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PRONUMELE (PRONOUNS)

PRONUME PERSONALE CU FUNCIE DE SUBIECT (Subject pronouns [sbd3ekt] [prounauns])


I [ai] = eu
You [ju:] = tu
He [hi:] = el
She [i:] = ea
It [it] = el/ea pentru obiecte sau elemente din natur
We [wi: ] = noi
You [ju:] = voi
They [ei] = ei/ele
PRONUME PERSONALE CU FUNCIE DE COMPLEMENT (Object pronouns [obd3ekt]
[prounauns])
Me [mi: ] = pe mine, mie
You [ju:] = pe tine, ie
Her [h r ] = pe ea, ei
Him [him] = pe el, lui
It [it] = pe el/ea, lui/ei
Us [s] = pe noi, nou
You [ju:] = pe voi, vou
Them [em] = pe ei/ele, lor
PRONUME POSESIVE (POSSESSIVE
PRONOUNS):
Mine [main] = al meu
Yours [jo:r z] = al tu
His [hiz] = al lui
Hers [h r z] = al ei
Its [its] = al lui/ei
Ours [au r z] = al nostrum
Yours [jo:r z] = al vostru
Theirs [ez] = al lor

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE:
My [mai]
Your [jo:r ] = al tu
His [hiz] = al lui
Her [h r ] = al ei
Its [its] = al lui/ei
Our [au r ] = al nostrum
Your [jo:r ] = al vostru
Their [e] = al lor

Pronume posesive

Adjective posesive

=> mine (al/a/ai/ale meu/mea/mei/mele)

=> my (meu, mea, mei, mele)

You => yours (al/a/ai/ale tau/ta/tai/tale)

You => your (tau, ta, tai, tale)

He => his (al/a/ai/ale lui)

He => his (lui)

She => hers (al/a/ai/ale ei)

She => her (ei)

It

It

=> its(al/a/ai/ale lui/ei-animale, obiecte)

=> its (lui/ei animale, obiecte)

We => ours (al/a/ai/ale


nostru/noastra/nostri/noastre)

We => our (nostru, noastra, nostri, noastre)

You => yours (al/a/ai/ale


vostru/voastra/vostri/voastre)

You => your (vostru, voastra, vostri, voastre)

They => theirs (al/a/ai/ale lor)

They => their (lor)

Care este diferenta dintre un pronume posesiv si un adjectiv posesiv? Adjectivul posesiv sta in fata unui
substantiv pe care il determina.
Examples: My room camera mea
Your business afacerea ta
His beautiful wife frumoasa lui sotie
Her red shoes pantofii ei rosii

Its shiny fur blana lui/ei lucioasa (its se foloseste pentru animale sau obiecte)
Our nice garden gradina noastra frumoasa
Your paintings picturile voastre
Their beauty frumusetea lor
Observatie: Daca un substantiv are mai multe adjective, adjectivul posesive este cel care se pune primul.
Pronumele posesiv este de sine statator.
Ex.:
The room is mine. (Camera este a mea.)
Whose business is going to be taken over? Yours.
(A cui afacere va fi preluata? A ta.)
Whose wife is Helen? Its his.
(A cui sotie este Helen? E a lui.)
The red shoes are hers. (Pantofii rosii sunt ai ei.)
My cousin has a dog and this toy is its.
(Verisoara mea are un caine, iar aceasta jucarie este a lui.)
That nice garden is ours. (Gradina aceea draguta este a noastra.)
The paintings which will be sold are yours.
(Picturile care vor fi vandute sunt ale voastre.)
Whose beauty was praised? Theirs.
(A cui frumusete a fost laudata? A lor.)
Observatii:
his este si pronume posesiv si adjectiv posesiv. Evident, deosebirea se poate face doar din context,
precum si din faptul ca adjectivul posesiv sta inaintea unui substantiv.
A nu se confunda its cu its!
its este pronumele posesiv;
its este forma prescurtata de la it is.
DEMONSTATIVE PRONOUNS: THIS I THAT
Singular:
this [i:s] = acesta
that [t] = acela
Plural:
these [iz] = acestea
those [ous ] = acelea
ONE, ONES [wn] / [uan]
I like that one = mi place aceea. I dont like the blue ones= Nu-mi plac cele albastre.
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS: who, whom, what, which, whose, introduc intrebari, propozitii
interogative directe sau indirect.
RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS: each other, one another. Se folosesc pentru a exprima relatii de reciprocitate
intre fiinte, idei, lucruri.
They gave each other books. - Ei si-au dat unul altuia (reciproc) carti
My mother and I give each other a good time. - Eu si mama mea ne dam unul altuia un timp bun. (ne
intelegem bine)
They borrowed each other's ideas. - Ei si-au mprumutat ideile unul altuia.
De retinut!
- Each other se refera la doua obiecte, pe cand one another face referire la mai mult de doua obiecte sau
fiinte.
The scientists in this lab often use one another's equipment. - Cercetatorii din acest laborator folosesc adesea
echipamentele unul altuia.
Hockey players hit one another quite frequently. - Jucatorii de hochei se lovesc unul pe altul destul de des.
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: all, each, another, few, many, none, one, several, any, anybody, anyone,
anything, everybody, everyone, everything, some, somebody, someone.
RELATIVE PRONOUNS: who (cine, care), whoever (oricine, oricare), which (care, pe care), that (care,
acel).

Pronumele relativ face referire la un substantiv sau inlocuitor substantival mentionat in contextul aterior si
leaga propozitia sau grupul de cuvinte care explica, sau da mai multe detalii despre substantivul antecedent,
din propozitia ce contine substantivul determinat.
The student who studies hardest usually does the best. - Studentul care studiaz cel mai din greu de
obicei face cel mai bine.
Alegerea corecta dintre which si that se inscrie printre lucrurile care necesita practica si experienta.
- In general, which se foloseste pentru a introduce propozitii care au natura de paranteze, explicatii
suplimentare dar care pot fi inlaturate sau omise fara a schimba intelesul frazei. Din acest motiv propozitiile
introduse prin "which" sunt in general intre virgule.
- Propozitiile introduse de that sunt considerate indispensabile sensului frazei si nu se vor pune intre virgule.
- Who si formele sale se refera la persoane, which se refera la lucruri, iar that poate face referire la ambele.
Exemple:
The boy who read the book is my brother. - Baiatul care citeste cartea e fratele meu.
The couple who live next house have the radio on all night. - Perechea care locuieste la urmatoarea casa are
radioul pornit toata noaptea.
The team that won the championship received a great honour. - Echipa care a castigat campionatul a primit o
mare onoare.
This is the program which won the prize. - Acesta este programul care a ctigat premiul.
We'll plant new trees to replace those which fell. - Vom planta copaci noi care s nlocuiasc pe cei care au
czut.
PRONUMELE REFLEXIVE , insotesc un verb si se refera la subiect. Se folosesc atunci cand subiectul
si complementul direct se refera la aceeasi persoana.
Forme:
- Singular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself
- Plural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves
Exemple:
I wanted to do it myself. - Am vrut sa o fac singur.
She fell off the ladder and injured herself. - Ea a cazut de pe scara i s-a rnit (ea insasi).
You can do these tasks by yourself. - Putei face aceste sarcini de unul singur.
After five minutes, it will automatically turn itself down. - Dup cinci minute, se va opri automat singur.
Let's buy ourselves a chair for the garden. - S ne cumpara (noi insine) un scaun de grdin.
They built the house themselves. - Ei au construit casa singuri.

Exercises:
1. Use the correct personal pronouns. Watch the
words in brackets.
1.

is dreaming. (George)

2.

is green. (the blackboard)

3.

are on the wall. (the posters)

4.

is running. (the dog)

5.

are watching TV. (my mother and I)

6.

are in the garden. (the flowers)

7.

is riding his bike. (Tom)

8.

is from Bristol. (Victoria)

2. Find the correct pronouns for the given


nouns and write them into the gaps.
1. sister
2. boy
3. school
4. cars
5. Emily and Jack
6. bike
7. Sophia and I

8. dad

10.

teacher

9. parents
3. Which bject form of the personal pronoun can substitute the underlined phrase in the
sentence?
1.
The teacher always gives the
students homework.
me
them
you
2.
I am reading the book to my little
sister.

6.

her
him

her
us
3.

7.

him
The boys are riding their bikes.

4.

them
8.

her
My father is writing a letter to John.

us
Can you tell the people the way to the
airport, please?
you

me

them

her
him

me
Open the window, please.
it

it
them

Sally is going to Anne.

9.

us
The books are for Peter.
him

5.

I don't know the answer.

her

she
her
it

10.

you
Can you help my sister and me,
please?
her
me
us