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224 (de) vizualizări27 paginiAmplitude Shiftkey, Frequency Shiftkey

Sep 17, 2015

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Amplitude Shiftkey, Frequency Shiftkey

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224 (de) vizualizări

Amplitude Shiftkey, Frequency Shiftkey

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An Introduction

To explain technically passband data transmission

Discuss and differentiate Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)

terms of their:

a. definition

b. generation/transition model

c. detection

d. Advantages and disadvantages

Definition

Passband Data Transmission - A communication that is obtained by

fc>>0Hz and fc=carrier frequency

amplitude or phase perturbations or both.

modulated signal bandpass signal

modulating signal baseband source signal

Definition

Digital Modulation the transmittal of digitally modulated

communication system

Digital Radio Modulation the process of imparting the

fc by the introduction of amplitude or phase perturbations or

both.

AMPLITUDE SHIFT KEYING (ASK)

a digitally modulated signal where in the information signal is digital and

the amplitude of the carrier is varied proportional to the information

signal

FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING (FSK)

a digitally modulated signal where in the information signal is digital and

the frequency of the carrier is varied proportional to the information

signal

a special type of continuous phase-frequency shift keying (CPFSK) with

h=0.5. A modulation index of 0.5 corresponds to the minimum

frequency spacing that allows two FSK signals to be coherently

orthogonal, and the name minimum shift keying implies the minimum

frequency separation (i.e. bandwidth) that allows orthogonal detection

M-ary Encoding derived form bi-nary where M=2 and it

represents a digit that corresponds to the number of

conditions, level, or combinations possible for a given

number of binary variables

N= log2 M M=number of condition, level, combination possible

N= number of bits needed

signal on the transmission medium after encoding and

modulation have occurred

Note: In digital modulation, the baud and the ideal minimum Nyquist

bandwidth have the same value and are equal to the bit rate

divided by the number of bits encoded

-binary digital signal can be propagated through an ideal noiseless

transmission medium at a rate equal to twice the bandwidth of the

medium

- The actual bandwidth depends on several factors including the type

of encoding the type of encoding and modulation used, the type of

filter, system noise and desired error performance

fb = 2B log2M

B = Min. Nyquist bandwidth

M=number of discrete signal/voltage

Simplifying:

B= (fb/log2M) = (fb/N)

Waveform:

Baud rate:

Baud = fb/1

where: N=1

Bandwidth:

B= fb/N (hertz)

B= fb/1

where: N=1

Sample Problem

1.

pass 10kbps signal using amplitude shift keying

2.

with respect to the transport of digital information?

Sample Problem

1.

bandwidth, and (c) baud for a binary FSK signal with a

mark frequency of 49kHz, a space frequency of 51khz and

an input bit rate of 2 kbps

1.

the same FSK in example 1.

Board work

1. Determine the maximum bit rate for an FSK signal with a

mark frequency of 48khz, space frequency of 52kHz and an

available bandwith of 10 kHz

2. Determine the bandwidth and baud rate for an FSK signal

with a mark frequency of 32 Khz, and a space frequency of

24 khz, and a bit rate of 4kbps.

FSK Transmitter

Similar to conventional FM and often s voltage-controlled

oscillator (VCO)

The peak frequency deviation of the carrier is equal to the

difference between the carrier rest frequency and either

the mark or space frequency ( half difference between the

mark and space frequency).

The VCO FSK modulator can be operated in the sweep

mode where the peak frequency deviation is the product

of the binary input voltage and Deviation sensitivity of

the VCO

FSK Transmitter

FSK Receiver

A. Non-coherent FSK Receiver

there is no frequency involved in the demodulation process

Input signal is simultaneously applied to both BPF of the mark and space frequency

These respective filter passes only the mark and space frequency on its respective

envelop detector

The envelop detector indicate the total power in each passband

The comparator responds to the largest of the two power

B. Coherent Receiver

The incoming FSK signal is multiplied by a recovered carrier signal that has the exact

same frequency and space as the transmitter reference.

C. Phase-Locked Loop

As the input of the PLL shifts between the mark and space frequencies, the dc error

voltage at the output of the phase comparator follows the frequency shift

FSK Receiver

A. Non-coherent FSK Receiver

C. Phase-Locked Loop

B. Coherent Receiver

Keying

Mark and space frequency are

rate and are separated from the

center frequency by an exact

multiple of one-half bit rate

There is a precise time

relationship

There is a smooth transition of

analog signal between the space

and mark frequency

Has better bit-error performance

but is expensive to implement

Improves the noise performance of receiver in comparison

MSK Signals should satisfy two conditions

and 0 otherwise

2. The modulated carrier has to have a constant envelope

signal and there are no phase discontinuities

the frequency difference between the logical one and

logical zero states is always equal to half the data rate.

modulation index, and it is always equal to 0.5.

M SK General Equation

S(t) = (2Eb/Tb) * Cos [2f1t + (0)]

for symbol 1

for symbol 0

S(t) is defined in the region 0 t Tb

Eb - transmitted signal energy per bit,

Tb- is the bit duration.

The phase (0)- denoting the value of phase at time 0 , sums

up the past history of the modulation process up to time 0

the frequencies

f1 and f2- sent in response to binary symbols 1 and 0 appearing

at the modulation input respectively.

M SK General Equation

S(t) = (2Eb/Tb) * Cos [2fct + (t)]

Where :

(t) - phase of the signal and it is a continuous function of

time.

- increases or decreases linearly with time during each bit

duration of Tb

(t) = (0) ( h / Tb) * t , 0 t Tb.

The plus sign indicates to sending bit 1 and the minus sign

corresponds to sending a 0 bit.

fc = ( f1 + f2 ) / 2

h = Tb ( f1 - f2 )

Where: fc - nominal carrier frequency

h - which is referred to as the deviation ratio

Generating MSK

1st Method : Conventional Method

Filtering the modulating signal using Gaussian filter and apply the signal to

the frequency modulator with modulation index equal to 0.5

Generating MSK using Gaussian filter and VCO that uses one signal with

phase 90deg difference that maintains modulation index at 0.5

Advantages of MSK

Improved spectral efficiency when compared to other phase

Can be amplified by a non-linear amplifier and remain

undistorted

Immune to amplitude variation and more resilient to noise

Assignment

1.Explain the relationship between bits per second and baud

rate for an FSK and MSK.

2. Give at least three practical application for each of FSK, PSK

and MSK

3. Provide the transmitter and receiver block diagram for

CPFSK and give an explanation for each block.

4. Discuss the bandwidth requirement of MSK. Present at least

two problems about the bandwidth consideration of MSK

and provide the proper solution

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