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SOFTWARE DE SIMULARE PENTRU DOUA STATII ELECTRICE

INTERCONECTATE, DESTINAT CRESTERII EFICIENTEI


TRANSPORTULUI ENERGIEI ELECTRICE
SIMULATOR SOFTWARE FOR TWO INTERCONNECTED
ELECTRICAL SUBSTATIONS, MEANT TO INCREASE THE
ELECTRIC POWER TRANSMISSION EFFICIENCY
Rita DRAGAN

Andrei GUSTI

ISPE ROMANIA
Bucuresti, Bd. Lacul Tei nr.1-3 sect.2,
fax: +40 21.210.45.20, email: rdragan@ispe.ro

ISPE ROMANIA
Bucuresti, Bd. Lacul Tei nr.1-3 sect.2,
fax: +40 21.210.45.20, email: agusti@ispe.ro

Marioara ITOAFA
ISPE ROMANIA
Bucuresti, Bd. Lacul Tei nr.1-3 sect.2,
fax: +40 21.210.45.20, email: itoafa@ispe.ro
Rezumat: n vederea instruirii i testrii operatorilor din centrele
de comand pentru transportul i distribuia energiei electrice
(staii electrice, dispeceri etc.) s-au dezvoltat o serie de aplicaii
de simulare sau supraveghere a proceselor tehnologice aferente.
Lund n considerare importana pregtirii profesionale a
personalului operativ (prin instruire/antrenament) care trebuie
s fac fa situaiilor de criza aprute n exploatarea Sistemului
Energetic se constat reducerea gradului de eroare uman.
Modelele matematice care stau la baza software-ului de aplicaie
reprezint suportul de baz al sistemului de simulare i simuleaz
principalele tipuri de operaii executate pe simulator: acionari,
semnalizri, protecii, circulaii de cureni i tensiuni. Software-ul
de simulare este compus din software-ul de baza pentru realizarea
interfeei cu operatorul i softwre-ul de aplicaie pentru implementarea modelelor matematice. Software-ul este elaborat intr-un
limbaj de programare de nivel nalt (Visual C++), utiliznd
facilitile programrii orientate pe obiecte ale sistemului de
operare Windows i tehnica ActiveX-urilor.

Abstract: With the view to training and testing the operational


staff working in the control centers of the power transmission
and distribution plants (substations, dispatchers, etc.), a range
of applications where developed meant to simulate and /or
supervise the afferent technological processes. Considering the
special importance and part played by the education of the
operational staff (instruction /training) to face special cases in
the Power System operation, it has been emphasized the increasing
role of the human factor. The mathematical models necessary
for the performance of the software support representing the
base of the simulation system are simulating the main types of
operations which can be executed: actuations, signalling,
protections, current and power circulations. The simulator
software consists of specialized software for the operator
interface and advanced programming for mathematical models.
The software is written in high level programming language
(Visual C++), using Windows facilities as object-oriented
programming and ActiveX.

Keywords: modelare, sisteme electroenergetice, staii electrice,


instruire

Keywords: modelling, power system, electrical substations,


training

1. Consideraii generale
Extinderea sistemelor informatice prin dezvoltarea de
programe de simulare a proceselor staionare i dinamice
din termo i electro-energetic, reprezint un instrument
util i absolut necesar pentru dezvoltarea sectorului energetic, pentru asigurarea eficienei i siguranei n exploatare,
cerine de baz n vederea integrrii n Uniune Europeana.
Complexitatea echipamentelor i a instalaiilor energetice
utilizate n sistemul energetic naional, precum i importana
deosebit pe care o are funcionarea ntregului proces de
producere, transport i distribuie a energiei electrice, impun
folosirea unor procedee de exploatare avansat, precum i
metode moderne de pregtire i formare a cadrelor de
specialitate.
Instruirea prin exerciii de avarie pe simulatoare de
staii este deosebit de util.

1. General considerations
The expansion of the information systems, by developing
simulation programs for steady and dynamic processes in
thermal and power systems, represents a necessary and
useful instrument in developing the power area and for
assuring the operation efficiency and safety. These are the
basic requirements for the integration in the European Union.
The complexity of the equipment and the power
installations used in the national power system, and also
the special importance of the operation of the electric
power generation, transmission and distribution process,
require the use of some advanced operation procedures
and upgrading methods for training and specialising the
operational staff.
The training with failure exercises on electrical substation
simulations, is very useful.

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The 5 International Power Systems Conference

Formarea i pregtirea activitii practice, pentru


personalul din exploatarea staiilor electrice, se face n
conformitate cu Regulamentul general de manevre n
instalaiile electrice i a Normelor de protecie a muncii
pentru instalaiile electrice i are ca obiective principale
aprofundarea i fixarea noiunilor de baz din specialitate,
dezvoltarea aptitudinilor i a deprinderilor specifice.
Folosirea tehnicii moderne de calcul, de tip Personal
Computer pentru afiarea, prelucrarea i transmiterea
informaiilor, asigur pe lng simularea fidel a proceselor
care apar n exploatarea staiilor electrice, i o puternic
flexibilitate a sistemului datorit cantitii mari de informaii
care pot fi prelucrate i furnizate n timp real determinndu-se
astfel un nalt grad de interactiviate a sistemului de simulare.
Cu ajutorul simulatoarelor sunt redate dou regimuri
de manevre ale staiilor electrice: regim de funcionare n
condiii normale (execuie de foi de manevra standard) i
regim de funcionare n condiii de avarie (introducere de
defecte i perturbaii).
n cadrul acestei lucrri se propune realizarea unui
sistem de simulare a proceselor specifice pentru dou staii
electrice interconectate, Staia A i Staia B, sistem care este
destinat mbuntirii pregtirii profesionale a personalului
de exploatare a staiilor electrice, asigurndu-se o pregtire
suplimentar individual, la locul de munc.
Realizarea sistemului necesit rezolvarea urmtoarelor
probleme:
modelarea proceselor tehnologice specifice circuitelor,
instalaiilor i echipamentelor din staii;
realizarea unui pachet de programe, funcionnd n
mediu WINDOWS, destinat:
vizualizrii grafice a schemelor monofilare, panouri
de protecii ale staiilor;
executrii manevrelor i operaiilor specifice echipamentelor simulate;
vizualizarii rezultatelor funcionrii schemelor de
protecie, semnalizare, blocaje tehnologice;
introducerii de defecte i perturbaii n funcionare
realizarea modelelor matematice i programelor de
simulare pentru acionri, semnalizri, blocaje tehnologice i protecii specifice staiilor A i B;
realizarea programelor aferente postului instructor i a
sistemului de evaluare operatori;
asamblarea i integrarea programelor de mai sus n
scopul simulrii regimurilor de funcionare normal i
de avarie ;
validarea funcionrii sistemului realizat.

The preparation of the practical activity, for the


operational staff, is done according to The general
directions for manoeuvres in power installations and Work
protection norms for power installations and it has as main
objectives the study and fixing of the basic speciality
concepts and the specific abilities and skills development.
The use of the up-to-date calculation technique, Personal
Computer type, for the information display, processing
and transmission, assures the devoted simulation of the
processes that appear during the electrical substation
operation, and also a strong system flexibility due to the
great amount of information that could be processed and
delivered in real time, determining a high degree of the
simulation system interactivity.
Using the simulators, we could reproduce two
manoeuvring conditions in the electric substations: normal
operation conditions (performance of standard manoeuvring
sheets) and failure operation conditions (fault and
disturbance insertion).
Within this work, it is suggested the performance of
a simulation system for specific processes for two
interconnected electrical substations, A and B substations,
system that is meant to improve the operational staff
training, assuring an individual additional training, on the
work site.
The system performance needs the following problems
to be solved:
modelling the processes specific to the circuits,
installations and equipment in the electrical substations;
performance of a program package, operating in
Windows environment, necessary for:
viewing the graphics of the single-core diagrams and
the electrical substation protection panels;
performing the manoeuvres and the operations specific
to the simulated equipment;
viewing the results of the protection, signalling
and technical blocking diagrams operation;
the insertion of the fault and disturbances;
performance of the mathematical models and the simulation programs for actuations, signalling, protections and
technical blocking specific to the A and B electrical
substations;
performance of the programs afferent to the instruction
and the operator evaluation stations;
assembly and integration of the above mentioned
programs for simulating the failure and normal
operation conditions;
the performed system operation validity.

2. Funciunile sistemului de simulare


Sistemul de simulare aferent staiilor electrice se compune din: pachet de programe destinat vizualizrii interfeei
grafice i programe de aplicaie pentru implementarea
algoritmilor de simulare acionri, semnalizri, blocaje
tehnologice i protecii aferente staiilor electrice.
Pachetul de programe destinat vizualizrilor grafice
este scris n limbajul Visual C++, sub sistemul de operare
WINDOWS folosind facilitile programrii orientate pe
obiecte. Funciunile realizate de acest pachet de programe
sunt urmtoarele:

2. The functions of the simulation system


The simulation system afferent to the electric substations
consists of: program package meant to view the graphical
interface and application programs for the insertion of the
algorithms that simulate the actuations, signalling, protections
and technical blocking afferent to the electrical substations.
The program package for graphical viewing is written
in Visual C++ language, under the operating system
Windows, using the facilities of the object oriented
programming. The functions, performed by this program
package, are:

06-07.11.2003, Timioara, Romania

vizualizare stare proces prin urmrirea pe display a


evoluiei procesului tehnologic utilizndu-se scheme
monofilare. Pe aceste imagini, se pot identifica strile
de funcionare ale echipamentelor din staii, valorile
principalilor parametri (tensiuni, cureni), semnalizrile
preventive i de avarie, precum i funcionarea proteciilor la temporizrile corespunztoare

203

process state viewing by tracing on display the


technological process evolution using single-core
diagrams. On these pictures, we could identify the
operating states of the electrical substation equipment,
the main parameters values (voltages, currents), the
preventive and failure signalling and also the protection
operation at the proper delays

Figura 1. Interfaa grafic simulator staii electrice Staia A, vedere general


Figure 1. Graphical interface, electrical substation simulator General view of the A substation

calculul modelelor matematice la tacte de timp prestabilite de 0.25 sau 1 sec (nu se simuleaz n detaliu
fenomene mai rapide dect tactul de timp prestabilit);
calculele de modelare nu pot fi ntrerupte de execuia
altor algoritmi de simulare
procesarea algoritmilor de modelare ai semnalizrilor,
permisiilor i proteciilor se face naintea calculelor de
modelare i numai la modificarea strii uneia din
mrimile prelucrate de aceti algoritmi
toi algoritmii de simulare opereaz cu o baza de date
comuna ai crei parametri pot fi inspectai
Pachetul de programe de aplicaie realizeaz:
simularea acionarilor echipamentelor de comutaie
(ntreruptori, separatori, CPL-uri, etc.) i preluarea
comenzilor prin casetele de comand aferente elementelor active (vezi fig.2)

calculation of the mathematical models at a preestablished time of 0.25 or 1 sec (there are not
simulated in detail, phenomena that are faster than the
pre-established time); modelling calculations can not be
interrupted by the other simulation algorithms execution
the signalling, allowance and protection modelling
algorithms processing will be done before the modelling
calculations, and only in case of changing the state of
one of the measures processed by these algorithms
all the simulation algorithms operate with a common
database; the database parameters could be viewed.
The application program package performs:
the simulation of the commutation equipment actuations
(switches, separating switches, CPLs, etc.) and the
control taking over via control windows afferent to the
active elements (see figure 2).

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The 5 International Power Systems Conference

204

Figura 2. Interfa grafic simulator staii electrice celule de 110kV, casete de comand
Figure 2. Graphical interface, electrical substation simulator 110 KV cells, control windows

simularea operaiilor specifice ale echipamentelor de


comutaie:
- verificare poziie echipament;
- punere/scoatere sigurane de comand/acionare;
- montare/scoatere plcue avertizare;
- blocare acionare separator/CLP;
- cerere permisie conectare ntreruptor fr condiii de
sincronizare;
- verificare stare echipament, (vezi fig.3);
simularea operaiilor generale prevzute ntr-o foaie de
manevra standard (bifarea orei n foaia de manevra, etc.);
simularea proteciilor i semnalizrilor din staiile
electrice simulate;
Simulatorul de manevre pentru staii electrice permite
prin intermediul interfeei grafice aferente postului instructor
introducerea de perturbaii i avarii care determin funcionarea proteciilor specifice.
Fiecrui echipament de comutaie i este asociat o
imagine pentru acest gen de intervenii. De exemplu pentru
o linie electrica se poate genera scurt-circuit monfoazat/
trifazat/trifazat cu punere la pmnt, cu o persisten prestabilit. Locul de defect poate fi stabilit la 0%, 25%,
50%, 75% sau 100% din lungimea linie electrice.
Procesul de instruire este ntotdeauna urmat de etapa de
evaluare a activitii desfurate de operator pe simulatorul
de manevre.

the simulation of the specific commutation equipment


operations:
- checking the equipment position;
- switch on/off he control/actuation fuse;
- mounting/demounting warning plates;
- CLP /separating switch actuation blocking;
- switch connection demand without synchronising
conditions;
- checking the equipment state (see figure 3)
simulation of the general operations foreseen in a standard
manoeuvring sheet (the hour marking in the manoeuvring
sheet);
the simulation of the protections and signallings in the
simulated electrical substations.
The manoeuvring simulator for electrical substations
allows, via the graphical interface afferent to the instruction
station, the insertion of disturbances and failures that
determine the specific protection operation.
Each commutation equipment has its own image for this
kind of interventions. For example, for an overhead transmission line, it could be generated monophase/ triphase/triphase
grounding short-circuit, with a pre-established persistence.
The fault could be found at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% or 100%
of the overhead transmission line length. The instruction
process is always followed by the stage of evaluating the
operators activity on the manoeuvring simulator.

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Fig.3. Interfa grafic simulator staii electrice celule de 20kV, operaii specifice
Figure 3. Graphical Interface, electrical substation simulator 20 kV cells, specific operations

3. Caracteristici tehnice
Configuraie hardware :
Post instructor 1 PC
- 1700MHz,
- 128MB RAM,
- 40 GB HD
- imprimanta
Post operator 2 PC
- 1300MHz,
- 64MB RAM,
- 40 GB HD
Numr de semnale prelucrate :
- 3500 semnale binare de intrare (butoane)
- 2500 semnale binare de iesire (lampi semnalizare)
- 800 semnale analogice dintre care 250 afiate (valori
digitale)
- Frecventa de executare a calculelor :
- egala cu 0.25 secunde
- < 0.25 secunde pentru calcule de importanta sporita
(protecii)
Limbaj de programare :
- Visual C++
Sistemul de operare :
- Windows 9x
Aplicaiile folosesc facilitile programrii orientate
pe obiecte i ActiveX-uri.

3. Technical characteristics
Hardware configuration:
Instruction station 1 PC
- 1700 MHz,
- 128 MB RAM,
- 40GB HD
- printer
Operator station 2 PC
- 1300 MHz,
- 64 MB RAM,
- 40GB HD
Number of processed signals:
- 3500 input binary signals (keys)
- 2500 output binary signals (signalling lamps)
- 800 analog signals from which 250 are display signals
(digit values)
- Frequency in making calculations:
- Equal to 0.25 seconds
- < 0.25 seconds for calculations with increased
significance (protections)
Programming language:
- Visual C++
Operating system:
- Windows 9x
The applications use the facilities of the object oriented
programming and ActiveX.

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4. Concluzii
Aplicaia contribuie la antrenarea i instruirea personalului operativ din centrele de control pentru transmisia
i distribuia energiei electrice din staiile electrice.
Simulatorul este un instrument modern bazat pe sisteme
de operare de ultima ora i limbaje de programare de nivel
nalt.

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The 5 International Power Systems Conference

4. Conclusions
The application helps in instruction and training of the
operational staff working in the control centers of the
power transmission and distribution in electrical substations.
The simulator is a modern tool based on updated
operating system and high level programming language.

Bibliografie (References)
1. TEACA, R., MARCIU, L., GANEA, M.: Simulator de manevre n staii electrice (Manoeuvres simulator in electrical substations)
ISPE 1995
2. PE 118: Regulament general de manevre n instalaiile electrice (Manoeuvres general rules in electrical instalations)
3. CUMAPANASU, G., POENARU, H., POPA, L.: Metodologie de proiectare a instalaiilor din staiile electrice FRE Timisoara
(Design methodology for electrical instalations in substations FRE Timioara) - 1994.