0 Voturi pozitive0 Voturi negative

17 (de) vizualizări5 paginiHow to Simplify Fluid Flow Calculations

Sep 15, 2015

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT sau citiți online pe Scribd

How to Simplify Fluid Flow Calculations

© All Rights Reserved

17 (de) vizualizări

How to Simplify Fluid Flow Calculations

© All Rights Reserved

- Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future
- The Day the World Came to Town: 9/11 in Gander, Newfoundland
- Seveneves: A Novel
- The Right Stuff
- Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Mathematicians Who Helped Win the Space Race
- Hidden Figures Young Readers' Edition
- Hidden Figures Young Readers' Edition
- Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap...And Others Don't
- The Path Between the Seas: The Creation of the Panama Canal, 1870-1914
- The Wright Brothers
- The Wright Brothers
- The Last Second
- Fault Lines
- The Power of Discipline: 7 Ways it Can Change Your Life
- Furniture Makeovers: Simple Techniques for Transforming Furniture with Paint, Stains, Paper, Stencils, and More
- Woolbuddies: 20 Irresistibly Simple Needle Felting Projects
- State of Fear
- State of Fear
- Autonomous: A Novel

Sunteți pe pagina 1din 5

flow calculations

Solving f/uid f/ow problems has a/ways

been done by s/ow, inefficient trial and

error methods. Here is a way to solve

these prob/ems direct/y, in two steps

Paul Page Austin, Arthur

Calif.

THE

USUAL METHOD

of solving a fluid flow problem,

using rational formulas, is by the use of a chart showing

the relationship between the Reynolds number R and the

Fanning Coeffieient or frietion eoeffieient f in the well

known Fanning equation:

f v2 L

h=-D2 g

In most fluid flow problems either the Aow rate or the

hydraulie gradient is unknown. If the flow rate is known,

a two-step solution is made by ealeulating the Revnolds

number, determining the frietion faetor from the R vs f

ehart (Fig. 1) and then ealculating the hydraulic gradient

by placing the value of f in the Fanning formula.

If the hydraulie gradient is fixed by physical eonditions,

and the flow rate is unknown, a trial and errar solution is

usually made by assuming a flow rate, ealculating the

TABLE l-Dimensionless

parameters

Name

of

Symbols used

formula

Darey number

Fanning

III

j

Coeffieient

II2

II3

II4

(Q)

Il

Reynolds

number

faetor and

ealculating the hydraulic gradient, whieh must then be

compared with the required gradient.

Realizing that both the Reynolds

Number R and

Fanning friction faetor f are really dimensionless parameters, the late Sidney P. Johnson1 reasoned that there must

be three other dimensionless pararneters, eaeh with one or

two variables missing from its equation, the same as in the

R and I e q u a t i o n s. By the applieation of dimensional

to the problem

of resistance

MD

f!. PIl

QD

(hg)

(I)

(2)

(3)

( 7r2)~

8

pQ2

(t28)7r

()7r

!Q:.

D4f!.

Qp

J.l.D

Q3p p4

QD

f!. PIl

Variable

not

present

Poiseuille

number

1'5

pertinent

Flg. 1-Friction

IJ.

2

(7r )~

M2P

')

I

Il

D'h

g Q2

u,D

(hg)

Il

(4)

I;

(2) g~h

(5)

See II3

See III

See III

(~)~

() J.l.D

Qp

Dup

J.I.

M3pp

s

Il

11"

II

(V)

S2

Q

M

hg

3

3

pD P

J.I.2

(32)~

D2f!.

Dup

J.I.

Q3h/

~

pD P

J.I.2

(2)~

pu

s=:r:

J.I.

3

II4

uD

f!. PIl

Il

ghD3 p2

ghD3 p2

IJ.

IJ.

~

I!.IJ.

3

pD

IJ.

P

2

Ali numbers in any horizontal row are the sarne. irrespective 01 the svstern 01 units used. The numerical coefficients in parenthesis are those required to give the pararneters the numerical values most frequentlv used in practice. All quarrrit ies are consistently from lhe same evstem. either English or rnetric, in which the force unit

gives acceleration to a unit of mass.

HYDROCARBONPROCESSING

September

1975

197

analysisv" he derived the formulas for the three other

dirnensionless parameters.

Two of these parameters plotted versus

numbers, together with the Reynolds number vs. f chart, makes it

possible to solve any flow problem directly, without trial

and error.

ln 1883, Osborn Reynolds' published his paper in which

he showed the difference between viscous or nonturbulent

fiow and turbulent flow and gave his formula which determined which of the two conditions existed in a pipe, for

any set of given fow conditions. Since then many papers

have been published giving curves showing the relationship between the Reynolds number (R) and the friction

factor f. These curves, alI obtained by experiment, were

for various sizes of pipe and were often difficult to correlate over the entire range of pipe sizes. Some of them also

had the fault that the lines continued to droop as the

Reynolds numbers became larger, whereas modern curves

of this kind flatten out to constant values of f

high

Reynolds numbers. ln 1944, Lewis Moody' published his

paper in which he introduced a new variable, inside pipe

walI roughness. This was done by plotting a series of

curves showing the R vs. f relationship, each line for a

fixed ratio of roughness (expressed in thousands of an

inch) divided by inside pipe radius in inches. These curves

flatten out to constant

values of f at high Reynolds

numbers.

Final1y in 1943, Hunter Rouse" published his paper in

which he had derived an empirical formula containing

the four variables, R, f, r (pipe radius) and k (roughness).

=.

TABLE2-Rational

Reynolds

F1uld

reflect correct values from the lowest values of R in the

beginning of the turbulent region, out to the higher values,

where f becomes constant. This is the set of curves in

Fig. 1. The roughness is that of new clean steel pipe,

k = 0.0018 incho

The advantage of using the Hunter Rouse formula to

produce a set of R vs. f curves (with an assumed fixed

value for k) is that the curves will always be practically

identical, irrespective of who ca1culates and plots them.

Using Buckingham's I1 designation, Table 1 shows the

five dimensionless parametric equations written in various

forms and the variable missing from each.

The first (I1l) and third (I1a) are the f and R parameters, respectively, and the other three are those derived

by Johnson.

Thus, it becomes evident that any two parameters can

be plotted against each other, but it is also clear that most

of the 10 charts that could thus be obtainable would be of

little value.

In any chart of two parameters

plotted against each

other, one must be an independent variable, and the other

thereby automatically

becomes the dependent

variable.

For example, in the R vs. f chart, the Reynolds number

is the one that is always calculated and is thus the independent variable and f becomes the dependent variable,

the value of which is required.

The parameter I1~ excludes density. As density does not

influence the head loss in either turbulent or nonturbulent

flow, and since density is never an unknown variable in a

fluid flow problem, no further consideration will be given

to I12

flow formulas

number

Head or preseure

lose

Liquide

7742 Dv

R=

h = Aj~f

11

C-DI'

QS

= CDIJ.

BjQ2sL

D6

P=

Values of B

Values of A

Q -

Values

Rate 01

flow in

I

I

gpm

bph

bpd

GaeeaVolume

Baele

Q ~ Rate of

flow in

01 C

gpm

164.3

31.1

71.1

13.47

2213

bph

80.5

15.25

34.8

6.60

92.2

bpd

0.0265

0.0605

0.0115

0.1398

QG

C

IJ.D

L in M feet

3162

p/ _

R

L in miles

L in M leet

L in miles

P22

BjZT~~2L*

Bj TGQ2L**

2P1D5

Values of B

Q = Rate of fow

expressed in ***

Values of C

scfm

29.0

Mscfh

483.6

Wel~h

Rate

Any

Fluld

scfm

Mscfh

20,150

198

L in M leet

0.2767

0.0524

14.5

133.580

Pt

M

6.32 IJ.D

L in miles

76.56

25,300

M2

0.00336 j pD6

2

P =

For nomenclature-See

conditions***

1.294 j

V ~L

****

Table 4

.See note 2. Table 4

tPressure

September

1975

HYDROCARBON

PROCESSING

"that the only two additional charts really necessary to

make a direct solution of a fiow problem are the independent parameters Il, (with diameters unknown) and

Il (with flow rate unknown) each plotted versus Il1 (I)

as the dependent parameter.

Only occasionally is the unknown variable the pipe

diameter. In the smaller sizes, only commercial sizes are

available so a very rough estimate will give the range of

size within one, or at the most, two commercial sizes. This

parameter will perhaps be most usefui for determining

larger sizes of pipe, where commercial

sizes above 42

inches are not available.

Throughout the entire range of turbulent flow, Il1 (I)

varies only from 0.04 down to 0.006 in numerical value.

Its use as the dependent parameter in ali problems of

turbulent How, therefore, besides being consistent with

current engineering practice, permits an accurate graphical presentation readable to three significant places if ali

data to be displayed are less than two cycles of logrithmetic

paper. Therefore the use of III (I) as the dependent

parameter in turbulent flow problems is the most convenient, and it has been so plotted in Figs. 1, 2 and 3.

These are necessary to maintain

equality. Also g, the

acceleration of gravity appears in some equations. Here it

is a dimensionless constant, having the property of force

per unit of mass, which is necessary if h is regarded as a

slope. If h is considered in the nature of energy loss per

unit mass of fluid and length of pipe, which is equally

permissible, g becomes merely a c o n s t a n t of proportionality.

Fig. 2-Friction

S number.

VS.

(R) can be expressed in terms of mass rate offiow, diameter and viscosity, without p.

This permits the general method of fiow calculation to

be applied to almost any case of gas flow, irrespective of

the pressure drop. When any one value of Il is determined

on a curve, all the others become fixed. In the case of

gases f.J. is a function of temperature but substantially independent of pressure or density, and therefore IlJ is constant from one end of a line of uniform diameter to the

other so long as the temperature in the line is fairly constant. All the Ils are constant if the expansion of gas as it

fiows through a line is isothermal.

The scale of f has been made rather large so it can be

easily read to three significant figures. The horizontal

length of 4 cycles has been compressed into about 1.5

times the one cycle vertical

scale. This makes for the

smooth line slope downward roughly 30 degrees and gives

the greatest accuracy of representation possible in a given

amount of chart space.

Figs. 2 and 3 do not show TI" and TI., respectively, directly

in the form given in Table 1, but instead show the square

where some of the Ils contain only three variables. For

example III can be expressed in three variables, D, Q and

h. but this is no particular advantage, as III is never calculated as an independent parameter. The parameter Ila

TABLE3-Dimensionless

facto r

units

Parameter

Fluld

T = (Ilj/5

T number

Liquida

T = F

(Q3p 4) 1/5

IJ.

= N--

(pD3)1/2

S= X

IJ.

Values of F

Q - Rate of

flow expressed in

L in miles

L in M feet

L in H rniles

L in M feet

gprn

10.1

14.1

8.58

12.0

bph

8.19

11.4

6.93

9.66

bpd

1.22

1.70

1.03

1.44

T=

[ ( P/ -:

T

L in rniles

L in rniles

scfrn

Va!ues of Y

L in rniles

L in M feet

1.74

6.09

2.65

S= X

( p/ _ p/

4.01

yl2 D3/2Gl/2

TOL

IJ.

per 24 hours

T = 0.149

Va!ues of X

L in M feet

0.282

0.394

14.3

20.0

( 3 ) 1/5

0!J!pJ...

IJ.

For nornenclature-See

11

L in M feet

Values or F

Vapors

Steam

(hD3)1/2

= y--

IJ.

Q = Ra te of flow expressed in

MMscf

IIS1/2

Values of X

Va!ues of M

Gases

S= (Il,/12

S number

L in M feet

L in miles

0.895

0.390

S = 0.771 P pD

3) 1/2

IJ.

Tab!e 4

HYDROCARBON PROCESSING

September

1975

199

be made to obtain proper value of f

Table 5 gives the range of pipe roughness for the various types of pipe in commercial use.

Riveted pipe has of course not been used for many

years, but is shown here as ao example of high roughness

pIpe.

Suppose the pipe to be used is 12-inch galvanized. The

roughness of galvanized pipe k

0.006 inches. Then the

relative roughness diameter of 12-inch galvanized pipe is

12 X 0.0018

3.6 inches. Calculate the Reynolds num0.0060

ber for the fiow conditions on the 12-inch pipe, but read

off the friction factor for a pipe diameter of just under

4 inches.

Fig. + is a chart on which the relative roughness diameter can be graphically obtained for any size pipe.

Fig. 3-Friction

factor

VS. T

number.

T. The reason for this alternation in the first place is to

give S and T ab o u t the same magnitude

as R, the

Reynolds number. The S number has roughly one-seventh

the value of R, while the T number has roughly two-fifths

the value of R. In the second place, the numerical values

of both values TI,. and IT. are uncomfortably

large to

handle even with the notation of powers of 10. In particular, the maximum value of IT I looks like a figure of astronomical magnitude.

Fractional exponents introduced by

using S instead of TI" are no great objection, as thev can be

read easily from a slide rule. Use of the fifth root of TI. is

not quite so easy to calculate on a slide rule, but actually

T will not be used as often as S,

The Hunter Rouse formula contains the variable k

that takes care of and varies the value of f, according to

the pipe wall roughness. But since nearly ali fluid flow

ca!culations are made for new steel pipe, having a K value

of 0.0018 inches, Fig. 1 was calculated and plotted for this

value of k, When calculations

of fiuid flow are made for

TABLE 4-Nomenclature,

Howard Moere" has found a uniqueapplication

for the

S number in connection with pipe line water harnmer

calculations,

When a centrifugal pump is discharging uphill through a pipe line and the pump stops, reversal of

flow and the sudden closing of the check valve at the

pump may cause severe water hammer in the line. Severity

of the stress set up by the water hammer is a function

primarily of water velocity, time the check valve takes to

elose. length of line and severa I other factors. When the

pllmp stops the velocity in the line quickly drops to zero,

and then reverses, increasing until the line friction or head

loss is equal to the hydraulic gradient. At this point equilibrium is established, and the velocitv can go no higher.

The check valve can, of course, elose and probably will,

before maximum velocity is attained. but there is no way

of determining the velocitv at the time of closure except

by experiment on the completed line. However, maximum

severity of water hammer can be ca!Culated by assuming

that valve elosing takes place when the back flow velocity

reaches its maximurn possible magnitude.

abbreviations

Abbrevations.

Nomenclature

D = Internal

Q = Volume

.\1

=-

-=

Total

pressure

=

=

Total

10505

(For gas flow only)

L = Length

CONST.-\:-.ITS USED

G is taken as 62.32 ft./sec.2

Densit y of water = 62.37 lb./cu. ft. @ 60 F

of Line L

of pipe in thousands

O)

of it. or miles

g pm

11

= Velocity

Compressibility

facto r Z wi ll normally be uni t y for normal

pressures, If pressure is hig h, select value of Z from cornpressibilit

curves for zas bei ng pi ped ,

D2

= Absolute

TO

etc.

bph = Barrels 142 ~al.) per hour

bpd = Barrels (42 gal.) per 24 hours

M

= 1.000

scirn = Standard cubic feet per minute

Mscf h = Thousands

ai standard

cubic feet per hour

r...1~lsi per 24 hrs. = Millions or standard cubic ieet in 24 hours

in.

temperature

of flowing gas. F

P, & P2 = Initial and final pressure psi absolute of gas fiow in line of

of Length L

s = Specific gravitv

Z = Compressibilitv

of liqud referred

(2)

not exceed 0.10 of final pressure.

where pressure

drops do

(3)

Standard

(4)

fuids.

For steam or other vapor. accu ra te only if PI - P2 is less than 0.1

of P2. For other conditions use formula for gases. volume basis.

460 = T

conditions

and 60 F.

to water as unit v

PV

factor for gases = at average

fiow conditions

KT

K = Gas constant

". =

\I

(mu)

p = (rho)

200

= Absolute

(nu) = Kinematic

=

viscositv

in centipoises

vscosit y in centistokes

September

1975

HVDROCARBON

PROCESSING

makes it possible to calculate the maximum velocity without trial and error calculations.

(hgD3p2)Y,

(hD3)Y,

= 4.01 "'-----'-v

p.

coefficient is in consistent units, and the second is in the

usual engineering units defined in Table 4. Here h is the

average rate of head loss over the entire length of the

line. Having calculated the value of S, the friction factor

f can be read off on Fig. 2. Then the Reynolds number

for the same value of f can be read off of Fig. 1 or calculated by the formula:

Fig. 4-Correction

:1~;

Q=

where Q is in

gallons per minute and from Q the maximum velocity

be calculated

can be calculated.

With the maximum possible velocity in hand, the pressure rise at the instant of closing can be calculated from

any one of six or more empirical Iorrnulas.!" or if it is desired to assume instantaneous closing of the check valve,

the head rise is:

h= av

where:

TABLE5-Typical

pipe

Internal

Klnd o( ppe

Riveted pipe

Concretc pipe

Wood 8tave .........................

Cast ron

Gal vanized

.

Asphalted cast iron

.

Smooth rubher hose

'

............

New steel pipe (base)

...

.

.

Drawn tubing (copper or steel)

.

.

.

rougbnese

K Ia.

0.36 to 0.036

0.12 to 0.012

0.036 to 0.0072

omo

0.006

0.0049

0.0023

0.0018

0.()()()()8

h

Head rise in feet

a = Surge wave velocity, fps

v

Maximum possible velocity in fps

g = Acceleration of gravity.

be calculated.

RELATIONSHIPS OF PARAMEnRS

There are three interesting relationships between

parameters which may at times be useful.

(1) S=

(2) T

(3)

the

R~~

= .li. (8

4

7T

f--8

7T3

f)

= - :~

Head

(rho)

(mu)

v (nu)

p

p.

is senior engineer with

Arthur G. McKee & c, Weste'/'n

Knapp Engineering

Division, San

Mateo, Calif. His duties include specification writing, engineering calculations

and evaluation of competitive bids. Mr.

Austin holds an AB deree in mechanical engineering [rom M.I.T. Past projeesional experience includes

over 30

.

yearsin mechanical engineering activities including both domestic and foreign assignments. He is a

member of ASME and is a registered professional engineer

in California.

September

dp

-"'dx'

= Specific

1055

(T- )10/3

PAUL P. AUSTIN

PROCESSING

1/5

Fig. 2 and Formula 2 was used for calculating the T numbers for Fig. 3.

HYDROCARBON

NOMENCLATURE

For Table I, units must be consistent,

i.e., metric or all

English. For engineering units nonnally used, see Nomenclature

for Table .J..

D = Inside diameter of pipe

Q = Flow rate. volume per unit of time

M = Mass rate of flow, per unit of time

P = Pressure. absolute (for gases)

p = Pressure, gage

v Mean velocity of fluid over cross-section of pipe

L = Length of pipe line

x = Variable length along line

1975

to air as unity

= Density of fluid

= Absolute viscosity of fluid

= Kinernatic viscosity of fluid

=s

g = Force of gravity per unit of mass, 32.2 for English

p.

p:

Table

LlTERATURE

parameters

units.

defined in

1.

ClTED

'S. P, Johnson,

A Survey of Flow Calculation

Methods,

ASME .Summer

Meeting of Aeronautic and Hvdraulic

Divisions, Stanford University, June

_ 19, 20, 21, 1934.

Proceedings of the Second

Hydraulic Conference, University of Iowa BulIetin No. 27, Published by the

urnversrtv, 1943.

I

3 Buckingham , "The

TI Theorem."

The Ptvysicai Review (London), Vol. IV,

Transaetions

of lhe Royol Socie/y of London,

Vol. CLXXIV,

1883, page 975.

'Howard

Moore. Analvsis and Control of Hvdraulic Surge (page 32), published by Magnilastic Division o Cook Electric Co., Chicago, lIlinoi s,

Stanton and Pannell, "Similarity

of Motion in Relation to Surface Friction

of Fluids," Phllosophical Transactions of Royal Soeiety, A214. 199-191'l.

1 Lewis

F. Moody, "Friction

Factors for Pipe Flow," ASME Transaetlons,

November 1944.

'William

H. McAdams,

Heat Transfer,

3rd Edition, Chapter V-Dimen

sional Analysis, McGrawHilI

Book Co.

Piggott, R.V.S . ASME Transactions, Vol. 55, l!ln.

'o AWWA Steel Pipe Manual MIl, Chapter 7, Water Hammer and Surge.

201

- Welded Steel PenstockÎncărcat deIfnu Setyadi
- Laminar and Turbulent FlowÎncărcat deJeevaRaman
- transient effects of dynamic torqueÎncărcat deaditya
- Liquid Pipelines Surge Basic ExplainationÎncărcat debryandown
- Modelling and Transient Simulation of Water Flow Using WANDA TransientÎncărcat deRadu Babau
- 323FM_3e_Chap08_lecture.pptÎncărcat deizzet9696
- Formal Report 2Încărcat deFadi Ronaldo
- FM 1Încărcat deAnshul Bhartiya
- Crane Fluid Flow ProblemsÎncărcat deAnonymous lTEzOZk2K
- Pipes and Pipe Sizing _ International Site for Spirax SarcoÎncărcat dekarthikraja21
- Explicit Friction Factor for Pipe Flow AnalysisÎncărcat deTony Lewis
- mozilla.pdfÎncărcat deAnonymous O8NWQu
- Water Hammer 2017Încărcat deKimutai Kirui Alphonce
- CE308 - Ch2 - Pipe Flow v2.pdfÎncărcat deKhuram Shahzad
- JCE_69_2017_8_2_2064_ENÎncărcat deAmal Ka
- Prevention of Water Hammer in Pipelines in Case o.pdfÎncărcat deprasobha
- Main Paper Rabas1981Încărcat deAnkit Lonare
- EXPLORING THE VERSATILITY OF THE IMPLICIT METHOD OF CHARACTERISTIC (MOC) FOR TRANSIENT SIMULATION OF PIPELINE SYSTEMS.pdfÎncărcat deAhsan Murtaza
- Replace Implicit Equations with Signomial FunctionsÎncărcat denurudinsathar
- FM lab.pdfÎncărcat deamit
- Gas correlationÎncărcat dewafa
- water hammerÎncărcat deKarthikeyan
- Aspects of Across-Wind Loads and Effects on Large Reinforced Concrete ChimneysÎncărcat deAnonymous hprsT3WlP
- gdsgsg65shuw2nsbdÎncărcat demrinalkantibhaduri
- Tech_Note_0091Încărcat detrynext
- caracterisccas de bombasÎncărcat deWilson Quispe Camarena
- SOLIDSW_CFD_technical_reference.pdfÎncărcat deAntonio Julián Sánchez Nuño
- Paper on research workÎncărcat deHari Prasad
- IntoductionÎncărcat deAdelia Dian
- Low NRe- 6 to 40 Separated FlowsÎncărcat decasper

- manual_scilab-5.2.1_pt_BR (1)Încărcat deiCollege
- Ammar, M.N. and Renon, H._(1987)the Isothermal Flash Problem_New Methods for Phase Split CalcultionsÎncărcat deBruno Valente
- CO2 Capture From Off-shore Gas Turbines Using Supersonic Gas Separation_SinteFÎncărcat deBruno Valente
- Modelling, Analysis and Optimisation of Ship Energy_Chalmers ThesisÎncărcat deBruno Valente
- isentropicToolbox_matlabÎncărcat deBruno Valente
- COGENERATION-Combinated Heat and Power (CHP), Horlock J. H.Încărcat deBruno Valente
- Fundamentals of Gas Turbines (William W.bathie, 2e, 1996) - BookÎncărcat deRafael Ohara Nakaguma
- Kotas - The Exergy Method of Thermal Plant AnalysisÎncărcat detakiyuddine
- Engineering Thermodynamics With Worked Examples by Nihal E. WijeysunderaÎncărcat deBruno Valente
- Harvey_S ,Facchini_B_Applied Thermal Engineering v.24(2004)Încărcat deBruno Valente

- Platinum Gazette 03 July 2015Încărcat deAnonymous w8NEyX
- Supreme Court Denies Two More Obama Ineligibility & Felony ID Fraud Cases - 5/19/2014Încărcat deObamaRelease YourRecords
- PLAW-113publ235.pdfÎncărcat deDavid Canaán
- Vietnam Import, Export & Inspection, TestingÎncărcat deAIM Control Inspection group
- SPMAGTF-CENT BriefingÎncărcat dethatguy96
- 20101028160624_D+LED-LD5RÎncărcat deJulia Echazarreta
- 65 Hacker HighschoolÎncărcat deVu Hung Cuong
- Police Performance MeasurementÎncărcat deAnonymous w7zJFTwqiQ
- 01-14-16 EBC Program Series with MassDEP Regional Offices: Meet the MassDEP Headquarters Leadership TeamÎncărcat deebcne
- Ind as PresentationÎncărcat deRam Iyer
- shah2010 (1)Încărcat deRahulPrabhu
- BAB 3 BA501 Vector Dan ScalarÎncărcat deAriez Arianto
- Problems on PercentagesÎncărcat deOmer Ali
- Latin Square and Related Designs-01Încărcat dedennisli0321
- Hiren’s BootCD PE x64 (v1.0.1) – ISO ContentÎncărcat deJuan José López Sánchez
- Caroline Gijselinckx, Li Zhao, Sonja Novkovic (Eds.)-Co-operative Innovations in China and the West-Palgrave Macmillan UK (2014)Încărcat devadavada
- qcs 2010 Section 11 Part 2.3.14 SHE Procedures - ASBESTOSÎncărcat debryanpastor106
- Advanced Microprocessors July 2010 OldÎncărcat dePrasad C M
- Xu-Grant-Et Al - TJX Case-CAIS 2008Încărcat deSanthosh Reddy
- pom notÎncărcat deManoj Kumar
- Hypolipidaemic DrugsÎncărcat deMrs Rehan
- SAP BO 4.1 architectureÎncărcat devenkat143786
- K-means Clustering in WSNÎncărcat deSgio Dz
- Technology Evaluation FormÎncărcat deferfonsegon
- 2010 Itil v3 Exam Sample QuestionsÎncărcat desquidwardman
- Pinto Pm2 Ism Ch10Încărcat deShihab Khan
- lte hoÎncărcat demanish_chaturvedi_19
- Fare+Stage+&+Fare+Charts+(1) (2).xlsxÎncărcat degagsdelhi19
- PROACTIVE DETECTION OF DDOS ATTACKS IN PUBLISH-SUBSCRIBE NETWORKSÎncărcat deAIRCC - IJNSA
- Philips LED CatalogueÎncărcat deRadio Parts

## Mult mai mult decât documente.

Descoperiți tot ce are Scribd de oferit, inclusiv cărți și cărți audio de la editori majori.

Anulați oricând.