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Carl Rogers

(1902 - 1987)
Carl R. Rogers is known as the father of client-centered therapy.
Throughout his career he dedicated himself to humanistic
psychology and is well known for his theory of personality
development. He began developing his humanistic concept while
working with abused children. Rogers attempted to change the
world of psychotherapy when he boldly claimed that psychoanalytic,
experimental, and behavioral therapists were preventing their
clients from ever reaching self-realization and self-growth due to
their authoritive analysis. He argued that therapists should allow
patients to discover the solution for themselves. Rogers received
wide acclaim for his theory and was awarded various high honors .
Through Rogers extensive efforts in expressing his theory of
personality through the publishing of books and lectures he gained
a lot of attention and followers as well as those who strongly
disagree with his theory of personality development.
Overview of Rogers Theory
Theory of Personality Development Rogers' therapy was an extension of his theory of
personality development and was known as client-centered therapy, since the basis of
the therapy was designed around the client. According to Rogers each person has
within them the inherent tendency to continue to grow and develop. As a result of this
the individual's self-esteem and self-actualization is continually influenced. This
development can only be achieved through what Rogers refers to as "unconditional
positive regard."
In order for an individual to experience total self-actualization the therapist must
express complete acceptance of the patient. Roger's found that this was best achieved
through the method of "reflection", in which the therapist continually restates what the

"patient" has said in an attempt to show complete acceptance and to allow the patient
to recognize any negative feelings that they may be feeling. Throughout the
counseling session the therapist may make small interruptive remarks in order to help
identify certain factors. For the most part the "patient" is allowed to direct the course
of the session.
Rogers began to use the expression "client" instead of "patient" due to the fact that the
individuals that he was counseling did need help but not within the same regard that a
medically ill person does. These individuals do not need to completely surrender
themselves to a medical expert although they do need help. Today throughout the field
of psychology it is a worldwide practice to address the individual as a client instead of
a patient.
Eventually throughout its development Rogers theory began to be known as "peoplecentered" due to its expansion beyond psychotherapy to such areas as education,
marriage, leadership, parent-child relationships, and the development of professional
standards. Within each branch that Rogers theory expanded to there were several basic
elements that were applied to each. They were as follows :
1. The individual comes for help. This is the most significant step within the steps of therapy.
The individual has taken it upon himself to take the first step for help even if he does not
recognize this as the reason he's there.
2. The helping situation is defined. The client is made aware that the counselor does not have
the answers, but that with assistance he can , work out his own solutions to his problems.
3. The counselor encourages free expression of feelings in regard to the problem. The
counselor provides the client with a friendly, interested, and receptive attitude which helps to
bring about free expression.
4. The counselor accepts, recognizes, and clarifies negative feelings. Whatever the negative
feelings are the counselor must say and do things which helps the client recognize the negative
feelings at hand.
5. When the individual's negative feelings have been expressed they are followed by
expressions of positive impulses which make for growth.
6. The counselor accepts and recognizes the positive feelings in the same manner as the
negative feelings.
7. There is insight, understanding of the self, and acceptance of the self along with possible
courses of actions . This is the next important aspect because it allows for new levels.
8. Then comes the step of positive action along with the decreasing the need for help.
Examples of his Theory
Rogers has published many books in which he cites many different sessions with various patients
in order to trace their steps through client-centered therapy. In order to better understand the
methodology of Rogers therapy let us view the different stages of one specific case.

The element of defining the helping situation can be demonstrated in the case of a mother, Mrs.
L, and her ten-year-old son, Jim. This mother and her son had gone to a clinic due to the mothers
steady complaints of her son. After two diagnostic contacts to assess the situation, the mother
was asked if she and her son would like to work through this problem. Somewhat fearful the
mother did agree to come in for the first session with a therapist. The counselor then makes it
Mrs. L task to provide the atmosphere to discuss problems and draw conclusions. However, the
counselor doesn't imply in anyway that Mrs. L has to provide answers. This helps Mrs. L to feel
free to bring up new aspects of the problem.
The element of free expression can also be illustrated in the case Mrs. L, and her ten- year- old
son, Jim. During the first hour of the session the mother spent a full half-hour telling with intense
feeling example after example of Jim's bad behavior. She tells of arguments with his sister, his
refusal to dress himself, annoying tendencies such as humming at the table, bad behavior in
school, and his refusal to help at home. Each one of her comments is highly critical of her son.
Throughout the mothers talking the counselor makes no attempt to persuade the mother in
feeling any other way about her son. Next, the son engages in play -therapy in which Jim makes
a clay image and identifies it as his father. There is a great deal of dramatic play in which the boy
shows his struggle in getting his father out of bed and the fathers resistance. Throughout this Jim
knocks the clay figurines head off and crushes the body while shouting frantically. In both
occurrences with the mother and her son the counselor allows the feelings to flow and does not
try to block or alter them.
Another aspect of the therapy is that of positive action. Here once insight is achieved the actions
that are taken are suited to the new insight that is gained. Thus, once Mrs. L has achieved a better
emotional understanding of the relationship between herself and her son she is able to transfer
that insight into actions which show the depth of her insight. She plans on giving Jim special
affection, helping him to be more mature, and avoiding making the younger sister jealous. If
such behavior had been suggested to her after the diagnosis of the case, she would have either
rejected the suggestion or carried it out in a way that would almost certainly fail. Since it grew
out of her own insight, she will be able to become a successful, mature mother.
The methodology of Rogers theory proved to be very successful within the case of Mrs. L and
her son. This approach has helped millions of people since Rogers first developed it.

arl Rogers
by Saul McLeod

published 2007, updated 2014

Carl Rogers (1902-1987) was a humanistic psychologist who agreed with the main
assumptions of Abraham Maslow, but added that for a person to "grow", they need an
environment that provides them with genuineness (openness and self-disclosure),
acceptance (being seen with unconditional positive regard), and empathy (being listened to
and understood).
Without these, relationships and healthy personalities will not develop as they should, much
like a tree will not grow without sunlight and water.
Rogers believed that every person can achieve their goals, wishes and desires in life.
When, or rather if they did so, self actualization took place. This was one of Carl Rogers
most important contributions to psychology and for a person to reach their potential a
number of factors must be satisfied.

Self Actualization
"The organism has one basic tendency and striving - to actualize, maintain, and
enhance the experiencing organism (Rogers, 1951, p. 487).
Rogers rejected the deterministic nature of bothpsychoanalysis and behaviorism and maintained
that we behave as we do because of the way we perceive our situation. "As no one else can know
how we perceive, we are the best experts on ourselves."
Carl Rogers (1959) believed that humans have one basic motive, that is the tendency to
self-actualize - i.e. to fulfill one's potential and achieve the highest level of 'humanbeingness' we can. Like a flower that will grow to its full potential if the conditions are right,
but which is constrained by its environment, so people will flourish and reach their potential
if their environment is good enough.
However, unlike a flower, the potential of the individual human is unique, and we are meant
to develop in different ways according to our personality. Rogers believed that people are
inherently good and creative. They become destructive only when a poor self-concept or

external constraints override the valuing process. Carl Rogers believed that for a person to
achieve self-actualization they must be in a state of congruence.
This means that self-actualization occurs when a persons ideal self (i.e. who they would
like to be) is congruent with their actual behavior (self-image). Rogers describes an
individual who is actualizing as a fully functioning person. The main determinant of whether
we will become self-actualized is childhood experience.

The Fully Functioning Person


Rogers believed that every person could achieve their goals, wishes, and desires in life.
When they did so self-actualization took place. For Rogers (1961) people who are able be
self-actualize, and that is not all of us, are called fully functioning persons. This means that
the person is in touch with the here and now, his or her subjective experiences and feelings,
continually growing and changing.
In many ways Rogers regarded the fully functioning person as an ideal and one that people
do not ultimately achieve.
It is wrong to think of this as an end or completion of lifes journey; rather it is a process of
always becoming and changing.
Rogers identified five characteristics of the fully functioning person:
1. Open to experience: both positive and negative emotions accepted. Negative
feelings are not denied, but worked through (rather than resorting to ego defence
mechanisms).
2. Existential living: in touch with different experiences as they occur in life, avoiding
prejudging and preconceptions. Being able to live and fully appreciate the present, not
always looking back to the past or forward to the future (i.e. living for the moment).
3. Trust feelings: feeling, instincts and gut-reactions are paid attention to and trusted.
Peoples own decisions are the right ones and we should trust ourselves to make the
right choices.
4. Creativity: creative thinking and risk taking are features of a persons life. A person
does not play safe all the time. This involves the ability to adjust and change and seek
new experiences.
5. Fulfilled life: person is happy and satisfied with life, and always looking for new
challenges and experiences.

For Rogers, fully functioning people are well adjusted, well balanced and interesting to
know. Often such people are high achievers in society. Critics claim that the fully functioning
person is a product of Western culture. In other cultures, such as Eastern cultures, the
achievement of the group is valued more highly than the achievement of any one person.

Personality Development
Central to Rogers' personality theory is the notion of self or self-concept. This is defined as
"the organized, consistent set of perceptions and beliefs about oneself".
The self is the humanistic term for who we really are as a person. The self is our inner
personality, and can be likened to the soul, or Freud's psyche. The self is influenced by the
experiences a person has in their life, and out interpretations of those experiences. Two
primary sources that influence our self-concept are childhood experiences and evaluation
by others.
According to Rogers (1959), we want to feel, experience and behave in ways which are
consistent with our self-image and which reflect what we would like to be like, our ideal-self.
The closer our self-image and ideal-self are to each other, the more consistent or congruent
we are and the higher our sense of self-worth. A person is said to be in a state of
incongruence if some of the totality of their experience is unacceptable to them and is
denied or distorted in the self-image.

The humanistic approach states that the self is composed of concepts unique to ourselves. The
self-concept includes three components:
Self worth (or self-esteem) what we think about ourselves. Rogers believed feelings of
self-worth developed in early childhood and were formed from the interaction of the child
with the mother and father.
Self-image How we see ourselves, which is important to good psychological health.
Self-image includes the influence of our body image on inner personality. At a simple
level, we might perceive ourselves as a good or bad person, beautiful or ugly. Self-image
has an effect on how a person thinks, feels and behaves in the world.
Ideal self This is the person who we would like to be. It consists of our goals and
ambitions in life, and is dynamic i.e. forever changing. The ideal self in childhood is not
the ideal self in our teens or late twenties etc.

Self Worth and Positive


Regard

Carl Rogers (1951) viewed the child as having two basic needs: positive regard from other
people and self-worth.
How we think about ourselves, our feelings of self-worth are of fundamental importance
both to psychological health and to the likelihood that we can achieve goals and ambitions
in life and achieve self-actualization.
Self-worth may be seen as a continuum from very high to very low. For Carl Rogers (1959)
a person who has high self-worth, that is, has confidence and positive feelings about him or
herself, faces challenges in life, accepts failure and unhappiness at times, and is open with
people.
A person with low self-worth may avoid challenges in life, not accept that life can be painful
and unhappy at times, and will be defensive and guarded with other people.
Rogers believed feelings of self-worth developed in early childhood and were formed from
the interaction of the child with the mother and father. As a child grows older, interactions
with significant others will affect feelings of self-worth.
Rogers believed that we need to be regarded positively by others; we need to feel valued,
respected, treated with affection and loved. Positive regard is to do with how other people
evaluate and judge us in social interaction. Rogers made a distinction between
unconditional positive regard and conditional positive regard.
Unconditional positive regard is where parents, significant others (and the humanist
therapist) accepts and loves the person for what he or she is. Positive regard is not
withdrawn if the person does something wrong or makes a mistake. The consequences
of unconditional positive regard are that the person feels free to try things out and make
mistakes, even though this may lead to getting it worse at times. People who are able to
self-actualize are more likely to have received unconditional positive regard from others,
especially their parents in childhood.

Conditional positive regard is where positive regard, praise and approval, depend upon
the child, for example, behaving in ways that the parents think correct. Hence the child is
not loved for the person he or she is, but on condition that he or she behaves only in
ways approved by the parent(s). At the extreme, a person who constantly seeks approval
from other people is likely only to have experienced conditional positive regard as a
child.

Congruence

A persons ideal self may not be consistent with what actually happens in life and
experiences of the person. Hence, a difference may exist between a persons ideal self and
actual experience. This is called incongruence.
Where a persons ideal self and actual experience are consistent or very similar, a state of
congruence exists. Rarely, if ever, does a total state of congruence exist; all people
experience a certain amount of incongruence.
The development of congruence is dependent on unconditional positive regard. Carl Rogers
believed that for a person to achieve self-actualization they must be in a state of
congruence.
According to Rogers, we want to feel, experience and behave in ways which are consistent
with our self-image and which reflect what we would like to be like, our ideal-self.

The closer our self-image and ideal-self are to each other, the more consistent or congruent
we are and the higher our sense of self-worth. A person is said to be in a state of
incongruence if some of the totality of their experience is unacceptable to them and is
denied or distorted in the self-image.
Incongruence is "a discrepancy between the actual experience of the organism and the selfpicture of the individual insofar as it represents that experience.
As we prefer to see ourselves in ways that are consistent with our self-image, we may
use defense mechanisms like denial or repression in order to feel less threatened by some
of what we consider to be our undesirable feelings. A person whose self-concept is
incongruent with her or his real feelings and experiences will defend because the truth
hurts.

Carl Rogers Quotes


"When I look at the world I'm pessimistic, but when I look at people I am optimistic."
"The very essence of the creative is its novelty, and hence we have no standard by which to
judge it" (Rogers, 1961, p. 351).
"I have gradually come to one negative conclusion about the good life. It seems to me that
the good life is not any fixed state. It is not, in my estimation, a state of virtue, or
contentment, or nirvana, or happiness. It is not a condition in which the individual is
adjusted or fulfilled or actualized. To use psychological terms, it is not a state of drivereduction, or tension-reduction, or homeostasis" (Rogers, 1967, p. 185-186).
"The good life is a process, not a state of being. It is a direction not a destination" (Rogers,
1967, p. 187).

References
Rogers, C. (1951). Client-centered therapy: Its current practice, implications and theory.
London: Constable.
Rogers, C. (1959). A theory of therapy, personality and interpersonal relationships as
developed in the client-centered framework. In (ed.) S. Koch, Psychology: A study of a
science. Vol. 3: Formulations of the person and the social context. New York: McGraw Hill.
Rogers, C. R. (1961). On Becoming a person: A psychotherapists view of psychotherapy.
Houghton Mifflin.
Rogers, C. R., Stevens, B., Gendlin, E. T., Shlien, J. M., & Van Dusen, W. (1967). Person to
person: The problem of being human: A new trend in psychology. Lafayette, CA: Real
People Press.

Abraham Maslow
Psychologist
Abraham Harold Maslow was an American psychologist who was best known for creating Maslow's
hierarchy of needs, a theory of psychological health predicated on fulfilling innate human needs in priority,
culminating in self-actualization. Wikipedia
Born: April 1, 1908, Brooklyn, New York City, New York, United States
Died: June 8, 1970, Menlo Park, California, United States
Influenced by: Alfred Adler, Kurt Lewin, Kurt Goldstein, Henry Murray
Influenced: Douglas McGregor, Roberto Assagioli, Colin Wilson, Abbie Hoffman, Wayne Dyer, Elliot
Aronson

Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943
paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" in Psychological Review.[2] Maslow subsequently extended
the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity. His theories parallel many other
theories of human developmental psychology, some of which focus on describing the stages of
growth in humans. Maslow used the terms "physiological", "safety", "belongingness" and "love",
"esteem", "self-actualization", and "self-transcendence" to describe the pattern that human
motivations generally move through.
Maslow studied what he called exemplary people such as Albert Einstein, Jane Addams, Eleanor
Roosevelt, and Frederick Douglass rather than mentally ill or neurotic people, writing that "the study
of crippled, stunted, immature, and unhealthy specimens can yield only a cripple psychology and a
cripple philosophy."[3] Maslow studied the healthiest 1% of the college student population. [4]
Maslow's theory was fully expressed in his 1954 book Motivation and Personality.[5] The hierarchy
remains a very popular framework in sociology research, management
training[6] and secondary andhigher psychology instruction.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs, represented as a pyramid with the more basic needs at the bottom [1]

Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943

Hierarchy
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is often portrayed in the shape of a pyramid with the largest, most
fundamental levels of needs at the bottom and the need for self-actualization at the top.[1][7] While the
pyramid has become the de facto way to represent the hierarchy, Maslow himself never used a
pyramid to describe these levels in any of his writings on the subject.
The most fundamental and basic four layers of the pyramid contain what Maslow called "deficiency
needs" or "d-needs": esteem, friendship and love, security, and physical needs. If these "deficiency
needs" are not met with the exception of the most fundamental (physiological) need there may
not be a physical indication, but the individual will feel anxious and tense. Maslow's theory suggests
that the most basic level of needs must be met before the individual will strongly desire (or focus
motivation upon) the secondary or higher level needs. Maslow also coined the term "metamotivation"
to describe the motivation of people who go beyond the scope of the basic needs and strive for
constant betterment.[8]
The human mind and brain are complex and have parallel processes running at the same time, thus
many different motivations from various levels of Maslow's hierarchy can occur at the same time.
Maslow spoke clearly about these levels and their satisfaction in terms such as "relative," "general,"
and "primarily." Instead of stating that the individual focuses on a certain need at any given time,
Maslow stated that a certain need "dominates" the human organism. [9] Thus Maslow acknowledged

the likelihood that the different levels of motivation could occur at any time in the human mind, but he
focused on identifying the basic types of motivation and the order in which they should be met.

Physiological needs
Physiological needs are the physical requirements for human survival. If these requirements are not
met, the human body cannot function properly and will ultimately fail. Physiological needs are
thought to be the most important; they should be met first.
Air, water, and food are metabolic requirements for survival in all animals, including humans.
Clothing and shelter provide necessary protection from the elements. While maintaining an adequate
birth rate shapes the intensity of the human sexual instinct, sexual competition may also shape said
instinct.[2]

Safety needs
With their physical needs relatively satisfied, the individual's safety needs take precedence and
dominate behavior. In the absence of physical safety due to war, natural disaster, family
violence, childhood abuse, etc. people may (re-)experience post-traumatic stress
disorder or transgenerational trauma. In the absence of economic safety due to economic crisis
and lack of work opportunities these safety needs manifest themselves in ways such as a
preference for job security, grievance procedures for protecting the individual from unilateral
authority, savings accounts, insurance policies, reasonable disability accommodations, etc. This
level is more likely to be found in children because they generally have a greater need to feel safe.
Safety and Security needs include:

Personal security

Financial security

Health and well-being

Safety net against accidents/illness and their adverse impacts

Love and belonging


After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third level of human needs is interpersonal and
involves feelings of belongingness. This need is especially strong in childhood and can override the
need for safety as witnessed in children who cling to abusive parents. Deficiencies within this level of
Maslow's hierarchy due to hospitalism,neglect, shunning, ostracism, etc. can impact the
individual's ability to form and maintain emotionally significant relationships in general, such as:

Friendship

Intimacy

Family

According to Maslow, humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance among their social
groups, regardless whether these groups are large or small. For example, some large social groups
may include clubs, co-workers, religious groups, professional organizations, sports teams, and
gangs. Some examples of small social connections include family members, intimate partners,
mentors, colleagues, and confidants. Humans need to love and be loved both sexually and nonsexually by others.[2] Many people become susceptible to loneliness, social anxiety, and clinical
depression in the absence of this love or belonging element. This need for belonging may overcome
the physiological and security needs, depending on the strength of the peer pressure.

Esteem
All humans have a need to feel respected; this includes the need to have self-esteem and selfrespect. Esteem presents the typical human desire to be accepted and valued by others. People
often engage in a profession or hobby to gain recognition. These activities give the person a sense
of contribution or value. Low self-esteem or an inferiority complex may result from imbalances during
this level in the hierarchy. People with low self-esteem often need respect from others; they may feel
the need to seek fame or glory. However, fame or glory will not help the person to build their selfesteem until they accept who they are internally. Psychological imbalances such as depression can
hinder the person from obtaining a higher level of self-esteem or self-respect.
Most people have a need for stable self-respect and self-esteem. Maslow noted two versions of
esteem needs: a "lower" version and a "higher" version. The "lower" version of esteem is the need
for respect from others. This may include a need for status, recognition, fame, prestige, and
attention. The "higher" version manifests itself as the need for self-respect. For example, the person
may have a need for strength, competence, mastery, self-confidence, independence, and freedom.
This "higher" version takes precedence over the "lower" version because it relies on an inner
competence established through experience. Deprivation of these needs may lead to an inferiority
complex, weakness, and helplessness.
Maslow states that while he originally thought the needs of humans had strict guidelines, the
"hierarchies are interrelated rather than sharply separated". [5] This means that esteem and the
subsequent levels are not strictly separated; instead, the levels are closely related.

Self-actualization
Main article: Self-actualization
"What a man can be, he must be."[10] This quotation forms the basis of the perceived need for selfactualization. This level of need refers to what a person's full potential is and the realization of that
potential. Maslow describes this level as the desire to accomplish everything that one can, to

become the most that one can be.[11] Individuals may perceive or focus on this need very specifically.
For example, one individual may have the strong desire to become an ideal parent. In another, the
desire may be expressed athletically. For others, it may be expressed in paintings, pictures, or
inventions.[12] As previously mentioned, Maslow believed that to understand this level of need, the
person must not only achieve the previous needs, but master them.

Self-transcendence
In his later years, Maslow explored a further dimension of needs, while criticizing his own vision on
self-actualization.[13] The self only finds its actualization in giving itself to some higher goal outside
oneself, in altruism and spirituality.[14]

Research
Recent research appears to validate the existence of universal human needs, although the hierarchy
proposed by Maslow is called into question.[15][16]
Following World War II, the unmet needs of homeless and orphaned children presented difficulties
that were often addressed with the help of attachment theory, which was initially based on Maslow
and others' developmental psychology work by John Bowlby.[17] Originally dealing primarily
with maternal deprivation and concordant losses of essential and primal needs, attachment theory
has since been extended to provide explanations of nearly all the human needs in Maslow's
hierarchy, from sustenance and mating to group membership and justice. [18]

Criticism
In their extensive review of research based on Maslow's theory, Wahba and Bridwell found little
evidence for the ranking of needs that Maslow described or for the existence of a definite hierarchy
at all.[19]
The order in which the hierarchy is arranged (with self-actualization described as the highest need)
has been criticized as being ethnocentric by Geert Hofstede.[20] Maslow's hierarchy of needs fails to
illustrate and expand upon the difference between the social and intellectual needs of those raised
in individualistic societies and those raised incollectivist societies. The needs and drives of those in
individualistic societies tend to be more self-centered than those in collectivist societies, focusing on
improvement of the self, with self-actualization being the apex of self-improvement. In collectivist
societies, the needs of acceptance and community will outweigh the needs for freedom and
individuality.[21]
The term "Self-actualization" may not universally convey Maslow's observations; this motivation
refers to focusing on becoming the best person that one can possibly strive for in the service of both
the self and others.[9] Maslow's term of self-actualization might not properly portray the full extent of

this level; quite often, when a person is at the level of self-actualization, much of what they
accomplish in general may benefit others or, "the greater self".
The position and value of sex on the pyramid has also been a source of criticism regarding Maslow's
hierarchy. Maslow's hierarchy places sex in the physiological needs category along with food and
breathing; it lists sex solely from an individualistic perspective. For example, sex is placed with other
physiological needs which must be satisfied before a person considers "higher" levels of motivation.
Some critics feel this placement of sex neglects the emotional, familial, and evolutionary implications
of sex within the community, although others point out that this is true of all of the basic needs. [22][23]

Changes to the hierarchy by circumstance


The higher-order (self-esteem and self-actualization) and lower-order (physiological, safety, and
love) needs classification of Maslow's hierarchy of needs is not universal and may vary across
cultures due to individual differences and availability of resources in the region or geopolitical
entity/country.
In one study,[24] exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of a thirteen item scale showed there were two
particularly important levels of needs in the US during the peacetime of 1993 to 1994: survival
(physiological and safety) and psychological (love, self-esteem, and self-actualization). In 1991, a
retrospective peacetime measure was established and collected during the Persian Gulf War and US
citizens were asked to recall the importance of needs from the previous year. Once again, only two
levels of needs were identified; therefore, people have the ability and competence to recall and
estimate the importance of needs. For citizens in the Middle East (Egypt and Saudi Arabia), three
levels of needs regarding importance and satisfaction surfaced during the 1990 retrospective
peacetime. These three levels were completely different from those of the US citizens.
Changes regarding the importance and satisfaction of needs from the retrospective peacetime to the
wartime due to stress varied significantly across cultures (the US vs. the Middle East). For the US
citizens, there was only one level of needs since all needs were considered equally important. With
regards to satisfaction of needs during the war, in the US there were three levels: physiological
needs, safety needs, and psychological needs (social, self-esteem, and self-actualization). During
the war, the satisfaction of physiological needs and safety needs were separated into two
independent needs while during peacetime, they were combined as one. For the people of the
Middle East, the satisfaction of needs changed from three levels to two during wartime. [25][26]
A 1981 study looked at how Maslow's hierarchy might vary across age groups. [27] A survey asked
participants of varying ages to rate a set number of statements from most important to least
important. The researchers found that children had higher physical need scores than the other
groups, the love need emerged from childhood to young adulthood, the esteem need was highest
among the adolescent group, young adults had the highest self-actualization level, and while old age

had the highest level of security, it was needed across all levels comparably. The authors argued
that this suggested Maslow's hierarchy may be limited as a theory for developmental sequence since
the sequence of the love need and the self-esteem need should be reversed according to age.

Henry C. Morrison
Author
Henry Clinton Morrison was the New Hampshire state superintendent of public instruction from 1904 to
1917, superintendent of University of Chicago Laboratory Schools from 1919 to 1928, professor of
education, and an author. Wikipedia
Born: 1871, United States of America
Died: 1945, Hyde Park, Chicago, Illinois, United States
Education: Dartmouth College
Books: The practice of teaching in the secondary school, more

Morrison entered as the teaching principal at Milford High School from 1895 through 1899. He taught
mathematics, Latin, history, and science but became known for his ability to deal with misbehaved
students. The reputation Morrison built led to the offer to be the superintendent of schools
for Portsmouth, New Hampshire from 1899-1904. Morrison married Marion Locke and the two had
three sons together.
In 1904, Morrison was promoted to New Hampshire State Superintendent of Public Instruction. He
held this position for thirteen years and during that time he examined and approved all schools
throughout the state, served on the state medical board, examined teachers, and supervised
attendance and child labor laws. During the year of 1908, he was elected president of the American
Institute of Instruction. In 1912, the dean of the School of Education at the University of Chicago,
asked him to be the guest speaker for a summer session in Chicago. Morrison later became great
friends with the dean, Charles Hubbard Judd, which proved to be important later in Morrison's
career. From 1917 to 1919 Morrison lived in Connecticut and took a position on the Connecticut
State Board of Education.
After two years serving on the state board, the position of superintendent of the University of
Chicago Laboratory Schools became available. Charles Judd. the dean of the college. was familiar
with Morrison through their previous encounters and offered Morrison the job. Morrison moved to
Chicago and held the position of superintendent of Laboratory Schools until 1928. He left the
position as superintendent to become the Professor of School Administration until 1937.
Morrison is best remembered for the work and research he did at the University of Chicago. He
formulated the "Morrison plan" which reorganized the style of teaching. He studied the problems with
education and designed theories for approaching these problems. He believed that the student

learned best by adapting or responding to a situation. Morrison configured the secondary curriculum
into five types: science, appreciation, practical arts, language arts, and pure-practice. He also
identified a five step instructional pattern: pretest, teaching, testing the results of instruction,
changing the instruction procedure, and teaching and testing again until the unit is mastered by the
student. Morrison's landmark publication was The Practice of Teaching in Secondary Schools. This
book is widely known as a way to use teaching from the 1920s to the 1940s. Morrison retired from
the University of Chicago in 1937 and later died of a heart attack in 1945.

In Morrison's educational career up to 1919, he had "insider" knowledge, as


both teacher and administrator, of problems that plagued public education in
the United States. From 1919 through 1928, he conceptualized theories for
approaching these problems, tested tentative solutions within laboratory
school contexts, and conducted a vast amount of empirical observation.
From Morrison's studies, he posited that genuine learning consisted of the
student adapting or responding to a situation. Rejecting the notion that
learning referred only to the acquisition of subject matter, Morrison instead
concentrated on actual change in the behavior of the learner, what he called an
adaptation. The unit was the procedure used for the teaching of an adaptation
based on a stimulus-response psychology. This concept stems, in part, from
Morrison's categorization of learning into a cycle of three phases: stimulus,
assimilation, and reaction.

Morrison configured the secondary school curriculum into units of five types:
science, appreciation, practical arts, language arts, and pure-practice.
Acknowledging that instruction would vary among the different types of units,
Morrison nonetheless identified a five-step instructional pattern. Morrison's
general pattern for the instructional process (his plan or method) involves the
following sequential steps: (1) pretest, (2) teaching, (3) testing the result of
instruction, (4) changing the instruction procedure, and (5) teaching and
testing again until the unit has been completely mastered by the student. In
developing his concept of mastery learning, Morrison distinguished between
learning and performance. Mastery, according to Morrison, is when students
focus on learning a skill and acquire a fundamental grasp of subject matter.
Once students have achieved a certain level of learning, they attempt to apply
the skill; this application is called performance. The next step achieved is
adaptation, the stage at which students become able to apply their learning to
any situation.

John Dewey
Philosopher
John Dewey, FAA was an American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and educational reformer whose
ideas have been influential in education and social reform. Wikipedia
Born: October 20, 1859, Burlington, Vermont, United States
Died: June 1, 1952, New York City, New York, United States
Education: University of Vermont (1879), Johns Hopkins University,University of Chicago
Influenced by: William James, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, more

John Dewey was born in Vermont in 1859. He was an American philosopher, psychologist and
educational reformer who has long been considered one of the founders of pragmatism, although
he preferred to refer to his theory as instrumentalism. Essentially, these theories follow the belief
that in order to be considered correct, a theory must be successfully applied. In other words, practice
and theory are linked. Considered a forward thinker of his time, Dewey applied his pragmatic beliefs
to education, thereby forever changing the landscape of education and earning him the name 'The
Modern Father of Experiential Education.'

Dewey's Theory
Dewey's thoughts on education, originally published in his 1938 work 'Experience and Education,'
analyzed both traditional and progressive education. Traditional education's focus was more on
curriculum and heritage; progressive education focused on the student's interest rather than that of
the instructor or subject. In Dewey's opinion, neither of these schools of thought were sufficient.
Dewey believed that traditional education was too strict and progressive education too spontaneous.
He believed that traditional education left little regard for the learner's interests and progressive
education was too individualized.

Not being fully pleased with either philosophy, Dewey proposed a new educational theory, which
specifically highlighted the role experience plays in education. According to Dewey, powerful
educational experiences are a result of two fundamental principals: continuity and interaction.
Continuity refers to the way experiences, both past and present, influence the future. Interaction
refers to how one's current situation influences their experiences. This means that one's present
experiences are a direct result of how their previous experiences interact with and influence their
present situation. Confusing? Maybe... Simply put, this means that human experiences- past,
present, and future- influence the capacity to learn.

Dewey and Educational Philosophies


Dewey believed that traditional education, in its rigid requirements of standards and conduct,
encourages learners to be docile and obedient, producing an environment where learners are
encouraged to listen and learn but not necessarily think for themselves. He also believed that
progressive education provides learners with the opportunity to think and grow but believed that it
was a system that forced younger generations to enact adult standards, producing an environment
where learners were encouraged to think on their own

The Views of John Dewey


John Dewey is probably most famous for his role in what is called progressive
education. Progressive education is essentially a view of education that emphasizes the need to
learn by doing. Dewey believed that human beings learn through a 'hands on' approach. This places
Dewey in the educational philosophy ofpragmatism.
Pragmatists believe that reality must be experienced. From Dewey's educational point of view, this
means that students must interact with their environment in order to adapt and learn. Dewey felt that
the same idea was true for teachers and that teachers and students must learn together. His view of
the classroom was deeply rooted in democratic ideals, which promoted equal voice among all
participants in the learning experience.

How John Dewey Reformed Education


Dewey's pragmatic and democratic approach to schooling may not stand out as radical today, but in
the early and mid-1900s his view of education was in contradiction to much of the then-present
system of schooling. Dewey's approach was truly child-centered. A child-centered approach to
education places the emphasis of learning on the needs and interests of the child. In Dewey's view,
children should be allowed to explore their environments.
He believed in an interdisciplinary curriculum, or a curriculum that focuses on connecting multiple
subjects, where students are allowed to freely move in and out of classrooms as they pursue their
interests and construct their own paths for acquiring and applying knowledge. The role of the teacher
in this setting would be to serve more as a facilitator than an instructor. In Dewey's view, the teacher

should observe the interest of the students, observe the directions they naturally take, and then
serve as someone who helps develop problem-solving skills

Friedrich Frbel
Pedagogue
Friedrich Wilhelm August Frbel or Froebel was a German pedagogue, a student of Pestalozzi who laid
the foundation for modern education based on the recognition that children have unique needs and
capabilities. Wikipedia
Born: April 21, 1782, Oberweibach, Germany
Died: June 21, 1852, Mariental, Germany
Education: University of Jena (18001802)
Spouse: Louise Levin (m. 1851), Wilhelmine Henriette Hoffmeister (m. 18181839)
Parents: Jakobine Eleonore Friderika Hoffmann, Johann Jakob Frbel

riedrich Froebel (Frbel). Best known for his work on kindergardens


and play, Froebel has a lot to say for informal educators.
Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel (Frbel) (1782 1852). Friedrich Froebel, the
German educationalist, is best known as the originator of the kindergarten system. By
all accounts he had a difficult childhood. His mother died when he was a baby, and his
father, a pastor, left him to his own devices. He grew up, it is said, with a love for nature
and with a strong Christian faith and this was central to his thinking as an
educationalist. He saw, and sought to encourage, unity in all things.
The purpose of education is to encourage and guide man as a conscious, thinking and
perceiving being in such a way that he becomes a pure and perfect representation of that
divine inner law through his own personal choice; education must show him the ways
and meanings of attaining that goal. (Friedrich Froebel 1826 Die Nenschenerziehung,
pp. 2). He came into teaching via a school run along Pestalozzian lines (and spent time
at Yverdon). Friedrich Froebels enduring significance was through his formulation of
the kindergarten system with its emphasis on play and its use of gifts (play materials)
and occupations (activities).

Friedrich Froebel believed that humans are essentially productive


and creative and fulfilment comes through developing these in harmony with God and
the world. As a result, Froebel sought to encourage the creation of educational
environments that involved practical work and the direct use of materials. Through
engaging with the world, understanding unfolds. Hence the significance of play it is
both a creative activity and through it children become aware of their place in the world.
He went on to develop special materials (such as shaped wooden bricks and balls
gifts), a series of recommended activities (occupations) and movement activities, and an
linking set of theories. His original concern was the teaching of young children through
educational games in the family. In the later years of his life this became linked with a
demand for the provision of special centres for the care and development of children
outside the home.
Froebels abiding influence has come in part from the efforts of followers such as Bertha
von Marenholtz-Blow and the thinkers such as Diesterweg. We have seen the
development of kindergartens, and the emergence of a Froebel movement. For informal
educators, Friedrich Froebels continuing relevance has lain in his concern for learning
through activity, his interest in social learning and his emphasis on the unification of
life.

Friedrich Froebel (1782 1852) The birth of


the kindergarten
It was Froebel, a German educationalist, who laid the foundations for modern
education systems based on the recognition that children have unique needs and
capabilities.
Friedrich was the youngest of six children. His father was a pastor and his mother died
nine months after his birth, leaving him to his own devices. Friedrich grew up with a

love of nature and a strong Christian faith, central to his thinking as an educationalist.
Between 1808 and 1810 he attended the training institute run by John Pestalozzi,
accepting the basic principles of Pestalozzis theory including permissive school
atmospheres as the ideal environment for learning, emphasis on nature and the object
lesson. However, Frobel was a strong idealist whose view of education was closely
linked to religion. He felt that Pestalozzis theory lacked the spiritual means that,
according to Frobel was the foundation of early learning.
Frobels philosophy of education was based on four major principles: free self
expression, creativity, social participation and motor expression. He began to focus on
the needs of children just prior to entering school. Froebel envisioned a place where 4
to 6 year old children would be nurtured and protected from outside influences.
Before implementing these in the kindergarten, he originally devised these concepts
for the child in the family. However, these became linked with a demand for the
provision of care and development of children outside of the home.
In 1840 Frobel created the word kindergarten (infant garden) for the Play and Activity
Institute he had founded in 1837 with its emphasis on play as well as featuring
games, songs, stories, and arts and crafts to stimulate the childs imagination and
develop physical and motor skills.
He considered the purpose of education to be to encourage and guide man as a
conscious, thinking and perceiving being in a way that becomes a pure and perfect
representation of the divine inner law through his own personal choice. Education
must show him the meanings of attaining that goal.
Frobel believed that humans are productive and creative and fulfillment comes
through developing harmony with God and the world. The emphasis of the early years
setting was on practical work and the direct use of materials. Through exploring the
environment, the childs understanding of the world unfolds. Frobel believed in the
importance of play in a childs learning as a creative activity.
To Froebel, play provided the means for a childs intellectual, social, emotional and
physical development. Froebel believed that the education of a child began at birth,
and that parents and teachers played a crucial role in helping children in this activity.
Play is a mirror of life, he wrote, leading to self discipline and respect for law and
order.
He developed a series of materials known as gifts and a series of recommended
activities occupations and movement activities. Gifts were objects that were fixed in
form such as blocks. The purpose was that in playing with the object the child would
learn the underlying concept represented by the object. Occupations allowed more
freedom and consisted of things that children could shape and manipulate such as
clay, sand, beads, string etc. There was an underlying symbolic meaning in all that
was done. Clean up time was seen as a reminder of Gods plan for moral and social
order. It was the duty of the teachers to point out the symbolism to the children.
At that time, the Prussian government did not agree with Froebels ideas. They were
considered dangerous and detrimental to children. In 1848, the government ordered
all schools to close. Sadly, Froebel died in 1852 not knowing how his work would later
impact on school systems around the world, particularly in the U.S.A.

After the German Revolution many Germans immigrated to the United Sates. Among
them, women trained in the Froebel system of education were responsible for bringing
the kindergarten to the U.S.A. The first U.S. kindergarten was for German immigrant
children, started by Margarethe Schurz, taught in German. In 1873 William T. Harris,
superintendent of St. Louis schools was the first to incorporate kindergarten into the
public school system in U.S.
Froebels educational ideas provided the major direction of kindergarten curriculum
during the last half of the nineteenth century. Many of his ideas can still be observed
in kindergarten today including learning through play, group games, goal orientated
activities, and outdoor time.
Froebel respected children as individuals with rights and responsibilities according to
their ages and abilities, and his philosophy has profoundly affected educational policy
and practice around the world. Some of the early educational pioneers, most famously
Maria Montessori, were influenced by the educational philosophy of Frobel.
Educators of the future will continue to look to philosophers of the past for assistance
in striving to attain the common goal of being jointly responsible for nurturing,
educating, and cultivating each child toward his or her maximum potential through
the educational process.