions in Figure 5
Also included In this comparison are results obtained by Yuen
and Chau (1987), using H.LE.M. (C E.) It is clearly seen that
H.I E M. (Q.E) provides much closer results to the analytical
predictions than H.LE.M. (C.E.), confirming the high accuracy
of the H.LE.M. formulation based on Q E. iqealisations. Furthermore, our H.I.E M. (C E ) results are seen i<1 provide slightly

I-

....>

:i 0.'

3.0

ka

Figure 5 Wave exciting moment on a CIrcular dock


better predictions than those of Yuen and Chau (1987), USIng
equivalent panel idealisations The reason for thiS IS that our
formulation exploits the Fourier series expansIOn of the RankIne
source in matching the continuity requirements on the fictitious
vertical cylinder, whereas Yuen and Chan satisfy these conditIons
at several discrete POInts on the cylindncal surface

ITTC Semi-Submersible
As an illustration of use of our H, I E M. for analysing the motion
of an ocean platform of complex geometry, the second example
concerns the semi-submersible, of which the principal partIculars are ,given in Figure 6 and Table 2 ThiS configuration used
In the ITTC comparative study consists of eight columns supported by two lowerhulls of rectangular sectIon In view of the
double symmetry of the geometry, only one quadrant of the flUid
regIOn bounded by the fictitious cylinder of radius 1 125 m has
been analysed with the boundary element IdeahsatlOns shown In

(a)

Table 1 Boundary element idealisations for quadrant


Structure

(b)
Figure 4 Mesh subdivisions of a circular dock for
(a) HIE M (C E ), (b) HIE M.(Q.E.)

CIrcular dock

Element
C.E.

Q.E.
Semi-submersible

C.E

QE
275

Number of elements
Nl
N2
N3
4
26
18
2
5
3
228
4 160
57
40

Number of nodes
NJ
NR NT
48
15
63
48
15
63
392
30 422
325
30 355

FIgure 7 and Table 1, and the far field eigenfunction representation truncated at N = 5 and M = 9. The bracing members were
taken into account only when the static restoring coefficients and
viscous drag forces were evaluated. Our H.I.E.M. results were
compared with existing numerical solutions based on D.B.I.M.
and H F E.M. as well as with model test results published by
Takagi et al. (1985). Only selected results are presented here for
the heave added mass and motion responses in each mode.

In FIgures 9 to 12 are shown the comparisons of motion responses


in each mode. For the heave response upon which viscous effects
were found to be significant, both the results with and without
viscous correction are presented. Viscous effects were evaluated
on the basIS of Morison's equation with drag coefficients shown in
Table 2 Particulars of the ITTC semi-submersible
Description
Length of lower hull
Breadth
Draft
Displacement
Centre of gravity above keel
Transverse metacentric heIght
Longitudinal metacentric height
Transverse gyradius in air
Longitudmal gyradius in air
Vertical gyradius in air
Water depth

In Figure 8 is shown the comparison of heave added mass as a


function of the p'eriod T. The dotted hne in this comparison indIcates the prediction based on the measured natural frequency.
While D.B.I.M. and H.I.E.M. based on C.E. idealisations are olr
served to substantially overestimate the added mass, as indicated
in the ITTC comparative study, H.I.E.M. and H.F.E.M. using
Q.E. are found to provide reasonable predictions.

Value Unit
1.797 m
1.172 m
0.313 m
130.3 kg
0.273 m
o 04!? m
0.037 m
0.536 m
0.556 m
0.634 m
3.000 m

Table 3 Drag coefficients


Value
Member
0.438
Column </>0.156
0.455
Column </>0.125
Lower hull Jhoriz.) 0.1133
Lower !fuR {werlti.) 1.11'85
(a.1
Bra.oi.ng

Plan

(a)
(b)
Figure 7 Mesh subdivisions of the semi-submersible for
(a) H.I.E.M.(C.E.), (b) H.I.E.M.(Q.E.) (Mesh subdivision for D.B.I.M.(C.E.) is the same as (a) except that
only the body surface is discretised in D.B.I.M.)

Forward elevation
Figure 6 Layout of the ~TTC semi-submersible (in metres)

276

Table 3, which were estimated from the DnV rule (DnV, 1981).
For other motions only results based on potential flow theory
are illustrated. Again, it can be observed that H.LE M. and
H.F.E.M. usmg Q.E. provide much closer results to the measured responses than D B LM. and H I E.M. based on C.E. idealisations Our H.I.E.M. results based on Q.E idealisations are
seen to provide accurate predictions even for the heave response
near resonance, for which substantial discrepancies were observed
between predictions based on classical boundary integral formulations and the experimental data (Takagi et al., 1985).

CPU times were obtained on the FACOM M780/20 and VP200 at Nagoya UniversIty Computation Center. It is evident
that H.LE.M. offers a considerable saving of computer time over
D.B I.M. and H.F.E.M., especially when a wide range of frequencies must be studied.
Table 4 Comparison of CPU times
Method
DBIM(CE)*
HIEM(CE)*
HIEM(QE)*
HFEM(QE)**

The central processing (CPU) times for these calculations are


hsted m Table 4. Here To represents the time taken for the computations independent of frequency, whereas TF is the time per
frequency for the frequency dependent computations. These

To(s)

TF(S)

0.05
36.4
32.8
0.15

72.2
19.1
14.6
56.7

~,------------------------------------------,
-D. B.!. M. -c. E.-[!]-

H.1.E.M.-C.E.-

--

O.B.!.M.-C.E.-

-(!)-

H.1.E.M.-Q.E.-

-[!]-

H.!.E.M.-C.E.-

-*-

H.F.E.M.-Q.E.-

-(!)-

H.!.E.M.-Q.E.-

EXPERIMENT

-*-

H.F. E. M. -Q.E.-

0
N

EXPERIMENT

.~

t>

a.

a:

'-'

'-

):
L:

"'!

04-----.----.----,-----r----.----,-----,----i
C().8

2.4

1.6

3.2

4.0

04--S~r----r----.---_,----_r--~,---_,----~

C().8

(sec)

Figure 8 Added mass in heave for the semi-submersible


(normalised with displacement P"V)

-(!)-

-*o

H.1.E.M.-C.E.-

H.!.E.M.-Q.E.H.F.E.M.-Q.E.EXPERIMENT

--

D. B.!. M. -C. E.-

-[!]-

H.!.E.M.-C.E.-

-(!)-

H.!.E.M.-Q.E.-

,r',

-lI(-

H.F.E.M.-Q.E.-

EXPERIMENT

_--

/",,/'

I
I

a:

,,/,,/'

'-

a:
'-

4.0

(sec)

(a) Potential flow theory

~,------------------------------------------,
-D.B.1.M.-C.E.-[!]-

3.2

2.4

1.6

I
I
I

,,/

, "L

I
I

'"o

04--m~.----r----.---~r---_r----'---_'----~

C().8

04---~r----r----.---_,~--_r----,---_,----~

C().8

2.4

1.6

3.2

2.4

1.6

4.0

3.2

(sec)

(b) With viscous correction (A=0.023 m)


Figure 10 Heave amplitude of the semi-submersible
in bow quartering waves (normalised with A)

(sec)

Figure 9 Surge amplitude of the semi-submersible in


head waves (normalised with wave amplitude A)

277

4.0

with classical boundary integral approaches based on constant


element Ideahsations.

~
-~-

O.B. I.H.-C.E.-

-[!]-

H. I.E.H.-C.E.-

-(!)-

H.I.E.M.-Q.E.-

-*-

H.F.E.M.-Q.E.-

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors are grateful to Mr. Kimitoshl Sano of Nagoya University for his careful typing ,of this manuscript.

EXPERIMENT

a:
-'"

-...
~

REFERENCES

'"a

DnV (1981), "Rules f~r Classification of Mobile Offshore Units."


Eatock Taylor, R. and Jefferys, E.R. (1986), "Variability of Hydrodynamic Load Predictions for a Tension Leg Platform,"
Ocean Engineering, Vol 13, No.5, pp.449-490.

91.8

1.6

2.4
T [sec]

3.2

4.0

Garret, C.J R. (1971), "Wave Forces on a Circular Dock," Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol 46, Part 1, pp.129-139.

Figure 11 Roll amplitude of the semi-submersible in beam


waves (normahsed with dimensionless wave number kA)
-~-

D.S I.M.-C.E.-

-[CJ-

H. I.E.M.-C.E.-

-(')-

H.I.E.M.-O.E.-

-*-

Garrison, C J. (1978), "Hydrodynamic Loading of Large Offshore Structures Three-Dimensional Source Distribution
Methods," in Numerical Methods in Offshore Engineering,
Zlenkiewlcz, 0 C. et al (eds), Wiley, Chichester, Ch.3,
pp.87-140.

H.F.E.M.-O.E.-

Jefferys, J R (1987), "Numerical Problems of First Order


DiffractIOn Theory," Second InternatJOnal Workshop on Water Waves and Floating Bodles, Report No. AM-87-06, Umverslty of Bristol

EXPERIMENT

Korsmeyer, FT., Lee, C -H, Newman, J Nand Sclavounos,


P D (1988), "The Analysis of Wave Effects on TensionLeg Platforms," Proceedings of the Seventh International
Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering,
ASME, Vol 2, Houston, Texas, pp 1-14.
1.6

2.4
T [sec]

3.2

MatsUl, T., Kato, K. and Shirai, T (1987), "A Hybrid Integral


EquatIOn Method for Diffraction and Radiation of Water
Waves by Three-Dimensional Bodies," ComputatJOnal MechanlCs, Vol.2, pp.119-135.

4.0

Figure 12 Yaw amplitude of the sew-submersible m bow


quartering waves (normalised With kA)

Takagi, M , Arai, S., Takezawa, S , Tanaka, K and Takarada, N.


(1985), "A Comparison of Methods for CalculatIng the Mohon of a Semi-SubmefSlble," Ocean EngineerIng, Vol 12,
No 1, pp 45-97.

CONCLUSION
ThiS work was motivated by the need to mvestIgate reliable and
economical numerical methods for predicting wave-induced dynamic responses of ocean platforms of complex geometry One
such method proposed herem IS the hybrid mtegral-equatlOn
method involving the use of quadrattc Isoparametric surface elements The validity and accuracy of the proposed method were
confirmed by companng computed results With the analytical solution for the circular dock and the model test results for the
ITTC serm-submerslble Comparison of our results With eXlstmg
numencal solutions mdIcated that the use of quadratiC isoparametrIC elements led to sigmficant Improvement of the accuracy
and effiCiency of the hybrId mtegral-equatlOn method, compared

Yue, D K P, Chen, H.S. and Mel, C C (1978), "A Hybrid Element Method for Diffraction of Water Waves by ThreeDimensional Bodies," InternatJOnal Journal for Numerical
Methods In EngineerIng, Vol 12, pp 245-266.
Yuen, M M F and Chau, F P (1987), "A HybrId Integral EquatIon Method for Wave Forces on Three-DimenSIOnal Offshore Structures," Journal of Offshore MechanICS and Arctic EngIneenng, TransactJOns of the ASME, Vol 109, No 3,
pp.229-236

278