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LECIA 1

VERBUL
Denumete
aciune
o stare
existena, concepute ca procese care au loc n timp i sunt legate de un agent.
MORFOLOGIC este o parte de vorbire caracterizat prin:
- categoriile specifice:
1. DIATEZA:
activ (arat c aciunea exprimat de verb este svrit de subiectul
gramatical, ex. The workers fulfilled the plan) i
pasiv (arat ca subiectul gramatical sufer aciunea exprimat de verb, ex. The
plan was fulfilled by the workers)
2. ASPECTUL categorie specific limbii engleze care permite s se precizeze modul
cum este conceput aciunea lor n timp:
forma nedefinit (nu se raporteaz neaprat la momentul vorbirii)
forma continu/progresiv (arat c aciunea este conceput n desfaurarea ei,
durata ei este limitat n timp)
3. MODUL arat felul cum concepe vorbitorul ceea ce se comunic intr-o propoziie:
ca ceva real, ca ceva presupus, nchipuit, de dorit, ca un ordin.
- putem distinge 4 moduri: INDICATIV, CONDIIONAL, SUBJONCTIV,
IMPERATIV
4. TIMPUL: prezent, trecut, viitor
- i categorii care se ntlnesc i la alte pri de vorbire: PERSOANA i NUMRUL
ex. he has been waiting = timpul prezent perfect continuu, modul indicativ, diateza
activ, persoana a III-a, singular
SINTACTIC: indeplinete funcia de PREDICAT pentru formele personale, iar pentru
formele nepersonale, diverse alte funcii.
Verbele se submpart n:
- verbe predicative (exprim nelesul deplin al unei activiti)
- verbe auxiliare (sunt complet lipsite de coninut lexical, folosite pentru a exprima
relaiile de timp i de mod ale verbelor predicative, pot fi i verbe predicative).
Un verb are 3 FORME DE BAZ, de care este nevoie la formarea diverselor timpuri:
I form: Infinitive (forma de baz) se marcheaz cu particula to, ex. to go
a II-a form: Past Tense (forma de trecut), ex. went = am mers
a III-a form: Past Participle (participiul trecut), ex. gone = mers
n limba englez exist verbe:
REGULATE (la care forma a II-a i a III-a se formeaz din: Infinitiv + terminaia ed)
NEREGULATE
Formele verbului se mpart n:
1. FORME PERSONALE (finite/conjugate): Indicativul, Condiionalul i Subjonctivul,
denumite, ca i n gramatica limbii romne, - moduri sunt legate de subiect i ndeplinesc n
propoziie funcia de predicat sau de parte a predicatului.
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2. FORME NEPERSONALE (non-finite, infinite/neconjugate): infinitivul, gerunziul i


participiul nu sunt, de regul, legate de subiect i nu pot ndeplini n propozi ie dect func ia
de parte secundar a ei.

FORMELE PERSONALE (FINITE) ALE VERBULUI


MODURILE I TIMPURILE DIATEZEI ACTIVE
I. MODUL INDICATIV
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1. Timpurile prezente:
PREZENTUL SIMPLU
PREZENTUL CONTINUU
PREZENTUL PERFECT SIMPLU
PREZENTUL PERFECT CONTINUU
2. Timpurile trecute:
TRECUT SIMPLU
TRECUT CONTINUU
TRECUT PERFECT SIMPLU
TRECUT PERFECT CONTINUU
3. Timpurile viitoare:
VIITOR SIMPLU
VIITOR CONTINUU
VIITORUL APROPIAT
VIITORUL PERFECT
VIITORUL PERFECT CONTINUU
VIITORUL FA DE TRECUT
II. MODUL CONDIIONAL
CONDIIONAL PREZENT
CONDIIONAL TRECUT
Fraza condiional de tip I, II, III, mixt.
III. MODUL SUBJONCTIV
SUBJONCTIV PREZENT
SUBJONCTIV TRECUT
SUBJONCTIV PERFECT
SUBJONCTIV ANALITIC
IV. MODUL IMPERATIV
FORMELE NEPERSONALE. MODURILE IMPERSONALE

INFINITIV
GERUNZIU
PARTICIPIU

LISTA VERBELOR NEREGULATE

Infinitive
[Forma I-a]
arise

Simple Past
[Forma a II-a]
arose

Past Perfect
[Forma a III-a]
arisen

Sensul n limba romn


(a) rezulta, (a se) produce

awake

awoke

awoken

(a se) trezi

be

was/were

been

(a) fi

bear

bore

borne/born

(a) purta, (a) duce

beat

beat

beaten

(a) lovi, nvinge

become

became

become

(a) deveni (ceva)

begin

began

begun

(a) ncepe

bend

bent

bent

(a se) ndoi

bet

bet

bet

(a) paria

bid (offer)

bid

bid

(a) face o ofert, (a) promite

bind

bound

bound

(a) lega

bite

bit

bitten

(a) muca

bleed

bled

bled

(a) sngera

blow

blew

blown

(a) sufla

break

broke

broken

(a) rupe, (a) sparge

breed

bred

bred

(a) crete, (a) nate

bring

brought

brought

(a) aduce

broadcast

broadcast

broadcast

(a) difuza, (a) transmite (radio,


TV)

build

built

built

(a) construi

burn

burnt/burned

burnt/burned

(a)arde

burst

burst

burst

(a) exploda

buy

bought

bought

(a) cumpra

can

could

couth (form
arhaic)

(a) fi n stare, (a) putea (verb


auxiliar modal)

cast

cast

cast

(a) arunca

catch

caught

caught

(a) prinde

choose

chose

chosen

(a) alege

cling (to)

clung

clung

(a se) aga

clothe

clothed/clad

clothed/clad

(a) (se) mbrca, nvemnta

come

came

come

(a) veni

cost

cost

cost

(a) costa

creep

crept

crept

(a se) tr

cut

cut

cut

(a) tia

deal (with)

dealt

dealt

(a se) ocupa (cu)

dig

dug

dug

(a) spa

do

did

done

(a) face

draw

drew

drawn

(a) desena, (a) trage

dream

dreamt/dreamed

dreamt/dreamed

(a) visa

drink

drank/drunk (Sudul
SUA)

drunk

(a) bea

drive

drove

driven

(a) conduce

eat

ate

eaten

(a) mnca

fall

fell

fallen

(a) cdea

feed

fed

fed

(a) hrni

feel

felt

felt

(a) simi

fight

fought

fought

(a) lupta

find

found

found

(a) gsi

flee

fled

fled

(a) fugi din

fly

flew

flown

(a) zbura

forbid

forbade

forbidden

(a) interzice

forget

forgot

forgotten

(a) uita

forgive

forgave

forgiven

(a) ierta

freeze

froze

frozen

(a) nghea

get

got

got (UK)/gotten
(US)

(a) primi, (a) procura

give

gave

given

(a) da

go

went

gone

(a) merge

grind

ground

ground

(a) mcina

grow

grew

grown

(a) crete

hang

hung/hanged

hung/hanged

(a) atrna

have

had

had

(a) avea, (a) poseda

hear

heard

heard

(a) auzi

hide

hid

hidden

(a) ascunde, (a se) ascunde

hit

hit

hit

(a) lovi

hold

held

held

(a) ine

hurt

hurt

hurt

(a) rni

keep

kept

kept

(a) pstra

kneel

knelt/kneeled

knelt/kneeled

(a) ngenunchea

know

knew

known

(a) ti

lay

laid

laid

(a) aeza, (a) ntinde

lead

led

led

(a) conduce

lean (against)

leant/leaned

leant/leaned

(a se) rezema

leap

leapt/leaped

leapt/leaped

(a) sri

learn

learnt/learned

learnt/learned

(a) nva, (a) afla

leave

left

left

(a) prsi, (a) pleca

lend

lent

lent

(a) mprumuta

let

let

let

(a) permite

lie

lay

lain

(a se) afla

light

lit/lighted

lit/lighted

(a) aprinde

lose

lost

lost

(a) pierde

make

made

made

(a) face

mean

meant

meant

(a) nsemna, (a-i) pune n


gnd

meet

met

met

(a) ntlni

pay

paid

paid

(a) plti

put

put

put

(a) pune

quit

quit

quit

(a) prsi, (a) pleca

read

read* [red]

read* [red]

(a) citi

ride

rode

ridden

(a) clri

ring

rang

rung

(a) suna

rise

rose

risen

(a) rsri (soarele)

run

ran

run

(a) alerga

saw

sawed

sawn

(a) tia cu ferstrul

say

said

said

(a) spune

see

saw

seen

(a) vedea

seek

sought

sought

(a) cuta

sell

sold

sold

(a) vinde

send

sent

sent

(a) trimite

set

set

set

(a) regla, (a) seta

sew

sewed

sewn

(a) coase

shake

shook

shaken

(a) scutura

shed

shed

shed

(a) nprli

shine

shone

shone

(a) sclipi

shoot

shot

shot

(a) trage (cu arma)

show

showed

shown

(a) arta, (a) prezenta

shrink

shrank/shrunk

shrunk/shrunken

(a se) comprima

shut

shut

shut

(a) nchide

sing

sang

sung

(a) cnta

sink

sank

sunk

(a se) scufunda

sit

sat

sat

(a se) aeza

sleep

slept

slept

(a) adormi

slide

slid

slid

(a) aluneca

smell

smelt/smelled

smelt/smelled

(a) mirosi

speak (to)

spoke

spoken

(a) vorbi

spell

spelt/spelled

spelt/spelled

(a) ortografia

spill

spilt/spilled

spilt/spilled

(a) turna, (a) risipi

spend

spent

spent

(a) cheltui (bani), (a) petrece


(timp)

spit

spat

spat

(a) scuipa

spin

span

spun

(a) nvrti, (a) roti, (a) toarce

split

split

split

(a) mpri

spread

spread

spread

(a) distribui, (a) extinde

spring

sprang

sprung

(a) sri

spoil

spoilt/spoiled

spoilt/spoiled

(a) strica

stand

stood

stood

(a) sta (n picioare)

steal

stole

stolen

(a) fura

stick

stuck

stuck

(a) lipi

sting

stung

stung

(a) mpunge

stink

stank

stunk

(a) pute, (a) mirosi (urt)

stride

strode

stridden

(a) pi

strike

struck

struck

(a) ataca, (a) lovi

strive

strove

striven

(a) se strdui

swear

swore (sware[1])

sworn

(a) jura

sweep

swept

swept

(a) mtura

swell

swelled

swollen

(a) se umfla

swim

swam

swum

(a) nota

take

took

taken

(a) duce, (a) prinde

teach

taught

taught

(a) nva

tear

tore

torn

(a) rupe

tell

told

told

(a) spune, (a) povesti


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think

thought

thought

(a) se gndi

throw

threw

thrown

(a) arunca

tread

trod

trod/trodden

(a) clca

understand

understood

understood

(a) nelege

undertake

undertook

undertaken

(a) iniia, (a se angaja)

wake

woke

woken

(a) trezi

wear

wore

worn

(a) purta

weave

wove/weaved

woven/weaved

(a) ese

weep

wept

wept

(a) plnge

wet

wet

wet

(a) uda

win

won

won

(a) ctiga

wind

wound

wound

(a) roti

wring

wrung

wrung

(a) rsuci

write

wrote

written

(a) scrie

PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE


FORMARE:

S+ V la infinitivul scurt (fr particula to)/prima form a verbului


+ terminaia -(e)s la pers. a III-a singular (HE/SHE/IT)
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- Negaia i Interogaia se formeaz cu ajutorul verbului TO DO (DO/DOES)


- Atenie!!! La negativ i interogativ, verbul predicativ nu prime te termina ia -es
Forma afirmativ
Forma negativ
Forma interogativ
I work
I dont work
Do I work?
You work
You dont work
Do you work?
He works
He doesnt work
Does he work?
She works
She doesnt work
Does she work?
It works
It doesnt work
Does it work?
We work
We dont work
Do we work?
You work
You dont work
Do you work?
They work
They dont work
Do they work?

!!! Reguli pentru scrierea verbelor la prezentul simplu, pers. a II-a singular:
- verbele care se termin n ss, -ch, -sh, -x, -o, primesc terminaia es:
I confess he confesses
I teach he teaches
I push he pushes
I box he boxes
I do he does
I go he goes
- verbele care se termin n y precedat de o consoan transform y n i i adaug
- es: I cry he cries, I try he tries
- verbele care se termin n y precedat de o vocal (a,e,i,o,u) adaug numai un -s:
I buy he buys, I play he plays
- have devine la pers. a III-a singular has
- to be are la Present Tense 3 forme:
I am
You are
He/She/It is
We are
You are
They are
- can, must i may nu au la pers. a III-a sg -s. Verbul care urmeaz dup ele
st la infinitiv: He can come. She must go.
!!! Present Tense Simple se folosete
n exprimarea aciunilor repetate regulat sau n mod obinuit, permanente, generale:
He often goes to the cinema. We live in Romania. I got o work by bus.
n acest caz se folosesc adverbe de frecven sau expresii precum: usually, often,
seldom, ever, never, always, sometimes, occasionally, normally, every day, every
week, every month, every year, once a day, twice a week, at weekends, on Sundays,
etc.
n constatri general valabile: The sun rises in the east. The Earth spins round its own
axis. The water boils at 100 degrees celsius. The moon goes round the earth.
cnd se succed mai multe aciuni: He sits down, drinks a cup of tea, and then begins to
read.
la exprimarea unor ntmplri viitoare apropiate, care sunt stabilite deja printr-un plan
de aciune, program. n acest caz, se menioneaz timpul cnd are loc aciunea: The
train leaves at 7 oclock. On July 1, our school organises a trip to the Olt Valley.
n comentarii la radio i televiziune, comentarii sportive (Beckham kicks the ball and
scores the first goal), titluir de ziar (Traffic Accidents Kill people on the Main Road),
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demonstraii tiinifice i practice (Acids are substances that damage the skin),
anunuri, etc.
prezentul istoric pentru a dramatiza o situaie sau un eveniment
glume sau alte povestiri
la unele verbe care se folosesc doar la aspectul simplu ( verbe de percepie senzorial,
verbe care se refer la capaciti mintale, sentimente, situaii permanente): to see, to
hear, to smell, to taste, to think, to understand, to know, to realize, to remember, to
forget, lo love, to hate, to desire, to forgive, to fear, to like, to hope, to want, to wish, to
belong.
EXERCIII
I. Decidei dac dup verb urmeaz un s:
1. I (read).
2. Paul (see).
3. The Bakers (live).
4. Mr. and Mrs. Palmer (read).
5. The boys (like).
6. You (see).
7. They (come).
8. Maud (play).
9. The children (write).
10. The teacher (explain).
11. Mother (cook).
12. We (visit).
13. The neighbour (work).
14. The secretary (telephone).
15. The workers (put).
16. The three girls (walk).
17. The girl (think).
18. The dog (bark).
19. It (rain).
20. The flowers (grow).
21. Paul and his brother (play).
22. The telephone (ring).
23. My father (drive).
24. The pictures (hang).
II. Decidei dac -y se transform n -ie cnd se adaug -s.
1. Michael (hurry).
2. The teacher (annoy).
3. He (say).
4. The boss (stay).
5. Mrs. Mayer (worry).
6. The cat (play).
7. The butcher (carry).
8. The pupil (try).
9. It (vary).
10. The child (cry).

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III. Text ilustrativ


I am Jack Brown and I want to speak about myself, if you are interested. I am a happy man: I
have a nice family, a good job and not a worry in the world. Every morning I get up at 7
oclock; I wash, dress, have breakfast and leave for work. I usually forget something so I go
back. I kiss my wife and pick up my keys.
I work for an advertising agency. Generally, I arrive at the office a few minutes before
everybody else. I enjoy the quiet that always meets me before the others arrive. Some smile,
some look unhappy, certainly nobody dances through the door. Soon the office fills with
voices: a new working day begins.
1. Completai urmtoarele propoziii cu verbele: like, see, know, meet, understand, live,
freeze, think, remember, belong:
a. Mr. Brown is a nice man: I him.
b. He .. in a large house.
c. He always ..to kiss his wife.
d. Sometimes I . him on my way to work.
e. We ..each other by sight.
f. I ..it is very cold.
g. In winter water often .
h. This desk to me: that is where I work all day.
i. He never .me from the other side of the desk.
j. We all ..some English words.
2. Adugnd: always, generally, usually, sometimes, never, often, rarely, every week, on
Sundays, each year, scriei propoziii despre obiceiurile voastre:
1. buy a newspaper in the morning
2. go shopping in the afternoon
3. visit my in-laws
4. spend a week at the sea-side
5. help my friend
6. watch television late at night
7. arrive late at work.
3. Ce face Jack de obicei cu urmatoarele obiecte? Formai propozi ii cu cuvintele care
denumesc aceste obiecte: pen, car, cup, chair, newspaper, cell-phone, hat, keys, sandwich,
door i potrivii-le cu verbele: read, talk, write, forget, eat, slam, drive, wear, drink, sit.
4. Formai propoziii referitoare la ceea ce rareori facei. Putei folosi verbele: eat, shout,
sleep, laugh, cry, buy, tell, hide, throw.
1. stones at birds
2. in the street
3. very hot food
4. during daytime
5. at other people
6. when I am hurt
7. expensive clothes
8. lies
9. the truth

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5. Punei ntrebri referitoare la activitile zilnice ale lui Jack, folosind urmtoarele
propoziii:
1. When .. (get ut) in the morning?
2. What time .(arrive) at his office?
3. How many hours .(work)?
4. What .(be) some of his favorite activities?
5. Why (consider) himself a happy man?
6. Where ..(live)?
7. How .(see) his colleagues at the office?
8. Why ..(like) to arrive early?
9. At what time ..(return) home?
10. How ..(spend) his evenings?
6. Completai urmtorul dialog cu forma corespunztoare a verbelor:
1. A: (Be) you Jack Brown?
2. B: Yes, I (be).
3. A: .you (live) in Henley Street?
4. B. Yes, I (do).
5. A: (Have) you got a car?
6. B: Yes, I (have). Listen, who (be) you?
7. A: I (live) next door. I (see) you leaving every morning; you always (take) the bus.
8. B: My wife (use) the car. She (enjoy) driving although she (be) a beginner.
9. A: That (explain) it.
10. B: What?
11. A: Every day a policeman (escort) her home.
7. Potrivii ntrebrile cu rspunsurile:
1. Do I know you?
2 Does your husband work as an agent?
3. Do your neighbours ever come over?
4. Where do you live?
5. Do you often go aut in the evening?
6. Do you have children?
7. Are you a good driver?
8. Do they sell well?
9. What do you do all day long?
10. Do you like talking to me?
a. I live in Henley Street.
b. They never visit us.
c. We rarely go aut.
d. I dont think so.
e. Yes, he does.
f. I dont drive very well.
g. I write books.
h. We dont have children.
i. I am not sure.
j. Yes, very well.

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8. Traducei n limba englez:


De obicei m ntorc acas pe la ora 6. Pn cnd cina e gata, plimb cinele. M duc n parc,
unde m ntlnesc cu ali vecini care au cini. Stm de vorb, alergm cu cinii, uitm de
problemele de la serviciu. Uneori, dac plou, ne ascundem sub umbrele sau purtm haine de
ploaie, dar nu renunm. Apoin ne ntoarcem acas, ne dezbrcm de hainele ude i ne aezm
la mas. Dup cin, ntotdeauna ne uitm la tiri i, dac e un film bun, continum s ne uitm
la TV. Ne place s stm n camera de zi i s discutm despre evenimentele zilei sau s citi o
carte. Niciodat nu ne culcm dup miezul nopii.

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