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CONTROL SYSTEMS

MEC 2825
Dr. Mohammad Abdelrahman
Semester I 2014/2015

Control Systems MEC 3825


Three Credit Hrs Core
Course Assessment: Midterm 30% - Assignments and Quizzes 20% - Projects
10% - Final Examination 40%.
Venue: E2-1-4
Time: 11:30 -12:50 pm T-TH

Lecture: Dr. Mohammad Abdelrahman


Room: E1-2-16.5
Contacts:
Email: m_abdelrahman@iium.edu.my
Office: 03-6196-4557
H/P: 017-240-8923

Consultation Hrs: 2-3 pm M/W

References
1. Norman S. Nise Control Systems
Engineering, Wiley & Sons, Sixth Edition,
2011.
2. F. Golnaraghi and B. Kuo Automatic Control
Systems, Wiley & Sons, Sixth Edition, 2010.
3. K. Ogata Modern Control Engineering,
Pearson Education International, 2002.

Course Overview
Introduction; Modeling in Frequency Domain,
Modeling in Time Domain, Time Response,
Reduction of Multiple Systems, Stability,
Steady State Errors, Root Locus Technique,
Design via Root Locus.

Chapter One
Introduction
Learning Outcomes
Define a control system and describe some applications
Describe historical developments leading to modern day
control theory
Describe the basic features and configurations of control
systems
Describe control systems analysis and design objectives
Describe a control system's design process
Describe the benefit from studying control systems

Case Study Learning Outcomes


An antenna azimuth position control system

Advantages of Control Systems


We build control systems for four primary reasons:
1. Power amplification
2. Remote control
3. Convenience of input form
4. Compensation for disturbances
For example, a radar antenna, positioned by the lowpower rotation of a knob at the input, requires a large
amount of power for its output rotation. A control
system can produce the needed power amplification,
or power gain.

System Configurations
Open-Loop Systems
A generic open-loop system is shown in It starts with
a subsystem called an input transducer, which
converts the form of the input to that used by the
controller.

Closed-Loop (Feedback Control) Systems


The disadvantages of open-loop systems, namely
sensitivity to disturbances and inability to correct for
these disturbances, may be overcome in closed-loop
systems

Analysis and Design Objectives


Analysis is the process by which a system's
performance is determined. For example, we
evaluate its transient response and steady-state
error to determine if they meet the desired
specifications.
Design is the process by which a system's
performance is created or changed. For
example, if a system's transient response and
steady-state error are analyzed and found not to
meet the specifications, then we change
parameters or add additional components to
meet the specifications.

Transient Response
Steady-State Response
Stability
Total response = Natural response + Forced
response

Other Considerations

The Design Process

Kirchhoff's voltage law: The sum of voltages


around a closed path equals zero.
Kirchhoffs current law: The sum of electric
currents flowing from a node equals zero.
Newton's laws: The sum of forces on a body
equals zero;3 the sum of moments on a body
equals zero.

Summary
A control system has an input, a process, and
an output. Control systems can be open loop
or closed loop
Control systems analysis and design focuses
on three primary objectives:
Producing the desired transient response
Reducing steady-state errors
Achieving stability

A system must be stable in order to produce the proper


transient and steady-state response.
The design of a control system follows these steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Determine a physical system and specifications from


requirements.
Draw a functional block diagram.
Represent the physical system as a schematic.
Use the schematic to obtain a mathematical model, such as
a block diagram.
Reduce the block diagram.
Analyze and design the system to meet specified
requirements and specifications that include stability,
transient response, and steady-state performance.

Example 1.1
If it takes 10 turns to move the wiper arm from A to C, draw a block diagram of the
potentiometer showing the input variable, the output variable, and (inside the
block) the gain, which is a constant and is the amount by which the input is
multiplied to obtain the output.

Example 1.2
Draw a functional block diagram for a closed-loop system that stabilizes
the roll.

Chapter Two
Modeling in the Frequency Domain
Learning Outcomes
Find the Laplace transform of time functions and the inverse Laplace
transform
Find the transfer function from a differential equation and solve the
differential equation using the transfer function
Find the transfer function for linear, time-invariant electrical
networks
Find the transfer function for linear, time-invariant translational
mechanical systems
Find the transfer function for linear, time-invariant rotational
mechanical systems
Find the transfer functions for gear systems with no loss and for gear
systems with loss
Find the transfer function for linear, time-invariant electromechanical
systems
Produce analogous electrical and mechanical circuits
Linearize a nonlinear system in order to find the transfer function

Case Study Learning Outcomes


Given the antenna azimuth position control
system, you will be able to find the transfer
function of each subsystem.
Given a model of a human leg or a nonlinear
electrical circuit, you will be able to linearize the
model and then find the transfer function.

Development of mathematical models


from schematics of physical Systems
We will discuss two methods: (1) transfer
functions in the frequency domain
and (2) state equations in the time domain.
These topics are covered in this chapter and
in Chapter 3, respectively.

Laplace Transform Review


The Laplace transform is defined as

The inverse Laplace transform, which allows us to


find f(t) given F(s), is

Example 2.1

Example 2.2.1

Partial-Fraction Expansion

Example 2.2.2

G(s) Has Multiple-Order Poles

Example 2.2.3
Show that the completed partial-fraction expansion for the following transfer function

is given by:

The Transfer Function


General nth-order, linear, time-invariant differential equation:

Taking the Laplace transform of both sides,

If we assume that all initial conditions are zero,

Example 2.4
Find the transfer function represented by

Find the response, c(t) to an input, r{t) = u(t), a unit step, assuming zero initial
conditions.
Matlab Solution

Electrical Network Transfer Functions

Find the transfer function relating the capacitor voltage, Vc(s), to the input
voltage, V(s)

Repeat the previous example using mesh analysis and transform methodswithout
writing a differential equation.

Repeat the previous example using nodal analysis and without writing a
differential equation.
Repeat the previous example using voltage division and the transformed
circuit.

Given the network of Figure (a), find the transfer function, I2(s)/V(s).

Find the transfer function, Vc(s)/V(s), for the circuit in Figure (b).
Use nodal analysis.

For the network of shown figure, find the transfer function, Vc(s)/V(s), using nodal
analysis and a transformed circuit with current sources.

Mesh Equations via Inspection