!
"
#$
%&'$(
In this Chapter a discussion on steady state flow though a smooth and continuous
area flow rate (steady state) is presented. A discussion about the flow through
a convergingdiverging nozzle is also part of this Chapter. The isentropic flow
models are important because two main reasons: one, it provides the information
about the trends and important parameters, two, the correction factors later can be
introduced to account for deviations from the ideal state.
4.1
4.1.1
39
40
(4.1)
.
(4.2)
and denoting
(4.3)
! " #
(4.4)
$%
&')( yield
#
*'
(4.5)
equation (4.5) changes into
Now, substituting + or , ,+ .
#
*+
(4.6)
Utilizing the definition of by equation (4.4) and inserting it into equation (4.6)
and where
yields
/
# "
# * +
(4.7)
It very useful to convert equation (4.6) into a dimensionless form and denote Mach number as the ratio of velocity to speed of sound as
0
+
(4.8)
Inserting the definition of Mach number, (4.8) into equation (4.7) reads
"
1
/
#0
#
(4.9)
41
B
A
The usefulness of Mach number and equation (4.9) can be demonT0
T0
P0
P0
strated by this following simple examvelocity
0
0
ple. In this example a gas flows through
a tube (see Figure 4.2) of any shape
can be expressed as a function of only
Fig. 4.2: Perfect gas flows through a tube
the stagnation temperature as oppose
to the function of the temperatures and
velocities.
The definition of the stagnation provides the advantage of a compact writing. For example, writing the energy equation for the tube when by an external
forces or energy exchange shown in Figure (4.2). In that case, the energy question is reduced to
$ (
(4.10)
# 0
# "
(4.11)
# 0
# "
(4.12)
0 #
+
+ #
#
#
(4.13)
(4.14)
(4.15)
42
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0
1
2
3
Mon Jun 5 17:39:34 2006
4
5
Mach number
4.1.2
Even with today computers a simplified method can reduce the tedious work involve in computational work. In particular, the trends can be examined with analytical methods. It further will be used in the book to examine trends in derived
models. It can be noticed that the Mach number involved in the above equations
is in a square power. Hence, if an acceptable error is of about one percent than
provides the desire range. Further, if higher power is used, much smaller
error results. First it can be noticed that the ratio of temperature to stagnation
temperature,
is provided in power series. Expanding the equations results according to binomial expansion to
(4.16)
(4.17)
(4.18)
0
0
$
(
#
(4.19)
From above equation, it can be observed that the correction factor approaches
zero when
and then the equation (4.19) approaches to the standard
equation for incompressible flow.
The definition of the star Mach is ratio of the velocity and star speed of
sound (the speed of sound at
).
0 #
+
# 0
# # 0
0 0
#
0
0
#
(4.20)
(4.21)
(4.22)
0 # # 0
(4.23)
The ratio
of the area to star area is
4.2
#
$%
#"
'&
0 # # 0 $ ( $% # ( 0
(4.24)
44
P
U
T+dT
+d
P+dP
U+dU
4.2.1
When no external work and heat transfer, the energy equation, reads
"
(4.25)
, and dividing by the
Differentiation of continuity equation, +
,
(4.26)
For isentropic process
(4.27)
(4.28)
(4.29)

(4.30)
Rearranging equation (4.30) so that the density, , can be replaced by the static
pressure,
yields
Recalling that
to obtain
+
(4.31)
#
+
Or in a dimensionless form
(4.32)
# 0
(4.33)
Equation (4.33) is a differential equation for the pressure as a function of the cross
section area. It is convenient to rearrange equation (4.33) to obtain a variables
separation form of
# 0
(4.34)
* 
46
#  $ # 0 (
and
have the same sign. For the subsonic branch
is positive hence
0 #
From these observations the trends are, similar to incompressible fluid, an increase in area results in increase of the static pressure (converting the dynamic
pressure to a static pressure). Conversely, if the area decrease (as a function of )
the pressure decreases. Note that the pressure decrease is larger in compressible
flow compared to incompressible flow.
For the supersonic branch
, the phenomenon is different. For
the term
is negative and change the character of the equation.
#  # 0
0 #
# 0 ,
0 #
0 #
(4.35)
+#
(4.36)
It can be noted that the derivations of the above equations (4.35  4.36), the
equation of state was not used. Thus, the equations are applicable for any gas
(perfect or imperfect gas).
The second law (isentropic relationship) dictates that
and from
thermodynamics
,
"
#
(4.37)
Thus, the temperature varies according in the same way that Pressure does.
The relationship between the Mach number and the temperature can be
.
obtained by utilizing the fact that the process is assumed to be adiabatic
Differentiation of equation (4.9), the relationship between the temperature and the
stagnation temperature, yields
*
/
# "
# 0 $%"/# ( 0 0
(4.38)
$%"
#.( 0 0 0
#
(4.39)
4.2.1.2 Relationship Between the Mach Number and Cross Section Area
The equations used in the solution are energy (4.39), second law (4.37), state
(4.29), mass (4.26)1 . Note, equation (4.33) isnt the solution but demonstration of
certain properties on the pressure.
The relationship between temperature and the cross section area can be
obtained by utilizing the relationship between the pressure and temperature (4.37)
and the relationship of pressure and cross section area (4.33). First stage equation
(4.39) is combined with equation (4.37) and becomes
0 0
$
"
/
.
#
(
# 0
$% /# (
(4.40)
* 0
#
0
(4.41)
can be proved as
$
0 * +
(4.42)
Utilizing the identify in equation
(4.42) changes equation (4.41) into
1 The
0 #
0
# 0
(4.43)
48
io
# 0
cr
os
se
A,
0 1#
4.2.2
0 #
Examples
Example 4.1:
Air allowed to flow from a reservoir with temperature of 21 C and with pressure
of 5[MPa] through a tube. It was measured that air mass flow rate is 1[kg/sec].
At some point on the tube static pressure pressure was measured to be 3[MPa].
Assume that process is isentropic and neglects the velocity at the reservoir, calculate the Mach number, velocity, and the cross section area at that point where
the static pressure was measured. Assumed that the ratio of specific heats is
.
,  1#
S OLUTION
The stagnation conditions at the reservoir will be maintained through out tube because the
is isentropic.
the stagnation temperature can be written
process
Hence
and
and both of them are known (the condition at the
reservoir). For the point where the static pressure is known, the Mach number can
+
,+
2 This condition does not impose any restrictions for external flow. In external flow, an object can be
moved in arbitrary speed.
From Table (4.2) or from Figure (4.3) or utilizing the enclosed program from PottoGDC, or simply using the equations shows that
#
##
#
With these values the static temperature and the density can be calculated.
,
$
# (
,
#
# #' (
# !
"!$ #&%
0
#
#
)
* +
 ', +

(4.44)
Example 4.2:
The Mach number at point A on tube is measured to be 3
and the static pressure is 2 [Bar]4 . Downstream at point B the pressure was measured to be 1.5[Bar].
Calculate the Mach number at point B under the isentropic flow assumption. Also,
estimate the temperature at point B. Assume that the specific heat ratio
and assume a perfect gas model.
#
3 Well, this question is for academic purpose, there is no known way to this author to directly measure
the Mach number. The best approximation is by using inserted cone for supersonic flow and measure
the oblique shock. Here it is sub sonic and that technique is not suitable.
4 This pressure is about two atmospheres with temperature of 250[K]
50
S OLUTION
With known Mach number at point A all the ratios of the static properties to total
(stagnation) properties can be calculated. Therefore, the stagnation pressure at
point A is known and stagnation temperature can be calculated.
At
(supersonic flow) the ratios are
0
#
* +
#
+
# #
# #
#
The corresponding Mach number for this pressure ratio is 1.8137788 and
. The stagnation temperature can be bypassed to
calculated the temperature at point
,
# #
#
Example 4.3:
Gas flows through a convergingdiverging duct. At point A the cross section area
is 50 [ ] and the Mach number was measured to be 0.4. At point B in the duct
the cross section area is 40 [ ]. Find the Mach number at point B. Assume that
the flow is isentropic and the gas specific heat ratio is 1.4.
+
+
S OLUTION
To obtain the Mach number at point B by finding the ratio of the area to the critical
area. This relationship can be obtained by
from the
Table 4.2
+
#
# #
#
4.2.3
##
"
#
#
'
#
One of the important engineering parameters is the mass flow rate which is at any
point is
(4.45)
This parameter is studied here, to examine the maximum flow rate and to see what
is the effect of the compressibility on the flow rate. The area ratio as a function of
the Mach number needed to be established, specifically and explicitly the relationship for the chocked flow. The area ratio is defined as the ratio of the cross section
at any point to the throat area (the narrow area). It is convenient to rearrange the
equation (4.45) to be expressed in terms of the stagnation properties as
#
0
(4.46)
) 0
# 0
# "
"
&
(4.47)
0 #
#
# "
#"
'&
(4.48)
Since the mass flow rate is constant in the duct, dividing equations (4.48) by
equation (4.47) yields
0#
#
0
$ %
"
&
(4.49)
52
The equation (4.49), relates the Mach number at specific point at the duct to the
cross section area.
The maximum flow rate can be expressed either by taking the derivative of
equation (4.49) in with respect to M and equating to zero. Carrying this calculation
results at
.
0 1#
#
#
"
&
(4.50)
)
*  *(*
The maximum flow rate for air (
)
#
$ %
(4.51)
) becomes,
(4.52)
Equation (4.52) is known as Fliegners Formula on the name of one of the first
engineer who observed experimentally the choking phenomenon.
It can be noticed that Fliengners equation is actually dimensionless equation and lead to definition of the Fliengeners Number.
)
+
)
#
(4.53)
, 0
# # 0
4.2.3.1
#
$%
#"
'&
(4.54)
$%
#"
'&
(4.55)
The expression for the mass flow rate (4.47) is appropriate regardless the flow is
isentropic or adiabatic. That expression was derived based on the theoretical total
pressure and temperature (Mach number) which does not based on the considerations whether the flow is isentropic or adiabatic. In the same manner the definition
4.2.
ISENTROPIC CONVERGINGDIVERGING FLOW IN CROSS SECTION 53
of referred to the theoretical minimum area (throat area) if the flow would continued to flow isentropic manner. Clearly, in a case where the flow isnt isentropic or
adiabatic the total pressure and the total temperature
change
(due to friction, and
. Denoting subscript A
heat transfer). A constant flow rate requires that
for a point and subscript B or another point mass equation (4.48) can be equated.
# 0
# "
$ %
&
(4.56)
,+
$ ( + . There
#
# "
(4.57)
)
leads to
(4.58)
(4.59)
For a flow with a constant stagnation pressure (frictionless flow) and non adiabatic
flow reads
(4.60)
Example 4.4:
' , Mach number is 2.5, and the duct
At point A of the tube
the
pressure is
section area is
. Downstream at exit of tube, point B, the cross section
0.01
area is 0.015
and Mach number is 1.5. Assume no mass lost and adiabatic
steady state flow, calculated the total pressure lost.
54
S OLUTION
Both Mach numbers are known, thus the area ratios can be calculated. The total pressure can be calculated because the Mach number and static pressure are
known. With these information, and utilizing equation (4.59) the stagnation pressure at point B can be obtained.
#
# #
'
#
#
#
#

#
# #
#
# #
Hence
#
# # #
#
# #
#
#
#
#
'
#
'
'
Note that the large total pressure loss is much larger than the static pressure loss
[Bar]).
(Pressure point B the pressure is
4.3
Isentropic Tables
Table 4.2: Isentropic Table
#
#
"
#
+
# #
#
#
*'
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
'
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
'#
# #
# #
#
'#
#
#
"
+
#
#
+# #
#
# #
#
# +#
#
#
#
# #
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
# #
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
'
#'
#
#
#
#
#
(continue)
'
+
#
#
#
'#
+
#
#
#
# +# # #
#
#
#
#
#
55
4.4
4.4.1
General Relationship
#
+ # #
+
#
#
# #
#
# #
#+
'
'
#
#
#
# #
#
#
#
+
#
#
#
#
+
' #
In this section, the other extreme case model where the heat transfer to the gas
is perfect, (e.g. Eckert number is very small) is presented. Again in reality the
heat transfer is somewhere in between the two extremes. So, knowing the two
limits provides a tool to examine where the reality should be expected. The perfect
56
gas model is again assumed (later more complex models can be assumed and
constructed in a future versions). In isothermal process the perfect gas model
reads
(4.61)
(4.62)
Integration of equation (4.62) yields the Bernoullis equation for ideal gas in isothermal process which reads
(4.63)
(4.64)
reads
(4.65)
(4.66)
! $ 0
0 ( +
(4.67)
$ 0 0 (
(4.68)
$
$
$ $
&
,
$
$ $
(4.69)
57
) in the isothermal flow the stagAs oppose to the adiabatic case ( +
#
#
#
0
0
#
0
0
0 #
to yield
+
0
0
(4.70)
(4.71)
0
e
e
$
(4.72)
# 0
# 0
e
e
(4.73)
0 #
0 #
(4.74)
&
Equation (4.72) is reduced to obtained
the critical area ratio writes
0#
(4.75)
&
# 0
#
(4.76)
,
0
#
#
&
$
(4.77)
58
Isothermal Nozzle
k=14
4
*
P/P
*
A/A
*
P0 / P0
3.5
3
T 0 / T0
T/T
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.5
2
M
1.5
2.5
3.5
,
0 #
0 , %
$ $ , %
0
'&
'&
(4.78)
0 /#
0
)
(4.79)
59
(4.80)
On the other hand, the pressure loss in adiabatic flow is milder as can be seen in
Figure 4.7(a).
Isothermal Nozzle
k=14
k=14
5
4.5
3.5
M isoT
M isentropic
Uisntropic/UisoT
4
3
3.5
2.5
3
2.5
2
*
A / A iso
*
A / A adiabatic
*
P / P iso
*
P / P adiabatic
1.5
1
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.5
0
0.5
1.5
2
M
2.5
3.5
1
0.5
1.5
Distance (normalized distance two different scales)
It should be emphasis that the stagnation pressure decrees. It is convenient to find expression for the ratio of the initial stagnation pressure (the stagnation
pressure before entering the nozzle) to the pressure at the throat. Utilizing equation (4.74) the following relationship can be obtained
&
$
$
#
$
%
,
(4.81)
Notice that the critical pressure is independent
of the specific heat ratio, , as oppose to the adiabatic case. It also has to be emphasized that the stagnation values
60
of the isothermal model are not constant. Again, the heat transfer is expressed as
$% $ $ (
(4.82)
(4.83)
)
#
It can be noticed that temperature in the isothermal model is constant while temperature in the adiabatic model can be expressed as a function of the stagnation
temperature. The initial stagnation temperatures are almost the same and can be
canceled out to obtain
0 #
0
(4.84)
Utilizing equation (4.84) the velocity ratio was obtained is plotted in Figure 4.7(b).
Thus, using the isentropic model results in under prediction of the actual
results for the velocity in the supersonic branch. While, the isentropic for the sub
61
sonic branch will be over prediction. The prediction of the Mach number are similar
shown in the Figure 4.7(b).
Two other ratios need to be examined: temperature and pressure. The
initial stagnation temperature is denoted as . The temperature ratio of
can be obtained via the isentropic model as

#
# 0
(4.85)
While the temperature ratio of the isothermal model is constant and equal to one
(1). The pressure ratio for the isentropic model is
#
0
(4.86)
and for the isothermal process the stagnation pressure
varies and had to be taken
into account as following
(4.87)
where the z is an arbitrary point on the nozzle. Utilizing equations (4.73) and the
isentropic relationship provides the sought ratio.
Figure 4.8 shows that the range between the predicted temperatures of the
two models is very large. While the range between the predicted pressure by the
two models is relatively small. The meaning of this analysis is that transfered heat
affects the temperature in larger degree but the effect on the pressure much less
significant.
To demonstrate relativity of the approached of advocated in this book consider the following example.
Example 4.5:
Consider a divergingconverging nozzle made out wood (low conductive material)
with exit area equal entrance area. The throat
' area ratio to entrance area 1:4
and the stagnation temperature
respectively.
The
stagnation
pressure
is
5
is 27 . Assume that the back pressure is low enough to have supersonic flow
without shock and
#
S OLUTION
The first part of the question deals with the adiabatic model i.e. the conservation of
the stagnation properties. Thus, with known area ratio and known stagnation the
GDCPotto provides the following table:
62
"
'
#
#
# #
# # #
With known Mach number, and temperature at the exit the velocity can be calcu
,
0
#
#
#
 +
Even for the isothermal model, the initial stagnation temperature is given
as . With the area ratio by using the Figure 4.6 or using the PottoGDC
obtains the following table is obtained
#
#
"
# #
#
The exit Mach number is known and the initial temperature to the throat temperature ratio can be calculated as following:
#
#
# #
(4.88)
#

+ #
#
. The exit velocity deterThe exit stagnation temperature is #
0
#
#
*
#
 ', +
As it was discussed before the velocity in copper nozzle will be larger than
velocity in the
wood nozzle. However, the maximum velocity can not exceed the
,
#
4.5
4.5.1
 +
One of the function that used in calculation of the forces is the Impulse function.
The Impulse Function is denoted here as , but in the literature some denote this
function as . To explain the motivation for using this definition consider calculation
of the net forces that acting on section shown in Figure (4.9). To calculate the
net forces that acting on the section shown in the Figure in the x direction the
momentum equation has to be applied as
$ (
(4.89)
63
(4.90)
Combining equations (4.89) with equation (4.90) and utilizing the identity in equation (??) results in
0
,
0
Rearranging equation (4.91) and dividing it by
results in
$
# 0
# 0
(4.91)
(4.92)
# 0
$ # (
(4.93)
(4.94)
0
#
$# (
#
0 #
#
$# (
(4.95)
$
This ratio is different only in a coefficient
"
from the ratio defined in equation (??)
which make the ratio function of and the Mach number. Hence, the net force is
&
#
$# (
(4.96)
64
To demonstrate the usefulness of the this function consider the simple situation of the flow through a converging nozzle
1
Example 4.6:
m
= 1[kg/sec]
stagnation temperature is
and the pressure
at point 2 was Fig. 4.10: Schematic of a flow of a compressible sub '
stance (gas) thorough a converging nozzle
measured as
Calculate
for example (4.6)
the the net force acting on the
nozzle and pressure at point 1.
#  +
S OLUTION
The solution is obtained by getting the
data for the Mach number. To obtained the
Mach number, the ratio of
is needed to be calculated. To obtain this
ratio the denominator is needed to be obtained. Utilizing Fliegners equation (4.52),
provides the following
)
)
*
#
and
#
#
# #
#
# # the area ratio of at point 1 can be
With the area ratio of
calculated.
/
# #
And utilizing again PottoGDC provides
# # #
#
#
,

'
65
4.5.2
(
$
#
#
#
#
#

$
#
( #
Previously Impulse function was developed in the isentropic adiabatic flow. The
same is done here for the isothermal nozzle flow model. As previously, the definition of the Impulse function is reused. The ratio of the impulse function for two
points on the nozzle is
(4.97)
Utilizing the ideal gas model for density and some rearrangement results in
Since
(4.98)
. 0
$ $
#
$
#
# 00
#
0
4.6
(4.98)
(4.99)
0 # # #
(4.100)
Isothermal Table
Table 4.3: Isothermal Table
#
+
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
66
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
4.7
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
+
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
*
#
+
#
+#
#
# #
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
+
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
# #
#
#
#
#
#
+
#
#
#
#
#
#
+
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
'#
#
#
#
#
+
#
#
#
# # #
#
+
#
#
# #
#
#
#
#
# #
# # # # #
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
*+
*
#
#
#
+
#
#
# #
#
#
#
# *
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
# #
#
#
#
#
+
67
Again, Gibbs equation (4.27) is reused to related the entropy change to the
change in thermodynamics properties and applied
on nonideal gas. Since
and utilizing the equation of the state
. The enthalpy is a function of the
temperature and pressure thus,
and full differential is
(4.102)
$ (
The definition of pressure specific heat is
&1
(4.103)
First, the differential of enthalpy is calculated for real gas equation of state as
(4.104)
#
(4.105)
1
(4.106)
At the stagnation the definition requires that the velocity is zero. To carry the
integration of the right hand side the relationship between the pressure and the
density has to be defined. The following power relationship is assumed
(4.107)
Notice, that for perfect gas the is substituted by . With integration of equation
(4.106) when using relationship which is defined in equation (4.107) results
*
(4.108)
68
For
#
(4.109)
#
#
For
(
(4.110)
(4.111)
It must be noted that is a function of the critical temperature and critical pressure.
The mass flow rate is regardless to equation
of state as following
(4.112)
Where is the density at the throat (assuming the chocking condition) and
the cross area of the throat. Thus, the mass flow rate in our properties
#
/#
#
(
is
(4.113)
(4.114)
The Mach number can be obtained by utilizing equation (3.34) to defined the Mach
number as
0
Integrating equation (4.105) when
)
(4.115)
results
#
(4.116)
69
(4.118)
It was shown in Chapter (3) that (3.33) is applicable some ranges of relative temperature and pressure (relative to critical temperature and pressure not the stagnation conditions).
#
/
When
1#
or when
#
(4.119)
#
(4.120)
The mass flow rate for the real gas
And for
)
#
)
/#
#
#
(4.121)
(4.122)
+
/
#
#
+
#
(4.123)
is
(4.124)
70
#
When # or more generally when # this ratio approach
(4.125)
(4.126)
$ (
(4.127)
when z approach 1. Note that
(4.128)
0
For
#
#
#
(4.129)
(4.130)
The pressure ratio at any point can be expressed as function of the Mach number
as
for
#
$
/
# 0
#
e
$
$
#
$ (
$ (
(4.131)
(
$ (
(4.132)
(4.133)
and for #
71
$ (
(4.134)
0
+
#
# # 0
+
(4.135)
"
# # 0
(4.136)
"
Example 4.7:
A design is required
' that at specific point
the Mach number should be
the pressure
, and temperature .
0
# ,
.
1#
S OLUTION
1. The solution is simplified by using PottoGDC for
#
# # #
0
#
#
#
'
,
#
72
Mult mai mult decât documente.
Descoperiți tot ce are Scribd de oferit, inclusiv cărți și cărți audio de la editori majori.
Anulați oricând.