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ESM410 Assignment 1:

Problem Pictures Task - Creating openended questions


Student Name: Naomi Mathew
Student Number: 212198847
Campus: Burwood

PLAGIARISM AND COLLUSION Plagiarism occurs when a student passes off as the students own work, or
copies without acknowledgement as to its authorship, the work of any other person. Collusion occurs when a student
obtains the agreement of another person for a fraudulent purpose with the intent of obtaining an advantage in
submitting an assignment or other work. Work submitted may be reproduced and/or communicated for the purpose of
detecting plagiarism and collusion.
DECLARATION I certify that the attached work is entirely my own (or where submitted to meet the requirements of
an approved group assignment is the work of the group), except where material quoted or paraphrased is
acknowledged in the text. I also certify that it has not been submitted for assessment in any other unit or course.
SIGNED:

DATE: 28/8/2015

An assignment will not be accepted for assessment if the declaration appearing above has not been signed by the
author.
YOU ARE ADVISED TO RETAIN A COPY OF YOUR WORK UNTIL THE ORIGINAL HAS BEEN
ASSESSED AND RETURNED TO YOU.

Assessors Comments: Your comments and grade will be recorded on the essay itself. Please ensure your name
appears at the top right hand side of each page of your essay.

Checklist
All points must be ticked that they are completed before submission.

Requirements checklist:

Tick
complete
d

The rationale addressed the rationale prompts in the assignment description.


The rationale included relevant citations/references which are stated.
Created 3 quality problem picture photos.
The photos MUST be original photos taken by yourself.
Location of photos are stated, e.g. Taken at Deakin foreshore.
Developed an original question for each photo with an accompanying enabling and
extending prompt.
If your photo has numbers that you are referring to in the problem, the numbers MUST
be clearly visible to be able to read in the photo.
Open-ended questions are creative and engaging.
Matched each problem with the appropriate mathematical content, year, definition and
code from the Australian Curriculum: Mathematics
Each question is accompanied by three possible correct responses.
Cross-curriculum links are made to each photo.
Reflecting on the trialling of the questions with an appropriately aged child or children.
The trialling reflection included relevant citations/references which are stated.
There is evidence of reference to problem-picture unit materials.
Problem pictures were collated into a word document using the assignment template.
File size of the word document is under 4mb.
Assignment is uploaded to the Cloud Deakin dropbox.

In order to pass this assignment you must have fulfilled all aspects of the checklist.

Rationale for the use of problem pictures in the classroom


Using open-ended problem pictures in mathematics can prove to be advantageous
and engaging for teachers and students in the modern, primary classroom. Kilpatrick
and Swafford (2002, p. 9) describe the five strands of mathematical proficiency as
understanding, computing, applying, reasoning and engaging. Through the use of
open-ended problem pictures, students would be able to comprehend mathematical
problems in a different manner, use the problem picture to accurately create multiple
mathematical solutions, practically relate their problem picture to other similar
circumstances and provide justifications for their solutions. This would serve to
support my future teaching practices in delivering more holistic and challenging
lessons. Hacking (2015, p. 2) states that children must be able to see real and
relevant contexts where maths is used as part of everyday experiences in order to be
effective. As such, open-ended problem pictures will allow students to make
meaningful connections with their learning. Chen and Weiland (2007, p. 47) suggest
[demonstrating] the same mathematical concept using multiple modes as an
effective learning strategy. Open-ended problem pictures will allow students to view
mathematic problems in a more engaging manner as well as support those visual
learners who will benefit from the visual delivery of mathematic problems. Using
open-ended picture problems would enable me to differentiate my future teaching and
support the different types of learners in the classroom. Furthermore, the open-ended
nature of the problem pictures will serve to foster some of the more important
aspects of learning [mathematics], including investigating, creating, problematising,
communicating, and thinking as-distinct from merely recalling procedures (Sullivan,
Mousley & Zevenbergen 2005, p. 106). Open-ended picture problems call for a more
abstract and deeper way of thinking and as such, develops other skills that are
necessary for students to become critical problem solvers. Another important aspect
of open-ended problem photos is that they create a curiosity in the students and a
desire to explore possible solutions (Bragg & Nicol 2011, p. 4). This is crucial in
developing future engagement with mathematics and dispelling the negative
perceptions that students often have about mathematics. Open-ended picture
problems will support the way in which I engage and challenge students of all abilities
in the learning of mathematics. Open-ended problem pictures will also allow me to
deliver mathematical content in a different and more meaningful way than previous
traditional approaches which in turn, will promote a more conducive learning
environment.

References for the rationale:


Bragg, LA & Nicol, C 2011, Seeing mathematics through a new lens: Using photos in
the mathematics classroom, The Australian Mathematics Teacher, vol. 67, no. 3, pp.
3-9, retrieved 26 August 2015, https://d2l.deakin.edu.au/content/enforced/340075ESM410_TRI-2_2015/AMT%202011%20Vol%2067%20Issue%203%20-%20Seeing
%20maths%20through%20a%20new%20lens.pdf?
_&d2lSessionVal=gCEgljFce99SijQ3xaEbT1Xch&ou=340075&_&d2lSessionVal=CjlVQB
aevZk79NftrrrTMqZbo&ou=340075
Chen, J & Weiland, L 2007, 'Helping Young Children Learn Mathematics: Strategies for
Meeting the Needs of Diverse Learners', Exchange (01648527), no. 174, pp. 46-51,
retrieved 26 August 2015, Education Source, EBSCOhost.

Hacking, C 2015, 'The power of the picture book for teaching mathematics in the early
years', English 4--11, 53, pp. 2-4, retrieved 26 August 2015, Education Source,
EBSCOhost.
Kilpatrick, J & Swafford, J 2002, Helping Children Learn Mathematics, n.p.: Washington,
DC : National Academy Press, 2002., retrieved 26 August 2015, DEAKIN UNIV
LIBRARY's Catalog, EBSCOhost.
Sullivan, P, Mousley, J & Zevenbergen, R 2005, Increasing access to mathematical
thinking, Australian Mathematical Society Gazette, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 105-109,
retrieved 26 August 2015,
http://www.austms.org.au/Publ/Gazette/2005/May05/sullivanMZ.pdf

Problem Picture 1
Location:

Taken at bus stop in Westfield Doncaster

Problem Picture 1 - Questions

Grade level: 2
Question 1
Locate either of the buses route numbers and use the three digits to create different
number patterns.

Answers to Question 1
1. 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 (blank spaces have been filled. Number pattern is
ascending by ones)
2. 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0 (blank spaces have been filled. Number pattern is
descending by ones)
3. 0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 (Number pattern is ascending by 14 [2+9+3])

AusVELS - Number and Algebra


Content strand/s, year, definition and code
Patterns and Algebra, Level 2, Describe patterns with numbers and identify missing
elements (ACMNA035)

Enabling Prompt

With a partner, locate the bus route numbers and use the three digits to create
different number patterns.

Answers to Enabling Prompt


1. 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 (blank spaces have been filled. Number pattern is
ascending by ones)
2. 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0 (blank spaces have been filled. Number pattern is
descending by ones)
3. 0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 (Number pattern is ascending by 14 [2+9+3])

AusVELS
Content strand/s, year, definition and code
Patterns and Algebra, Level 2, Describe patterns with numbers and identify missing
elements (ACMNA035)

Justification for change to the original question

The original question was modified for the enabling prompt to include working with a
partner. This modification was selected because some students have trouble
identifying potential number patterns and as such will benefit from the ideas and
explanations of a second person.

Extending Prompt
Create as many number patterns as possible and explain the rule for each number
pattern. Experiment with different starting numbers, using the operations etc.

Answers to Extending Prompt


1. 60, 58, 49, 46, 44, 35, 32, 30 (Explanation of rule: Starting at 60, the pattern
continues as -2, -9, -3, -2, -9, -3)
2. 1, 3, 3, 10, 12, 12, 19, 21, 21, 28 (Explanation of rule: Starting at 1, the
pattern continues as +2, +0, +7, +2, +0, +7)
3. 100, 102, 111, 114, 116, 125, 128 (Explanation of rule: Starting at 100, the
pattern continues as +2, +9, +3, +2, +9, +3)

AusVELS
Content strand/s, year, definition and code
Patterns and Algebra, Level 3, Describe, continue, and create number patterns
resulting from performing addition or subtraction (ACMNA060)

Justification for change to the original question


The original question was modified to include more challenging number sentences
through the use of different starting numbers, operations and so on as well as the
inclusion of an explanation of the rule for each number pattern. These modifications
were selected because they encourage more complex mathematical equations and
also consolidate students understanding of number patterns through the explanations
for the rules.

Cross-Curriculum Links
The photo of the buses at Westfield Doncaster depicts a local, built environment.
Students can use that photo to identify and describe specific aspects of the
environment that are built or natural. Students should think about what the term
man-made means and the role it plays in our lives. Students can use this photo as a
prompt to think about other places in their local area that depict built environments.
In contrast, students should also think about what constitutes a natural environment
as well as places local to them which would be considered a natural environment. As
the picture of the buses at Westfield Doncaster mainly depicts a built environment,
students could also discuss and write about what it would be like if the world was
made of only built environments. Following on from that, students can explain why it
is important to preserve natural environments and the role we play in doing so. This
activity requires students to draw upon their individual knowledge and experiences
and as such is relatable to all the students. It is also an important discussion in
developing socially conscious individuals.

AusVELS - Cross-curriculum
Cross-curriculum area, Content strand/s, year, definition and code
Humanities, Level 2, Through observation, they investigate and describe elements of
the natural and built environments in their local area.

Report of Trialling Problem Picture 1


Childs pseudonym, age and grade level:
Millie, 7, Level 2

Original Question:
Locate either of the buses route numbers and use the three digits to create different
number patterns.

Childs response to the question:

Reflection on childs response:


The original question given to the student was Locate either of the buses route
numbers and use the three digits to create different number patterns. At first, the
student was puzzled at which numbers she had to use as there were other numbers
depicted on the buses but settled on the correct set of numbers as there were four
digits in the other groups. She was also slightly confused by the idea of number
patterns. However, after I repeated the question verbally, she remembered what they
were.
The student answered my problem picture well in terms of how the number pattern
was displayed and exceeded my expectations by drawing the arrows above the
number pattern and highlighting what had occurred from the previous number to the
next one. Whilst the student did have the right idea when creating the number
patterns, in terms of adding and subtracting the individual bus numbers, I was
expecting the student to experiment more with the bus numbers instead of
completing an addition and subtraction number pattern for each bus number. Apart
from one computing error in her response, the student demonstrated the capacity to
respond to the original question. As the student had essentially included all the
elements of the extending prompt in her answer to the original question, I did not
issue an extending prompt to her. She demonstrated the ability to experiment with
different starting numbers and provide a form of explanation in her response to the
original question and in doing so, exceeded my expectations.
The student demonstrated a number of strengths in her mathematical understanding
through her response to the prompt. She showed a good understanding of
mathematical pattern in the way she repeatedly used the bus numbers in a certain
order and the same operation for each number pattern. Mulligan et al. (2008, p. 11)
emphasises that recognition of mathematical pattern and structure can positively
influence overall learning in mathematics. Perhaps it was the students aptitude for
patterns that enabled her to gain a positive result that exceeded the requirements of
the original question. The students weaknesses were not easily identified through the
use of this question as it did not appear to extend her past what she already knew.
However, the students responses demonstrated a lack of creativity. It is unclear
whether this is due to a lack of engagement with the task or a lack of understanding
about more complex number patterns. Kruteskii (cited in Bharath 2008, p. 3) talks
about mathematical creativity as the ability to abstract and generali[s]e
mathematical content. The student showed some understanding of making
generalisations through the number patterns however, that was not extended further.
The original question did address certain aspects of the AusVELS link as it allowed the
student to [d]escribe patterns with numbers (Australian Curriculum Assessment and
Reporting Authority [ACARA], 2013). The question encouraged the identification and
description of a pattern which involved adding and subtracting numbers greater than
one. However, the question was limited in its exploration of missing numbers in the
number sequences.

In light of the students responses and my reflective practices, I would ensure that my
revised question encourages students to engage creatively with their number
patterns. To do so, I would allow them to pick any three numbers from the problem
picture. I would also encourage students to test each other so that they would be
challenged in identifying the number pattern without knowing the original numbers
that were used.

Rephrased Question:

Identify three numbers on the bus and create as many challenging and creative
number patterns as possible. Make sure you have fun with trying out different starting
numbers and operations. Once you have finished, erase a few numbers in your
sequence and see if your friends can solve it.

References for reflection on the trial of question 1:


Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority 2013, The Australian
Curriculum, retrieved 31 August 2015, http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au
Mulligan, J, Mitchelmore, M, Kemp, C, Marston, J, & Highfield, K 2008, 'Through Pattern
& Structure', Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom, 13, 3, pp. 10-15, Education
Source, EBSCOhost, viewed 31 August 2015.
Sriraman, B 2008, Creativity, Giftedness, And Talent Development In Mathematics,
Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, eBook Academic Collection (EBSCOhost),
EBSCOhost, viewed 31 August 2015.

Problem Picture 2
Location: Taken in my bathroom

Problem Picture 2 - Questions


Grade level: Foundation
Question 2
List as many shapes as you can from this photo and draw pictures of other things that
have the same shape as those you have listed.

Answers to Question 2

AusVELS - Measurement and Geometry


Content strand/s, year, definition and code
Shape, Foundation, Sort, describe and name familiar two-dimensional shapes and
three-dimensional objects in the environment (ACMMG009)

Enabling Prompt
List or draw as many shapes as you can find in this photo.

Answers to Enabling Prompt

AusVELS
Content strand/s, year, definition and code
Shape, Level D, Use direct comparison to sort three dimensional objects and two
dimensional shapes (ACMMG009d)

Justification for change to the original question

I modified the original question so that students would list or draw the shapes they
found in the picture without having to list other objects that contain the same shape. I
selected this modification as it enables students to identify shapes based on a single
feature and recognise how they fit into everyday life.

Extending Prompt
Pick one of the 2D or 3D shapes that you have found in this picture and create a table
to record the number of faces, corners and edges the shape has.

Answers to Extending Prompt

AusVELS
Content strand/s, year, definition and code
Shape, Level 1, Recognise and classify familiar two-dimensional shapes and threedimensional objects using obvious features (ACMMG022)

Justification for change to the original question

The original question was modified so that students had to identify features of a shape
such as the number of faces, corners and edges. This modification was selected as it
challenged students to actually state the identifying features of shapes.

Cross-Curriculum Links
The photo of the bathroom above would be used as a prompt for students to record
events such as getting ready for school. The events that are recorded have to be
directly related to the bathroom and have to be events familiar to them. Students may
choose to list the events in sequential order starting from when they wake up.
Students should endeavour to use the appropriate vocabulary and descriptive words
to record down their morning routine. This activity will be particularly relevant and
useful for Foundation students as they are in their first year of school and might still
be adjusting to their routine in the morning. This activity will also allow students to
showcase their abilities and achievements in their morning routine. Links from this
activity can also be made to discussions about hygiene and caring for themselves.
Finally, this activity would relate to most, if not all, students and therefore be
something that they would all be able to relate to.

AusVELS - Cross-curriculum
Cross-curriculum area, Content strand/s, year, definition and code
English, Literacy, Foundation, Create short texts to explore, record and report ideas
and events using familiar words and beginning writing knowledge (ACELY1651)

Report of Trialling Problem Picture 2


Childs pseudonym, age and grade level:
Mylo, 6, Foundation

Original Question:
List as many shapes as you can from this photo and draw pictures of other things that
have the same shape as those you have listed.

Childs response to the question:

Reflection on childs response:


My initial question was List as many shapes as you can from this photo and draw
pictures of other things that have the same shape as those you have listed. Similar to
the first problem picture question, this question was also met with slight hesitation
and confusion which did not last long.
The student answered my problem picture better than I expected him to. He identified
two common two-dimensional shapes, being a square and a rectangle. Interestingly,
the students drawings of other objects that contained the identified shapes were all
objects pertaining to his classroom. Sharan (2015, p. 83) describes meaningful
learning as learning that promotes the construction of knowledge out of learners
experience, feelings and exchanges. I believe that the student made connections
between what the question was asking him and his learning environment. He was
therefore able to use his environment as a resource and correctly associated the
shapes he identified with objects familiar to him and relevant to him at the time.

When presented with the extending prompt, the student was unable to answer the
question which was what I had expected as he was unfamiliar with faces, corners and
edges in the context of a shape.
The student displayed some strengths through answering the question as he was able
to identify some shapes and relate those shapes to other objects. He was not given a
context and as such had to formulate his own ideas of objects that contained the
shapes he had identified. This demonstrates the connections he has formed and the
understanding of shapes in his world. However, the student was only able to identify a
square and a rectangle and was not able to identify the other shapes present in the
picture. Reys et al. (2009) states that students should be able to identify shapes from
examples in their world around them. Perhaps the students inability to identify other
shapes highlights a lack of familiarity with other less common shapes and in effect,
this could be seen as an area of improvement in his mathematical understanding.
Furthermore, the extending question demonstrated his inability to transfer his
knowledge of corners and edges when placed in the context of shapes.
I believe the question addressed the mathematical content that was related to the
AusVELS link as the student identified, sorted and described two-dimensional shapes
in his environment that were familiar to him (Australian Curriculum Assessment and
Reporting Authority [ACARA], 2013). I believe that the question was adequate in
drawing out a response from the student that directly related to the curriculum
content. However, in light of the childs response and the reflective process, I would
change the wording of the question so that it is more concise and clear. It is my hope
that rewriting the question will make the task easier to understand.

Rephrased Question:
Find as many shapes as you can in this photo. Where else can you find those shapes?

References for reflection on the trial of question 2:


Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority 2013, The Australian
Curriculum, retrieved 30 August 2015, http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au
Reys, RE 2009, Helping children learn mathematics, 9th ed, Hoboken, New Jersey,
John Wiley & Sons
Sharan, Y 2015, 'Meaningful learning in the cooperative classroom', Education 3-13,
43, 1, pp. 83-94, Education Source, EBSCOhost, retrieved 30 August 2015.

Problem Picture 3
Location: Taken in my kitchen

Problem Picture 3 - Questions


Grade level: 2
Question 3
Create an open-ended question about the fruits. Then, survey your class using the
question and record their information.

Answers to Question 3

AusVELS - Statistics and Probability


Content strand/s, year, definition and code
Statistics and Probability, Data representation and interpretation, Level 2, Identify a
question of interest based on one categorical variable. Gather data relevant to the
question (ACMSP048)

Enabling Prompt
Use the image to create as many questions as possible that could be used to survey
your class and collect data.

Answers to Enabling Prompt


1. Which fruit is your favourite?
2. How many of these fruits have you had before?
3. Which of these fruits is your least favourite?

AusVELS
Content strand/s, year, definition and code
Statistics and Probability, Data representation and interpretation, Level 1, Choose
simple questions and gather responses (ACMSP262)

Justification for change to the original question


I reduced the number of steps that students would need to complete by removing the
requirement to collect and record data. I did this because students will still need to
think critically about the types of questions that are relevant to the image and
appropriate without spending time on recording the data, which might slow down
some students.

Extending Prompt

What statements or facts can be made about the data?

Answers to Extending Prompt


1. Five more people prefer apples over strawberries.
2. One quarter of the class have brought apples to school today
3. The number of people who brought bananas to school today is equal to the total
number of apples and strawberries that were brought in.

AusVELS
Content strand/s, year, definition and code
Statistics and Probability, Data representation and interpretation, Level 2, Create
displays of data using lists, table and picture graphs and interpret them (ACMSP050)

Justification for change to the original question


The modification made to the original question asked students to interpret the data
that they had collected. This modification was selected as it encourages students to
reflect on their data and create links between the data which in turn will be more
meaningful to them than if they were to record their data and not reflect on it.

Cross-Curriculum Links
The above photo of the fruits in the fruit basket can also be utilised in The Arts.
Students may use the photo as a starting point instead of a real basket of fruits as a
more convenient alternative. As the photo highlights various textures and colours, the
photo will be useful in allowing students to demonstrate their ability to use the
elements of art in order to create a unique and expressive form. As the students
would be fairly familiar with the fruits, it provides all students with an unbiased
starting point and an understanding of what they should look like. The fruits are also
relatively simple to create and as such would be appropriate for Level 2. Students who
need extension can focus on more complex aspects of the photo such as the
viewpoint or angle of the photo as well as the textures that are apparent. This photo
of the fruits provides students with an opportunity to engage and experiment with
their growing understanding of the art elements, conventions and principles.

AusVELS - Cross-curriculum
Cross-curriculum area, Content strand/s, year, definition and code
The Arts, Creating and Making, Level 2, They demonstrate an emerging ability to
select, arrange and make choices about expressive ways of using arts elements,
principles and/or conventions.

Report of Trialling Problem Picture 3


Childs pseudonym, age and grade level:
Orlando, 8, Grade 2

Original Question:
Create an open-ended question about the fruits. Then, survey your class using the
question and record their information.

Childs response to the question:

Reflection on childs response:


My original question was Create an open-ended question about the fruits. Then,
survey your class using the question and record their information. The first few
questions the student created were all closed-ended questions. The student
recognised them as closed-ended questions as soon as he thought of them and finally
settled on the question at the top of the page, depicted in the photo above.
The student answered my problem picture as I had expected and intended him to,
once he had thought of an appropriate open-ended question. He surveyed the class by
asking them to raise their hands and recorded the information in the table he had
prepared. He demonstrated some creativity in the way he set out his table which was

visually appealing. The student also ensured that the table was labelled in order for
me to read it accurately.
The student also answered my extending prompt as I had expected as he was able to
give me a few simple facts about the information in the table. He was also able to
identify that the information he recorded would be easier to read if his ticks lined up
with the ones in the other rows. Bruner and Haste (cited in Monk & Silman 2011, p.
16) state that [b]eing active means that the young child engages with experience,
actively (as opposed to passively) bringing his or her existing knowledge and
understanding to bear on what is currently under investigation. The student was
actively learning as he was reflecting on his own practices and understanding in order
to improve the process that he had created. This demonstrated his active
involvement, both physically and cognitively, with the problem picture question.
As mentioned previously, the student demonstrated an understanding of appropriate
methods to record data and identified some features of tables such as the labelling,
columns and rows. His ability to conduct a survey, record the data, reflect on his
solution and interpret the data was also evident in his responses. The student
demonstrated his knowledge of open-ended questions as he persisted in finding a
question that was not closed. As the student was easily able to provide responses to
the original question and extending prompt, it was difficult to identify misconceptions
or weaknesses in his mathematical understanding.
Whilst the question appeared to be easy for the student, I believe that it addressed
the mathematical intent of the question. The question was formulated to identify the
students capability in creating a question based on a categorical variable and
collecting data related to the question (Australian Curriculum Assessment and
Reporting Authority [ACARA], 2013). The student essentially addressed those concepts
through the creation of an open-ended task, gathering of data and the ability to record
the data in an appropriate format.
I believe that I would retain the same wording and content in the question as it
directly related to AusVELS and the student was able to successfully interpret and
answer the question.

References for reflection on the trial of question 3:


Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority 2013, The Australian
Curriculum, retrieved 30 August 2015, http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au.
Monk, Jenny; Silman, Catherine 2014, Active Learning in Primary Classrooms : A Case
Study Approach, e-book, retrieved 01 September 2015,
http://deakin.eblib.com.au/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=1596440.