0 Voturi pozitive0 Voturi negative

16 (de) vizualizări3 paginiArtificial intelligence (AI) is an area of computer science that highlights the creation of machines that are intelligent, also they work and react like humans. Since AI problems are complex and cannot be solved with direct techniques we resort to heuristic search techniques. Heuristic search technique is any approach to problem solving, learning, or discovery which uses a practical methodology which is not guaranteed to be optimal or perfect, but it is sufficient for the immediate goals. This paper surveys some of the heuristic techniques which is used for searching an optimal solution among multiprocessor environment, followed by and method which enhances the search by doing a search in bidirection and also a method for task scheduling in multiprocessor environment. The paper also discuses about how heuristic is used to solve binary quadratic program and also how it is used in 3G (3rd Generation) Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) network.

Sep 19, 2015

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT sau citiți online pe Scribd

Artificial intelligence (AI) is an area of computer science that highlights the creation of machines that are intelligent, also they work and react like humans. Since AI problems are complex and cannot be solved with direct techniques we resort to heuristic search techniques. Heuristic search technique is any approach to problem solving, learning, or discovery which uses a practical methodology which is not guaranteed to be optimal or perfect, but it is sufficient for the immediate goals. This paper surveys some of the heuristic techniques which is used for searching an optimal solution among multiprocessor environment, followed by and method which enhances the search by doing a search in bidirection and also a method for task scheduling in multiprocessor environment. The paper also discuses about how heuristic is used to solve binary quadratic program and also how it is used in 3G (3rd Generation) Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) network.

© All Rights Reserved

16 (de) vizualizări

Artificial intelligence (AI) is an area of computer science that highlights the creation of machines that are intelligent, also they work and react like humans. Since AI problems are complex and cannot be solved with direct techniques we resort to heuristic search techniques. Heuristic search technique is any approach to problem solving, learning, or discovery which uses a practical methodology which is not guaranteed to be optimal or perfect, but it is sufficient for the immediate goals. This paper surveys some of the heuristic techniques which is used for searching an optimal solution among multiprocessor environment, followed by and method which enhances the search by doing a search in bidirection and also a method for task scheduling in multiprocessor environment. The paper also discuses about how heuristic is used to solve binary quadratic program and also how it is used in 3G (3rd Generation) Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) network.

© All Rights Reserved

- Steve Jobs
- The Woman Who Smashed Codes: A True Story of Love, Spies, and the Unlikely Heroine who Outwitted America's Enemies
- NIV, Holy Bible, eBook
- NIV, Holy Bible, eBook, Red Letter Edition
- Cryptonomicon
- Hidden Figures Young Readers' Edition
- Everybody Lies: Big Data, New Data, and What the Internet Can Tell Us About Who We Really Are
- Make Your Mind Up: My Guide to Finding Your Own Style, Life, and Motavation!
- Console Wars: Sega, Nintendo, and the Battle that Defined a Generation
- The Golden Notebook: A Novel
- Alibaba: The House That Jack Ma Built
- Life After Google: The Fall of Big Data and the Rise of the Blockchain Economy
- Hit Refresh: The Quest to Rediscover Microsoft's Soul and Imagine a Better Future for Everyone
- Hit Refresh: The Quest to Rediscover Microsoft's Soul and Imagine a Better Future for Everyone
- The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution
- The 10X Rule: The Only Difference Between Success and Failure
- Autonomous: A Novel

Sunteți pe pagina 1din 3

Volume: 3 Issue: 5

ISSN: 2321-8169

2903 - 2905

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Ranjitha K S

Arpitha T

MTech student

Computer Science & Engineering,

GSSSIETW, Mysuru

MTech student,

Computer Science & Engineering,

GSSSIETW, Mysuru

Prakruthi S

Mouneshachari S

MTech student,

Computer Science & Engineering,

GSSSIETW, Mysuru

Associate Professor,

Dept of CSE,

GSSSIETW, Mysuru

Abstract: Artificial intelligence (AI) is an area of computer science that highlights the creation of machines that are intelligent, also they work

and react like humans. Since AI problems are complex and cannot be solved with direct techniques we resort to heuristic search techniques.

Heuristic search technique is any approach to problem solving, learning, or discovery which uses a practical methodology which is not

guaranteed to be optimal or perfect, but it is sufficient for the immediate goals. This paper surveys some of the heuristic techniques which is

used for searching an optimal solution among multiprocessor environment, followed by and method which enhances the search by doing a

search in bidirection and also a method for task scheduling in multiprocessor environment. The paper also discuses about how heuristic is used

to solve binary quadratic program and also how it is used in 3G (3 rd Generation) Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS)

network.

__________________________________________________*****_________________________________________________

I.

INTRODUCTION

Artificial intelligence can be defined as the study

and design of intelligent agents, where the intelligent agent

is a system that observes its environment and it takes action

so that the chances of success can be maximized. Artificial

intelligence is the intelligence which is shown by the

machines or softwares. Most of the problems that come

under the horizon of artificial intelligence are too

complicated; these problems cannot be solved using direct

techniques that are available [12]. We need to solve these

problems using suitable search method equipped with direct

techniques whichever is available to guide the search.

Heuristic is a search technique where the efficiency of

search is improved, but by compromising with some claims

of completeness [3]. The word heuristic has its origin from a

greece word HEURISKEN which means find [13].The

heuristic methods are applicable if the problem being solved

is tough and cannot be solved using other ways and if the

available method takes an infinite time or very long time to

compute the solution [5]. Heuristic search techniques use

domain specific knowledge to solve the problems, there are

different heuristic techniques developed since many years.

The rest of the paper discuss about some heuristic

techniques which is used in the field of multiprocessor and

some methods used in the field of networks.

II.

SURVEY

Autonomous Parallel Heuristic

Combinatorial Search

Heuristic search is nothing but the technique of

searching the state space using the information provided by

the evaluation function. Most of the heuristic search

algorithms have concentrated on the problem of load

balancing and reduction in memory use. The key feature that

determines the performance of a system in artificial

intelligent system is the efficiency of the search algorithm

being used. In order to achieve performance gains, the

a)

Combinatorial Search algorithm. Unlike the other parallel

search algorithms the Autonomous Parallel Heuristic

Combinatorial Search does not simply divide the search

space among the processors which are available. The basic

idea behind this Autonomous Parallel branch and bound

Search algorithm is that, every available processor which is

involved in searching an optimal path and also in altering its

selection will be done according to the information sent

from its peers. Here each processor works alone but they

communicate with one another to pass on the information

which audits the development of the search. This

information is also used to redirect a processors knowledge

about those nodes which appears to be more likely to be an

optimal path. Each processor broadcasts its selection of a

candidate node asynchronously to the other processors. The

communication here need not be synchronized as this

information is only for reference. The key feature of this

algorithm is that it avoids the interconnection network

bottlenecks and also synchronization delays, because each

processor can use the broadcast information from other

processor if available, else it can proceed without it also.

The algorithm is useful in multiprocessor environment.

b)

The frequently used problem solving technique in

artificial intelligence is searching. Searching is the process

of finding an optimal path, when given an initial state which

leads to goal state. Solving the search problems demands a

lot of computational resources both in terms of memory

usage and in terms of execution time. The author in [1]

provides an approach called Parallel Bidirectional Heuristic

Search (PBiHS) which is a combination of sequential A*

search [4] and bidirectional search [9]. The PBiHS performs

the search in both the directions and also the search in each

direction will be performed in parallel [11]. To implement

PBiHS in a multiprocessor environment, we need to

2903

_______________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 3 Issue: 5

ISSN: 2321-8169

2903 - 2905

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

concentrate on two issues first processor assignment and

then data structure allocation. Processor assignment is all

about dividing the processor to implement parallel

bidirectional search in a multiprocessor environment.

Consider there are m processors; divide these m processors

into two groups so that each group will have m/2

processors. One among these m/2 processors will be

designated as master processor, which is responsible to

controls all the other m/2 processors. Data structures

associated with this approach is two lists OPEN and

CLOSED. Each direction has these two lists. OPEN will

have the nodes that are to be examined. CLOSED will have

the nodes that are already examined. OPEN is kept on the

master node so that the best m/2 nodes are selected for

parallel expansion so that we can find an optimal path in

optimal number of iterations. CLOSED will be kept on all

nodes so that search within each direction and also between

two search directions can be parallelized. The author has

also implemented the eight puzzle and tower of Hanoi on

80-processor EM-4 multithreaded data flow multiprocessor

whose result showed that PBiHS could solve tree depth of

20-40 of eight puzzle and 3-9 disks of tower of Hanoi in

less than 2 seconds. Also PBiHS is highly scalable and

gives over 40 fold seed up on 80-processor and also it gives

an average of 10 times improvements over unidirectional

search for the eight puzzle problem.

c)

The computing power on a single processor has got

certain limitations, as the applications become more and

more complicated and larger. Hence we started moving

towards parallel processing technology on multiprocessor

system. Efficient parallel processing means maximum

performance of the multiprocessors in a multiprocessor

environment. The key to efficient parallel processing is task

scheduling technique that is a set of tasks from applications

is assigned to many processors and these tasks must be

executed in parallel in minimum processing time. In any

task scheduling problem in order to get an optimal solution

a full search is needed. But doing this full search in a

practical time is not possible. The author in [8] says the

DF|HIS (Depth First|Implicit Heuristic Search) [6] proposed

by kasahara performs search based on heuristic and does not

take into account communication overhead which is caused

by assigning the two tasks which has preceding relation on

two different processors.

The author in paper [8] adopts a search method in

scheduling algorithm which takes into account the

communication overhead. This paper proposes BSP(Branch

at Same Priority Method) which uses Depth First Search on

branch and bound method. If we have more than one task

having same priority levels and also same number of

immediate successors then they make multiple selection

branches; which means, which tasks should be allocated to

which processor. In such cases BSP does not search the full

combination of all processor and task but makes partial

search which is possible in practical time. The author

proposes another algorithm called GP(Grouping Priority

Levels) method. The main point of this method is how the

range of priority level of tasks belong to same group is

higher priority level and lowest priority level in same group

is called the range. If this range is zero then GP method

provides same solution as BSP method. If the range

becomes wider that is if the number of combinations of

tasks and processors that has to be searched becomes more,

even the search time also becomes more. In such a case the

GP does a full search. To get a better performance the GP

method can also be parallelized.

d)

Tabu Search

Several users communicate concurrently over the

same channel using specific signature waveforms in direct

sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA).

Multiple access interference (MAI) will not occur if

mutually orthogonal signature waveforms are selected for

all users. But it is not possible in a mobile environment to

ensure orthogonality between received signature

waveforms. Hence MAI arises and it is a common problem

encountered in mobile communication. In order to take

maximum likelihood (ML) decision for multiuser detection

(MUD) problem there is a need to solve binary constrained

minimization problem which is also called as binary

quadratic program (BQP). To find solution to the BQP

problem many heuristic solutions are been proposed which

includes local search, simulated annealing, genetic

algorithms and tabu search (TS). Among which TS method

is an effective and efficient heuristic when compared to

other heuristic methods which is proposed by the author in

[10]. TS use the memory structures of past events for

guidance. The memory structure has a record of previously

visited solutions, which allows TS to boost or transform the

search to escape local optima. The key feature of this

method is that it differentiates between short-term memory

and long-term memory which is defined over the span of

search history. TS use a tabu list of moves which is based

on the recent past search. The tabu status will be examined

or evaluated whenever a new solution is generated. The new

solution will be accepted even if the solution generated is

inferior if and only if the new solution generated is not tabu.

Also a solution will be accepted if it satisfies the predefined

criteria.

e)

Local Search Heuristic

Over the last two decades wireless cellular network has

spread across the globe rapidly. The 3G (3rd Generation)

Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS)

network is very popular in todays world. The design and

planning of 3G network is very much challenging as it is

more complicated and costlier even though it is very much

flexible. The author in paper [7] proposes a good heuristic

method called local search heuristic to find good feasible

solution for planning problem in 3G UMTS. The algorithm

starts with an initial solution and then iteratively starts

exploring the neighborhood to find the better available

solutions. The method first finds an initial solution to start

with and note that this initial solution must meet all the

constraints if not the program will terminate. If the initial

state chosen to start meets all the constraints then the

feasible solution is found and is stored as best cost. This

2904

_______________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 3 Issue: 5

ISSN: 2321-8169

2903 - 2905

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

solution becomes the current solution. In the second step all

neighbors are explored. The transformation operation that

creates a new solution is called move. A move will be

performed if and only if it gives feasible solution. If feasible

solution is given its cost is calculated and it is stored as

cost_temp. After all neighbors are evaluated the best cost is

found and chosen. The main advantage of this method is the

CPU time that is large problem size can be handled at the

cost of solution quality.

III.

CONCLUSION

Majority of the artificial intelligence problems

cannot be solved using the direct techniques available hence

we tend to use heuristic search techniques which may

generate an excellent path but there are chances that it may

overlook the optimal path in some cases. The paper

discusses about some the heuristic techniques used in

networks and task scheduling. Heuristic is not only limited

to these fields, it is also used in the field of pattern

sequencing, network design, search problems, metallurgic

industry and also some programs use heuristics to find virus

and malware. Heuristic search techniques can be enhanced

so that they use the domain specific knowledge and applied

to various other domains also.

REFERENCES:

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

Kodama, Yoshinori Yamaguchi Parallel Bidirectional

Heuristic Search on the EM-4 Multiprocessor.

Chao-Chun Wang and Leah H. Jamieson Autonomous

Parallel Heuristic Combinatorial Search.

Elaine Rich,Kevin Knight, Shivashanka B Nair:Artificial

Intelligence, Tata CGraw Hill 3rd edition. 2013

Hart, P.E., Nilson, NJ., and Raphael, B., A formal basis for

the heuristic determination of minimum cost paths, IEEE

Trans. on SMC 4(2), pp.100-107,1%8.

http://citeseers.ist.psu.edu

H.Kasahara and S.Narita, "Practical Multiprocessor

scheduling Algorithms for Efficient Parallel Processin$,

IEEE Trans. Comput., Vo1.C-33, No.11, Nov. 1984.

Mohammad Reza Pasandideh and Marc St-Hilaire A Local

Search Heuristic for the Design Problem of 3G UMTS AllIP Release 4 Networks with Realistic Traffic.

Munenori Ka, Masanori Shimada Task Scheduling

Algorithms Based on Heuristic Search Taking Account of

Communication Overhead.

Pohl, I., Bidirectional Search, in B. Meltzer and D. Michie

(eds.), Machine Intelligence 6, American Elsevier, NY,

pp.219-236, 1971

Peng Hui Tan and Lars K. Rasmussen Multiuser Detection

in CDMAA Comparison of Relaxations, Exact, and

Heuristic Search Methods.

Sohn, A., Parallel Bidirectional A* Search on a Symmetry

Multiprocessor, in Proc. of Fijih IEEE Symposium Parallel

and Distributed Processing, Dallas, TX, December 1993.

Stuart Russel, Peter Norvig: Artificial Intelligence A Modern

Approach, Pearson 3rd edition 2013.

www.cs.cf.ac.uk

2905

_______________________________________________________________________________________

- digging into artificial intelligenceÎncărcat deapi-459045818
- Advanced Computer ArchitectureÎncărcat deBiyani Group of Colleges
- indexÎncărcat deapi-20013624
- AgglomerationÎncărcat deMusanje Martin
- AI in CybersecurityÎncărcat demohan
- Microsoft TheFutureComputed AI MFG Final ForPrintÎncărcat deArun Uniyal
- IntroParallel.pptÎncărcat depatasutosh
- Designing+Parallel+Programs (1).pdfÎncărcat deProjectlouis
- AI Accounting SoftwaresÎncărcat deAlyson Gregorio
- IA c1 Intro & AdmÎncărcat deAlexandruLebada
- 2014_PLDI_DPRÎncărcat deGabriel
- OstermanÎncărcat deAndrej Osterman
- Social Drivers of ChangeÎncărcat deAlemtemshi Jamir
- AI-PDFÎncărcat deÖmer Faruk Kara
- ipj_7-4Încărcat deaqua01
- A programmable machineÎncărcat deapi-3792621
- DataLovers-2016Încărcat dedunecoon667
- Parameters Tell the Design Story: Ideation and Abstraction in Design OptimizationÎncărcat deTurbin
- Gpu 3dfd RevÎncărcat dedave_jireland
- mentor graphics design challengeÎncărcat deapi-301719207
- onnbodyÎncărcat debeefmail
- Selector WebÎncărcat dea_kumkuma
- Naiad Sosp2013Încărcat dekracha82
- Kevin(Cluster Computing)Încărcat deyuben joseph
- operationsresearchppt-140806063844-phpapp02Încărcat deSunny Dogra
- Para ConceptsÎncărcat denbpr
- ECB2VWis_Studiewijzer en Course Manual 2011-2012_EÎncărcat deHe Huang
- chap2_slidesMYÎncărcat deBalakrish
- OpenCL 10 WaysÎncărcat dehaspy
- superscaler architectureÎncărcat deAbhay Singh

- a clustering and associativity analysis based probabilistic method for web page predictionÎncărcat derahul sharma
- Regression Based Comparative Study for Continuous BP Measurement Using Pulse Transit TimeÎncărcat deEditor IJRITCC
- A Review of Wearable Antenna for Body Area Network ApplicationÎncărcat deEditor IJRITCC
- Channel Estimation Techniques over MIMO-OFDM SystemÎncărcat deEditor IJRITCC
- Safeguarding Data Privacy by Placing Multi-level Access RestrictionsÎncărcat deEditor IJRITCC
- space complexity analysis of rsa and ecc based security algorithms in cloud dataÎncărcat derahul sharma
- A Review of 2D &3D Image Steganography TechniquesÎncărcat deEditor IJRITCC
- IJRITCC Call for Papers (October 2016 Issue) Citation in Google Scholar Impact Factor 5.837 DOI (CrossRef USA) for each paper, IC Value 5.075Încărcat deEditor IJRITCC
- Performance Analysis of Image Restoration Techniques at Different NoisesÎncărcat deEditor IJRITCC
- Comparative Analysis of Hybrid Algorithms in Information HidingÎncărcat deEditor IJRITCC
- Importance of Similarity Measures in Effective Web Information RetrievalÎncărcat deEditor IJRITCC
- 7 1534938100_22-08-2018Încărcat deEditor IJRITCC
- Fuzzy Logic A Soft Computing Approach For E-Learning: A Qualitative ReviewÎncărcat deEditor IJRITCC
- Modeling Heterogeneous Vehicle Routing Problem with Strict Time ScheduleÎncărcat deEditor IJRITCC
- Network Approach based Hindi Numeral RecognitionÎncărcat deEditor IJRITCC
- Efficient Techniques for Image CompressionÎncărcat deEditor IJRITCC
- A Study of Focused Web Crawling TechniquesÎncărcat deEditor IJRITCC
- Prediction of Crop Yield Using LS-SVMÎncărcat deEditor IJRITCC
- Predictive Analysis for Diabetes using TableauÎncărcat deEditor IJRITCC
- Simulation of Vector Controlled Adjustable Speed System of Doubly Fed Induction MachineÎncărcat deEditor IJRITCC
- iTimer - Count On Your TimeÎncărcat deEditor IJRITCC
- Hybrid Algorithm for Enhanced Watermark Security with Robust DetectionÎncărcat deEditor IJRITCC
- 48 1530871571_06-07-2018.pdfÎncărcat derahul sharma
- IoT and Fingerprint Based Door Looking SystemÎncărcat deEditor IJRITCC
- Kinematic Hardening Parameters Identification with Finite Element Simulation of Low Cycle Fatigue using Genetic Algorithm ApproachÎncărcat deEditor IJRITCC
- image restoration techniques using fusion to remove motion blurÎncărcat derahul sharma
- a content based region separation and analysis approach for sar image classificationÎncărcat derahul sharma

- SCF equations in multi-planar welded tubular DT-joints including bending effectsÎncărcat dekuncheesh
- Numbering ProcedureÎncărcat desanjiv_kumar4
- Panagopoulos Et Al IJRB 2010aÎncărcat deEmf Refugee
- Bosch amplifier TR15 25(1).pdfÎncărcat deMurat Yener
- Business Rules Overview PresentationÎncărcat demvelozman
- Blast Chiller Operating Manual (1)Încărcat deMiha Anghel
- Lactate Levels in InfantsÎncărcat deYuliawati Haruna
- STA302_Mid_2012SÎncărcat deexamkiller
- Drug DeliveryÎncărcat deahmaszitim
- 252 Ai Hydraulic Gear Pump and Motor Failure Analysis Repair Guide 9-23-16Încărcat deRadha Raman Yadav
- Interview Questions for MathworksÎncărcat deSuchindra Palem
- ASTM A351 -06Încărcat deanon_489751361
- ey7dhxs2Încărcat deBibek Raj
- 171408799 Esquema Electrico 416DÎncărcat deMarco Antonio Esparza Castro
- Guide to Porting From Solaris to Linux on x86Încărcat dedoctorx
- Least Learned Skills Tces 2019Încărcat deMary Seal Tajores-Ferolino Cabrejo
- Cat_konik_5Încărcat deSoma Ghosh
- HW6_SOLÎncărcat deLanie Ann Aragon Grantos
- Java Chat ProgramÎncărcat deMuhammad Hanif
- Beginner's Guide to the EPSO Numerical Reasoning Test - WebinarTranscriptÎncărcat delenke_szasz7758
- cheatsheet statsÎncărcat deSebastian Kosch
- Hydroperoxide Determination by a Catalase OPEE Application to the Study of Extra Virgin Oil Rancidification ProcessÎncărcat deVeronica Drg
- Multi-Carrier Techniques For Broadband Wireless Communications ( Man-On Pun ).pdfÎncărcat deAnonymous bZtJlFvPtp
- Shrink and SwellÎncărcat deAkshay Setlur
- Tugas Daskom VbÎncărcat deGita Damayanti
- 4 Aam Crash Management Systems1Încărcat deSérgio Santos
- FMP 7 TutorialÎncărcat devalde
- Economics_Problems.pdfÎncărcat deev xv
- PEO COÎncărcat deabhishek1028
- Purpose and Function of the CPUÎncărcat desophiegcse

## Mult mai mult decât documente.

Descoperiți tot ce are Scribd de oferit, inclusiv cărți și cărți audio de la editori majori.

Anulați oricând.