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Subject : Industrial Pollution and Control [Theory]

Semester: 5th
Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda

Branch: Metallurgy
Code: 338512 (38)

Class Lecture Notes of Unit-2


[Water Pollution Source, Effect, Control]
Subject: Industrial Pollution and Control
[Theory - 338512 (38)]
Branch: Metallurgical Engineering Semester: 5th

Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda


Water Pollution:
 Sources, Effects, Measurement, Water Quality, BOD, Eutrophication etc
 Water Pollution caused by various industries and in selected process industries
Water Pollution in Integrated Steel Plants

Water Pollution in Electroplating Industry

Water Pollution in Metal Finishing Industries

 Water Pollution in NF Industries Aluminium and Glass Manufacturing!


 Waste Water Treatment Technology
Pollution in Physical, Chemical & Biological Processes.

Department of Metallurgy, OPJIT, Punjipathara, Raigarh [C.G]

Subject : Industrial Pollution and Control [Theory]


Semester: 5th
Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda

Branch: Metallurgy
Code: 338512 (38)

INTRODUCTION:
The pressure of increasing population, growth of industries, urbanization,
energy intensive life style, loss of forest cover, lack of environmental
awareness, lack of implementation of environmental rules and regulations and
environment improvement plans, untreated effluent discharge from industries
and municipalities, use of non-biodegradable pesticides/fungicides/
herbicides/insecticides, use of chemical fertilizers instead of organic manures,
etc are causing water pollution. The pollutants from industrial discharge and
sewage besides finding their way to surface water reservoirs and rivers are also
percolating into ground to pollute ground water sources.
The polluted water may have undesirable colour, odour, taste, turbidity, organic
matter contents, harmful chemical contents, toxic and heavy metals, pesticides,
oily matters, industrial waste products, radioactivity, high Total Dissolved
Solids (TDS), acids, alkalies, domestic sewage content, virus, bacteria,
protozoa, rotifers, worms, etc. The organic content may be biodegradable or
non-biodegradable. Pollution of surface waters (rivers, lakes, ponds), ground
waters, sea water are all harmful for human and animal health. Pollution of the
drinking water and that of food chain is by far the most worry-some aspect.
In order to avoid ill effects of water pollution on the human and animal health
and agriculture, standards/rules/guidelines have been devised for discharge of
effluents from industries and municipalities, quality of drinking water, irrigation
water, criteria for aquatic life in fresh water by various authorities including
central pollution control board (India), World Health Organization (WHO),
World Bank, Indian Standard Institution, Indian Council of Medical Research,
etc.
Alarming level of lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) has been found in the sediments as
well as waters of Damodar, Safi, Ganga, Adjai rivers in Jharkhand, and West
Bengal. High level of contamination by heavy metals, chemicals, organic
matter, nitrates, coliforms, human and animal excreta, pesticides, etc is found in
various rivers in India including Ganga, Yamuna, Gomti, Ramganga, Hindon,
Chambal, Godavari, Krishna, Sabarmati, Subernrekha, Cauvery, etc specially
near big cities and industries.
Many areas have arsenic and fluoride in underground waters. Arsenic in many
districts of West Bengal and UP is very high. Fluoride content in underground
water of many districts in Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat,
Rajasthan and UP is high while it is also high in some places in Jammu &
Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra.
The source of fluoride is generally underground rocks.

Department of Metallurgy, OPJIT, Punjipathara, Raigarh [C.G]

Subject : Industrial Pollution and Control [Theory]


Semester: 5th
Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda

Branch: Metallurgy
Code: 338512 (38)

What are the sources of water pollution?


Water Pollutants may enter usable or drinking water via: single or point
sources where pollutants have been discharged into the environment through
pipes (effluent), sewers, smokestacks [A large tall chimney through which
combustion gases and smoke can be evacuated] or ditches [extraction of natural
water from mines] from specific sites. Non-point sources where pollutants,
such as agrichemicals, smoke from forest fires, transportation vehicles, or they
can enter water bodies over large areas via groundwater and runoff.
There are many causes for water pollution but two general categories exist:
direct and indirect contaminant sources. Direct sources [or point sources]
include effluent outfalls from factories, refineries, and waste treatment plants
etc that emit fluids of varying quality directly into urban water supplies. In the
United States and other countries, these practices are regulated, although this
doesn't mean that pollutants can't be found in these waters.
Indirect sources [or non-point sources] include contaminants that enter the
water supply from soils/groundwater systems and from the atmosphere via rain
water. Soils and ground waters contain the residue of human agricultural
practices (fertilizers, pesticides, etc..) and improperly disposed of industrial
wastes. Atmospheric contaminants are also derived from human practices (such
as gaseous emissions from automobiles, factories and even bakeries).
Contaminants can be broadly classified into organic, inorganic, radioactive and
acid/base.
LIST OF SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION:

Pollution from Domestic waste


Pollution from Sewage
Pollution from Automobile Workshop
Pollution from Hotels and Restaurant
Pollution from Slaughter Houses
Pollution from Solid waste disposal site
Dumping of Solid Wastes
Dumping of Earth Construction Debris
Encroachment [Development of an area not previously occupied]
Deforestation in the Catchment Areas [Natural Water collecting area]
Agricultural activities
Sand and stone mining/quarrying

Department of Metallurgy, OPJIT, Punjipathara, Raigarh [C.G]

Subject : Industrial Pollution and Control [Theory]


Semester: 5th
Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda

Branch: Metallurgy
Code: 338512 (38)

The effects of water pollution: Some forms of water pollution simply alter the
physical state of the water, such as its temperature, pH, or turbidity
[cloudiness], but others involve the addition of potentially harmful substances.
They include poisonous drinking water, poisonous food animals (due to these
organisms having bio-accumulated toxins from the environment over their life
spans), unbalanced river and lake ecosystems that can no longer support full
biological diversity, deforestation from acid rain, and many other effects.
Thermal pollution is the unnatural heating of water which changes the ambient
temperature. Heated water is produced during industrial processes, specifically
thermal power production, and the released water is cooled in local waterways.
In warmer waters the decomposition of organic waste occurs faster, depleting
the Dissolved oxygen in water; this affects the aquatics organisms ability to
Metabolize and may compromise sensitive species.
Acid rain (or more correctly termed acid deposition) can fall on the Earth as
rain, snow or sleet [mixture of rain and snow], as well as dry, sulfate-containing
particles that settle out in the air. It is a world-wide problem because of the
widespread use of coal for heating and electricity and the continued use of fossil
fuels for transportation. Normal rainfall has a pH between 5.2 and 5.6 where
acid rain is more acidic than normal rainfall. Acid rain produces forests with
sickly, stunted trees and lakes that are so acid that they cannot support fish. It
also releases heavy metals (for example, cadmium and mercury) into the food
chain.
Ocean Acidity: The Ocean acts as a CO2 sink, absorbing much of the CO2
produced by the burning of fossil fuels. CO2 reacting with water forms
carbonic acid through the chemical reaction: CO2 + H2O  H2CO3.
An increase in carbonic acid levels is causing the pH of the oceans to fall. This
has major implications for marine life. The pH is a logarithmic scale, so even a
small pH change represents a large change in H+. Thus a pH of 5 is 100 x more
acidic than a pH of 7.
Effect of Ocean Acidification: Because the oceans are naturally alkaline
[having a pH greater than 7 i.e Basic], acidification will not produce acid
waters. Shells will not dissolve but organisms will find it more difficult to gain
the CO32- ions needed to make shells. Shell making organisms are able to use
CO32- but cannot use HCO3-. Acidification lowers the amount of CO32available.
Chemical Pollutants: Organic chemicals are carbon based chemicals like
detergents, pesticides, tree and brush debris, and food wastes. Inorganic

Department of Metallurgy, OPJIT, Punjipathara, Raigarh [C.G]

Subject : Industrial Pollution and Control [Theory]


Semester: 5th
Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda

Branch: Metallurgy
Code: 338512 (38)

chemicals are not carbon based, like phosphorous and nitrogen based chemicals
and can include acids, salts, and heavy metals. Most organic water pollutants
are synthetic, carbon based, chemicals created for human activities. These
include pesticides, solvents, industrial chemicals, and plastics. Some organic
compounds enter water sources directly or through seepage from landfills,
through agrichemical runoff, or by leaching into groundwater. Inorganic
chemical pollutants include mercury, lead, road salt, and acid drainage. Most
are toxic to aquatic organisms and their presence may make water unsuitable for
drinking and other uses. Inorganic chemicals enter water sources from industrial
plants, mines, irrigation runoff, oil drilling, and municipal storm drainage.
Inorganic Plant Nutrients: Fertilizer runoff from agricultural and residential
land contributes inorganic plant nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus,
to water bodies. This nutrient enrichment accelerates the natural process of
eutrophication, and causes algal blooms and prolific aquatic weed growth.
High nitrate levels caused by inorganic fertilizers are also toxic in drinking
water, particularly for infants, small children, and pregnant women.
Eutrophication: It is the Biological process. Eutrophication is a term
describing the enrichment of water with nutrients especially nitrates and
phosphates. It often results in excessive growth of weed and algae. In other
words, eutrophication is Excessive nutrients in a lake or other body of water,
usually caused by runoff of nutrients (animal waste, fertilizers, sewage) from
the land, which causes a dense growth of plant life; excessive plant and algal
growth depletes the supply of oxygen, leading to the death of animal life inside
water.
Microorganisms decompose the organic matter in the polluted water and their
activity increases the Consumption of dissolved oxygen [DO] in water. This
reduces the amount of dissolved oxygen available to other aquatic organisms /
animals in water and may subsequently cause their death.
BOD: Biochemical or Biological oxygen demand is a measure of the polluting
capacity of effluent [waste water] where decomposition of organic matter
results in oxygen depletion. Organic matter decays as bacterial activity
increases. BOD is measured as the weight (mg) of oxygen used by one litre of
sample effluent stored in darkness at 20oC for five days [also called BOD5].
When the BOD is high and dissolved oxygen becomes depleted, decomposition
becomes anaerobic [Living or active in the absence of free oxygen]. Anaerobic
microorganisms produce compounds with unpleasant odours, leading to a
further deterioration in water quality.

Department of Metallurgy, OPJIT, Punjipathara, Raigarh [C.G]

Subject : Industrial Pollution and Control [Theory]


Semester: 5th
Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda

Branch: Metallurgy
Code: 338512 (38)

Sewage Pollution
Raw or partially treated sewage is a common water pollutant. Sewage pollution
results from the disposal of household and industrial wastes into rivers, lakes,
and seas. Sewage includes all waste water that has been used by a household or
industry. It does not include storm water from road and property runoff, which
is usually diverted directly into waterways. In some cities, sewerage and storm
water systems may be partly combined, and sewage may overflow into storm
water during high rainfall. Most communities apply some treatment to raw
sewage prior to discharge from point sources, but even treated sewage can be
high in nutrients.
Sewage is a source of pathogens (disease-causing agents). During floods,
human waste may mix with drinking water and increase the risk of water-borne
diseases such as cholera.
Processing of Sewage Water: Sewage usually undergoes several levels of
treatment (purification):
Pre-treatment removes any large objects, such as tree limbs, leaves,
condoms, & tampons, with screens.
Primary treatment uses mechanical processes, such as screening and
settling, to remove suspended sand and silt. This forms the primary
sludge.
Secondary treatment uses microorganisms to decompose the suspended
organic material in the waste water aeration tank. The bacteria-laden
solids settle out as sewage sludge.
Disinfection (usually by chlorination but ozone and UV light can also be
used) kills any bacteria and other pathogens before the waste water is
discharged.
Tertiary treatment using biological, chemical, and physical processes is
required to remove nitrogen, phosphorus, heavy metals, and synthetic
organic compounds.
Detecting Water Pollution
The extent of water pollution can be determined in many ways:
The nutrient loading can be assessed by measuring the BOD (the
Biochemical (or Biological) Oxygen Demand).
Electronic probes and chemical tests can identify the absolute levels of
various inorganic pollutants (nitrates, phosphates, and heavy metals).

Department of Metallurgy, OPJIT, Punjipathara, Raigarh [C.G]

Subject : Industrial Pollution and Control [Theory]


Semester: 5th
Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda

Branch: Metallurgy
Code: 338512 (38)

Measuring Water Quality


The following measurements are routinely made by agencies involved in
water quality monitoring:
Dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, and temperature (in the field)
Clarity or turbidity (in the field or the laboratory)
Conductivity, pH, colour, nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), major
ions (magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, and
sulphate), organic carbon, and fecal [stool] bacteria (coliforms and
giardia).
Water Pollution caused by various Industries:
Effluents and solid wastes from various industries and municipalities,
indiscriminate use of toxic chemicals, indiscriminate use of pesticides,
insecticides and fungicides, leaching of soils, wastes and rocks are the
principal causes of water pollution. Objectionable level of pollution of
water due to oils and oily substances may be found mainly in surface
waters near the industries using heavy quantities of lubricating oils,
greases, and liquid fuels, or refineries, big oil storages, etc. Ground water
may also be polluted due to soaking of oil in the ground or by
indiscriminate disposal of oil sludge. The heaviest polluting source for
surface water is sewage from cities.
CARCINOGENS IN WASTE WATER
Wastes from certain industries or leakages of certain materials in
handling, processing, etc may have substances which can cause cancer in
humans or animals. These carcinogenic substances may find their way in
waste waters which may pollute the source of waters for general use.
Many of the heavy and toxic metals like nickel, chromium, radioactive
substances, certain dyes, inks, resins, fumigants, gasoline additives,
nitrophenyl, naphthyamines, benzidine, azo compounds, some of the
pesticides like D.D.T. etc are carcinogens. Smoke from combustion of
certain organic materials may contain carcinogens which may eventually
find their way to pollute waters, besides polluting air. Prevention from
exposure, removal of such compounds or breaking down of such
compounds should be attempted.
POLLUTION BY E-WASTE
India generated about 1050 tonnes of electronic scrap per year as
reported in April 2005 which increased to 146,000 tonnes of e-waste per
year as reported in May 2007. This would go on increasing year by year.

Department of Metallurgy, OPJIT, Punjipathara, Raigarh [C.G]

Subject : Industrial Pollution and Control [Theory]


Semester: 5th
Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda

Branch: Metallurgy
Code: 338512 (38)

A study by U.S. environmental protection agency shows that e-waste


forms about 1% of municipal solid waste in USA. California alone
discards 6000 computers daily. They have estimated that about 70% of
heavy metals found in the land fills there, come from electronic discards
which may contaminate ground waters. When e-waste is incinerated with
other wastes it leads to hazardous emission-containing Dioxins. The
commonly found metals in e-waste like copper are catalyst for Dioxin
formation.
----x----x------x-----x-----x-----x-----x---------x---x----x----x-----x---xVarious Water Pollutants:

Department of Metallurgy, OPJIT, Punjipathara, Raigarh [C.G]

Subject : Industrial Pollution and Control [Theory]


Semester: 5th
Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda

Branch: Metallurgy
Code: 338512 (38)

Department of Metallurgy, OPJIT, Punjipathara, Raigarh [C.G]

Subject : Industrial Pollution and Control [Theory]


Semester: 5th
Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda

Branch: Metallurgy
Code: 338512 (38)

Pollution in Electroplating Industry


Electroplating is a plating process in which metal ions in an electrolyte
solution are moved by an electric field to coat an metal-electrode [cathode].
Electroplating is primarily used for depositing a thin layer of material to bring a
desired property to a surface e.g., abrasion and wear resistance, corrosion
protection, lubricity [the property of reducing friction], aesthetic qualities [on
decorative pieces], etc. The process used in electroplating is called electrodeposition.
Electroplating is the deposition of a metallic coating onto the surface of an
object [Cathode] by putting a negative charge onto the object and immersing it
into an electrolyte solution which contains a salt of the metal to be deposited. A
power supply supplies a direct current to the anode, oxidizing the metal atoms
that comprise it and allowing them to dissolve in the solution. At the cathode,
the dissolved metal ions in the electrolyte solution are reduced at the interface
between the solution and the cathode, such that they "plate out" onto the
cathode. The rate at which the anode is dissolved is equal to the rate at which
the cathode is plated, vis-a-vis the current flowing through the circuit. In this
manner, the ions in the electrolyte bath are continuously refilled by the anode.

Fig Electroplating of a metal (cathode) with nickel in a NiCl2 solution bath

Electroplating Industry Description and Practices


Electroplating involves the deposition of a thin protective layer (usually
metallic) onto a prepared surface of metal, using electrochemical processes. The
process involves pre-treatment (cleaning, degreasing, and other preparation
steps), plating, rinsing, passivating, and drying.

Department of Metallurgy, OPJIT, Punjipathara, Raigarh [C.G]

Subject : Industrial Pollution and Control [Theory]


Semester: 5th
Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda

Branch: Metallurgy
Code: 338512 (38)

Basic Electroplating Procedure

Step 1

Identify Base Metal

For Example: Steel,


Cooper , Brass

Step 2

Clean

For Example:
Degrease, Soak, &
Electroclean

Step 2R

Rinse

Step 3

Acid Descale & Activate

Step 3R

Rinse

Step 4

Step 4R

Pre-Plate
(If required)
Rinse

Step 5

Final Plate

Step 5R

Rinse

Step 6

Post Treatments
(As Specified)

Step 6R

Rinse

Step 7

Dry & Package

For Example:
Hydrochloric, Sulfuric,
or Fluoboric Acids.
(Some cases Peroxide
Descale or Brite Dip
For Example: Copper,
Sulfamate Nickel, or
Nickel
If more than one is
specified Repeat Steps
4 & 4R as needed.
For Example:
Cadmium, Chromium,
Copper, Gold, Lead,
Nickel. Silver, Solder, &
Tin

For Example:
Chromates, Lacquers,
& Seals

For Example: Box or


Hot Air Spin Dryers

Fig: Basic Steps of Electroplating Process

Department of Metallurgy, OPJIT, Punjipathara, Raigarh [C.G]

Subject : Industrial Pollution and Control [Theory]


Semester: 5th
Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda

Branch: Metallurgy
Code: 338512 (38)

The cleaning and pre-treatment stages involve a variety of solvents (often


chlorinated hydrocarbons, whose use is discouraged) and surface stripping
agents including caustic soda and a range of strong acids, depending on the
metal surface to be plated.
The use of halogenated hydrocarbons for degreasing purpose is not necessary
now a day, as water based systems are available and should be used. There are
following main types of plating electrolytic solutions: acid solutions, alkaline
solutions and complex agents such as cyanides. Electroplating and metal
finishing, both comes under surface finishing industries. In electroplating, we
add a layer of metal, while in metal finishing; we modify the surface layer of
metal by various processes.

Waste Characteristics in Electroplating Industry


Some or all of the substances used in electroplating (such as acidic solutions,
toxic metals, solvents, and cyanides) can be found in the wastewater, either via
rinsing of the final product or due to spillage and dumping of process baths.
The solvents and vapours from hot plating baths result in elevated levels of
volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and in some cases, volatile metal
compounds (when they contain chromates). Approximately 30 percent of the
solvents and degreasing agents used can be released as VOCs when baths are
not regenerated /or Improved / or redesigned.
The mixing of cyanide and acidic wastewaters can generate lethal hydrogen
cyanide gas and this must be avoided. The overall wastewater stream is usually
high in heavy metals (including cadmium, chrome, lead, copper, zinc, and
nickel), cyanides, fluorides, and oil and grease, all of which are process
dependent. Air emissions may contain toxic organics (such as trichloroethylene
and trichloroethane).
Cleaning or changing of process tanks and the treatment of wastewaters can
generate substantial quantities of wet sludge containing high levels of toxic
organics and/or metals.

Pollution Prevention and Control in Electroplating Industry


Plating involves different combinations of a wide variety of processes and there
are many opportunities to improve upon the traditional practices in the industry.
The following improvements should be implemented where possible:

Department of Metallurgy, OPJIT, Punjipathara, Raigarh [C.G]

Subject : Industrial Pollution and Control [Theory]


Semester: 5th
Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda

Branch: Metallurgy
Code: 338512 (38)

Changes in Process:
Replace cadmium with high quality corrosion resistant zinc plating. If
Possible, Use cyanide-free systems for zinc plating. In those cases where
cadmium plating is necessary, use bright chloride, high alkaline baths or
other alternatives.
Use trivalent chrome instead of hexavalent chrome: acceptance of the
change in finish needs to be promoted.
Give preference to water-based surface cleaning agents, instead of
organic cleaning agents, some of which are considered toxic.
Regenerate [improve or re-design] acids and other process ingredients,
whenever feasible.

Reduction in Drag-out and Wastage


Minimize drag-out [by effective draining of bath solutions] from the
plated part by measures such as making drain holes in bucket type
pieces, if necessary.
Maintain the density, viscosity, and temperature of the baths to minimize
drag-outs.
Allow dripping time of at least 10 to 20 seconds before rinsing the part.

Minimizing Water Consumption in Rinsing Systems


It is possible to design rinsing systems to achieve 50-99% reduction of
traditional water usage.

Agitation of rinse water or work pieces [via vibrations] to increase rinsing


efficiency.

Multiple counter-current rinses of plated parts.

Spray rinses (especially for barrel loads [cylindrical shape baths]).

Management of Process Solutions

Recycle process baths after concentration and filtration. Used bath


solutions should be sent for recovery and regeneration of plating
chemicals, not discharged into wastewater treatment units.
Recycle rinse waters (after filtration).
Regularly analyze and regenerate process solutions to maximize useful
life.
Clean racks between baths to minimize contamination.
Cover degreasing baths containing chlorinated solvents when not in
operation to reduce losses.

Department of Metallurgy, OPJIT, Punjipathara, Raigarh [C.G]

Subject : Industrial Pollution and Control [Theory]


Semester: 5th
Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda

Branch: Metallurgy
Code: 338512 (38)

Why should my electroplating shop reduce air pollution? Why


should I be concerned about air pollution from my electroplating
shop? Explain Various Health Issues related to them?
Electroplating operations can produce emissions of toxic air pollutants,
including heavy metals and cyanide.
Degreasing and cleaning solutions can release toxic air pollutants and volatile
organic compounds (VOC). Chemicals in these substances can react in the air to
form ground-level ozone (smog), which has been linked to a number of
respiratory effects.
Plating processes generate heavy metals such as hexavalent chromium and
cadmium. While federal, state, local, and Tribal regulations limit the amount of
emissions from electroplating shops, dangerous releases of toxic air pollutants
can occur if an electroplating shop is not in compliance with regulations.
Cyanide has been a key component of plating solutions for years. It can impact
the nervous system, heart, and lungs.
People who are exposed to toxic air pollutant at sufficient concentrations, for
sufficient durations, may increase their chances of getting cancer or
experiencing other serious health effects, such as reproductive problems, birth
defects, and aggravated asthma. Pollution prevention safeguards the health of
your employees, customers, and families by using materials, processes, or
practices that reduce or eliminate air pollution at the source.
For example, covering containers of cleaning solvents prevents vapours from
affecting your employees. Pollution prevention practices also save money on
waste disposal, materials usage, and the cost of air pollution controls.

How can I reduce air pollution from my electroplating shop?


Substitute Materials
Use cleaners such as water-based cleaners that have a lower toxic air
pollutant and VOC content.
Use degreasing solvents with a lower toxic air pollutants and VOC
content.
If you are a chromium electroplater, switch from hexavalent chromium
bearing solutions, which can cause cancer, to trivalent chromium ones,
which do not cause cancer.

Department of Metallurgy, OPJIT, Punjipathara, Raigarh [C.G]

Subject : Industrial Pollution and Control [Theory]


Semester: 5th
Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda

Branch: Metallurgy
Code: 338512 (38)

Replace the cyanide in plating solutions with less toxic compounds like
zinc chloride and pyro-phosphate copper.
Lower Emissions at the Source
 Cover containers of cleaning solvents and used shop towels. This will
reduce emissions of toxic air pollutants and VOC as well as the amount
of solvent lost to evaporation. This reduces the amount of new solvent
purchased.
 Securely cover all containers to reduce the chance of spills when
transferring materials.
 Use funnels or pumps to avoid spills when dispensing materials.
 Install ventilation hoods over plating baths to help protect workers from
evaporative plating solutions.
Change Cleaning Procedures
 Mandate a clean as you go policy to reduce the amount of solvent
needed for removing heavy buildup.
 Mechanically clean parts with a wire brush or sandblasting equipment to
reduce solvent use.
 Use old solvent as a pre-wash or wipe for cleaning equipment or parts.
 Switch to a water-based cleaning system like ultrasonic cleaners, manual
parts washers, automatic spray equipment, steam cleaners, or baths with
agitation.
 Clean parts with hot water and detergent at high pressures in a
pressurized washer.
Recycle Materials
 Use an on-site distillation unit to clean dirty cleaning liquid. This makes
the solvent available for reuse in the production process. An on-site
distillation reduces the costs of both solvent disposal and fresh solvent
purchase.
 Use old solvent for cleaning very dirty parts.
 Reuse plating bath solution and rinse water.
 Reduce bath dumps by continuously filtering bath solutions.
Change Production Processes
 Review and streamline production processes to reduce overall cleaning
solvent and degreaser use. For example, evaluate your solvent quality,
consolidate parts washing processes, and service units only when
necessary. These steps can greatly reduce solvent waste.

Department of Metallurgy, OPJIT, Punjipathara, Raigarh [C.G]

Subject : Industrial Pollution and Control [Theory]


Semester: 5th
Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda

Branch: Metallurgy
Code: 338512 (38)

 Lower emissions of toxic air pollutants such as cyanide, chromium and


other heavy metals by using alternative electro-coating technologies like
thermal spray coating, vapor deposition, and chemical vapor deposition.
 Minimize chemical usage and its associated emissions by using the
lowest concentration of chemicals in the bath that will produce the
desired results.
 If possible, use mechanical scraping instead of a chemical solution to
remove undesired buildup on the metal.
 Change baths and rinses based on bath/rinse quality, not to meet an
arbitrary schedule.

Key Issues that should be addressed in electroplating industry:


The following summarizes the key production and control practices that will be
accepted with emission guidelines:
1. Use cyanide free systems.
2. Avoid cadmium plating.
3. Use trivalent chrome instead of hexavalent chrome.
4. Prefer water-based surface cleaning agents where feasible, instead of
organic cleaning agents, some of which are considered toxic.
5. Minimize drag-out.
6. Use counter-current rinsing systems and/or recycle rinse waters to the
process after treatment.
7. Regenerate and recycle process baths and rinse waters after treatment.
8. Recycle solvent collected from air pollution control systems.
9. Send used solvents for recovery.
10.Do not use ozone depleting substances.
11.Manage sludges as hazardous waste. Reuse sludges to the extent feasible,
provided toxics are not released to the environment

Department of Metallurgy, OPJIT, Punjipathara, Raigarh [C.G]

Subject : Industrial Pollution and Control [Theory]


Semester: 5th
Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda

Branch: Metallurgy
Code: 338512 (38)

Pollution in Metal Finishing Industry


METAL FINISHING - INDUSTRY PROFILE
The Metal SURFACE finishing processes improve the surface of a basic
material by cleaning it, hardening or softening it, smoothing or roughening it,
depositing another metal on it by chemical exchange, electroplating another
metal or series of metals on it, converting its surface by chemical deposition,
coating it with organic materials, and oxidizing by electrolysis.
In other words, metal finishing includes both electroplating and coating
operations, as well as their supporting processes (polishing, cleaning,
degreasing, pickling, etching, etc.). The purpose of metal finishing is to prevent
corrosion and wear, change electrical properties [electrical conductivity],
enhance bonding for adhesives and coatings, and provide a decorative finish
[durability, aesthetic appearance] for metal products. Metal Finishing
Industries are either micro or small scale enterprises [MSEs].
Electroplating and other metal finishing operations use a wide variety of
processes to provide desired surface properties:
 Physical processes, such as buffing [Polish and make shiny], abrasive
blasting, grinding, tumbling [Roll over and over, back and forth], and
polishing.
 Chemical processes, such as degreasing, cleaning, pickling, etching,
coating, and electro-less plating [Plating without current but with the help
of Chemical catalyst in bath solution].
 Electrochemical processes, such as electroplating, anodizing, electrocleaning, and electro-polishing.
Physical processes involve the use of solid materials (abrasives). Chemical and
electrochemical processes involve the use of a wide variety of materials such as
acids, alkalis, cyanides, chromates, metal oxides, solvents, aldehydes,
surfactants, and other organic additives. These operations are typically
performed in baths (tanks) and are then followed by a rinsing cycle.
It is a common belief among those involved that the metal finishing industry is
the second most regulated sector, following the nuclear industry. The fact is the
metal finishing industry is regulated on a federal, state and local level under:
The Clean Water Act, The Clean Air Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery
Act (RCRA), Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).

Department of Metallurgy, OPJIT, Punjipathara, Raigarh [C.G]

Subject : Industrial Pollution and Control [Theory]


Semester: 5th
Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda

Branch: Metallurgy
Code: 338512 (38)

The metal finishing processes generate wastes, non-hazardous and hazardous, in


all physical states: liquid waste, solid waste, and air emissions. Therefore, the
metal finishing facilities have a high potential for multi-media contamination if
these wastes are released to the environment.
Adverse Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Opportunities in Metal
Finishing Industries:

Several key environmental issues associated with metal finishing are listed
below:
 Use of hazardous chemicals
Solid and hazardous wastes
 Air pollution
 Water use
 Wastewater
Use of Hazardous Chemicals
Metal finishing operations routinely use various hazardous chemicals, including
solvents for cleaning the metal parts, acids and bases for etching them, and
solutions of metal salts for plating the finish onto the desired form (substrate).
Most coating processes require the metal surface to be thoroughly cleaned
before-hand, because surface contaminants greatly diminish the quality of the
finished product. Both cleaning and plating processes generally occur in a
baththat is, a tank in which parts are dipped into a solution of chemicals.
Preparing the surface of the metal for treatment involves the removal of greases,
soils and oxides. Cleaning agents used for this purpose include detergents,
solvents, acidic solutions and caustics. Finished metal parts are often further
coated with some combination of paint, lacquer or ceramic coating. These
coatings can themselves contain toxic solvents and heavy metals.
Chemicals used may include the following:
Acids (sulphuric, hydrochloric, nitric, phosphoric)
Toxic metals (cadmium, nickel, zinc, chromium, lead, copper) and
compounds which contain these metals
Solvents (1,1,1-trichloroethane, methylene chloride, tetrachloroethylene,
methyl ethyl ketone [MEK], toluene, xylene)
Cyanide compounds.
These chemicals may be toxic to humans and animals, cause cancer in both
humans and animals, easily catch fire, and/or persist in the environment for a
long time, entering the food supply.

Department of Metallurgy, OPJIT, Punjipathara, Raigarh [C.G]

Subject : Industrial Pollution and Control [Theory]


Semester: 5th
Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda

Branch: Metallurgy
Code: 338512 (38)

In particular, hexavalent chromium is highly toxic to humans, causing kidney


damage and increasing the risk of lung cancer in humans. It is also highly toxic
to aquatic animals at very small doses. Both workers and local communities are
at risk from exposure to these chemicals, particularly those that persist in
ground and surface water supplies for long times.
In general, cleaner production [CP] can reduce the environmental harm caused
by using hazardous chemicals and improve the financial performance of the
production process. Cleaner production [CP] options in this area are simple
techniques, including pre-cleaning, production/inventory planning, substituting
less hazardous chemicals and/or processes, and reusing or reclaiming dirty
chemicals.
Selected Mitigation Strategies:
Avoid keeping outdated chemicals. Chemicals may lose their effectiveness if
used past their expiration date, resulting in poor-quality products and wasted
bath solutions. Recently purchased chemicals should be used after older
chemicals (a first in, first out policy) in order to prevent accumulation of
expired stock. Creating an inventory control system will prevent waste by
ensuring that all chemicals are used in order of arrival in the storeroom.
Label all chemical containers with the name of the chemical, the date it arrived
at the storeroom, the name of the manufacturer/distributor, and any appropriate
hazard warnings. The manufacturer, and in some cases the distributor, may be
able to provide a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS), which includes necessary
warnings as well as details about proper safety equipment and procedures for
handling the chemical.
Conduct employee trainings in the proper handling of chemicals, the reasons
for using safer techniques, and emergency response. Trained employees will be
better able to operate baths at peak efficiency, minimize spills, and improve the
consistency of solutions.
Training can also minimize the number of bad baths in which the entire
solution must be changed out, which wastes time, materials and water, and may
require workers to reprocess of metal parts. Ensure that only trained employees
are responsible for mixing bath solutions and setting flow levels.

Department of Metallurgy, OPJIT, Punjipathara, Raigarh [C.G]

Subject : Industrial Pollution and Control [Theory]


Semester: 5th
Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda

Branch: Metallurgy
Code: 338512 (38)

Reduce the need for chemicals.


Reduce the use of rust inhibitors (a toxic cleaning agent) by ordering metal parts
to be delivered only at the time that they are needed, and also by storing them
away from moisture if possible. This reduces the chances that they will rust.
Optimize solvent-handling procedures. There are a number of ways to reduce
the amount of solvents used throughout a facility; several require little or no
investment.
 Covering degreasing baths when they are not in use will reduce
evaporation of solvents; firms can spend less on solvents and lower the
risk of toxic exposures to workers.
 Alkali washes can be used instead of solvents in degreasing operations.
This way, wastes from alkaline cleaners can be chemically treated to
reduce toxicity and then discharged into the sewer, which minimizes
cleaning costs.
 Extend the life of cleaning solutions and reduce costs by filtering the
cleaning solutions to remove sludge build-up.
 Recycle solvents onsite. Use gravity to separate a solvent/sludge mixture
and reclaim the clear solvent for equipment cleaning. If reclaimed solvent
is pure enough, it can also be used for formulating primers and base coats
of paint.
Use process substitution to reduce hazards to workers, communities, and the
environment.
 Zinc alloy plating, such as zinc-nickel or zinc-cobalt, can be used to
provide corrosion protection instead of cadmium plating, which is highly
toxic and carcinogenic.
 Because cyanide is highly toxic to humans, use cyanide-free systems for
zinc plating when possible. Cyanide-free systems include zinc chloride
(acid) baths and zinc alkaline systems.
 Zinc chloride baths have higher operating efficiencies, offer energy
savings through improved bath conductivity, and result in better quality
of product because hydrogen embrittlement is reduced. (This is a type of
metal deterioration that reduces metal strength and ductility.) Zinc
chloride baths, however, require that traditional steel tanks be lined with
an acid-resistant material, such as hard rubber or polypropylene.
 Use non-fuming cleaners such as sulphuric acid and hydrogen peroxide
instead of chromic acid cleaner.
 Use trivalent chromium instead of hexavalent chromium, as it is less toxic
to humans and aquatic animals, creates less sludge, and is less viscous,
therefore causing less drag-out . Trivalent chromium also uses the same
equipment as hexavalent chromium, so it requires no infrastructure

Department of Metallurgy, OPJIT, Punjipathara, Raigarh [C.G]

Subject : Industrial Pollution and Control [Theory]


Semester: 5th
Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda

Branch: Metallurgy
Code: 338512 (38)

changes. Unfortunately, trivalent chromium can only be used for a plating


thickness no greater than 0.003mm. Trivalent chrome baths may also
require additives to correct color differences.
Consider options to reduce drag-out. Drag-out is the residual solution that
adheres to a part when it is removed from a process bath. Drag-out reduces the
concentrations of chemicals in the plating bath, requiring more chemical inputs
to maintain operating conditions.

Air Pollution Vapour degreasing operations and hot plating baths generate
used solvents that emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs can cause
serious health problems for workers, and they also contribute to air pollution in
the lower and upper reaches of the atmosphere. Poor handling practices can
result in the loss of as much as 30 percent of solvents and degreasing agents.
This can be a significant cost, as these chemicals would otherwise be reused.
VOCs are also emitted during paint application, curing and drying. In general,
some sort of pollution control investment will be necessary to fully control air
emissions from metal finishing facilities. Cleaner production can help to reduce
air pollution by preventing solvents from escaping into the air (i.e., volatilizing)
and improving the efficiency of pollution control systems. These methods are
described in detail below.
Selected Mitigation Strategies:
 Cover the degreasing unit during idle or down times to prevent solvent
from volatilizing.
 Exhausts should be treated to reduce VOCs and heavy metals before
venting to the atmosphere. Carbon filters can both reduce VOC levels and
allow employees to recover solvent using steam stripping and distillation.
 Use mist collection and scrubbing systems to control vapours and mists
from process baths.
 Use non-caustic paint removers such as alkaline or non-phenolic strippers
to reduce phenol emissions.

Wastewater Problems
Metal finishing, especially electroplating, generates large quantities of
wastewater, primarily from rinsing between process steps. Because of the
hazards to the community associated with the chemicals involved in metal
finishing operations, wastewater should always be treated before disposal into
ground or surface waters. Improperly treated wastewater can contaminate
drinking water and irrigation supplies, with long-term consequences for the
health of the local population, including employees.

Department of Metallurgy, OPJIT, Punjipathara, Raigarh [C.G]

Subject : Industrial Pollution and Control [Theory]


Semester: 5th
Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda

Branch: Metallurgy
Code: 338512 (38)

Cleaner production [CP] can best help reduce impacts of wastewater by


reducing the toxicity of the wastewater at the source. Once options for reducing
source pollution are used, however, it will still be necessary to build or share
use of a wastewater treatment plant. In order to be effective, wastewater
treatment plants need to be properly designed for the types of wastes to be
treated and the volumes of wastes generated. Operating such plants can be
costly, although in areas where water is scarce or expensive, treating wastewater
may help pay for itself by permitting re-use of water in facility operations.
Selected Mitigation Strategies:
 A waste treatment plant should treat wastewater to destroy cyanide,
neutralize pH, and remove toxic metals.
 It must separate waste streams. If cyanide and acidic wastewaters mixes,
it can generate lethal hydrogen cyanide gas. Also, nickel solutions must
be separated from cyanide and ammonium solutions in order to allow
nickel to precipitate out of solution.
 Use a reducing agent such as a sulphide to reduce wastewater containing
hexavalent chromium, which is water-soluble, to trivalent chromium,
which is insoluble. Add lime to the wastewater to precipitate out the
chromium, and dispose of the solids in a sanitary landfill.
 Use sodium sulphides and iron sulphates to remove metal from rinsewater instead of salts, phosphates, EDTA and/or ammonia.
 Sludge from water treatment operations must be treated before disposal in
order to control metals. Use electrolytic methods to recover metals from
the sludge when metal concentrations are high. Sludges should be
thickened, de-watered, and stabilized with lime before disposal in a
controlled landfill. Oxidize chromium acid wastes with sodium bisulphite
and sulphuric acid. Use magnesium oxide instead of caustic soda to adjust
pH.

Water Use
Metal finishing requires water in almost every stage of the process. Many metal
finishing businesses have yet to grab major opportunities to reduce their water
use. Often, limited water resources in an area must satisfy the needs for public
drinking water, sanitation, irrigation, river transport and industrial needs.
Inefficient use of these resources for metal finishing can leave insufficient or
highly polluted waters in lakes, rivers and wetlands, degrading their ability to
perform crucial economic and ecological functions.

Department of Metallurgy, OPJIT, Punjipathara, Raigarh [C.G]

Subject : Industrial Pollution and Control [Theory]


Semester: 5th
Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda

Branch: Metallurgy
Code: 338512 (38)

There are various cost-effective ways for metal finishing enterprises to reduce
their water use that could provide substantial savings.
Selected Mitigation Strategies:
Ensure the proper design of rinse tanks in order to improve rinsing
efficiency, reduce water use, and reduce drag-out. Tanks should be the smallest
size necessary for all parts/products that will be used in them, in order to reduce
water usage. Using a static rinse tank before a running rinse tank will reduce
drag-out in the running rinse tank, using less water for the same degree of
cleanliness.
Carefully placing water inlets and outlets on opposite ends of the tank will
maximize water mixing in the tank, improving the effectiveness of the rinse.
Inlet flow baffles, diffusers, distributors or spray heads can also help control the
injection of freshwater into the rinsing tank and aid in mixing the water. Also,
adding air blowers, mechanical mixing, or pumping/filtration systems can
improve mixing by agitating tank water.
Mechanical agitation is preferable to air agitation, however, since air blowers
can introduce contaminants like oil into the bath.
Consider alternatives to tank rinsing. Tank rinsing may not be the most
water-efficient solution for rinsing certain types of parts. Consider spray rinsing
instead of immersion for flat-surfaced parts. Ultrasonic rinsing works well for
cleaning parts with small crevices or irregular shapes.
Employ a flow control technique. Effective flow control techniques are flow
restrictors AND flow cut-off valves. Flow restrictors ensure that excessive
water is not fed to the process line. Flow cut-off valves are simple mechanisms
that shut off water flow to rinse tanks when the process lines are not in use.
Measure usage at individual production points. Install an inexpensive flow
meter or accumulator on the main water feed line (leading to the process line) or
on individual rinse tanks. Flow meters indirectly conserve water by allowing
careful monitoring of usage and can identify optimum water usage (or excessive
waste), leaks, and system failures.
Change the mechanics of the rinsing process. Rinsing is more
effective when the parts are dipped into the rinsing tank multiple times
than when parts are dipped once and agitated while submerged.

Department of Metallurgy, OPJIT, Punjipathara, Raigarh [C.G]

Subject : Industrial Pollution and Control [Theory]


Semester: 5th
Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda

Branch: Metallurgy
Code: 338512 (38)

Dipping parts twice in rinse baths is 16 times more effective at


reducing drag-out than dipping once.
Re-use treated wastewater for minor rinsing steps, such as after
alkaline cleaners and acid pickling steps. Note: Caution should be
exercised in re-using wastewater that has been conventionally treated (via
hydroxide precipitation) as it can introduce high amounts of dissolved
solids into the plating line.

Department of Metallurgy, OPJIT, Punjipathara, Raigarh [C.G]

Subject : Industrial Pollution and Control [Theory]


Semester: 5th
Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda

Branch: Metallurgy
Code: 338512 (38)

WHAT IS POLLUTION PREVENTION?


Pollution prevention (also known as source reduction and waste
minimization) is any action that reduces the production of wastes (at their
source) that may be otherwise released to the air, land, or water. There are two
general methods to achieve pollution prevention: (1) process changes and (2)
product changes.
The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 established a clear national policy that
pollution should be prevented or reduced at the source whenever possible. The
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines pollution prevention as "any
effort to reduce the quantity of industrial, hazardous, or toxic waste through
changes in the waste generation or production process at the source." This
includes all pollution, hazardous and non-hazardous, regulated and unregulated,
across all media and from all sources.
The Pollution Prevention and Best Management Practices (P2-BMPs) have been
developed to enable the metal finishing industries to achieve compliance with
all federal, state, and local environmental regulations, prevent the release of
chemicals to the environment, and develop a comprehensive Pollution
Prevention Program.
Each Pollution Prevention Program will identify ways in which a given facility
can reduce the use of hazardous materials and the subsequent generation of
hazardous and non-hazardous wastes. In addition the Program will also seek to
establish enhanced water and energy conservation practices.
Pollution Prevention & Best Management Practice For Metal Finishing
Facilities
The P2-BMPs promote the use of good housekeeping measures, development of
a preventive maintenance program, employee training in pollution prevention,
and other pollution prevention techniques recommended for metal finishing
operations. These techniques can be applied so as to maximize the use of
resources through source reduction, energy efficiency and water conservation,
waste tracking and reduction.
THE GOALS AND BENEFITS OF POLLUTION PREVENTION
The goal of a pollution prevention program is to minimize all waste produced.
Pollution prevention includes any action a company takes to reduce the amount
of waste created by a manufacturing process prior to recycling, treatment, or

Department of Metallurgy, OPJIT, Punjipathara, Raigarh [C.G]

Subject : Industrial Pollution and Control [Theory]


Semester: 5th
Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda

Branch: Metallurgy
Code: 338512 (38)

disposal of the waste. To effectively accomplish this, the program must be an


ongoing, comprehensive assessment of the operations at a facility.
BENEFITS OF A POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRAM
Both businesses and governments have strong incentives to reduce the toxicity
and sheer volume of the waste they generate. The cost of producing each unit
will decrease as pollution prevention measures lower operating costs. Therefore,
companies with an effective, ongoing pollution prevention plan will have a
significant competitive edge. The overall benefits of a pollution prevention
program, discussed in more detail below, include the following:






Protecting human health and environmental quality


Reducing operating costs
Improving employee morale and participation
Enhancing your companys image in the community
Reducing the potential for penalties and fines

Why Focus on Cleaner Production for Mitigation?


Cleaner production (CP) is a preventive business strategy designed to conserve
resources, mitigate risks to humans and the environment, and promote greater
overall efficiency through improved production techniques and technologies.
Cleaner production methods may include:
substituting different materials
modifying processes
upgrading equipment
redesigning products
In addition to environmental, health and safety benefits, many CP techniques
provide opportunities to substantially reduce operating costs and improve
product quality. MSEs [Micro and Small scale Enterprise] can profit from CP
through more efficient use of inputs and machinery, higher-quality goods that
command higher prices, and reduced waste disposal costs. Improved safety
measures can also help MSEs avoid costly accidents and worker absences.

Department of Metallurgy, OPJIT, Punjipathara, Raigarh [C.G]

Subject : Industrial Pollution and Control [Theory]


Semester: 5th
Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda

Branch: Metallurgy
Code: 338512 (38)

Water Pollution in NF Industries Please do Self Study !!


1. Environmental Guidelines for Aluminium Manufacturing

Department of Metallurgy, OPJIT, Punjipathara, Raigarh [C.G]

Subject : Industrial Pollution and Control [Theory]


Semester: 5th
Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda

Branch: Metallurgy
Code: 338512 (38)

Department of Metallurgy, OPJIT, Punjipathara, Raigarh [C.G]

Subject : Industrial Pollution and Control [Theory]


Semester: 5th
Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda

Branch: Metallurgy
Code: 338512 (38)

Department of Metallurgy, OPJIT, Punjipathara, Raigarh [C.G]

Subject : Industrial Pollution and Control [Theory]


Semester: 5th
Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda

Branch: Metallurgy
Code: 338512 (38)

2. Environmental Guidelines for Glass Manufacturing

Department of Metallurgy, OPJIT, Punjipathara, Raigarh [C.G]

Subject : Industrial Pollution and Control [Theory]


Semester: 5th
Faculty: Mr. Vikram Singh Nanda

Branch: Metallurgy
Code: 338512 (38)

Department of Metallurgy, OPJIT, Punjipathara, Raigarh [C.G]