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PASSBAND DATA TRANSMISSION

An Introduction

Intended Learning Outcome


To explain technically passband data transmission
Discuss and differentiate Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)

Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) and Minimum Shift Keying in


terms of their:
a. definition

b. generation/transition model
c. detection
d. Advantages and disadvantages

Evaluation of the bandwidth requirement and signal space

diagram of each transmission bandwidth requirement

Definition
Passband Data Transmission - A communication that is obtained by

modulating a baseband analog or digital signal into a carrier

Baseband waveform has a spectral magnitude that is nonzero for

frequencies in the vicinity of the origin and negligible elsewhere

Bandpass waveform has a spectral magnitude that is nonzero for

frequencies in some band concentrated about a frequency f=+fc where


fc>>0Hz and fc=carrier frequency

Modulation the process of imparting the source information onto a

bandpass signal with a carrier frequency fc by the introduction of


amplitude or phase perturbations or both.
modulated signal bandpass signal
modulating signal baseband source signal

Definition
Digital Modulation the transmittal of digitally modulated

analog signals (carriers) between two or more points in a


communication system
Digital Radio Modulation the process of imparting the

source information onto a bandpass signal with a carrier frequency


fc by the introduction of amplitude or phase perturbations or
both.

Different Forms of Digital Modulation


AMPLITUDE SHIFT KEYING (ASK)
a digitally modulated signal where in the information signal is digital and
the amplitude of the carrier is varied proportional to the information
signal
FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING (FSK)
a digitally modulated signal where in the information signal is digital and
the frequency of the carrier is varied proportional to the information
signal

Minimum Frequency Shift Keying (MSK)


a special type of continuous phase-frequency shift keying (CPFSK) with
h=0.5. A modulation index of 0.5 corresponds to the minimum
frequency spacing that allows two FSK signals to be coherently
orthogonal, and the name minimum shift keying implies the minimum
frequency separation (i.e. bandwidth) that allows orthogonal detection

Parameters for Digital Communication


M-ary Encoding derived form bi-nary where M=2 and it
represents a digit that corresponds to the number of
conditions, level, or combinations possible for a given
number of binary variables
N= log2 M M=number of condition, level, combination possible
N= number of bits needed

Baud - a rate of change; however it refers to the rate of change of a


signal on the transmission medium after encoding and
modulation have occurred
Note: In digital modulation, the baud and the ideal minimum Nyquist
bandwidth have the same value and are equal to the bit rate
divided by the number of bits encoded

Nyquist Formulation for Channel Capacity


-binary digital signal can be propagated through an ideal noiseless
transmission medium at a rate equal to twice the bandwidth of the
medium
- The actual bandwidth depends on several factors including the type
of encoding the type of encoding and modulation used, the type of
filter, system noise and desired error performance
fb = 2B log2M

where: fb = channel capacity (bps)


B = Min. Nyquist bandwidth
M=number of discrete signal/voltage

Simplifying:
B= (fb/log2M) = (fb/N)

AMPLITUDE SHIFT KEYING

AMPLITUDE SHIFT KEYING


Waveform:

Baud rate:

Baud = fb/N (baud)


Baud = fb/1

where: N=1

Bandwidth:

B= fb/N (hertz)
B= fb/1

where: N=1

Sample Problem
1.

Determine the baud and minimum bandwidth necessary to


pass 10kbps signal using amplitude shift keying

2.

What can you conclude about the performance of ASK


with respect to the transport of digital information?

FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING

FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING

FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING

Sample Problem
1.

Determine (a) peak frequency deviation, (b) minimum


bandwidth, and (c) baud for a binary FSK signal with a
mark frequency of 49kHz, a space frequency of 51khz and
an input bit rate of 2 kbps

1.

Using the Bessel table, determine the min. bandwidth for


the same FSK in example 1.

Board work
1. Determine the maximum bit rate for an FSK signal with a
mark frequency of 48khz, space frequency of 52kHz and an
available bandwith of 10 kHz
2. Determine the bandwidth and baud rate for an FSK signal
with a mark frequency of 32 Khz, and a space frequency of
24 khz, and a bit rate of 4kbps.

3. Compare FSK and ASK in terms of their performance

FSK Transmitter
Similar to conventional FM and often s voltage-controlled

oscillator (VCO)
The peak frequency deviation of the carrier is equal to the
difference between the carrier rest frequency and either
the mark or space frequency ( half difference between the
mark and space frequency).
The VCO FSK modulator can be operated in the sweep
mode where the peak frequency deviation is the product
of the binary input voltage and Deviation sensitivity of
the VCO

FSK Transmitter

FSK Receiver
A. Non-coherent FSK Receiver
there is no frequency involved in the demodulation process
Input signal is simultaneously applied to both BPF of the mark and space frequency
These respective filter passes only the mark and space frequency on its respective
envelop detector
The envelop detector indicate the total power in each passband
The comparator responds to the largest of the two power
B. Coherent Receiver
The incoming FSK signal is multiplied by a recovered carrier signal that has the exact
same frequency and space as the transmitter reference.

C. Phase-Locked Loop
As the input of the PLL shifts between the mark and space frequencies, the dc error
voltage at the output of the phase comparator follows the frequency shift

FSK Receiver
A. Non-coherent FSK Receiver

C. Phase-Locked Loop

B. Coherent Receiver

Continues Phase Frequency-Shift


Keying
Mark and space frequency are

synchronized with the input bit


rate and are separated from the
center frequency by an exact
multiple of one-half bit rate
There is a precise time
relationship
There is a smooth transition of
analog signal between the space
and mark frequency
Has better bit-error performance
but is expensive to implement

MINIMUM SHIFT KEYING (MSK)


Improves the noise performance of receiver in comparison

with coherent detection of BFSK signal


MSK Signals should satisfy two conditions

1. The modulating pulse must be symmetrical about t + Tb/2


and 0 otherwise
2. The modulated carrier has to have a constant envelope

Signal using MSK modulation

the modulating data signal changes the frequency of the


signal and there are no phase discontinuities
the frequency difference between the logical one and
logical zero states is always equal to half the data rate.
modulation index, and it is always equal to 0.5.

M SK General Equation
S(t) = (2Eb/Tb) * Cos [2f1t + (0)]

for symbol 1
for symbol 0

= (2Eb/Tb) * Cos [2f2t + (0)]


S(t) is defined in the region 0 t Tb
Eb - transmitted signal energy per bit,
Tb- is the bit duration.
The phase (0)- denoting the value of phase at time 0 , sums
up the past history of the modulation process up to time 0
the frequencies
f1 and f2- sent in response to binary symbols 1 and 0 appearing
at the modulation input respectively.

M SK General Equation
S(t) = (2Eb/Tb) * Cos [2fct + (t)]

Where :
(t) - phase of the signal and it is a continuous function of
time.
- increases or decreases linearly with time during each bit
duration of Tb
(t) = (0) ( h / Tb) * t , 0 t Tb.
The plus sign indicates to sending bit 1 and the minus sign
corresponds to sending a 0 bit.
fc = ( f1 + f2 ) / 2
h = Tb ( f1 - f2 )
Where: fc - nominal carrier frequency
h - which is referred to as the deviation ratio

Generating MSK
1st Method : Conventional Method
Filtering the modulating signal using Gaussian filter and apply the signal to
the frequency modulator with modulation index equal to 0.5

2nd Method: Quadrature Modulation


Generating MSK using Gaussian filter and VCO that uses one signal with
phase 90deg difference that maintains modulation index at 0.5

Advantages of MSK
Improved spectral efficiency when compared to other phase

shift keyed modes


Can be amplified by a non-linear amplifier and remain

undistorted
Immune to amplitude variation and more resilient to noise

Assignment
1.Explain the relationship between bits per second and baud
rate for an FSK and MSK.
2. Give at least three practical application for each of FSK, PSK
and MSK
3. Provide the transmitter and receiver block diagram for
CPFSK and give an explanation for each block.
4. Discuss the bandwidth requirement of MSK. Present at least
two problems about the bandwidth consideration of MSK
and provide the proper solution