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Theoretical Competition

1st IOAA

December 5, 2007

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SOLUTION FOR QUESTION 1. (30 points for 15 short questions)


1.1
Z

42.5o

= 23.5

W
S

42.5o

AB BE

42.5o

Equator

E = East point
BE = 23.5o = declination of the Sun
AB
BE
=
o
sin 42.5
sin 90o 42.5o

sin 42.5o
AB = BE
= 23.5o tan 42.5o
o
cos 42.5

local time = (23.5 tan 42.5o / 15) hrs after 6:00 = 7:26 am. The official
time at 75o W should be 16 min. less.
Ans. 7:10 am.

Theoretical Competition

1st IOAA

December 5, 2007

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Alternative solution (for 1.1)

Latitude = 42.5o

= 23.5o
DG BC

Bx
G
x
C

Ax
xD

Suns rays

x
O

Longitude 71o
X&X

The Earths position relative to the Sun is shown in the figure.


Note that

OB = R sin
AB = OB tan
BC = BD = BE = R cos

DG
BA
BO tan
=
=
= tan tan
BD
BD
R cos
= tan 23.50 tan 42.5o = 0.39843 = sin(23.48o )

sin =

)
Hence, the Sun will rise at (71 + 23.48 ) 4 min . 5 hours. = 77.92 min.
o

after 6 a.m.. This is at 7:18 a.m.

Theoretical Competition

1st IOAA

December 5, 2007

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.2
The angular separation is maximum when
Venus

R 90o
Sun

46o

Sun, Venus and Earth form a right-angled


triangle as shown.

Earth

Here

R = R sin 46o

= 1A.U. sin 46o


= 0.72 A.U.

1.3

If the same face of the Earth were to face the Sun all the time then the
Earth would make one complete turn relative to fixed stars in one solar
year (365.25 solar days).
This implies that in 365.25 solar days our actual Earth makes (365.25+1)
complete turns relative to fixed stars.
Hence 365.25 solar days are the same time interval as 366.25 sidereal days;
and

183 solar days

183 366.25
sidereal days
365.25
= 183.50 sidereal days

OR
1 solar day = 24 x 60 x 60 s = 86400 s
1 sidereal day = 23 x 3600 + 56 x 60 + 4.1 = 86164.1 s
183 solar days =

1.4

183.50 sidereal days

During a full Moon we see the whole face of the Moon.


Moon's diameter
= angle in radians
distance to Moon
0.46
=
180
180
Distance to the Moon = (Moon's diameter)
0.46
180
= 2 1.7374 106 m
0.46
8
= 4.328 10 m = 4.3 105 km

Hence

Theoretical Competition

1st IOAA

December 5, 2007

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.5
Diameter of Earths orbit around the Sun
2a

star

a = 1 A.U. = 1.496 1011 m


1 pc = 3.0856 1016 m
D = 100 3.0856 1016 m

2a
2 1.496 1011
=
radian
D
100 3.0856 1016
= 0.96966..... 107 radian
= 5.555779... 106 degree
= 0.02 arc second

1.6

According to Keplers third law we have

(period)

= (constant)(semi-major axis)

T 2 = (constant)a 3

(year)
This constant is 1
(A.U.)

2
3

when T is measured in years and a in A.U.s.

For this comet we have


a =

31.5 + 0.5
= 16.0 A.U.
2

T 2 = (16) = 16 4 4 16 = (64)
3

T = 64

1.7

years

According to Keplers second law we have;


The area is swept out at constant rate throughout the orbital motion.
Now, for this comet the area swept out in one orbital period is ab where

a is the semi-major axis and b the semi-minor axis of the orbit.


a = 16.0 A.U.
b 2 = a 2 (distance from a focus to centre of ellipse )

Theoretical Competition

1st IOAA

December 5, 2007

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------= (16.0) (16.0 0.5)


2

b = 3.968 A.U.

ab = 199.5 (A.U.)

Hence, the area swept out per year is


199.5 (A.U.)

64 years

1.8

= 3.1

(A.U.)

/ year

From the Wiens displacement law


maxT = 2.8977 103 m.K

2.8977 103
m = 7.244 107 m
4000
= 724 nanometers

max =

1.9

From the Stefan-Boltzmann law, the total power emitted is

L = 4R

2


4
R

2 7500
T

T = L (2.5)

T
5800

R


)(T ) = (4R )(
4

4


L
= (6.25)(2.796) = 17.47 = 17.5
L
L = 17.5L

1.10

flux density =

distance =
=

luminosity
4 (distance)

0.4 3.826 1026


= 1.398 1019 m
14
4 6.23 10
1.398 1019
pc = 453 pc
3.0856 1016

Theoretical Competition

1st IOAA

December 5, 2007

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.11
Lsupernova = 1010 L

Let D be the distance to that supernova.


Then the flux intensity on Earth would be I =
This must be the same as
1010 L
4D

1010 L
4D 2

L
4 (D )

L

4 1 A.U.

D = 10

10
2

A.U. = 105 A.U.

1.496 1016
=
pc = 0.485 pc
3.0856 1016
= 0.485 3.2615 ly = 1.58 ly

1.12

The difference in frequencies is due to the relativistic Doppler shift. Since


the observed frequency of emission from the gas cloud is higher than the
laboratory frequency 0 , the gas cloud must be approaching the observer.
Hence,

= 0

c +v
c v
2


1
0

v
=
2
c

+ 1

0
=

0.001752379
= 0.000875422
2.001752379

v = (0.000875422) 2.99792458 108 m.s1

= 0.00262445 108 m.s1


= 262.445 km.s1

Theoretical Competition

1st IOAA

December 5, 2007

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Circular aperture of diameter D


1.13
(representing the eye)

A
B

A and B are two distant objects.


A and B are the central maxima of their diffracted images.

The angular position 1 of the first minimum relative to central maximum

.
D
According to Lord Rayleigh the minimum angle of resolution is 1 .

of each diffraction pattern is given by 1 = 1.22

We may take distance AB to be the diameter of the crater. Hence the

Hence the images of A and B will be resolved if > 1, D > 1.22

diameter D of the eyes aperture must be, at least, Dmin = 1.22

80 km

distance from Earth to Moon


80 103 m
=
= 2.081 104 radian
8
3.844 10 m

= 500 109 m

Dmin

1.22 500 109


=
m = 2.93 103 m
4
2.081 10
= 2.9 mm

Hence, it is possible to resolve the 80 km-diameter crater with naked eye.


1.14

The spherical boundary at which the escape velocity becomes equal to the
speed of light is of radius R =
R =

2GM 

c2
2 6.672 1011 1.989 1030

(2.99792458 10 )
8

2 6.672 1.989
103 m
2.998 2.998
= 2.95 km

Theoretical Competition

1st IOAA

December 5, 2007

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.15

The flux ratio versus magnitude difference implies


f
m1 m2 = 2.5 log 1
f2
f1
f2

(m2 m1 )

= 10

2.5

So for a magnitude difference of (1.5) 6 = 7.5 we find a flux ratio of


fmin
fmax

7.5

= 10 2.5 = 103

And thus the visible stars range only over a factor of 1000 in brightness.

Theoretical Competition

1st IOAA

December 5, 2007

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------QUESTION 2

A PLANET & ITS SURFACE TEMPERATURE

SOLUTION
a.) Intensity

b.) Absorption rate

L
4D 2
A = (1 ) R 2I
I =

= (1 )

(1 point)

LR2
4D 2

(1 point)

c.) Light energy reflected by the planet per unit time is

LR2
R I =
4D 2
(1 point)
2

Hence the planets luminosity is

LR 2
4D 2
d.) Here, we will neglect the planets internal source of energy.
Lplanet =

(1 point)

Let T be the black-body temperature of the planets surface in kelvins.


Since the planet is rotating fast, we may assume that its surface is being
heated up uniformly to approximately the same temperature T .
The total amount of black-body radiation emitted by the planets surface is
from Stefan-Boltzmann law: 4R 2 T 4 , being Stefan-Boltzmann constant.
At equilibrium, that is when the temperature remains steady, this emission
rate must be equal to the absorption rate in b.).

(1 point)

Hence
4R2 T 4 = (1 )

LR2
4D 2
1

L 4
(1 point)
T = (1 )

16D 2

e.) In this case the emitted black-body radiation is mostly from the planets
surface facing the star. The emitting surface area is now only 2R2 and
not 4R2 . Hence the surface temperature is given by T , where

2R 2 (T ) = (1 )
4

LR 2
4D 2

(1 point)

Theoretical Competition

1st IOAA

December 5, 2007

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

L 4
4
T = (1 )
=
2
T (1.19)T
(
)
2

(1 point)

f.)

L 4
T = (1 )

16D 2

4
26

3.826
10

T = (1 0.25)
2

8
11
16 5.67 10 1.523 1.496 10

o
(2 points)
= 209.8  210 K = -63 C

Theoretical Competition

1st IOAA

December 5, 2007

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------QUESTION 3

BINARY SYSTEM

Solution
a) The total angular momentum of the system is
(M 1r12 + M 2r22 )

L = I =

(0.5 points)

We have also M 1r1 = M 2r2 and D = r1 + r2


which yield

L =

M 1M 2
M1 + M 2

D 2

..(1)

(0.5 points)

The kinetic energy of the system is


2
2
1
1
1
M 1 (r1 ) + M 2 (r2 ) =
M 1r12 + M 2r22 2
2
2
2
1 M 1M 2
...(2)
=
D 2 2
2 (M 1 + M 2 )

K .E . =

(0.5 points)
(0.5 points)

b) From Newtons laws of motion we have


M 1 2r1 = M 2 2r2 =

GM 1M 2

(1 point)

D2
These equations together with those in a) yield
2 =

G (M 1 + M 2 )
D3

.(3)

(1 point)

c) In order to find the quantity , we must also realize that


M 1 + M 2 = constant

.(4)

(0.5 points)

And that, since there is no external torque acting on the system, the total
angular momentum must be conserved.
L =

that is,

M 1M 2
M1 + M 2

D 2 = constant

M 1M 2D 2 = constant

Now, after the mass transfer,

M1
M2
D

+
M 1 + M 1
M 2 M 1
D + D

(0.5 points)

Theoretical Competition

1st IOAA

December 5, 2007

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Hence, M 1M 2D 2 = (M 1 + M 1 )(M 2 M 1 )(D + D ) +


2

After using the approximation (1 + x ) 1 + nx and rearranging, we get


n

M M

D
2
+2
= 1
M 1
M 1M 2

..(5)

(1 point)

From equation (3), 2D 3 is also constant. That is,


2D 3 = ( + ) (D + D )
2

This gives,
D
2
(6)
=
D
3
3 (M 1 M 2 )
=
M 1 ..(7)
M 1M 2

Hence

(0.5 points)
(0.5 points)

d) Given that
M1 = 2.9 M , M2 = 1.4 M
orbital period, T = 2.49 days
and that T has increased by 20 s in the past 100 years,
we have

2
and
T

T (8)
T

1 M 1M 2 T
M 1 = +

3 M 1 M 2 T


M 1
1
1.4
20
1

=

M 1t
3 (2.9 1.4) 2.49 24 3600 100

e)
f)

(0.5 points)

(0.5 points)

= 2.89 107 per year

(0.5 points)

Mass is flowing from M 2 to M 1 .

(0.5 points)

From equations (6) and (8):


D
2
2 T
=
=+
= 6.20 107 per year (1.0 points)
D t
3
3 T

Theoretical Competition

1st IOAA

December 5, 2007

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------QUESTION 4
Solution

GRAVITATIONAL LENSING
S2

S1

DS - DL
L

DS

DL

Figure 1

O
a). From figure 1, for small angles, tan , hence

PS1 = PS+ SS1

DS = DS + (DS DL )
=

4GM (DS DL )
DS
c 2

.(1)

also, hence,
DL
4GM D DL

2 = 2 S
c D D

( 1 point)

Note that =

.(2)

For a perfect alignment in which = 0 , we have = E , where


E =

DS DL
4GM
.(3)
c 2 DLDS

( 1 point)

b). From equation (3), for a solar-mass lens with DS = 50 kpc,

DL = 50 10 = 40 kpc
E =

4GM D D
9
L

S
radian
c 2 D D = 0.956 10
L

= 1.97 10

arc second

( 1 point)

Theoretical Competition

1st IOAA

December 5, 2007

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------c.) The resolution of the Hubble space telescope having diameter of 2.4 m is,
Hubble

5 107 m

= 1.22
= 1.22
= 2.54 107 radian for light of
2.4 m
D

wavelength 500 nm.

( 1 point)

Hence the Hubble telescope could not resolve this Einstein ring.
( 1 point)
d). The quadratic equation (2) has two distinct roots, namely,

where E =

1 = +
2


+ 2
E
2

2 =
2


+ 2
E
2

( 1 point)

( 1 point)

4GM D D
L

S
c 2 D D
L

This implies that there are two images for a single isolated source.

1,2

e).

1
=
2

f).


+ 2
E
2

2
2

2
1 1
+ = 1 1 + 4

2
2

(1 point)

From equation (2) 2 E2 = 0

( + ) ( + )( + )
2

2
E

=0

=1,2

1
2
1+

1,2

4 = 1 1
=
= 2

2
2
21,2
2

2 1 +
4

(1 point)

(1 point)