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August to December Latin Notes

Conversatio I
Salve. Hello.
Quod nomen est tibi? What's your name?
Mihi nomen est.... My name is....
Et tibi? And you?

Quid agis? How do you do?


Valeo, gratias. I'm fine, thank you.
tu you

ego I
quoque too
Quid novi? What's new?
Nihil novi. Nothing's new.
Vale. Good-bye.

August to December Latin Notes

Conversatio II
Salve, Rufe.

Salve, domina Cornelia.

Ubi est liber tuus?

Hic est liber meus.

Bene! Et calamus tuus?

Hic est calamus meus,


et atramentum et volumen.

August to December Latin Notes

Es bene paratus, Rufe.

Gratias, magistra. Schola est magnifica!


Et tu es magnifica!

Gratias, Rufe. Multas gratias.

domina = Miss
ubi? = where
tuus, -a, -um = your
hic = here
meus, -a, -um = my
es = you are
bene paratus, -a, -um = well prepared
magnificus, -a, -um = magnificent, fantastic
tu = you

August to December Latin Notes

1st and 2nd Declension Nouns & Adjectives


Feminine Masculine Neuter
Nominative (subject)

Accusative (direct object)

Singular

-a

-us

-um

Plural

-ae

-i

-a

Singular

-am

-um

-um

Plural

-as

-os

-a

3rd Declension Nouns


Feminine Masculine
Nominative (subject)

Neuter

Singular

varies

varies

varies

Plural

-es

-es

-a or -ia

Singular

-em

-em

same as
nominative
singular

Plural

-es

-es

-a or -ia

Accusative (direct object)

3rd Declension Adjectives


Feminine Masculine Neuter
Nominative (subject)

Accusative (direct object)

Singular

-is

-is

-e

Plural

-es

-es

-ia

Singular

-em

-em

-e

Plural

-es

-es

-ia

August to December Latin Notes

Latin Vocabulary - Unit I Nouns


agricola (m.): farmer
amicus (m.): friend
aqua (f.): water
asinus (m.): donkey
athleta (m.): athlete
avus (m.): grandfather
balneum (n.): bath
caelum (n.): sky
casa (f.): house
cerasum (n.): cherry
cibus (m.): food
cubiculum (n.): bedroom
culina (f.): kitchen
discipulus (m.): student
equus (m.): horse
femina (f.): woman

fundus (m.): farm


gallina (f.): chicken
lectus (m.): bed
lilium (n.): lily
malum (f.): apple
medicina (f.): medicine
medicus (m.): doctor
monstrum (n.): monster
musculus (m.): muscle
oppidum (n.): town
ovum (n.): egg
pecunia (f.): money
pila (f.): ball
pirum (n.): pear
plaustrum (n.): wagon
porcus (m.): pig

puella (f.): girl


rosa (f.): rose
sandalium (n.): sandal
schola (f.): school
stabulum (n.): stable
stadium (n.): stadium
stella (f.): star
stola (f.): dress
stomachus (m.): stomach
tectum (n.): roof
templum (n.): temple
tunica (f.): tunic
vacca (f.): cow
villa (f.): country house
vinum (n.): wine

Latin Vocabulary - Unit I Adjectives


altus, -a, -um: high
amarus, -a, -um: bitter
ambitiosus, -a, -um: ambitious
bonus, -a, -um: good
calidus, -a, -um: hot
frigidus, -a, -um: cold
laetus, -a, -um: happy
longus, -a, -um: long
modestus, -a, -um: modest
obesus, -a, -um: fat

obstinatus, -a, -um: stubborn


prosperus, -a, -um:
prosperous
purus, -a, -um: pure
rapidus, -a, -um: rapid, fast
rarus, -a, -um: rare
remotus, -a, -um: remote
robustus, -a, -um: strong,
healthy
rotundus, -a, -um: round

Latin Vocabulary - Unit I Verbs & Other Words


et: and
est: is
habent: have

habet: has
non: not, no
sunt: are

ruber, rubra, rubrum: red


sacer, sacra, sacrum: holy,
sacred
sordidus, -a, -um: dirty
spatiosus, -a, -um: spacious
studiosus, -a, -um: hardworking
tardus, -a, -um: late, tardy,
slow
vacuus, -a, -um: empty

August to December Latin Notes

Latin VII
stella (feminine noun) star
oppidum (neuter noun) town
puella (feminine noun) girl
balneum (neuter noun) bath
sandalium (neuter noun) sandal
agricola (masculine noun) farmer
amicus (masculine noun) friend
casa (feminine noun) house
plaustrum (neuter noun) wagon
avus (masculine noun) grandfather
Latin VIII
avia (feminine noun) grandmother
pater (masculine noun) father
mater (feminine noun) mother
frater (masculine noun) brother
filius (masculine noun) son
soror (feminine noun) sister
filia (feminine noun) daughter
fraterculus (masculine noun) little brother
infans (masculine or feminine noun) baby
feles (feminine noun) cat
canis (masculine noun) dog
Latin IX
puer (masculine noun) boy
vir (masculine noun) man
magister (masculine noun) teacher
liber (masculine noun) book
demonstrare (verb) to point out
tenere (verb) to hold
habere (verb) to have
salutare (verb) to greet
ludus (masculine noun) game, elementary school
pergula (feminine noun) porch
Latin X
charta (f. noun) paper
classis (f. noun) class
calamus (m. noun) pen
librarium (n. noun) library
volumen (n. noun) volume, scroll
subsellium (n. noun) bench
tabula (f. noun) tablet
stilus (m. noun) pencil
atramentum (n. noun) ink

regula (f. noun) ruler (used for measuring)


cathedra (f. noun) chair
fenestra (f. noun) window
janua (f. noun) door
Latin XI
persona (feminine noun) person
parvus, -a, -um (adjective) small
sedere (verb) to sit
magnus, -a, -um (adjective) great, large
salutare(verb) greets
flumen (neuter noun) river
foramen (neuter noun) hole
cantare (verb) to sing
domina (feminine noun) Miss
ubi (adverb) where
tuus, -a, -um (possessive pronoun) your
hic (adverb) here
bene (adverb) fine, okay
Latin XII
difficilis, -is, -e (adjective) difficult
excellens, excellentis (adjective) excellent
familiaris, -is, -e (adjective) familiar
fragilis, -is, -e (adjective) fragile
impatiens, impatientis (adjective) impatient
incredibilis, -is, -e (adjective) incredible
intellegens, intellegentis (adjective) intelligent
irritabilis, -is, -e (adjective) irritable
memorabilis, -is, -e (adjective) memorable
nobilis, -is, -e (adjective) noble
obediens, obedientis (adjective) obedient
popularis, -is, -e (adjective) popular
prudens, prudentis (adjective) prudent
simplex, simplicis (adjective) simple
terribilis, -is, -e (adjective) terrible
utilis, -is, -e (adjective) useful

August to December Latin Notes

Latin XIII
gravis, -is, -e (adjective) heavy
pinguis, -is, -e (adjective) fat
enormis, -is, -e (adjective) enormous
ferox, ferocis (adjective) fierce
elegans, elegantis (adjective) elegant
mollis, -is, -e (adjective) comfortable
dulcis, -is, -e (adjective) sweet
dives, divitis (adjective) rich
amabilis, -is, -e (adjective) lovable
vetus (adjective) old
felix, felicis (adjective) happy
tristis, -is, -e (adjective) sad

August to December Latin Notes

Familia Seneca
Use your Latin vocabulary and the footnotes to help you translate this paragraph into English. Use this page for your
rough draft. Write your final draft on the spaces below the paragraph.
Familia Seneca est magna.1 Lucius est avus et Livia est avia. Pater est Marcellus. Quis2 est mater?
______________________________________________________________________________
Claudia est mater. Marcellus et Claudia sunt parentes. 3 Rufus est filius. Terentius quoque4 est filius.
______________________________________________________________________________
Terentius est minor natu quam5 Rufus. Is6 est fraterculus. Rufus et Terentius sunt fratres. 7
______________________________________________________________________________
Write your final draft here:
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

magnus, -a, -um: great


quis? = who?
parentes (plural noun): parents
quoque = too, also
minor natu quam = younger than
is = he
fratres (plural noun): brothers

August to December Latin Notes

More Familia Seneca


Translate into English.
Marcella est filia. Julia quoque est filia. Julia est minor natu quam Marcella. Julia est infans. Marcella
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
et Julia sunt sorores.8 Rufus et Terentius et Marcella et Julia sunt liberi. 9 Sunt10 quattuor11 liberi in
______________________________________________________________________________
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familia. Sunt octo12 personae13 in familia. Sunt etiam14 feles et canis. Feles et canis sunt animalia 15
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
domestica.16 Familia Seneca in Italia17 habitat18. Quam19 splendida20 familia!
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

sorores = (plural noun) sisters


liberi = (plural noun) children
sunt = there are
quattuor = four
octo = eight
personae = (feminine plural noun) persons
etiam = also
animalia (neuter plural noun) animals
domesticus, -a, -um = domestic
Italia = (feminine noun) Italy
habitat = lives
quam = what a
splendidus, -a, -um = splendid

August to December Latin Notes

10

Schola Romana: Translate into English.


Schola Romana1 est spatiosa. Schola fenestram et januam non habet, sed librarium habet.
Magister est persona2 intellegens et popularis. Magister ante3 classem stat4. Classis non est magna; est
parva5 sed studiosa. Sunt tres6 discipuli et tres discipulae. Pueri et puellae in7 subsellio sedent8. Canis
et feles non in ludo sunt; sunt in area.
Omnis9 discipulus et omnis discipula habet librum, chartam, calamum, atramentum, regulam,
stilum, tabulam. Magister volumen magnum habet.
Magister classem salutat. Classis magistrum salutat.
1. Romanus, -a, -um (adj.): Roman
2. persona (f. noun): person
3. ante (+ accusative, prep.): in front of
4. stat (verb): (he) stands
5. parvus, -a, -um (adj.): small
6. tres (adj.): three
7. in (prep.): in, on
8. sedent (verb): (they) sit
9. omnis (adj.): each

August to December Latin Notes

11

Schola Romana Notes


As you can imagine, schools were quite different 2000 years ago. The common Latin word for
elementary school was ludus, which also meant fun and game. The more advanced school was schola.
School was usually held on an open porch (pergula). The students sat on a bench (subsellium) with
their wax tablet (tabula) on their laps. They wrote on their tablet with a pencil (stilus) made of wood,
bone, or steel, with a pointed end. Sometimes the students were permitted to write on a sheet of
expensive paper (charta) made of papyrus with a pen (calamus) dipped in ink (atramentum). The
children played on the playground (area).

August to December Latin Notes

Schola Romana: Translate into English.


Schola Romana1 est spatiosa. Schola fenestram et januam non habet, sed librarium habet.

The Roman school is spacious. The school has no window or door, but the library has
them.
Magister est persona2 intellegens et popularis. Magister ante3 classem stat4. Classis non est magna;

The teacher is an intelligent and popular person. The teacher stands in front of the class.
The class is not large;
est parva5 sed studiosa. Sunt tres6 discipuli et tres discipulae. Pueri et puellae in7 subsellio sedent8.

it is small but hard-working. There are three male students and three female students. The
boys and girls sit on a bench.
Canis et feles non in ludo sunt; sunt in area.

A dog and a cat are not in the elementary school; they are on the playground.
Omnis9 discipulus et omnis discipula habet librum, chartam, calamum, atramentum, regulam,

Each male student and each female student has a book, paper, a pen, ink, a ruler,
stilum, tabulam. Magister volumen magnum habet.

a pencil, and a tablet. The teacher has a large volume.


Magister classem salutat. Classis magistrum salutat.

The teacher greets the class. The class greets the teacher.
1. Romanus, -a, -um (adj.): Roman
2. persona (f. noun): person
3. ante (+ accusative, prep.): in front of
4. stat (verb): (he) stands
5. parvus, -a, -um (adj.): small
6. tres (adj.): three
7. in (prep.): in, on
8. sedent (verb): (they) sit
9. omnis (adj.): each

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August to December Latin Notes

13

More About Noun Endings I


Words that end in -us (such as cibus) are usually masculine. Those that end in -a (such as puella) are
usually feminine, and those that end in -um (like oppidum) are neuter. With that in mind, look
carefully at these two groups:
Group A

Group B

Nominative Accusative
pater

patrem

mater

matrem

frater

fratrem

soror

sororem

infans

infantem

parens

parentem

feles

felem

canis

canem

animal

animal

Notice that the e in pater, mater, and frater drops out of the stem
when those nouns are used as direct objects. (N.B. The stem is the
part of the word to which the endings are added.) The nominative
case often does not show the full stem. For example, the full stem
parent- exists in the accusative but not the nominative. Notice that
animal, like all other neuter nouns, remains the same in the
nominative and accusative cases.
Words like puer, magister, liber, and vir do not have the masculine
ending -us in the nominative case, but they have the regular ending
-um in the accusative case. Some adjectives, such as sacer and liber,
do this as well.
Also, sometimes Latin words have identical or similar spellings but
very different meanings. Consider the adjacent chart.

When confronted
with words such
as these, it is important to pay careful attention to
the spelling and the context in which the word
appears to determine the correct meaning.
Because everyone needs to practice, complete the
following chart:
Latin
pater
mater
frater
soror
infans
parens
feles
canis
animal

English Meaning

Latin

English

liber (m. noun)

book

liber (m. adj.)

free

liberi (pl. noun)

children

libri (pl. noun)

books

August to December Latin Notes

14

The Ablative Case


Look at the Schola Romana story again. Notice the preposition in. It can mean on or in. Which
meaning do you use? That depends on the ending attached to the noun that the preposition's object
(the OP to use Shurley-speak).
Consider the noun area. In the accusative case, it would be aream. In Schola Romana, it appears as
in area, and the -a ending is a long a (as in way). This is the first declension feminine singular
ablative ending. Next notice in ludo. The -o ending is a long o (as in road). This is the second
declension masculine singular ablative.
Here's a chart:
1st and 2nd Declension Nouns & Adjectives
Feminine
Nominative (subject)

Accusative (direct object)

Ablative

Masculine

Neuter

Singular

-a

-us

-um

Plural

-ae

-i

-a

Singular

-am

-um

-um

Plural

-as

-os

-a

Singular

August to December Latin Notes

15

3rd Declension Adjectives


All the -is adjectives on Set XII have the same endings/spellings when they describe masculine and
feminine nouns. The endings change when describing neuter nouns. For example:
liber utilis = useful book

villa utilis = useful country house

tectum utile = useful roof

The Set XII adjectives not ending in -is keep the same ending when they describe nouns of any
gender. For example:
vir prudens = prudent man

filia prudens = prudent daughter

animal prudens = prudent animal

Now translate this paragraph on your own paper:


Antonius
Antonius est discipulus studiosus. Est obediens et intellegens. Est etiam justus et politus. Itaque est
popularis. Antonius multos amicos excellentes in classe habet. Sed interdum est irritabilis et
impatiens. Est imperfectus sed tamen est amabilis et prudens.
etiam = also
itaque = therefore
multi, -ae, -a = many
sed = but
interdum = sometimes
tamen = still

August to December Latin Notes

16

More 3rd Declension Adjectives


The first set of notes talked about singular third declension adjectives. These notes talk about plural
third declension adjectives. Note carefully the change in the endings of the following adjectives from
the singular to the plural:
Mater est amabilis.
Amicus est familiaris.
Subsellium est grave.
Oppidum est memorabile.
Ovum est fragile.

Matres sunt amabiles.


Amici sunt familiares.
Subsellia sunt gravia.
Oppida sunt memorabilia.
Ova sunt fragilia.

The examples above show adjectives that end in -is. What about the new adjectives that don't end in
-is, such as excellens and prudens? Compare these singular and plural examples:
Valeria est intellegens.
Animal est obediens.
Puella est prudens.
Medicus est excellens.

Valeria sunt Antonius sunt intellegentes.


Animalia sunt obedientia.
Puellae sunt prudentes.
Medici sunt excellentes.

Valeria
Use your Antonius translation to help you translate this paragraph on your own paper.
Valeria est puella bella. Est discipula ambitiosa in classe Latina. Est obediens et intellegens. Est etiam
honesta et bona. Itaque est popularis. Valeria multas amicas excellentes in classe habet. Sed interdum
est irritabilis et impatiens. Tamen est amabilis et prudens.
bellus, -a, -um = pretty

August to December Latin Notes

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