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# Formulas and Identities

## Trig Cheat Sheet

Definition of the Trig Functions
Right triangle definition
For this definition we assume that
p
0 < q < or 0 < q < 90 .
2

## Unit circle definition

For this definition q is any angle.
y

( x, y )
hypotenuse

opposite

q
x

tan 2 q + 1 = sec 2 q

opposite
hypotenuse
cos q =
hypotenuse
opposite
tan q =

sin q =

hypotenuse
opposite
hypotenuse
sec q =
cot q =
opposite
csc q =

y
sin q = = y
1
x
cos q = = x
1
y
tan q =
x

1
csc q =
y
1
sec q =
x
x
cot q =
y

## Facts and Properties

Domain
The domain is all the values of q that
can be plugged into the function.
sin q ,
cos q ,
tan q ,

## q can be any angle

q can be any angle
1

q n + p , n = 0, 1, 2, K
2

q n p , n = 0, 1, 2, K

Period
The period of a function is the number,
T, such that f (q + T ) = f (q ) . So, if w
is a fixed number and q is any angle we
have the following periods.
2p
w
2p
=
w
p
=
w
2p
=
w
2p
=
w
p
=
w

sin ( wq )

T=

q n + p , n = 0, 1, 2, K
2

q n p , n = 0, 1, 2, K

cos (wq )

tan (wq )

Range
The range is all possible values to get
out of the function.
csc q 1 and csc q -1
-1 sin q 1
sec q 1 and sec q -1
-1 cos q 1
- < tan q <
- < cot q <

csc (wq )

sec ( wq )

cot ( wq )

csc q ,
sec q ,
cot q ,

## Tangent and Cotangent Identities

sin q
cos q
tan q =
cot q =
cos q
sin q
Reciprocal Identities
1
1
csc q =
sin q =
sin q
csc q
1
1
secq =
cos q =
cos q
sec q
1
1
cot q =
tan q =
tan q
cot q
Pythagorean Identities
sin 2 q + cos 2 q = 1

## 2005 Paul Dawkins

1 + cot 2 q = csc 2 q
Even/Odd Formulas
sin ( -q ) = - sin q
csc ( -q ) = - csc q
cos ( -q ) = cos q

sec ( -q ) = sec q

tan ( -q ) = - tan q

cot ( -q ) = - cot q

Periodic Formulas
If n is an integer.
sin (q + 2p n ) = sin q

csc (q + 2p n ) = csc q

## cos (q + 2p n ) = cos q sec (q + 2p n ) = sec q

tan (q + p n ) = tan q

cot (q + p n ) = cot q

## Double Angle Formulas

sin ( 2q ) = 2sin q cos q
cos ( 2q ) = cos 2 q - sin 2 q
= 2 cos 2 q - 1
= 1 - 2 sin 2 q
2 tan q
tan ( 2q ) =
1 - tan 2 q
If x is an angle in degrees and t is an
p
t
px
180t
=
t=
and x =
180 x
180
p

## Half Angle Formulas

(alternate form)
q
1 - cos q
1
sin =
sin 2 q = (1 - cos ( 2q ) )
2
2
2
cos

q
1 + cos q
=
2
2

cos 2 q =

1
(1 + cos ( 2q ) )
2
1 - cos ( 2q )

q
1 - cos q
=
tan 2 q =
2
1 + cos q
1 + cos ( 2q )
Sum and Difference Formulas
sin (a b ) = sin a cos b cos a sin b
tan

## cos (a b ) = cos a cos b m sin a sin b

tan a tan b
1 m tan a tan b
Product to Sum Formulas
1
sin a sin b = cos (a - b ) - cos (a + b )
2
1
cos a cos b = cos (a - b ) + cos (a + b )
2
1
sin a cos b = sin (a + b ) + sin (a - b )
2
1
cos a sin b = sin (a + b ) - sin (a - b )
2
Sum to Product Formulas
a + b
a - b
sin a + sin b = 2 sin
cos

2
2
a + b a - b
sin a - sin b = 2 cos
sin

2 2
tan (a b ) =

a + b
a - b
cos a + cos b = 2 cos
cos

2
2
a + b a - b
cos a - cos b = -2sin
sin

2 2
Cofunction Formulas
p

sin - q = cos q
2

csc - q = sec q
2

cos - q = sin q
2

sec - q = csc q
2

tan - q = cot q
2

cot - q = tan q
2

Unit Circle
y

3 1
- ,
2 2

3p
4

( 0,1)

p
2

1 3
- ,
2 2

2 2
,

2 2

2p
3

p
3

90
120

45
30

p 180

## y = cos -1 x is equivalent to x = cos y

sin ( sin -1 ( x ) ) = x

sin - 1 (sin (q ) ) = q

tan ( tan - 1 ( x ) ) = x

tan - 1 ( tan (q ) ) = q

2 2
2 , 2

p
6

## Domain and Range

Function
Domain

3 1
,
2 2

y = sin -1 x

-1 x 1

y = cos x

-1 x 1

y = tan -1 x

- < x <

-1

150
( -1,0)

Inverse Properties
cos ( cos -1 ( x ) ) = x
cos - 1 ( cos (q ) ) = q

-1

p
4

60

135

5p
6

1 3
2 , 2

Definition
y = sin -1 x is equivalent to x = sin y

360

2p

(1,0)

3 1
- ,-
2
2

7p
6

2
2
,
2
2

330
225

5p
4

4p
3

240

1
3
- ,
2 2

270

3p
2

315
7p
300
4
5p
3

( 0,-1)

11p
6

1
3
,
2 2

For any ordered pair on the unit circle ( x, y ) : cos q = x and sin q = y

Law of Sines
sin a sin b sin g
=
=
a
b
c

Law of Tangents
a - b tan 12 (a - b )
=
a + b tan 12 (a + b )

Law of Cosines
a 2 = b 2 + c 2 - 2bc cos a

b - c tan 12 ( b - g )
=
b + c tan 12 ( b + g )

c = a + b - 2ab cos g
2

5p 1
cos
=
3 2

b 2 = a 2 + c 2 - 2ac cos b

Example

tan -1 x = arctan x

3 1
,-
2 2

2
2
,

2
2

cos -1 x = arccos x

## Law of Sines, Cosines and Tangents

c
210

Alternate Notation
sin -1 x = arcsin x

Range
p
p
- y
2
2
0 yp
p
p
- < y<
2
2

a - c tan 12 (a - g )
=
a + c tan 12 (a + g )

Mollweides Formula
a + b cos 12 (a - b )
=
c
sin 12 g

3
5p
sin
=3
2