TOl'Dta. JAP.4S
ABSTRACT
1985) and the ISSC (Eatock Taylor and Jefferys, 1986), however,
suggested that this was not the case for more complicated structures such as a semisubmersible and tensIOnleg platform (TLP)
A relIable and economical hybrid integralequation method is proposed for predicting wavemduced dynamic responses of ocean
platforms of complex geometry ThIs is based on combming a
dIrect boundary element solution of the fluid region close to the
body wIth an eIgenfunction representation of the far field behaviour To achieve accuracy and economy, the boundary surfaces are discretised mto quadratic isoparametnc elements The
validity and accuracy of the proposed method are demonstrated
through several numerical examples, including the results for the
ITTC sennsubmersible. It is shown that the use of quadratIc
Isoparametric elements leads to significant improvement of accuracy and efficiency of the hybrid integralequation method, compared WIth classical boundary integral approaches based on constant element idealisations
The ITTC Ocean Engmeering Committee has performed a comparative study of motions of a sennsubmersIble, whIch has been
published by Takagi et al (1985) PredIchons from 34 computer
programs were compared among themselves and WIth model test
results from three orgamsations \Vhile most computer programs
provided reasonable predictions of measured surge and sway, the
computed results for the other motIOns showed substantIal scatter
about the experiment.al data. The threedImensional dIffractIOn
programs seemed to overestimate the heave added mass, leading to longer natural periods than those predicted by Monson's
formula or experiment The survey for the ISSC, repubhshed
by Eatock Taylor and Jefferys (1986), also demonstrated sigmficant and disturbing variability between the hydrodynamIC loads
and motions predicted for an example TLP by 17 dIffraction programs
KEY WORDS Hybnd integralequatIon method, Wave dIffractIon, Wave radiation, Hydrodynamic load, Wavemduced mohon,
Ocean platform
INTRODUCTION
The design of huge ocean platforms depends critically upon the
analysis of wave induced loads and motions. Thus, over the last
fifteen years, substantial efforts have been devoted to the development of reliable and economIcal methods for predicting these
effects, Computer programs based on threedimensional diffraction theory are now available for evaluating the hydrodynamic
coeffiCIents, loads and motIons for structures of practIcal form
For large bodIes with relatively simple geometry such as a vertical cylinder or sphere, these programs generally provide accurate predictions which compare well with analytical solutions and
model test results. Recent surveys for the ITTC (Takagi et al.,
271

..,I"
(
(1)
The body motion may be represented as a linear superposition of
rigidbody modes, with complex amplitudes Xq (q = 1 to 6). The
indices q = 1 to 6 correspond respectively to surge, sway, heave,
roll, pitch and yaw.
' ~
r
I" SF
1'.._
V*
'
..... 
r,.......
1/
I"
 IS
S  _ <...... =~
R

__
...
IS co ( r+oo
.....) __~=l  V  ii
./

.....
_ .....


II
.....
'
r~ 'i
......__. .
'}
./
_/
<P
ZW L Xq<pq
= <Po + <P7 
(2)
q=1
where <Po is the incident wave potential, <P7 the dIffracted wave
potential, and <pq (q = 1 to 6) are the radiated wave potentials
corresp<mrung to umt OSCillation of the body in the qth mode in
otherWise calm water.
The boundaryvalue problems for the diffraction and radiation
potentials can be described by
v 2<pq = 0
fJ<Pq
on
=0
o<pq
oz  I/<pq
=0
or/>q
a;;: = nq
Governing Equations
With the assumption of ideal and irrotational flow, the wave field
at time t may be defined by a velocity potential

I,

hm (kr)t
kr_O
(7
q 
zk<pq)
=0
in the fluid
(3a)
on the bottom
(3b)
(3c)
(3d)
at infinity
(3e)
w2
1/
== 
= ktanhkh
(4)
(5)
272
RpQ denotes the distance between the two points, dS( Q) is a differential area on av, Cp is the solid angle enclosed by av at the
point P, and SB, SF are the portions of bottom and free surface
bounded by SR. Subscript Q on n designates that the normal
and added mass 'ld damping terms, Mqr and Nqr respectively,
gIven by
(6)
The hybnd integralequation method provides an effective numerical solution to the boundaryvalue problem for q. The fluid
region is divided into the two regions shown in Figure 1. The
mner region V completely encloses the body surface and depth
Irregularities, and is separated from the outer region V by a
fictitious vertical cylinder SR, whose radius is roo The potential . in V may be represented by eigenfunction expansion in
cylindrical coordinates (r, 8, z)
00
To solve the integral equation (12) numerIcally, the boundary surfaces S, SB and SF are discretised respectively into NJ, N2 and N3
quadrilateral isoparametric elements shown in Figure 2. The element 60S, has nodes p,(/) (J = 1 to 8) at its corner and mid.
z;/). All the nodes
side points, whose coordinates are (x~/),
on the whole boundaries are numbered in sequence, such that
P,(a = 1 to N J ) is the ath node with the coordinates (x"y,,z,),
where NJ is the total number of nodes. The potential q at the
arbitrary point Q within the element 60S, can be approximated
by
y;'),
00
(7)
n=Om=O
where
q{Q)
H~I)(kr)
~1
H~I)(kro) ,
R...(')
K,,(K:mr)
Kn(K:mro) ,
(13)
,=1
m=O
(8)
m 2: 1
cosh k(z + h)
Zm(z)
= LM,(Q)q{P,CI)
m = 0
coshkh'
COSK:m(z + h),
COSK:mh
XQ
m>
(9)
= LM,(Q)x~')
,=1
8
YQ
=L
M,(Q)y;/)
(14)
,=1
8
ZQ
=L
M,(Q)z;/)
3=1
(10)
(11)
on SR, the boundaryvalue problem for q is reduced to the integral equation
Cpq(P)
+ II
JJsus B
1 ) dS(Q)
q(Q)aa (R
nQ
PQ
 II(R: Q )] dS(Q)
~~;(Q)(R:J] dS(Q)
(12)
273
+L L
(F.mnCYmn + G.mn/3mn)
n=Om=O
N,
= '"
hq (p(l)
L...J '" B(I)
tJ
J
,
(15)
1=1;=1
(23)
To evaluate B~), it is convenient to rewrite equation (17) in the
form
(17)
(24)
(18)
where
(25)
where
1
bmn
=tanl(~:)
kH~I)I(kro)
(19)
B~)' = t
=0
H~I)(kro) ,
m>
an
N;
L(A~~)  /lB~),pq(p;(I)
L
I=N~+1
1=1 ;=1
+L
t!}tan l!.)
2
(26)
The evaluation of F.mn and G. mn requires more careful consideration because of the oscillatory behaviour of the integrands,
particularly when m is large. For these evaluations, it is convenient to use the Fourier series expansion of the Rankme source.
By substituting this mto equation (18) and integrating explicitly with respect to the azimuthal angle e, the surface integral
over SR in equation (18) is reduced to a line integral, which may
be then evaluated numerically. For full details, see Matsui, Kato
and Shirai (1987). Solution of equations (15) and (21) leads to
the numerical approximations to the diffraction and radiation potentials.
L L A~~),pq(~(I)
tan
where l" /3" " are as defined in Figure 3, and K takes the value
2 and 3 for the corner and midside nodes respectively. Since the
integral involved in equation (24) is regular everywhere, this may
be evaluated by numerical quadrature.
(20)
K:mK~(K:mro),
Kn(K:mro)
,=1
J=1
L (F.mnCYmn + G.mn/3mn)
n=Om=O
N,
= '"
'" B(I) h (p(l)
L. L..J 'J q
J
'
1=1 J=1
where
(22)
P,
(a)
Figure 3 Definitions of l"
(b) midside nodes
274
/3,
(b)
and ,,{, for (a) corner nodes,
NUMERICAL EXAMPLES
0.4.,
Several numerical examples have been studied to illustrate the vahdity and accuracy of our hybrid integralequatIOn method Both
constant and quadratic isoparametric element idealisations were
adopted and compared with each other as well as with existing
numerical solutions based on a direct boundary integral (Garnson, 1978) and hybrid finite element formulations (Yue, Chen
and Mei, 1978). In the remainder of this section, the abbreviahons H.LE.M., D.B.I M. and H.F.E.M are used respectively to
stand for the hybrid integralequation method, direct boundary
Integral method and hybrid finite element method. A constant
and quadratic isoparametric element are referred to as C.E and
Q.E. respectively.
GARRET
<C
0.3
H.I.E.M.{Q.E.)
"
H.I.E.M.{C.E.)
YUEN
&CHAU
'"F
'"a.
......
~
"'
'+
I
Z
....
0.2
::E
t!:l
Circular Dock
::>
'"
....
'"
>
I
....>
:i 0.'
3.0
ka
ITTC SemiSubmersible
As an illustration of use of our H, I E M. for analysing the motion
of an ocean platform of complex geometry, the second example
concerns the semisubmersible, of which the principal partIculars are ,given in Figure 6 and Table 2 ThiS configuration used
In the ITTC comparative study consists of eight columns supported by two lowerhulls of rectangular sectIon In view of the
double symmetry of the geometry, only one quadrant of the flUid
regIOn bounded by the fictitious cylinder of radius 1 125 m has
been analysed with the boundary element IdeahsatlOns shown In
(a)
(b)
Figure 4 Mesh subdivisions of a circular dock for
(a) HIE M (C E ), (b) HIE M.(Q.E.)
CIrcular dock
Element
C.E.
Q.E.
Semisubmersible
C.E
QE
275
Number of elements
Nl
N2
N3
4
26
18
2
5
3
228
4 160
57
40
Number of nodes
NJ
NR NT
48
15
63
48
15
63
392
30 422
325
30 355
FIgure 7 and Table 1, and the far field eigenfunction representation truncated at N = 5 and M = 9. The bracing members were
taken into account only when the static restoring coefficients and
viscous drag forces were evaluated. Our H.I.E.M. results were
compared with existing numerical solutions based on D.B.I.M.
and H F E.M. as well as with model test results published by
Takagi et al. (1985). Only selected results are presented here for
the heave added mass and motion responses in each mode.
Value Unit
1.797 m
1.172 m
0.313 m
130.3 kg
0.273 m
o 04!? m
0.037 m
0.536 m
0.556 m
0.634 m
3.000 m
Plan
(a)
(b)
Figure 7 Mesh subdivisions of the semisubmersible for
(a) H.I.E.M.(C.E.), (b) H.I.E.M.(Q.E.) (Mesh subdivision for D.B.I.M.(C.E.) is the same as (a) except that
only the body surface is discretised in D.B.I.M.)
Forward elevation
Figure 6 Layout of the ~TTC semisubmersible (in metres)
276
Table 3, which were estimated from the DnV rule (DnV, 1981).
For other motions only results based on potential flow theory
are illustrated. Again, it can be observed that H.LE M. and
H.F.E.M. usmg Q.E. provide much closer results to the measured responses than D B LM. and H I E.M. based on C.E. idealisations Our H.I.E.M. results based on Q.E idealisations are
seen to provide accurate predictions even for the heave response
near resonance, for which substantial discrepancies were observed
between predictions based on classical boundary integral formulations and the experimental data (Takagi et al., 1985).
CPU times were obtained on the FACOM M780/20 and VP200 at Nagoya UniversIty Computation Center. It is evident
that H.LE.M. offers a considerable saving of computer time over
D.B I.M. and H.F.E.M., especially when a wide range of frequencies must be studied.
Table 4 Comparison of CPU times
Method
DBIM(CE)*
HIEM(CE)*
HIEM(QE)*
HFEM(QE)**
To(s)
TF(S)
0.05
36.4
32.8
0.15
72.2
19.1
14.6
56.7
~,,
D. B.!. M. c. E.[!]
H.1.E.M.C.E.

O.B.!.M.C.E.
(!)
H.1.E.M.Q.E.
[!]
H.!.E.M.C.E.
*
H.F.E.M.Q.E.
(!)
H.!.E.M.Q.E.
EXPERIMENT
*
H.F. E. M. Q.E.
0
N
EXPERIMENT
.~
t>
a.
a:
''
'
):
L:
"'!
04..,r.,,i
C().8
2.4
1.6
3.2
4.0
04S~rr._,_r~,_,~
C().8
(sec)
(!)
*o
H.1.E.M.C.E.
H.!.E.M.Q.E.H.F.E.M.Q.E.EXPERIMENT

[!]
H.!.E.M.C.E.
(!)
H.!.E.M.Q.E.
,r',
lI(
H.F.E.M.Q.E.
EXPERIMENT
_
/",,/'
I
I
a:
,,/,,/'
'
a:
'
4.0
(sec)
~,,
D.B.1.M.C.E.[!]
3.2
2.4
1.6
I
I
I
,,/
, "L
I
I
'"o
04m~.r.~r_r'_'~
C().8
04~rr._,~_r,_,~
C().8
2.4
1.6
3.2
2.4
1.6
4.0
3.2
(sec)
(sec)
277
4.0
~
~
O.B. I.H.C.E.
[!]
H. I.E.H.C.E.
(!)
H.I.E.M.Q.E.
*
H.F.E.M.Q.E.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors are grateful to Mr. Kimitoshl Sano of Nagoya University for his careful typing ,of this manuscript.
EXPERIMENT
a:
'"
...
~
REFERENCES
'"a
91.8
1.6
2.4
T [sec]
3.2
4.0
Garret, C.J R. (1971), "Wave Forces on a Circular Dock," Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol 46, Part 1, pp.129139.
D.S I.M.C.E.
[CJ
H. I.E.M.C.E.
(')
H.I.E.M.O.E.
*
Garrison, C J. (1978), "Hydrodynamic Loading of Large Offshore Structures ThreeDimensional Source Distribution
Methods," in Numerical Methods in Offshore Engineering,
Zlenkiewlcz, 0 C. et al (eds), Wiley, Chichester, Ch.3,
pp.87140.
H.F.E.M.O.E.
EXPERIMENT
2.4
T [sec]
3.2
4.0
CONCLUSION
ThiS work was motivated by the need to mvestIgate reliable and
economical numerical methods for predicting waveinduced dynamic responses of ocean platforms of complex geometry One
such method proposed herem IS the hybrid mtegralequatlOn
method involving the use of quadrattc Isoparametric surface elements The validity and accuracy of the proposed method were
confirmed by companng computed results With the analytical solution for the circular dock and the model test results for the
ITTC sermsubmerslble Comparison of our results With eXlstmg
numencal solutions mdIcated that the use of quadratiC isoparametrIC elements led to sigmficant Improvement of the accuracy
and effiCiency of the hybrId mtegralequatlOn method, compared
Yue, D K P, Chen, H.S. and Mel, C C (1978), "A Hybrid Element Method for Diffraction of Water Waves by ThreeDimensional Bodies," InternatJOnal Journal for Numerical
Methods In EngineerIng, Vol 12, pp 245266.
Yuen, M M F and Chau, F P (1987), "A HybrId Integral EquatIon Method for Wave Forces on ThreeDimenSIOnal Offshore Structures," Journal of Offshore MechanICS and Arctic EngIneenng, TransactJOns of the ASME, Vol 109, No 3,
pp.229236
278
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