Sunteți pe pagina 1din 103
\otiuni de ‘ermochimie tun no gostauo ws 19 wunyosodiuay eo! [apse “elueIsgNs ap [Our Un ‘presooeul EMpRYO ap eayEIguES FuIZeadad UTBjow Eoyoads wNplE, 3 8y yu si O "9nd gaepjou as IS POTIAS f SERIES ovfouena 95 spa um no yosoais ps 9 exseuoday pau) nse “eiuesans o-nump psea ap woreyrun jeou ve nquad mresaoow mpye9 op vareine,) « 3 84 PRS "9 8 ezvaiow 96 18 ‘Sotdope> ayer ioeAeS eysouun as “peas tm n9 kOseaLD BS Mn] BsMIELACLLAL IU FayIS2 Sm pseu ap dios un izjgou e naued giusea—u KINDIED ap BOIENU,) « “TOST'p=[P2 { sexpeuMPCoude eazeopEa 150[0} Wop "yeunou untsoude} 9.£°C1 PL 9.6°1 PL ap ‘ped tm no emyemdus9} voIpy |S-v nnyUDd end ede op urex3 tun wresazeu Runp[E ap wareNTTIED guvvaidas FLOR « ‘nynuLo9 ¥ aveSau8e ap iets varequrmps « $di09 ango ap oquesou nony ap waxetyaaqe - !nnyndso> y.argeraduua) vaxesxpls - 22] Busozog ¥ avvod dios wn op pHumad ginpyeo ap aarmqUE, « “o-d) “EmpyRo ‘Eceepoo pued sel ‘jin pagpau no nes [9 anut a¥@sous wquTyDs yod axed (LINdurD IS TaNduoD) dordoosouDeW tiEIANS UEP yeu] YY njquEEsLE un giurzoxdos JWBUIpoULaL WaIsls uA + +, potuuougpousoy ap dma meredos ‘oxy » veer ‘poss op pmponina Hiormsuoy LaLamunau tare pang “sof imu 9p ajninuucfia rn) Ras (ey sais Houmpou mpnion) ppunspew 2p ion imguse 1sofD rps opouuny, =u sopapnoajouw pron pune punad matrd remote punsospdot Pp epudep wP imun Dv piuiore niBiow p> nsenrs p “(wosmoys ~ oping. tras) Spuwaou nas) an ogsefo D Ranh apunsop 95 25 208 gun umcwadur vamos (ese) sasasgo 0 osiuryy HA Mm puniontiay sout0yr2 samo pS wbiova pups (f peouiofiims padinned rosie (1P8 0) ylqe? ap 2 opmsusoy wagers © 18 (aio ~ ono ‘efo) soxanpaos wn amas 9 mapa paguauts? ap poomoszop eapyes session y “Ronuipoiay mamrpascap 1 ougascop ingutaea? mas? > ‘257 rey ‘exer ‘SuuuY2oUa) 2p aIpNIs WANS HS adKILLD Sysayo SHU JuNS orENGD UEISTS MUN E Zot} HIPIS [E LeDyIpOW 215294 “suum mynursysts wangerodsu: v yorur reas ns ayowl Feu azEqUETYDS 0 op eatiosmt eunespiomy runs omy apirisear x9 gyere opeyuswutOdxo ojitieassqQ) dUL19}0PUe Hjsvor 1§ 9ULIB}0x9 WIV *[°Z Sublomarea tocuius Notice rormochiie [ Es Oe v-AT* kmol-K mol-K + Caldura necesara pentru topirea, vaporizarea, sublimarca unititii de ‘masi dintr-o substant’, la temperatura la care decurge transformarea de stare de agregare, se numeste caldura latenta specifica de topire, vaporizare, sublimare yise noteaza cuh, a=, nyt m & kg + Principiile calorimeuice: ~ principiul cchilibrului termig, conform ciruia mai multe corpuri cu ‘temperaturi diferite ce formeazii un sistem termodinamic izolat, puse in contact, dupa ua timp oarecare vor avea acceasi temperaturds + principiul egalitatii schimbului de caldura. dupa care atunci cand intre doua corpuri ale unui sistcm izolat are loc un schimb de caldura, cantitatea de caldurd cedata de unul dinue ele este egala cu cantitatea de caldura primita de cclalalt; + principiul egalitatii de cilduri_ta_procese inverse, potrivit céiruia cantitatea’de caldurd pe care G'absoarbe un corp intro transformare este exali cu cea degajata de acesta in transformarea inversa, + Primu! principiu al termodinamicii reprezinta principiul general al conservarii energici. Relatia Q = AU + L arati ci energia termica primita de un corp se transform’ integral in alte forme de energie (energie interna si lucra mecanic). ctul termi ce insoteste 0 reactie chi absorbiia de caldura Efectuati cxperimentele A gi B din figa de laborator 2.1.2. Be ory arti ve leer date pape Fiya de faborator 21.2 Cititi cu atentie: modul de Iucru, Efectuati experimentele. Notati observatile, scricti ccuatiile chimice si completali spatile libere din rubrica 5. Experimentul A Reactia de neutralizare dintre NaOH si H,SO, Reaetivi si ustensile + solufio apoasti de NaOH = 2 pahare Berzelius de 50 mi. + solutie apoasa de HSO, + termometru ‘Modul de luera Tatroduceti in primul pahar 15 - 20 mL de solafic de NaOH si fa al doilea pahar 15 - 20 mL. de solutie de 1,SO,. Masurati cu ajutorul unui fermometru temperatura celor dou solutii. Turnati continual celvi de-al doilea pahar (solutia, ge HS.) in primul pahar si masurati temperatura Feast reactiel chimice 4 Observatii ye concluzit Solutia se Reactia de neutralizare are loc cu «. de caldura, 19445 + Mog Bo 4% pisces + Moo P04 cadmas *(louL/qeoy “jour/jeo “JOUL/ Py “Jou fouyyerBsoUs 2p tiejran uy rMUdxe 98 “MURIIE—L EfuEISGRS op jour un e| EZBaYIOdeY a5 EEC “(224 “[eo “Pf ‘[) a@xaue ap gan ur Ereospw os otjoeer ep EMPTE) Cae 4 Mey — OMe ety + 09% oe 1 HD “piooae pnop Joxsoon 2po 22tuey2outor 2qttonse dlpszyduod 18 uaBoypry 16 ouyoo0 uy inpuucnoua v edoundworsep Bp 1S mmujau 0 2iopur ap ayioves Sunvep ans pctioneuy (Q ons Oun~ 04 ote 04 goa g 4 ag ‘rarionas yndiy tyionoe jaapoo%f Ce ee aap aioe anep ons tan, © CO @o¢ + howz 0+ fo190Nz :o1so wiowad farsape ZarwuLYsoULo} velenoy “oMe,OpUD aijovor o 999 museiod ap myayeio{9 = asoundworsop ep essery “(ade — abe) be etimou aptosojoy 28 oseode aysinjos ump ajeiumsqns anuog “(ze8) 3 “(prqoy) 1 “(Pifos) § :apieiou und roppiuersqns dye smGax3n op o[uims areorpmy uns ‘somo aliens uy 0+ Morne + Fostn — Fos’H + °PHOENE rasa tH9e94 [ois9e fp porysounay priendo “grefeap RINPIRD ap BerEA!UD CF NO PUBION "WULUA}OND otlovas o iso arezirestau 9p erfoear “ore|uouuadxe ajmoves aus "empleo 2p * 2 90] a2e £(y|.yy voxoundiwods9cT ieenjouos 1 easasq) s SOIT voifoeou exienog | © Geleassago Sy CCT E By) HOSpIOMT jound un jaga ur axe o3v9 uu] op anyaée o Bioqnida uy HaanpomUL “InMMUDIXO ee ‘parefeSop yndooun e pues) “78 op 994 !nun eakORY ul atiuare no O-tEZTeaUL IS WWE] ep IMPOW | © ap arkaqo un no waqruda Hlapuuid “OLY eP 41 Pollo aqnude o-nuy reonpomuy UWS] Sp STUNT « ‘wUID| 9p 91829 « opsuaysn 1S tanseoy |Z eoqnude « fo1a: EQioy) ruseiod ap inyeqzs0[9 eousundurosssg | gymuaumadxa| | 5 ‘Nopiun de termochimie PAG BED Analizati schema de reactit de mai jos si precizati ce fel de legitturi se stabilese intre atomi in moleculete de Hy, Ly Hl, Ca, CoH Descrieti modul de desfigurare a avestor reactii. i +H > a ae nu i H N, Zo C=C w/o Ny amumit tip in reactiile chimice, au loc interactiuni intre atomi datoriti cirora se” desfac unele legaturi din reactanti si se formeaz’ noi legituri in produsii de /_ reactie, Desfacerea unei legaturi chimice are loc cu absorbtie de energie, iar J formarea unci Iegituri chimice are loc cu degajare de energie. in timpul desfSsuririt ccactiilor chimice pot avea loc ji modificiri de stiri de agregare sau de stiri alotropice. Topirea, vaporizarca si sublimarca sunt procese endoterme, iar solidificarea, condensarea si desublimarea sunt procese exoterme, Efectul termic ce insoreste reactie chimicd consti in bilantul dintre cnergiile absorbite si energiile degajate. De aceea, in ecuatia termochimica trobuic 38 sc specifice starea de agregare si starea alotropica a reactantilor $i a produsilor de reactic, tindnd scama de conditiile de temperatura si presiune la care se desfigoari reactia. Cum cele mai multe reac}ii au loc la temperatura ambianta si presiune normal, s-a convenit ca temperatura de 298K (25°C) si presiunea de 1 atm sa reprezinte conditiile standard in care se determina caldura de react. Termodinamica studiaza schimbul de caldura si lucru mecanie inte un.) sistem termodinamic i mediul exterior Iu. In cazal unci reactii chimice, sistemul termodinamic este sistemul 0). = Alii 1. Scrieti in spatiul liber cuvéintul din parante7a care completeaz’ corect fiecare afirmatie. a) Intr-o reactie exoterma, se . (cedeaza, absoarbe) caldura. by) in ccuatia termochimica a unei reactii exoterme, se scri¢ in membrul ..... doilea). ©) intr reactic Snconjurator. 4) In ecuatia termochimica 2 unei reacfii ‘membrul al doilea. ) La ruperea unei legaturi chimice se ....---n-nne (CEdeara, absoarbe) energie. .- (intai, al _.-. (exoterma, endotermi), sistemul chimic absoarbe cldura din mediul . (endoterme, exoterme), Q se serie in 2. Marcati cu A (adeviirat) afirmatiile corecte referitoare la cildura de reactie. a) Cildura de reactie este cildura cedati la formarea sau absorbiti la scindarea unci legituri chimice. Re “307 9 exnyezoduray joxirur nw ede 18 pros yarpos go eIOpISUOD 98 16 9,86 + = "Td miMIpos e andor op wimyesoduray “y3/¢ €2'| = 9 pHlos myaupos e goyroads empE> “Tou/fy 9°Z = mUNIpOs v axtdor ap KOUIDdS ‘piuoiey amppgo :osouns og “guidoy Ores UI MIpos ap zIedN sone e TUAUEK YeUINsUOD 2159 azeD aTie—Y ap wINPILD ‘np mitiagoad HaqnoTe. “1% GO"SL 9D BIMpTED ap ayernUeD O eIeFap as “ede nd nIposep 3p] eetieMG — Be ‘opioid ‘as mynfouRe varepre wud EPEIOQTO EMPTED UIP %AOE 1 PL SETI OP BMPIe? op ae1IURD Oo E7PATEqL|> Os [OTIS 2p jour mum vouopze Roop ‘ed wqeourW nnd s1e es 21€9 (OAH) tourer 2p eset HEINE (A “(913/¢ $81} = OD) roped wxp jade wuqRomy eresadeU EAMpIyO ep vaTEr}weD Hono) (e ‘D008 =P emreradurare}.).07 ap exmesediuare] ap “edeap 3 yoz “smtyozioy eyed un-nuy gionaids oadosazIEOMeS “Ls -gjero1 aaso vriovar g9 18 ganpye9 9p tzopratd 20] ne nur yo pagroprsuos ‘tee ap (89) "] Bhy B tuoUNduossap gressnou RMpIED ap BayeATUAD HeMITE.) CQ “pundasonsop 2s @ nintad ysey nes H17jRoUL aTAgaN TaueIe REP HEzICae (B Bes OAD = FH — pret + HOH uv waseneSoapiyap wid aurgo 95 eusre enema “9 -poqunypouuia raenDe wUo;UED 4 Sofaq no py ep [our mun exisear oy wrefeFop wnpypS ap ParEINIMED HEINE (q, ‘pyeren vaxomroysuen puss9prsuoa “229 Uc‘9¢z B tEMMpad giesapou MMMM |e ap BSeUE HEAT.) (E prizes + OAs Maaz — "ores 4 “hve sefoves ad prvazeg as oyuaourumpe und verepts *S "gzoan[8 op Nou! OST (CT Sgzoonff op 34 O0LZ (O SyzoompS op 54 LT (L ‘ezoonya ap youry ¢1 OF RUIMSUOD 95 “PY GHZ! BEBE a8 ¥ nNGEG (9 “rested 2PESt'pz (9 Sr oese (a ipie'sr Ov sao EzoIN| ap You QD] ¥ vaxEpIxo up mefeSep empIED =p vareIrD (4 18 210920 (I ‘uuroioxe (5 ‘opens eyo op pusosuy apso nee (ef sgumisropus (W sans oranstd pide By 19700nf8 & arepINo ap eriaeay (E “oy areseyy Wp wadal0g eIUELEA HeMuLgns 18 WeBayy ganaid poe geoams resp +O°H@+HOOD 02 HOT + CO + fo" HD :RotumypouLay tense ExapIsuoD 2g“ “de no eri>ear ut yoo} PuNsuoD as ued lode elnyeadns ad yqamyd 2s azco 9idoy mxpes ep wouseye wigog ‘onnur Euosuen as mipos ap exwong “ede no sozeyeistI9 un-nay Tsapornu! 303 ® 99 Rdnp dum rose] (q (ON) 3020 ap PEXoUDT puEULOS “yIqIOD 95 19 UEP TIUAAIXO 16 OZ ‘ujgpaos eyseoe wy “9,000¢ #8909 sivod yuo” UY Muse emmeIaduta ‘AO|NDa|D ToTUROIPNSEp Indu Ue . “pomumtysouuial 40] ajiende tlow9s xf suusmiopue nes autimoxe y[ioear tums Rep HezIoarg “aoruNYD esevoad Enop sof eu esuosep yng “Ee -yunjopus oyisear o-nt ‘giquosqe nes euuaioxo arioees o-nMY yrfeBop wInpTED op eoreytUTD murzaidos otioe=r ap EMPIED (P ‘yowrungo oxjovas 0 aiSajosuy 99 oyu ymynayo giizardas aviowar ap eMpTZD (9 “yowuerear 218 prezunodea 1é omdoy op sjasazord uy EUQlosqe RMpTRD ep woveryue wuIZowda atovad ap eINPTE (q Te Notiunt de termecinie 2.2. Entalpia de reactie Reactiile chimice se pot desftigura intr-un recipient inchis cu volum constant (conditit izocore) sau la presiune constant8, intr-un recipient deschis sau cu volum variabil (conditii izobare), Cele mai multe ceactii chimice se sei ‘Q—Ayd O=AV “Wersuod a1sa Inuinjor “ese{dap aizod 98 AUK mUoystd BIR “eqeUp 2s e munud yueaour muIN| 3p uo; qus (Aya) aued ypeyeeo euunsuoo 1 (y= Z| =v) apvsB IV TO IZeoUL os 8 aguad (ny) Be mp awed o axfesozos napayED wip inae8 “IV euNpIE ap syeyMED 0 10U9}x9 [appa y] ap exSounad puyo SezyeuE [rz UL “EASY "BAIDSUOD O5 JEP ‘TIPO RULIO) O-nup BatTaysteN as eFaiDu ‘sf2saz0rd Sw) OI “2d koIgeIS avo faiBLeua TLRADSUOD 11Baq v asada 0.aIS9 AVG AV-= HV eAiDIO, avérav = (aad Ina = Cade) - Cade! = HV yeeisUOD aunisoud ey InyNULAISES B EEULOJSUEN 1oUuN. HieueA jeweuupedxe euuucep ayzod 3g “anjnureyses Tpidyerea v Emyosqe vareoyea 131u ayseouna aod os nut yo soln sonpsp 9s Penonol pos oamneg zzz my “ymitego ion -toxone itu 2p azote rea ‘pannu miounprana un m9 220f 35 anunaaus niony wg 22pu0yp> rotiious —— raion ‘opener yousuoiio uy (21 awoion ounmsu0> angry atauuoua) zypus ayes aap peminiyen ninod 218/000 mysva%0 aXos070f junta ruse oiurso.l maany Naor sl dian eisai aol gns 40) ajaynoayou wip poms eRious paracogiye 26 pur tusyox> sr0id “tojepei29 posta 9] 28a nine sropuioyng, mypudBao 90 HS aoppuines opepmrou wt ‘ponuany avtouap puuosgne Pres oMse 2479 ppcmpos 2ioue aqimcsen 96 sored 189 uy twaaropua sazaud un prior amy ‘peanasorof 9p yeavoa! ‘plisy auanoxe rs auopur iiooas xf rod No appustuntzo 1) 29) 1m up auarysorg aito0oy Coord dere Hi Coors derbi Fig, 2.2.4. Variatia deentalpic intro react exoters Nopian’ de ermockinie AH = Heys) + 3H.) KCI y, Variatia de entalpie in reactiile endoterme gi exoterme fn cazul unei reactii endoterme, sistemul chimic primesie energie din exterior si rece dintr-o stare (reactant) caracterizaté printr-o entalpic mai mica (Hg) intr-o now stare (produsi de reactie) caracterizati prin catalpie mai mare (Hp) Prin urmare: Hq 0, unde: Hp = entalpia totali a produsilor de react Hy ~ cntalpia totala a reactantilor. De exemply, in reactia de descompunere a unui mol de carbonat de calciu, [a temperatura de 25°C’ si presiunea de 1 atm, se absoarbe 0 cantitate de caldura de 17,5 kJ. Feuatia termochimica este: CaCOy,) + 177,5 I+ CaO, y+ CO. 31s) Xs) | COr@) Variatia de entalpie pentru aceasta reactie este: ‘ AH = (HCI) + Heo) Meacoyy = #17705 kilo In cazul unci reactii exoterme, sistemul chimie cedeaza energie i trece Gint-o Stare (eactanfi) caracterizali: prin entalpie mai mare (Hy) intr-o novd stare (produsi de reavtie) caracterizata prin entalpie mai mics (H,). Prin urnmare: Hy > Hp si AH = Hp - Hy <0, unde: Hp~ cntalpia totala a produsilor de reactie; Hy = entalpia totaliia reactantilor, De exemplu, in reactia de ardere a unui mol de carbon din grafit, la temperatura de 25°C si presiumea de I stm, se degaja o cantitate de eildurd de 393,5 KJ. Fouatia termochimica este 4g) + Orig) —* COggy + 393,51 Variatia de entaipie penimn aceasta reactie este: AH = Heoyg) ley + Hog) = 3935 Kiimol ene Bl%c @) Analizafi ocuajiile termockimice de mai jos yi determinati valorile variatiilor de entalpie. CoyG) + $Oxg) + 2COyy) + Hyg + 863 KI 2NaLICO x9 + 13SHI + NagCO yg) + COng) + HO py 4) Analizati valorile variatiilor de entalpic si precizati care dintre reactiile de mai jos este exotermii si care este endoterma. Serieti ecuatitle termochimice. A . CO.) +20 ry) + COyg) AH = 2831 CoHygy — CaHyg) + Hyg) OH = 37kI Entalpia molara de formare Valoarca absolut a entalpici unui compus chimicnu se poate determina. Conventional, sa ales ca entalpic de referingi entalpia substantelor in stare elementara, care, in conditiile standard, este considerati zero, OF + Way MBH Go—Ho—HO — Worn + FH 3="HD "| pxouD ripypnsuod aupsjozes Munag, DuMdayOpUUD NDS aUUADIOX® WIDE juns vaep Nozivaad 18 ‘punpunys ilipuos us pécosefsop 28 242 ‘SOL 298 you aypoIpus ayiiioves naquad ardpoqua op mifoums sfoprst0; TOUN/EY £82- = LOUIE S“OTT + LOW/TY s*C6E (0 + rower SOLL) = - pouty s'g6e-= (OK ve » Ooty) - OV — AV qq — POF, Poy case Bregingyeo os ‘preparas (tirpuos uj (0.9) dojouway vaspay uoqiea ap prom ef (0.9) Woares op tnmpHrouou B arepixo ap exise=y UT aTdTeITS sce Sy ‘op viteuea “nidwoxo aq Tonioeare oidyeiua ap ertesen Binoje9 aTeod 2s ‘ex}az—4 O | quedionsed sojafuysqns aye aseauioy ap asejou optdyeyue puyssoun, TOUT S*DIT- =cHIV 89 (QD) Toqreo ep MpHNouOW 1¢90p snEMIPoULID OES our 9199 OUL/EY Soe: = FHV M9 (TOD) HOARD Op IMPEKOID ‘npdus0x2 9q] “areuusoy op areou ridges (Onur fem ajao neares aya9 ius a}uEISANS ages Yeu [99 “TANSY ‘Blqeis four 9189 PiueysqNs vo 1S aqeuOduIOD JOFUAWDID idieiua 220 port rou a7sa asnduuo9 fajuEIsGrs eIdjEPUD EO “FULTIOK® etiozexO| “puiods asad 2352 ajuouodaioo ajouowo[o ulp 19 # s1suiigo ap vilovar po euareasuy “eaneeU | ANS my IPLCpAO mW oms=p 25189 senduios sfunnsqns roun 8 azemirey ap RrejoU widjeua weg] siumsgns foun 1S PIP Mau anPatoua owmurigess wrersarde 95 oreuiog 2p 2x2[0U taIdyp\u vamo;eA vein eben resi ‘aiurasqns eAareo nnuad puepuris Se cee armioy op arefour aptdyea aremgpu aun "ZOU EUIEEE ||P TEX ns yma igh rious se aeaLoy op Haro Hate Luojtngamn> nacope niduiox> FAV ac nmnods nioree tosoues. anes .H no E2Ra}0U 9s 1S puepuEs v4eULIOY op EGON adqewus aSouMM — wy ers 9208 ryan a.) 28 emewsoy op vavjom vidjejue ‘picpurys wirpuos wy eyemsupy — Mp SuuUDT0ND 2pt/oo04 ‘psy oanoodsox rojueysqns v axou00} ap eavjoul widperus — 7 tou aapuozap ap pods squmoads susuodures ajayu20i9{2 wip ysndmos pimessqus tan vy 18 snegas soe ation 2 prujuoo un By macs ompuos aun aympuauofsupes “Co Wty) suouodaos sjaruomofS wp numa FNS auERLeds Base 9p pixo ap Jour mun» axourigo op forioear w audyenua ap wyietseA no epe# a189 nd ofuy Sprepuers niypuoo wt nyuruimye ap prxo ap rout nun eidyeqws “arewE ULL prougi-= 0% = = (6-E.4.92)- OOF Hy OE , ONY) OOF - AV ‘uso artonou misao we atdyoqus ap vulouny prozet + ote oF + rye “etuaioxa nes auttatopm> yuns apriovas voep Hezi90%q “pawpURS LhiptI09 Tr EIEOSRYSOP 9 arvo ‘sof reur ap ajufoeas nauad ero) ap arejou tide WIP aidqeua sp spsieHA emo “z “aqugytp imo od arfoear 90 Hnposd e992 wy 99001 HuRiOBeT op UTOISTS uM RoE aIUEpIp LoTEA axe ardjeyus ap eLleUwA (y Syyrnes4, yy no ezeajou 8 16 aanpadsax Tolueasans & prepuers amunay 2p yrejour eidyeus matzaxdar prepare 1tpUo uy eyoucdwios 2ie1uowD}9 usp exp YsnduT0D eluesaNs ap fou Inun v areULOy 9p PYiaRaK UE d1djerUD op vse S « “eufoeau 2010 muquad atdqeue ap erfeLseA pzeanou 9s#,AV nest, yf 1. (J 101 yos erjestsouo> 16 Spy 99, vounusoud (9g) 3 £17 eMyeOdWi2} uns paspuEYS ammipUO.D (2 “Q Rerapisuon a189 prepeNs 1Hpuoo Uy yEETOKKTOTS axeyS UE sOaimEISquS EIdyEIUE| (P ° “guusopue ailovau 0 najued EAneSoU aso 18 RUUCTOXA eliarar O nnoad pAnrzod 289 otdymuD op exo, (9 “DHS mints w oxdep9 op viicrses anid yeanspus oso azeqozt nlypuoo ur gxeoSejsap 9 aue9 I4oE—L TON ye oquuaN mina} (q “eriozed wsBOSEISEP as 2189 fipuo op warytpuy “ordyeyao op erfourea wird vuncepioyuy mreansgus 2159 o1}2ea3 ap waNplv.) (v “waqnjunua efey urp requ jusieds AES V BOUL ND PuPIa|diuoo ‘ospey ANS areD 18 grexeAape rons sof yeur op opseouye arp e129 tieoipay =| SS indy = my couisigosd oye iS eapozas—snngas eampuy grrraty yod as wiuoaye isove purso[o.t 401 areorgzmdss109 ardeyuo op oysHheLwA NO (SED sonny ayuleasano (ezeunpe joriesodo (seaaceiwmajav-sBo 2.1Nsq0 2g & =~ og He + af es os + %os+ Bob + Mos + Mo +s “entense ‘eurigo as “naquiaus no niquiour (¢) #8 (Z) oyttiensa gunpe os Hou Noriunt cle termochime Determinati variatia de entalpie corespunzitoare procesului de vaporizare 2 3,2g de brom. 5 in industrie, alcoolul metilic (CH,OH) se obtine din gaz de sintez conform ecuatiei’ CO jg) + 2Hyg) > CHJOH a) Determinati variatia de entalpie in conditit standard pentru aceasti reactie, cunoscand vari entalpie pentru urmatoarele reacti, care se desfagoara in conditii standard: CO 4g) + JOr;g) > Ori CM,Ottg, 30.) COng * 210 1 Ha 206) Haq +) Caleulati masa de metancl pur ce se poate obfine, stiind cX din reactie se degajs 1281 1, file de 283d 26,5 kd 285,810 6 ——_Determinati entalpia molara de formare standard a etanolului, dac se cunose variafiile de entalpie in urmitoarcle reactiiz C4 + On¢g) + CO) AH, =-393.5 H Haig) * 20x)? H%Q) AH, =-241,8 KI HOH * 3024) > 2CO nig) *3H20%) AH = -1234,8 KT 7. Determinati variatia de entalpic in reactia de hidrogenare pertiali a unui mol de propind, daci se cunose variatiile de entalpic in urmatoarele reactii de hidrogenare: CH -CH=CByig, + Hyg) > CH CH CH) AH, = “124 3 1 CHy—C=CH yy + 2Hyyg)-* CH CH, —CHy 9) AH, = -288,9 kl 8 Caleulati cantitatea de caldura degajatd la arderea in conditii standard a 5 moli de metan, dacdi se ‘cunose: AT py,o,g) =-241,8 ki/mol, AH’ geoaig) = -393,5 mol gi AH opiyig) ~-74,8 KU/mol, *9, Pentru o alchind se cunose: entalpia molari de formare standard AH®, = 4226,7 kl/mol gi variatia de ‘entalpie pentru reactia de oxidare in conditii standard a unui mol de alchini AH =-1255,5 kI/mol. 28) ldentiicafi alchina, cunoscind AH feo, .) =~393.5 klimol $1 AH 0%) =~241.8 KJ'mol. ) Calculati masa de zinc, cu temperatura de 20°C, cc ar putea fi adusé in starc topita cu caldura egajatd din arderea 2 5,6 L (c.n.) de alchiné, dact numai 70% din cantitatca de caldurd degajati este utilizatt pentru incilzirea si topirea bucifii de zine. Se cunose: p.tz,=419°C, ¢7,-0,30 IIKEK, hppopire Ht Wk. #10. a) Determinati variatia de entalpie, in conditii standard, in reactia de dehidrogenare avansata a n-butamului, conform ecuatiei: CH; CH, CH) CHy,) + CH)=CH CH=CHy,)+2Hyg) Se cunosc variatile de entalpie, in conditii standard, pentru urmatoarele react: CH, CH, CH, CH) + CH, =CH—CH, Cy) + Hyg 125,87 kd CH)-CH—CHiy—CH yg + CH=CH —CH-CHly¢) + Hy AH = +110,73 kd Precizati ce lege se aplic& pentra rezolvarea cerintei +b) Calculati variatia de entalpie in procesul de dehidrogenare avansata a 112 m* (cn.) de n-butan. ) Calculaji volumul (¢.n.) de butadiena care se poate obtine, daca tn proces s-au absorbit 1183 10 gi daca randamentul este maxim, “Cf g0T=01 ,OL=F1W 1) 35/00 ams SRNR aH 1S PULL oywod os EOUOJED OITING -Syypy ur uty as 120s nes sembey SoHPENSNEIIOD e BDHO|ED EIN “(qno nea yeution) UN 1eIOU 1S (uN T 1S 9,0) ouTIsoIE 1 mreredwer op 2feuOU WEpuOD BE FMSPLL PUNY WE] ap ynuATOA *,LH/Ty ‘ul euinidxa 28 oze Lo|gMsNgEIe e FOO; vazoyNd “EIATAL oC _tinuansnquo> & uinjoa ap ) EIMDIED ap waren UTD ‘vouoqeo mn varoind ydnp mamoaade 19 TqHsMquIOD mun BATE. WA JO jSuS1ueRI0 Braye wy 2]Tapme TEIAP OTgNIAL Teas UNS 201B0]01G aquapre “aueuuin ulsg “Lode 2p raLO; gns ousiqo 9s ede ajeuusnpul 1S douse [BOpue UL 4eI “EPIYDK| BULOF gas ourlgo as ede ‘ooTojorg apuepIE uy] ‘opiypiy iade m azezuoden ap Jasooosd ur Buiquosqe empyE zeuHD0} 2169 on}sNquID9 9p LMpyE EMop 9]99 2z1uIP iuoiayicl "ede ap 1uodea axopxe urp myrzas E>ep yorur Tea arvoTwA ONS EprUoAT ede ‘u9pse Up Binz! Roep azeur Feu SmROPRA STR ASNgUIAD Ap EMPIR.) “HOdEA ap TULIOY Qns nes epIyst] ZULIO; gr Y 120d sHSNqWOD WIP eIEAINZD LY pi oes: = "Hv FHC +09 — Boz + OH @ piece = "HV Motz + oo Moe + OH meeeny Pot %mH ‘panpuris jinpuoa ws nprysyy Dd op jou mun D 2apz10dos ap msoaoul ws atdjopea ap mfpruna no o-toarduos 1S [HV SHY | eluosofip Hopnzpe,) ‘parpuoys whipuos u; owanSpfsop ‘mwurjou D euapso 2p njonae pnop 2120 ut aysnquuo? ap aopanpyPo 2[:40j% HoTypUy iqnsnquo9 mun ¥ aropre ap jasaooad ut exdyeus op eileen Murzasdor agsnquios ap wanpygo “¢2098 ac] “2zegozt tiypucs us NUsigo pout uy Rmodgysep as ‘ensnquos Hf RIMM O[YLQSNGWOD TO:OPLY “often ianisou aye nes jana] urguTed ap siuMqreD ‘esmond ‘eutioour ‘jnueing “zesexe ap aqtfainq up weIng 18 uedo1d 2p TNOMISOWE ‘gpuos 2p 2[e7es “oyemreu sjpzes -dseso10) 98 MlgHsnquI0D coxeL “mansnquioa osounu as ajetsnpur esaooid equoytp usiued 1S BuEIpHOD U}EIA ngUad EANp[ZO op vsINS eMAASUOD oEED OSTELAEHT “undoos oye ‘uy nos ajpiuinoo] ezjgour » “profeuous upjvs ede eredoud v ‘ouery npSaid v nntind sjouarun 10> .U93'p ED!2prE UIp greleHap EMpIED WHISO|OS “7 AMAA UE “njnino soypizn nie azesanau eoruual faidreud e oveInIse op sie pradjouud ruazaidar ne arapue ap ajasenoad “ayundu) 21201 UCL auisnquios ap tanprE.) “oquuier soy yrusayo Baszound 2s FS UELOdUH aysq OIG op vonowad Ut i gueIpyoo Ba}EHATOe UL HUTEIW! Sep UNS “zeAIOZIp sp nes 2ueztjexynau ap ‘a1epat ap azo uns umd ‘eo1zy SootAIYD aso003d EAAIE.) DABATOZIP op ‘I1VZp[V.yNIU ap ‘apsnquioa ap BANPIED *€°7 paso mousse magpy ee ed noppurciay 9 peep pone jou yn no 2932 mprourtane 2 pauowo wosoind ‘nyduaoxs oq uo wand DB sunita 9 punuauatap jigusnguo pan vyroajous up myruatyxo wluozDig ‘2otuojo> jared you pou 2J29 mo 2qangarsoupny, ‘poop oq. “201090 IL juamd razarsoar punwesoiap ausrquoy mun vrfrcoduoy rapruoSompny 2 Notun le termochiie Deoarece caldura degajata la arderea combustibililor difera de siarea de agregare a apei rezultate din reacfie, se definesc doua puteri calorice: * puterea caloried superioar’ (Q,), cénd rezulti din ardere apa in stare lichida: + puterea caloried inferioard (Q,), cdnd rezulté din ardere ap’ in stare de vapori. in tabelul 2.3.3. sunt indicate puterile calorice ale unor substante sau ‘materiale combustibile. Cu cat continutul in hidrogen al unui combustibil este mai mare cu att va rezulta din ardere o cantitate mai mare de apa si diferenta Q, - Q; va fi mai Combus UNE a a intre puterea caloricé (Q) 2 unei substanje combustibile si variatia ae Tawar] © entalpic in reactia de ardere in conditii standard 2 unui mol de substanta “ Ta | AH combsie) 8 Poste staili una dinte rela: Hy 10,79 1000 |} .ry0 or = Sees Q= 7 -|AHe ie] Pentru substantele lichide gi solide; . Gig 9833_| 90.87 a Tichide | Mug | Mg Q 35 ¢ Hee pentru substantele gazoase. motores | 4561 | 43,10 , con | aaa (ese 5-4 convenit ca puterea calorica st fle pozitiva. Ror ae ae Pentru combustibilii lichizi si solizi, puterea caloricd reprezins cekas —[ aatig [aig] cantistes de eflduns degojath la arderea unui kilogram de combustbil. wimat | 361 | 3350 st a Ee Pentu osubstandi combustbili cu masa molars us y= "= 1000) Tint | 2687 | 25,70 B B(g/mol) ken | 18 | 16st 1000.19 Tebolul 233. far Q = V(MOLI)-AH compass (kJimol) sau Q(KI/KkE)=—— AH? ssasse. Pueriecatorice le anor " combust Pentru combustibilii gazogi, puterea caloric’ reprezinté cantitatea de calduri degajati la arderea unui Nm de combustibil. v° 1000(L) % va p=, ier Q = v(moli)-AH®,, (ktfmol) sau ve 22,4(L/ mol) gang ome (Ime) 5 1000 O15?) = AB = meee Problemé rec — Calculati puterea caloricd superivaré (Q,) si puterea calorica inferioara (Q; ) a propanului, exprimata in KJINm}, Consultafi anexa 1. Rezolvare: a) Cyl + 50g) > ICO + AHO) AHL, = GAL 0349) * 4A i200) (OH ge yttggy + SAL g09(—)) = (BE-393.5 +4(-285.8)] - 103.9) = ~-2220 ki/mol 1000 ye 1000 ered = 55-2220 = 99107, 141d J m? = 99, IMI /m? = a a Hid 58. CH + S02y) + 360) + 4p All, = BAN G49) * 401 y1,049))~ AH" st5g) + SAH" po,4—)) = BC393,.5 + 4-241,8)] « (103,9)= 2044 ki/mol 100 agsspinas ae oan tezeq & #$ mynproe emeU ap apurdap nu 1S TOU/ry LZ'ZS- op voreoTeA due “eaasUOD a159 om YonOIdouoUT Hzeg op fort aN Nd ere snordouow pioe ep jour mun v azezyrenneu ep eriavar ur ardeaue ep exfcucA ‘prepuns Hipuos up ‘e> regs me aysexs opemuoumadsa weUCULID}SCT prtouvones py iEmpuoD iS tifearosqg_ AO = RT TERROT op ETO UIP qi = HOS CONE, = Wd 419 NO, LON TOI ag 21/0 = amezennou op wzejom wimpreo 5 ANo HONS OHH, J saved DP yy = “CB r8'7 > rode v royroods tunpjgo no o7e80 Aprourrxoude sayioods unpre 1 (td, [= tode voqertsnop no o[v8> anounxorde rizrsmap ne opTinpos ‘oren[IP in I Wo) + 1youl = NEZITENNSU ap TMpRD [NMI|e) ey sy + HORN +IOH _¥ HON nopeo Hf aotuayD reripar exjenag “How # SONI 2p Winjos Fsojoy sep Sy mpruocadxs [zed UY E> pou We[>se UF HEpI>O1g “gq “pyeug emerdurn qieunsgui 1S HieuSy “IOH ap erinjos asad O-tiewm 16 farinjos emeadua Heansew ‘HORN 9p aHinjos ap “WwW O¢ MpulfIO ye un nd 1ode Hemnsey muyun0]e jasea us exjnqos siewny m4yswouE mun joao ND Lays ‘vunqosodwa} eansgur ‘| 1] ap etinjos ep “Tu Og pes tupuyp uN nd HesNsEPY “y “(gumeyqare anqesoditiay) emrerodaray iSesane Eqte ES 9189 1O,eIOqE] 3p 2]IStIaISN IS IFinfos Fi:s9jO,] nugn] ep INpEW Tepes UpUID« THSUOML + (o) anasouns goworvo ovesedes ng najeuLoTE9 + HO “ONH HORN TIH2P WII 28108 « ajisuaysn HB nnoway, Te zy 136) 2108 op winjos aap ayioeos UE asezMesIMaL op aseToRE rUpTED vaseUTUAIAIDG ymueuuedsy °F BOLGHE WH aTHERNIoUO. IS SIHEALESGO AEION POUL BLENDS Heaidwo. sauauuadxa tlemzapy “wR ap pour atiuars no tint FEC so7eang = mg “2dnas ay uap 2011%9]09 jo 129 no Inunigo jmyonNzaU Headey PET tomogey ap Ds w sussep uuoumodsa Honialy nismrodap ——_mispjod ap do aprao0 pixcaply nose prow "Oh 0004 < “Hox “HOOD HO. nipesap — mipos op gapmuaoyo panos = prxoupry prop “orn Moen <—“ HORN +19 rarduiexsy vada axes ep a1 2952 AUCZYPINSU SP BIO 9A871[82jNoU Op CARPE ereunigy no Ezeg 0 1S prov un onump eH Notun le wrmchime z in solugic epost diluati, acizii tari gi bazele tari sunt total ionizate st Feactia de neutralizare consti in schimbul de protoni dintre ionii 10° si HO din sotutie. Exempla FSO" ogy * CU ag) * NA faqy + HO aay NA agy + Magy + 2H 4 sau TO gg) HO qyy 724504) De aceea, variatia de entalpie in accasti reacfic de neutralizare na it depinde de natura acizilor gia bazelor tari, depinde de cantitatea de reactant. Reactile de neutralizare sunt reactii exoterme. Ecuatia termochimica a reactiei de neutralizare de m Pig2 38 Colormeru HO) (ag) # NAOH gy —F NACI agy # HyOqy + 57,27 KI i sus este: Refine; 2 Cildura molara de neutralizare sau entalpia molard de neutralizare reprezintd cantitatea de eSlduri degajati in react ‘unui mol de ioni hidroniu (H1,0*) cu un mol de joni hidroxid (HO-). Caldura molard deneutralizarea acizilor tari monobavicieubazetari monoacide,in solutieapoasd diluati, mu depinde de natura reactanilor si are o valoare constant (57,27 kJ/mol). Caleulati cantitatea de edldtrés degajata la neutralizarea a 200 g de solutic de KOH de concentratic 5,6% cu solugie diluats de HCL inunele procese industriale,cildura degajat in procesele de neutralizare este recuperata si folosita penta incalzirea altor substanfe participante la proces, Caldura de dizolvare Dizolvarea nu este un simplu proces de difuzare a particulelor de solut printremoleculele de solvent, ci este un proces complex ce presupunedesfacerea uunor interactiuni (proces endoterm) yi formarca altora noi (proces exoicrm). Bilantul energetic determina, in final, un proces de dizolvere endoterm sau exoterm. ke net” Cantitatea de clldurd degajatd sau absorbitd la divolvarea ‘unui mol de substanti intr-o cantitate foarte mare de solvent se numeste cilduri molari de dizolvare. Efectuatl experimemele A $1 B din fisa de laborator 2.3.6. Ferificati reculuatele cu colegié din alte grupe. Fijade laborer 2.3 Cititi_ cu atenjie modul de Tueru. Efectuati experimentele. Notati observatile, efectuati calculcte si completati rubriea 5, Fig23.7. Dizolvarea KMnO, in apa 1 [Experimental A_[ Detenninarce caldurii molare de dizolvare peniru NaOl 2 | Reactivi si + NaOH solid + cilindnu gradat, balant ustensile + calorimetru de capacitate calorica cunoscuta__ + termometru Folositi substante si ustensile de laborator care au areeasi temperaturi (emperatara ambianta), Miasurati cu ajutorul unui cilindru gradat 50 mL de apa, tumagieo in vasul unui calorimetra gi misurati temperatura, (Cintiriti 4 g de NaOH, introduceti granulele de NaOH ia vasul calorimetralui, agitati si masurati temperatura, Notati temperatura cea mai mare, 3 | Modul de luera -pluisqns op [ow inun e puspueis whipuos uy axopye ap exfoeos ur meledap winpigo op earques (9 jsmouixonas py OFT 9P Tour 1 8 OF] 2P [ou | anuup eriaear m1 grefeFop BinprEd 9p eorernMed (9 "RSROZES a1e1S UL PUNY 949PI xp vreyinzay vde ‘THqAsnqMoD ap cUN | Nes BY |e FOLDpsE e] EIEfeAep BInp]E> op BaTeyTVUED (P suaajos op orm oye} ued O-s1UL glumISqns ap [ou mun areAlOZEp B] RIMfeROp mes RUqIOSGe RMpIED ap earerIUED (q mee RpMy] Fes OH PUNY axepIE Up preunzay vde “Tiqnsnamiog ap ctuN, | Mes By | B Bosopse v1 IELedep BanpTED ep vermnuED (2 ueJ0/1p 9p RAeIOW BIMp|so “Jseze}eAINeW ep ExLToU RENpILD spreouiadns youojes aiamnd wouayui youo[es aioind ‘puepuzys onsnqwed op ysvToUE EMpyES camuIp Hesapy eqeoygzundsoi09 ao!uuryooua) Hantiow vauIUUMUeD {HIURep tasEDoe mudesp UEP 2q4| [mHiods Ul showsog es 1))///, ~couingos wamtog ponendayse 16 oma Lied 1 pdr UY 9UNpINS IMpIoe AUTEN 2s SUTIN IfUpITe eazeAtOzID wT “ede UT OLMNS Immploe & euUeIOXO oJWOINT vaZNjor HuIardar |! suede Ze Uy “JolZ-¥] pued 2p anes ‘0 conpoad |. yey 2p 8 |Z 8 epedyz op 5 QO UIP ywUBDY JnooysouuR *njdutONo OC] -on1ogd ap sopEmaoisouerD saxouHigo 8] REZTIN 9}s9 NUAD}OPUD wOIeA}O7TC Yapuea] $ Tay) SreaqouIp Op BRA|OUT IMP|ED rh = SONTHNg WV.) + IyPUE= = fONN aa cag PE] Serrsryo| 2288990 toda w noo no pedo arewxorde goyrsads wimpye> 218 eTinjos "RENLIP PULL =O sWajozip ap wunprea iminoye.> ev rin =P r “gore jour wos BINTEHMT HeyON| IMMRIDTUTSY HIST WHT ‘mynnauo yes [ases Uy EON! HN op ajanuess Haanpontt “ON HN aps g"0 HEED “pimieraduior treanseu 16 nu}eULOeo o mun qnses ut o-tfewmy “ede ap “TW OOT JwPLAT rupurpO saUR jrAOIAfe no emseyy] — PMESP IPPON & “(puriquie empesodazo}) panyerderay eaece ne 9289 Loyes0go] op oyisuoysn Hf olumsgns ttsoqO.T TASWOWIS)> — HIASSOUND EOUO]EO aHISEIED ap MATBUIO|ED = aispisa Biueeq ope mapuyto + fonTHN «| Brpovoy | © TON HN nua SuBA[OZIp op SR|OU TENPIES oReuTUBI.eq | aA ImMwLdea | 1 WanpsuOD] =O) = smeayo7Ip ap euejous eanp) jp = HON, =3V0 + Wou= d HON, a9 reoqeo : a iS nivarosgo | “OB ET) lade @ R99 no Pps Anewpxoude voBIOads wunpyeD axe eHmIOS “MeN|IP PULL W2 4 OW =O coxeALo~P ap waNpLED LO|NOTE) oe TE, veeecrnune Nopte’ de tormoclisicl £) cantitatea de caldura degajata sau absorbita la neutralizarea unui mol de acid cu un mol de baz, indiferent de natura acidului sau a bazeiz pf . Calculeti puterile calorice superioare gi inferioare, in conditii standard pentru: a) metan (MJ/m3); b) n-hexan (MJ/kg), Consultati anexa 1 3. Puterea calorica inferioara a unei alchine, considerénd combustia in conditii standard, este Q, = 56052,2 ki/m. Stiind ca alching are AH; = +226,75 ki/mol, idemificayi alchina. 4. Considerand e& intr butelic de aragaz se afli un amestec echimolecular de propan si n-butan, calculati masa de gaz combustibil care arde ca si incdlzeasci 3 kg de api de la 20 la 80°C, considerind i 20% din cAldura degajata prin ardere se pierde (cyy, = 4,184 kW/kgK). Se cuMOse: Qroyung = 46450,68 KI/Ke 51 Qe yrry = 45853,44 Keg °S. © cantitate de api cu masa de 800 g se tnetlzeste eu 40,07 °C (Cqyy = 4,184 JigK). Cantitatea de calducd necesard incSlzirii apei se obtine prin arderea in conditii standard a unui amestee de propan gi n-butan, Considerind ci numai 80% din cildura degajati lo ardere este folositd pentru incilzirea apei si cunoscand variafiile de entalpie in reactiile de combustie in condifii standard cu formare de vapori de apa (AH ooiustic C3Htg = -2043,87 kd/mol 51 AT aineote Cutty = “2658.34 ki/mol) si c& s-au ars 3,64 g de amestec combustiil, detceminati raportul molar Clg : Cyllhg din amestec. Despre un izoalean A se cunose urmatoarele informatii: ~are AH?,= -131.0 ki/mol: - prin arderea in conditii standard a 4,48 m° (c.n.) de izoalcan se degaja 530288 kJ, apa rezultata din reactic fiind in stare de vapori. 2) Identificati izealcanul A. ') Calculai variatia de entalpie in procesul de izomerizare a 10 moli de n-alean B, izomer de catend eu A, eumosend c%, in amestecul de reactie, cei doi alecani se afld in raport molar A - B = 4:1 si cd pentru B AH? corabyaie =-2658,34K Mol, apa rezultata din combustie fiind in stare gazoasa, Se amestecd 200 inl, de solutie de KOH de concentratic 0,1 M cu cantitatca stocchiometric’ necesara de solutic de HCI de concentratie 0,5 M. a) Calculati volumul de solute de HCI necesar reactiei 1b) Caleulati cantitatea de c&ldurk degajati din reactia de neutralizare, exprimati in I si cal 8. Prin amestecarea a 300 mL. de solutie de NaOH cu 150 ml. de solujie de HNO, se degaja 137448 J. Determinati concentratiile molare ale celor doug soluti, stiind c& ambii reactangi se consuma total +9, Se amestecs 0,396 L de solutic do HCI, de concentratie 5,4% gi densitate p=1,025 g/em, cu 806 g de solutie de KOH, de concentrafie 1,6 M gi densitate p=1,074 g/cm? a) Calculati cantitatea de cdldurd degajaté din teactie, )Calculati cu cate grade se incalzeste solutia finala, considerand ca toata cantitatea de caldura degajata din reactie conduce la incalzirea solutiei (Cysjayo = 4184 J/e"K). 10. Determinati cildura molasd de dizolvare a azotatului de amoniu (NH4NO3) in apa, dacii se cunoagte la dizolvarea a 160 g de NH,NO, in 1000 g de apa in conditii standard, temperatura solutici formate a sczat cu 9,5°. Se considerii cildura specific’ a solufiei c= 4,184 J/gK. 11, Se dizolva 515 g de bromura de sodiu (NeBr) in 1000 g de apa, n condi dc entalpie in procesul de dizolvare este AH = -16 KJ, determninati: standard. Stiind c& variatia ayuoulronca preg ios ap sop san 9 avon 2} renyod 10j2;9999 eadnse pareyNdod. oqowuozur op “124 euo7 zoUn e auB00521 ap “2[000] aiuenjodatt soneGsou9 osmsax soun » arnzygn 9p “IoERioua v auts{uoUOs9 ap umtioe aundosd viamng e22ysoune uf oyefo8p juns 99 195 ap 2a} 208 ap inyruamyoa vazesoSonu e| FINPUOD BS 21 '3]2>0] 3 i tg areuoqejoo UT nes Lingus wZiyeay eam tHe-| areD ad “TpaI0xd un sioandaad iSsnsteu apajjeunoyur ayeyigesuodsarno ezi.euy (yoqeny peLifiist) ,. pieporau somtouupindxa tris p-o] nu pupumn isods 249 0d 1818 gy snag uy 2p pou tws-3y 4 2409 24d 1 i a! “jun jniorpuen us D289 DX 34 2pOGO!R onzppou auny ad ancayo mizypD avop If 40x doqpapud mnjaat vaworpis “opsojay8 0 pprdns Mou Uo tes ap powder ‘1924 2fou0: 248p9 rotieindod papoxa ‘owatous wuruanf oqgenandnst 24 Tu Qf iomuum up eyngnen) if BA Me Baes op K0f0 no s0j2203 mists Roop ‘pimeu wy augNIyso=—p oxbA2 voodced 4104 18 jouguos qnis ap pdpos 408 aopi3ymuy> oyapgunLeg, « punwin poingayan arse aouozouny. sopuemquanyes 1S ayoyone arzpoUI BP NZAMD vpodiounad v9 “agg ap artuortoud wg “nds juns whaady « “200 aarnajaf 1 ‘404 Dy sinansyug oun Sbougus tap wRoforoeayy> jrruotwep Uap MOIPIIUD) sry Mo-} SOUS BUUIBP ap jowBUDS 1 + areoyerofuiBuy arqnrqoozop | | eonpuod HIiso sOTMEAMSNqUIOD e EBM RARDS ad waNISOIO nyofo}10g =m ‘UZ NUE UrraRUL BAIT vaINd Ie 29 reAApIStOD THoKMITYe areDay uP eseMT (> “yuoumye anduts un no waz geo axSouTEN 95 BD PuUIOpIsuoD “orUTHZ SuUNsueD © FS InGaN [AME areD ad yeeprSUCO IwoLUIPE axvIOY Up BSE (q £33 08 9p vseur orm jnympe roUp ‘erSuoad ap s1uyiz swss09u (e tie[noleo “S34 OST 9p alsa Teuapou Rosiuy 2s area yjnpe Un nuluad dioayures Foy ad o1Sious op stuyE? [rUEso20% v9 puns ‘Bip 2) S19 “5/19 gee) yore (5/64 c's) ind ap owes “(8/0 601) BqL2 Pure stuns aTuaUnTe soun aye 2oLO[RD 2qLLOTRA “UDUATTe ap une mun wasezyjoqniou 8j ufeBop os aco o@roue ap voreymmes Ruizauday OWE INUN ¥ ROUO|ED EOWA “ET “ORir 8 1'y — 280) rorinjos vasrzypouy vy oompuos axeajozip ap ynseo0sd us ‘iefedap runplzo ep womemne> Ereen Bo puBIOpISHOD ‘areajoz4p Rdmp rerpauT erinjos axe EyEIadwUD} 29 (3 Sreo 18 f UY BrewTIdx9 “S2ea[oz1p ap insaddid «1 FIefeFAp Rnp|eD ap wayeyAAED (q ayaimn794 [oiin[os & rjemuadoad eriemuaouos (2 HEINITED TOUT L6°EL S.ea]OzIp ap gaejoU eanp|go puposoun, ) ‘prepuRys HH ipuod ut Ede ap rou Ys Ut *COS"H ap 3 OF EAlozap a3 HV Te “otingos vanye us unpjgo ap uapuatd yuNs NU IS B/E HST" = 9 ase eLINIOS RoR “orinqos wIMesoduT} NO epwUeyME 98-99.(q mupos 9p ynwosq e areajo7tp ap Brejou EMplED (e : wkova ———————— EE 1. Scriefi in spatiul liber din stnge numérului de ordine al ficc&rei notiuni chimice din coloana A litera in coloana B care corespunde definitiei acelei notiuni. _ (@) (B) 1) caldura de reactie la presiune a) cantitatea de caldura degajatat la combustia unitatii de masa constant; (kg) sau de volum (Nm) de combustibil, cénd apa rezultatai din reactie este in stare lichida; 2) entelpia molara de formare standards ) variatia de entalpie a sistemului chimic; 3) puterca caloricasuperioardia unui ©) cantitatea de cildurd dogajata sau absorbiti Ia dizolvarca unui combustibi ‘mol de solutintr-o eantitate foarte mare de solvent, xiterea caloricd inferioari a unui 4) cantitatea de clldurd degajatd la combustia unititi de mask Pr combustibi (keg) san de volum (Nm) de combustibil, efnd apa rezultat din reactie este 1n stare de vapor: 5) cfldura molari de neutralizare pentra acizi si baze tari €) cantitatea de cilldurd degajati in reactia dintre un mol de ioni monoprotice; H,0* si un mol de ioni HO; 6) cAldura molari de dizolvare. 2) variatia de entalpie, masurata in condi standard, in reactia de obtinere a unui mol de substangé compusé direct din clementele components. Sp 2. Sedau urmatoarele entalpii molare de formare standart AUP ie spigiy = 12 kdtmol, ALP reqiigvogyxh 73451 Ki/mols AB? gro gy =-1743 kdimol; AB ygsoq) = 28558 kl/mol 4) Scrieti ecuatia reactiei de obtinere a 2,4,6-trinitrotoluemuln: prin nitrarea tolvenului +b) Determinati variatia de entalpie pentru aceasta react, in conditii standard. ) Apreciati caracterul endoterm sau exoterm al reactiei si scrieti ecuatia termochimica, 3p 3. Secunose variatiile de entalpic pentru urmitoarcle reactii, desfésurate in conditii standard: Cj) ! 2Hyypy > CH OH yy ‘AH, ~-128,2 ky €Ojg) + 40g) + COr;o AH, = -283 kJ 1 = Hyg) + 40g) —* Hy) AW, =-241,8kr +104) + = 40x) + HO, AH, =-285,8kI 4) Determinati variatiile de entalpie in reactia de combustie a unui mol de metanol (CH;—O#H), cand apa rezultata din reactic este in stare gazoasa si cand este fn stare lichida, ) Calculati puterea caloricd superioari si puterea caloricd inforioard a metanolului, exprimati in Mi/kg. Nya) == 1th ————— EE DZ Resctile exoterme au loc cu degajare de ctildurd. Keuatia termochimic’ a unei reactii exoterme este: reactanti —+ produsi de reactie+Q Reactiile endoterme au loc cu absorbtie de caldurd. Ecuatia termochimica a unei reactii endoterme este: reactanti+Q —+ produsi de reactie ZZ —Cantitatea de cilduri Q, cedatd intr-o reactic exotermi sau absorbiti intr-o reactic endotermii, se umeste cildurd de reactie. otlvones Fg panng rt own ‘ ruHsto wee eee wa on : ‘ete Su csaran rence ee Ph supa ey emds 8 p11 eSeou es — _ SU rasdeydes” wo. Sly + gummumsuog 1g9 TRaMEU BS SOIRURS arse :bwIOT ND avaTEAZep O Hert ‘aojorg 18 auUIyD 2] supupgop sojatunsouna 2769 Uy 2oTuTZ unuoW waa Hinges eS Yeorour 1S greumyye swmAseIp sezsyeuE ‘arauance ap mdn ap i$ glesoduoo esew ap axjoung uy o1uyys siewinsuos o area ed wiSs0Ua HelNaTED (voi8 youn) Byyqeoy Lp (gqesepouu aveSuu) Srypeor gy (gros areoseen) Hoy c¢ “(@redésw 9p ged) Syywoy eg won ap aie ypape um uzuod gyerodros yseur op wresFomry ad aRtoua ap I1UI17 nseSO99N noo. =a ‘@teAlozip ep yaejour gunp|Eo oSotMU as yUEAIOS BP are! 21280) alepque O-UL mnjOs op [our tnun easeajozIp eT HMQOSGE Nes grefeop RinpTLS ap wa — “(Qounypy zz'Ls-) mmersuoa areopea o are 16 10]970q v 1S solLZTIe EMEM ap apurdap NU “EENIED ‘gevode otinjos uy ‘oogozdouow um a7eq 19 ronoudouont pret rony7i9e B axeZifeAMeU ap BIE|OW BIND.) “OH tuo! ap jou un iS ,O%H wo} 9p [our mun yAiavaL ul wxeleBap RINPIED ap rareUED RrUWZeLd2d avEZITENAU ap EIE|OW eINPIE_D — (i) ereowaper youoyeo rosaind youd as uodes op ores uy gdv axenquto uxp FyTZ>s POE -@) groonadns yauojeo vazoynd geudys 9s “yprgpy ares oF pde ansnquos UIP BINZar EIT Tgnsnqmos ap umioa ap nes eseuL ‘op nigan earopre ny preleap empygo ap ravernues wid eunEdxe 2s [JqhsnqUOD un e PUOTED BALAN — {A *(SS9]7 My vaBA]) ettowad ap IEUUN Ea|ED BP JWaLayIpuT ‘smanYD JoENRYSTS e RTEUY Toss op 15 EEE TUE vauvs ap reumu eyeumuarap a1se 1S yUNsUOD a7S9 orUMIYD axfovor O-nEY IPOD ABS MIAHOSAE BMPR — quis rou 2 viovisgns yre Nd prepnys areuDOy ap eIeyOU eydTeIUD LON TeUE 91S TEI ND equonoduros apayustugya urp Joartp zlueisqns ap fou! nun e ax=urigo ap Brlarax Ur “puEpUELS WHIpUoD UL ‘pyemnsyut ‘atdyen ap viieiaes euuyzoudoy astidddoo aluersqns 1aun e prxpus axeUUO} ap EABjOL vide — [A unsiox9 antiovar ur (Q11y) Eanedou 1 etunyopee oyioear wy (gctIy) BAREZed 289 axdjens op exer ata Kata X= HV (HIV) sty injrunaysts ardyeua vyioyren no geo a1s9 RMeIsuOD ounIsaad BI BxEOSEISOp 98 ose atloeaL O LAUAd aifovas ap EINE yeti mite cinetica chimica £1 muswious ef inryueyoeai v exejour wienusouos = 9 apun ey ta, t,t be % 4 seay a Bh senior aiioeas ap snposd <—— ywojovas “BUIDIp>s vareo}gULIN BxDpIsUIOD 9g ndin pwLidxe as ‘Ur Banseur ap vore}tan op ovfouny Ur “(20 = y) YrT/jour hes mur ou Nes eT os (seuss a] jou [jjour :99s0 atloeas ap #zaqia nuquad gunsew op worEnUn { SBJOUL wAbenuDUOD wreor|HA os aYoeDI Op [SZDIA easTUYDP UW] | -dumy ap wayeyrun uy ariovax ap snpord inun e nes yuejsvo1 mun ae ee ay i pllesuadu09 BHELIES uauder 1S 75 = 55 = 4 rebeler ap mUMED 9 3y duny op jeasozur un od oxjovaa op oypour ez9zA Hauijoy ‘oy$039 arfeayusouoo 1039 +e ‘orjavo: op ixénposd rzpours03 o6 ‘dun sSepooe uy -opeos 0] etienusouos 1S ‘wuinsuos 2s 1iuersear “preosgysop 8 wiieai 29 RINsEU dq “2H}9eaN 9p JOTESnpord ns JopTimegRa7 erienuadUOd SUMUR TS 1oTigRar RaTRINSPISOp No BIEpO PZRLEA of) auiteUt oO nd woder ut eUdxe as atjoeal ap EZaA “LaN—UID UL nduiy 23s 1.481 “uynprgow vasesejdap no EIEpo EzEUEA ive ommizgm o 3359 15 pfuuayox op [mound ap Bier mmpLgour eiuessip ays p apun 4-9 WwW PP Py synuroder aud afouysp 9s 1y dun ap npesraquy 1 py Riumisip 0 od you nun e azeseydap ap axpou wzanA “narueOaU UY votlanal ap Bzania eum “ezayiA uUd arEZuaIEIeD quis earuiiyo opitozas “Cw ul gueose|sop as area asovord aye SD conjoue4 Op woytA ExeojuongUr a1v9 omys a9 rUUEYD raped 9)59 Hourjoy “pyejomuos eo yameod mmo (8 atioear ap w7atA Reaiuanyut re) ToWRy tM are yOsHOUN 9s RS WEOdUU! aise “azeWN ULL ‘esEoINDLId TUiAep TEOUL eUL ap EVE azaIA no Sandep aayye Jet “goHDEAM WL alu quns nu Weouy Jor ap rEPE azaA no Binoop apgrsod ormempoursy roeas 72U/] -orfovad ap szoy ‘ooruury> sojiooas 9 gucpodu gonsHa}sERN IP Oo BrEEPMS yorUMEP voneUH -otigysod oyurenypoutioy* june yiseaxayaun (sipco9 29 Ur RIere 18 Yo] opENRMEEDSsuEN jAsIND {UT SOTUIYO JOTOTDISTS ToTaLaTS eMeLEA REKPTAS POIUIYD BOIWIEUIPOLUL|, dIVOL ap BZA “TE pnp ooooe- pono mioiousog CT BLE pido afs021 - oroydieg rs ity Notun de cinco chi cq, = concenttifia molari a reactantului la momentul t3; ‘concentrajia molara a produsului de reactic la momentul t); pp = Soncentratia molard a produsuiui de reactie la momentul ty. Viteza medie de reactie poate fi exprimati in functie de concentratia reactantului (¥,) sau in functie de concentratia produsului de reactie (¥, ac, Aste: A suet At Fig 313 ¥, <0 pentru el,» ¢, (concentra reactantului seade in timp): Variapia concenirotied une reactant (curba rosie) $1. unut produ de react (cura albasted) In farce de wp Mey on =¢, At ona 3g att, ¥, >0 pentru ca.c,,* ¢p, (concentatia produsulu de react ereste in h timp). Pentru ca vileza de reactie si fie intotdeauna pozitiva, viteza medie de reacfie exprimati in functie de concentratia reactantului se calculeazi conform | eolatici: Pentru reacfia de descompunere a pentacxidilui de diazot (N,04) conform ecuatici: 2N,0. -+ANOzg) + Ong) se) se cumose datele precentate tn tabelut 3.1.4. Tabetul 3.L4 temp) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 x20; (moll) 14 1,08 08 058 | 042 | 034 | 026 | O18 Sno, (molL) 0 0,64 12 tor | 196 | 212 | 228 | 244 Calealajl vieza medhe de reactic pe intervalul 1-2 are in Funcfie de concentrajia reactantului (NOs) $i fn functie de concentratia unui procdus de reacfic (NOy). Comparrati valorile celor doud vitece ¢i verificatt egalitatea: Yao. Yao coeficientul pentru NO, — coeficientul pentru NO, Refine firey reaetie chimied de tipul: 4 + DB cC este yalabila reactia: Y= — Sv —Y< Ya f Mi a et unde, este vitoza medie ealeulati in raport cu concentratia eompusulai Asi aga mai departe. aL! Viteza medie de reactie pe un anumit interval de timp se poate determina si din graficul variatiei concentrafiei in functie de timp. in figura 3.1.5. este preventat graficul variatiei concentratiei unui produs de reactie in timp. Din grafic, se observa ca: AB=t, ~t, si BC=e, ~c,