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7
ANO

NMEROS INTEIROS RELATIVOS


INTRODUO:
Observe que, no conjunto dos nmeros naturais, a operao de subtrao
nem sempre possvel

exemplos:
a) 5 - 3 = 2 (possvel: 2 um nmero natural)
b) 9 - 9 = 0 ( possvel: 0 um nmero natural)
c) 3 - 5 = ? ( impossvel nos nmeros naturais)

Para tonar sempre possvel a subtrao, foi criado o conjunto dos nmeros inteiros relativos,
-1, -2, -3,.........
l-se: menos um ou 1 negativo
l-se: menos dois ou dois negativo
l-se: menos trs ou trs negativo

Reunindo os nmeros negativos, o zero e os nmeros positivos, formamos o conjunto dos


nmeros inteiros relativos, que ser representado por Z.
Z = { .....-3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3,......}
Importante: os nmeros inteiros positivos podem ser indicados sem o sinal de +.
exemplo
a) +7 = 7

b) +2 = 2

c) +13 = 13

d) +45 = 45

Sendo que o zero no positivo nem negativo

EXERCICIOS
1) Observe os nmeros e diga:
-15, +6, -1, 0, +54, +12, -93, -8, +23, -72, +72
a) Quais os nmeros inteiros negativos? _____________________________________________
b) Quais so os nmeros inteiros positivos? __________________________________________
2) Qual o nmero inteiro que no nem positivo nem negativo? __________________________
3) Escreva a leitura dos seguintes nmeros inteiros:
a) -8 = ___________________ b)+6 = _________________ c) -10 = _____________________
d) +12 = _________________

e) +75 = __________________________________

f) -100 = ________________________
4) Quais das seguintes sentenas so verdadeiras?
a) +4 = 4

b) -6 = 6

c) -8 = 8

d) 54 = +54

e) 93 = -93

5) As temperaturas acima de 0C (zero grau) so representadas por nmeros positivos e as


temperaturas abaixo de 0C, por nmeros negativos. Represente a seguinte situao com
nmeros inteiros relativos:
a) 5 acima de zero = (R: ____________)

b) 3 abaixo de zero = (R: ____________)

c) 9C abaixo de zero= (R: ___________)

d) 15 acima de zero = (R: ____________)

REPRESENTAO DOS NMEROS INTEIROS NA RETA


Vamos traar uma reta e marcar o ponto 0. direta do ponto 0, com uma certa unidade de
medida, assinalemos os pontos que correspondem aos nmeros positivos e esquerda de 0,
com a mesma unidade, assinalaremos os pontos que correspondem aos nmeros negativos.
_I___I___I___I___I___I___I___I___I___I___I___I___I___I_
-6.. -5...-4. -3,. -2,..-1,.. 0,.+1,.+2,.+3,.+4,..+5,.+6

Exerccios

1) Escreva os nmeros inteiros:


a) compreendidos entre 1 e 7 (R: ______________) b) compreendidos entre -3 e 3 (R: ______________)
c) compreendidos entre -4 e 2 ( R:________ _____) d) compreendidos entre -2 e 4 (R: ______________)
e) compreendidos entre -5 e -1 ( R: ____________)

f) compreendidos entre -6 e 0 (R: ______________)

2) Responda:
a) Qual o sucessor de +8? (R: ____)

b) Qual o sucessor de -6? (R:______)

c) Qual o sucessor de 0 ? (R: ____)

d) Qual o antecessor de +8? (R: ____)

e) Qual o antecessor de -6? ( R:____)

f) Qual o antecessor de 0 ? ( R: _____)

3) Escreva em Z o antecessor e o sucessor dos nmeros:


a) +4 (R: _________)
d) -68 (R: ________)

b) -4 (R: __________)
e) -799 ( R: __________)

c) 54 (R: ___________)
f) +1000 (R: ______________)

NMEROS OPOSTOS E SIMTRICOS


Na reta numerada, os nmeros opostos esto a uma mesma distancia do zero.
-I___I___I___I___I___I___I___I___I___I___I___I___I___I_
-6.. -5...-4. -3,. -2,..-1,.. 0,.+1,.+2,.+3,.+4,..+5,.+6
Observe que cada nmero inteiro, positivo ou negativo, tem um correspondente com sinais
deferentes
exemplo
a) O oposto de +1 -1.

b) O oposto de -3 +3.

c) O oposto de +9 -9.

d) O oposto de -5 +5.

Observao: O oposto de zero o prprio zero.

EXERCCIOS
1) Determine:
a) O oposto de +5 = (R:_____) b) O oposto de -9 = (R: _____) c) O oposto de +6 = (R: ______)
d) O oposto de -6 = (R:_____) e) O oposto de +18 = (R:_____) f) O oposto de -15 = (R:_____)
g) O oposto de +234= (R:_____)

h) O oposto de -1000 = (R:_____)

COMPARAO DE NMEROS INTEIROS ,


Observe a representao grfica dos nmeros inteiros na reta.
-I___I___I___I___I___I___I___I___I___I___I___I___I___I_
-6.. -5...-4. -3,. -2,..-1,.. 0,.+1,.+2,.+3,.+4,..+5,.+6
Dados dois nmeros quaisquer, o que est direita o maior deles, e o que est esquerda, o
menor deles.
Exemplos
a) -1 maior; -4, porque -1 est direita de -4.

b) +2 maior; -4, porque +2 est a direita de -4

c) -4 menor -2 , porque -4 est esquerda de -2.

d) -2 menor +1, porque -2 est esquerda de +1.

Exerccios
1) Qual o nmero maior ?
a) +1 ou -10 (R:_____)

b) +30 ou 0 (R:_____) c) -20 ou 0 (R:_____) d) +10 ou -10 (R:_____)

e) -20 ou -10 (R:_____) f) +20 ou -30 (R:_____) g) -50 ou +50 (R:_____) h) -30 ou -15 (R:_____)
2) Compare os seguintes pares de nmeros, dizendo se o primeiro maior, menor ou igual
a) +2 e + 3 (______)

b) +5 e -5 (______)

c) -3 e +4 (______)

d) +1 e -1 (______)

e) -3 e -6 (______)

f) -3 e -2 (______)

g) -8 e -2 (______)

h) 0 e -5 (______)

i) -2 e 0 (______)

j) -2 e -4 (______)

l) -4 e -3 (______)

m) 5 e -5 (______)

n) 40 e +40 (______)

o) -30 e -10 (______)

p) -85 e 85 (______)

q) 100 e -200 (______)

r) -450 e 300 (______)

s) -500 e 400 (______)

3) coloque os nmeros em ordem crescente.


a) -9,-3,-7,+1,0 (R: ___________________)

b) -2, -6, -5, -3, -8 (R: ___________________)

c) 5,-3,1,0,-1,20 (R: ___________________)

d) 25,-3,-18,+15,+8,-9 (R: ___________________)

e) +60,-21,-34,-105,-90 (R: _________________) f) -400,+620,-840,+1000,-100 (R: _________________)

4) Coloque os nmeros em ordem decrescente

a) +3,-1,-6,+5,0 (R: ___________________)


c) -5,1,-3,4,8 (R: ___________________)

b) -4,0,+4,+6,-2 (R: ___________________)


d) +10,+6,-3,-4,-9,+1 (R: ___________________)

e) -18,+83,0,-172, -64 (R: _________________) f) -286,-740, +827,0,+904 (R: _______________)

ADIO E SUBTRAO COM NMEROS INTEIROS

ADIO
1) Adio de nmeros positivos
A soma de dois nmeros positivos um nmero positivo.
EXEMPLO
a) (+2) + (+5) = +7

b) (+1) + (+4) = +5

c) (+6) + (+3) = +9

Simplificando a maneira de escrever


a) +2 +5 = +7

b) +1 + 4 = +5

c) +6 + 3 = +9

Observe que escrevemos a soma dos nmeros inteiros sem colocar o sinal + da adio e
eliminamos os parnteses das parcelas.

2) Adio de nmeros negativos


A soma de dois nmeros negativos um nmero negativo
Exemplo
a) (-2) + (-3) = -5

b) (-1) + (-1) = -2

c) (-7) + (-2) = -9

Simplificando a maneira de escrever


a) -2 - 3 = -5

b) -1 -1 = -2

c) -7 - 2 = -9

Observe que podemos simplificar a maneira de escrever deixando de colocar o sinal de +


na operao e eliminando os parnteses das parcelas.

EXERCCIOS
1) Calcule
a) +5 + 3 = (R:______)

b) +1 + 4 = (R:______)

c) -4 - 2 = (R:______)

d) -3 - 1 = (R:______)

e) +6 + 9 = (R:______)

f) +10 + 7 = (R:______)

g) -8 -12 = (R:______)

h) -4 -15 = (R:______)

i) -10 - 15 = (R:______)

j) +5 +18 = (R:______)

l) -31 - 18 = (R:______)

m) +20 +40 = (R:______)

n) -60 - 30 = (R:______)

o) +75 +15 = (R:______)

p) -50 -50 = (R:______)

2) Calcule:
a) (+3) + (+2) =

d) (+2) + (+8) =

g) (-3) + (-2) =

j) (-4) + (-7) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
b) (+5) + (+1) =

e) (+9) + (+4) =

h) (-5) + (-1) =

l) (-8) + ( -6) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
c) (+7) + ( +5) =

f) (+6) + (+5) =

i) (-7) + (-5) =

m) (-5) + ( -6) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3) Calcule:
a) ( -22) + ( -19) =

b) (+32) + ( +14) =

c) (-25) + (-25) =

g) (-321) + (-30) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
d) (-94) + (-18) =

e) (+105) + (+105) =

f) (-280) + (-509) =

h) (+200) + (+137) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

3) Adio de nmeros com sinais diferentes


A soma de dois nmeros inteiros de sinais diferentes obtida subtraindo-se os valores absolutos,
dando-se o sinal do nmero que tiver maior valor absoluto.
EXEMPLOS:
a) (+6) + ( -1) = +5

b) (+2) + (-5) = -3

c) (-10) + ( +3) = -7

simplificando a maneira de escrever


a) +6 - 1 = +5

b) +2 - 5 = -3

c) -10 + 3 = -7

Note que o resultado da adio tem o mesmo sinal que o nmero de maior valor absoluto

Observao:
Quando as parcelas so nmeros opostos, a soma igual a zero.
Exemplo
a) (+3) + (-3) = 0

b) (-8) + (+8) = 0

c) (+1) + (-1) = 0

simplificando a maneira de escrever


a) +3 - 3 = 0

b) -8 + 8 = 0

c) +1 - 1 = 0

4) Um dos nmeros dados zero


Quando um dos nmeros zero , a soma igual ao outro nmero.
exemplo
a) (+5) +0 = +5

b) 0 + (-3) = -3

c) (-7) + 0 = -7

Simplificando a maneira de escrever


a) +5 + 0 = +5

b) 0 - 3 = -3

c) -7 + 0 = -7

exerccios
1) Calcule:
a) +1 - 6 =

b) -9 + 4 =

c) -3 + 6 =

d) -8 + 3 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
e) -9 + 11 =

f) +15 - 6 =

g) -2 + 14 =

h) +13 -1 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
i) +23 -17 =

j) -14 + 21 =

l) +28 -11 =

m) -31 + 30 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2) Calcule:
a) (+9) + (-5) =

b) (+3) + (-4) =

c) (-8) + (+6) =

d) (+5) + (-9) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

e) (-6) + (+2) =

f) (+9) + (-1) =

g) (+8) + (-3) =

h) (+12) + (-3) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
i) (-7) + (+15) =

j) (-18) + (+8) =

i) (+7) + (-7) =

l) (-6) + 0 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
m) +3 + (-5) =

n) (+2) + (-2) =

o) (-4) +10 =

p) -7 + (+9) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
q) +4 + (-12) =

r) +6 + (-4) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3) Calcule
a) (+5) + (+7) =

b) (-8) + (-9) =

c) (-37) + (+35) =

d) (+10) + (-9) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
e) (-15 ) + (+15) =

f) (+80) + 0 =

g) (-127) + (-51) =

h) (+37) + (+37) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
i) (-42) + (-18) = =

j) (-18) + (+17) =

l) (-18) + (+19) =

m) (-1) + (-42) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

n) (+325) + (-257) =

o) 0 + (-75) =

p) (-121) + (+92) =

q ) (-578) + (-742) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
r) (+101) + (-101) =

s) (-1050) + (+876) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

PROPRIEDADE DA ADIO
1) FECHAMENTO : a soma de dois nmeros inteiros sempre um nmero inteiro
exemplo (-4) + (+7) =( +3)

2) COMUTATIVA: a ordem das parcelas no altera a soma.


exemplo: (+5) + (-3) = (-3) + (+5)

3) ELEMENTO NEUTRO: o nmero zero o elemento neutro da adio.


exemplo: (+8) + 0 = 0 + (+8) = +8

4) ASSOCIATIVA: na adio de trs nmeros inteiros, podemos associar os dois primeiros


ou os dois ltimos, sem que isso altere o resultado.
exemplo: [(+8) + (-3) ] + (+4) = (+8) + [(-3) + (+4)]

5) ELEMENTO OPOSTO: qualquer nmero inteiro admite um simtrico ou oposto.


exemplo: (+7) + (-7) = 0

ADIO DE TRS OU MAIS NMEROS


Para obter a soma de trs ou mais nmeros adicionamos os dois primeiros e, em seguida,
adicionamos esse resultado com o terceiro, e assim por diante.
exemplos
1) -12 + 8 - 9 + 2 - 6 =

2) +15 -5 -3 +1 - 2 =

= -4 - 9 + 2 - 6 =

= +10 -3 + 1 - 2 =

= -13 + 2 - 6 =

= +7 +1 -2 =

= -11 - 6 =

= +8 -2 =

= -17

= +6

Na adio de nmeros inteiros


podemos cancelar nmeros opostos,
porque a soma deles zero.

INDICAO SIMPLIFICADA
a) podemos dispensar o sinal de + da primeira parcela quando esta for positiva.
exemplos
a) (+7) + (-5) = 7 - 5 = +2

b) (+6) + (-9) = 6 - 9 = -3

b) Podemos dispensar o sinal + da soma quando esta for positiva


exemplos
a) (-5) + (+7) = -5 + 7 = 2

b) (+9) + (-4) = 9 - 4 = 5

EXERCCIOS
1) Calcule
a) 4 + 10 + 8 =

b) 5 - 9 + 1 =

c) -8 - 2 + 3 =

d) -15 + 8 - 7 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
e) 24 + 6 - 12 =

f) -14 - 3 - 6 - 1 =

g) -4 + 5 + 6 + 3 - 9 =

h) -1 + 2 - 4 - 6 - 3 - 8 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

i) 6 - 8 - 3 - 7 - 5 - 1 + 0 - 2 =

j) 2 - 10 - 6 + 14 - 1 + 20 =

l) -13 - 1 - 2 - 8 + 4 - 6 - 10 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2) Efetue, cancelando os nmeros opostos:
a) 6 + 4 - 6 + 9 - 9 =

b) -7 + 5 - 8 + 7 - 5 =

c) -3 + 5 + 3 - 2 + 2 + 1 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

10

d) -6 + 10 + 1 - 4 + 6=

e) 10 - 6 + 3 - 3 - 10 - 1 =

f) 15 - 8 + 4 - 4 + 8 - 15 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3) Coloque em forma simplificada ( sem parnteses)
a) (+1) + (+4) +(+2) =

b) (+1) + (+8) + (-2) =

______________________________________________________________________________
c) (+5) +(-8) + (-1) =

d) (-6) + (-2) + (+1) =

______________________________________________________________________________
4) Calcule:
a) (-2) + (-3) + (+2) =

b) (+3) + (-3) + (-5) =

c) (+1) + (+8) +(-2) =

d) (+5) + (-8) + (-1) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
e) (-7) + 6 + (-7) =

f) (-6) + (-2) + (+1) =

g) (-8) + ( +6) + (-2) =

h) 6 + (-6) + (-7) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
i) -6 + (+9) + (-4) =

j) (-4) +2 +4 + (+1) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
5) Determine as seguintes somas
a) (-8) + (+10) + (+7) + (-2) =

b) (+20) + (-19) + (-13) + (-8) =

c) (-5) + (+8) + (+2) + (+9) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

11

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

d) (-1) + (+6) + (-3) + (-4) + (-5) =

e) (+10) + (-20) + (-15) + (+12) + (+30) + (-40) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
f) (+3) + (-6) + (+8) =

g) (-5) + (-12) + (+3) =

h) (-70) + (+20) + (+50) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
i) (+12) + (-25) + (+15) =

j) (-32) + (-13) + (+21) =

l) (+7) + (-5) + (-3) + (+10) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
m) (+12) + (-50) + (-8) + (+13) =

n) (-8)+(+4)+ (+8) + (-5) + (+3) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
o) (-36) + (-51) + (+100) + (-52) =

p) (+17) + (+13) + (+20) + (-5) + (-45) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

12

6) Dados os nmeros x= 6, y = 5 e z= -6, calcule


a) x + y =

b) y + z =

c) x + z = =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

SUBTRAO
A operao de subtrao uma operao inversa da adio
Exemplos
a) (+8) - (+4) = (+8) + (-4) = = +4 b) (-6) - (+9) = (-6) + (-9) = -15

c) (+5) - (-2) = ( +5) + (+2) = +7

Concluso: Para subtrairmos dois nmeros relativos, basta que adicionemos ao primeiro o
oposto do segundo.
Observao: A subtrao no conjunto Z tem apenas a propriedade do fechamento ( a subtrao
sempre possvel)

ELIMINAO DE PARNTESES PRECEDIDOS DE SINAL NEGATIVO


Para facilitar o clculo, eliminamos os parnteses usando o significado do oposto
VEJA:
a) -(+8) = -8 (significa o oposto de +8 -8 )

b) -(-3) = +3 (significa o oposto de -3 +3)

ANALOGICAMENTE:
a) -(+8) - (-3) = -8 +3 = -5

b) -(+2) - (+4) = -2 - 4 = -6

c) (+10) - (-3) - +3) = 10 + 3 - 3 = 10

CONCLUSO: podemos eliminar parnteses precedidos de sinal negativo trocando-se o sinal do


nmero que est dentro dos parnteses.
EXERCCIOS
1) Elimine os parnteses
a) -(+5) = _________

b) -(-2) = _______

c) - (+4) =________

f) -(-15) = _________

g) -(-42) = ______

h) -(+56) = _______

e) -(+12) = ________

2) Calcule:
a) (+7) - (+3) =

b) (+5) - (-2) =

c) (-3) - ( +8) =

d) (-1) -(-4) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
e) (+3) - (+8) =

f) (+9) - (+9) =

g) (-8) - ( +5) =

h) (+5) - (-6) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
i) (-2) - (-4) =

j) (-7) - (-8) =

l) (+4) -(+4) =

m) (-3) - ( +2) =

13

n) -7 + 6 =

o) -8 -7 =

p) 10 -2 =

q) 7 -13 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
r) -1 -0 =

s) 16 - 20 =

t) -18 -9 =

u) 5 - 45 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
v) -15 -7 =

x) -8 +12 =

z) -32 -18 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3) Calcule:
a) 7 - (-2) =

b) 7 - (+2) =

c) 2 - (-9) =

d) -5 - (-1) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
e) -5 -(+1) =

f) -4 - (+3) =

g) 8 - (-5) =

h) 7 - (+4) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
i) 26 - 45

j) -72 -72 =

l) -84 + 84 =

m) -10 -100 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
n) -2 -4 -1 =

o) -8 +6 -1 =

p) 12-7 + 3 =

q) 4 + 13 - 21 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
r) -8 +8 + 1 =

s) -7 + 6 + 9 =

t) -5 -3 -4 - 1 =

u) +10 - 43 -17 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
v) -6 -6 + 73 =

x) -30 +30 - 40 =

z) -60 - 18 +50 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
4) Calcule:
a) (-4) -(-2)+(-6) =

b) (-7)-(-5)+(-8) =

c) (+7)-(-6)-(-8) =

d) (-8) + (-6) -(+3) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
e) (-4) + (-3) - (+6) =

f) 20 - (-6) - (-8) =

g) 5 - 6 - (+7) + 1 =

h) -10 - (-3) - (-4) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
i) (+5) + (-8) =

j) (-2) - (-3) =

l) (-3) -(-9) =

m) (-7) - (-8) =

14

n) (-8) + (-6) - (-7) =

o) (-4) + (-6) + (-3) =

p) 15 -(-3) - (-1) =

q) 32 - (+1) -(-5) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
r) (+8) - (+2) =

s) (+15) - (-3) =

t) (-18) - (-10) =

u) (-25) - (+22) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
v) (-30) - 0 =

x) (+180) - (+182) =

z) (+42) - (-42) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
5) Calcule:
a) (-5) + (+2) - (-1) + (-7) =

b) (+2) - (-3) + (-5) -(-9) =

c) (-2) + (-1) -(-7) + (-4) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
d) (-5) + (-6) -(-2) + (-3) =

e) (+9) -(-2) + (-1) - (-3) =

f) 9 - (-7) -11 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
g) -2 + (-1) -6 =

h) -(+7) -4 -12 =

i) 15 -(+9) -(-2) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
j) -25 - ( -5) -30 =

l) -50 - (+7) -43 =

m) 10 -2 -5 -(+2) - (-3) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
n) 18 - (-3) - 13 -1 -(-4) =

o) 5 -(-5) + 3 - (-3) + 0 - 6 =

p) -28 + 7 + (-12) + (-1) -4 -2 =

_____________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________

15
q) -21 -7 -6 -(-15) -2 -(-10) =

r) 10 -(-8) + (-9) -(-12)-6 + 5 =

s) (-75) - (-25) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
t) (-75) - (+25) =

u) (+18) - 0 =

v) (-52) - (-52) = x) (-16)-(-25) =

z) (-100) - (-200) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________

ELIMINAO DOS PARENTESES


1) PARENTESES PRECEDIDOS PELO SINAL +
Ao eliminarmos os parnteses e o sinal + que os precede, devemos conservar os sinais dos
nmeros contidos nesses parnteses.
exemplo
a) + (-4 + 5) = -4 + 5

b) +(3 +2 -7) = 3 +2 -7

2) PARNTESES PRECEDIDOS PELO SINAL Ao eliminarmos os parnteses e o sinal de - que os precede, devemos trocar os sinais dos
nmeros contidos nesses parnteses.
exemplo
a) -(4 - 5 + 3) = -4 + 5 -3

b) -(-6 + 8 - 1) = +6 -8 +1

EXERCICIOS
1) Elimine os parnteses:
a) +(-3 +8) =

b) -(-3 + 8) =

c) +(5 - 6) =

d) -(-3-1) =

e) -(-6 + 4 - 1) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
f) +(-3 -2 -1) =

g) -(4 -6 +8) =

h) + (2 + 5 - 1) =

16

2) Elimine os parnteses e calcule:


a) + 5 + ( 7 - 3) =

b) 8 - (-2-1) =

c) -6 - (-3 +2) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
d) 18 - ( -5 -2 -3 ) =

e) 30 - (6 - 1 +7) =

f) 4 + (-5 + 0 + 8 -4) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
g) 4 + (3 - 5) + ( -2 -6) =

h) 8 -(3 + 5 -20) + ( 3 -10) =

i) 20 - (-6 +8) - (-1 + 3) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
j) 35 -(4-1) - (-2 + 7) =
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3) Calcule:
a) 10 - ( 15 + 25) =

b) 1 - (25 -18) =

c) 40 -18 - ( 10 +12) =

d) (2 - 7) - (8 -13) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
e) 7 - ( 3 + 2 + 1) - 6 =

f) -15 - ( 3 + 25) + 4 =

g) -32 -1 - ( -12 + 14) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
h) 7 + (-5-6) - (-9 + 3) =

i) -(+4-6) + (2 - 3) =

j) -6 - (2 -7 + 1 - 5) + 1 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

17

EXPRESSES COM NMEROS INTEIROS RELATIVOS


Lembre-se de que os sinais de associao so eliminados obedecendo seguinte ordem:

1) PARNTESES ( ) ;
2) COLCHETES [ ] ;
3) CHAVES { } .
Exemplos:
1) exemplo

2) exemplo

3) exemplo

8 + ( +7 -1 ) - ( -3 + 1 - 5 ) =

10 + [ -3 + 1 - ( -2 + 6 ) ] =

-17 + { +5 - [ +2 - ( -6 +9 ) ]} =

8+7-1+3-1+5=

10 + [ -3 + 1 + 2 - 6 ] =

-17 + { +5 - [ +2 + 6 - 9]} =

23 - 2 = 21

10 - 3 + 1 + 2 - 6 =

-17 + { +5 - 2 - 6 + 9 } =

13 - 9 =

-17 +5 - 2 - 6 + 9 =

=4

-25 + 14 =
= - 11

EXERCICIOS
a) Calcule o valor das seguintes expresses :
1) 15 -(3-2) + ( 7 -4) =

2) 25 - ( 8 - 5 + 3) - ( 12 - 5 - 8) =

3) ( 10 -2 ) - 3 + ( 8 + 7 - 5) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
4) ( 9 - 4 + 2 ) - 1 + ( 9 + 5 - 3) =

5) 18 - [ 2 + ( 7 - 3 - 8 ) - 10 ] =

6) -4 + [ -3 + ( -5 + 9 - 2 )] =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
7) -6 - [10 + (-8 -3 ) -1] =

8) -8 - [ -2 - (-12) + 3 ] =

9) 25 - { -2 + [ 6 + ( -4 -1 )]} =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

18
10) 17 - { 5 - 3 + [ 8 - ( -1 - 3 ) + 5 ] } =

11) 3 - { -5 -[8 - 2 + ( -5 + 9 ) ] } =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
12) -10 - { -2 + [ + 1 - ( - 3 - 5 ) + 3 ] } =

13) { 2 + [ 1 + ( -15 -15 ) - 2] } =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
14) { 30 + [ 10 - 5 + ( -2 -3)] -18 -12} =

15) 20 + { [ 7 + 5 + ( -9 + 7 ) + 3 ] } =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
16) -4 - { 2 + [ - 3 - ( -1 + 7) ] + 2} =

17) 10 - { -2 + [ +1 + ( +7 - 3) - 2] + 6 } =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
18) -{ -2 - [ -3 - (-5) + 1 ]} - 18 =

19) -20 - { -4 -[-8 + ( +12 - 6 - 2 ) + 2 +3 ]} =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
20) {[( -50 -10) + 11 + 19 ] + 20 } + 10 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

19

MULTIPLICAO E DIVISO DE NMEROS INTEIROS


MULTIPLICAO

1) Multiplicao de dois nmeros de sinais iguais


OBSERVE O EXEMPLO
a) (+5) . (+2) = +10

b) (+3) . (+7) = +21

c) (-5) . (-2) = +10

d) (-3) . (-7) = +21

CONCLUSO: Se os fatores tiverem sinais iguais o produto positivo

2) Multiplicao de dois produtos de sinais diferentes


OBSERVE OS EXEMPLOS
a) (+3) . (-2) = -6

b) (-5) . (+4) = -20

c) (+6) . (-5) = -30

d) (-1) . (+7) = -7

CONCLUSO : Se dois produtos tiverem sinais diferentes o produto negativo

REGRA PRATICA DOS SINAIS NA MULTIPLICAO

SINAIS IGUAIS: o resultado positivo (+)

a) (+) . (+) = (+)

b) (-) . (-) = (+)

SINAIS DIFERENTES: o resultado negativo ( - )

a) (+) . (-) = (-)

b) (-) . (+) = (-)

EXERCCIOS
1) Efetue as multiplicaes
a) (+8) . (+5) =

b) (-8) . ( -5) =

c) (+8) .(-5) =

d) (-8) . (+5) =

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
e) (-3) . (+9) =

f) (+3) . (-9) =

g) (-3) . (-9) =

h) (+3) . (+9) =

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
i) (+7) . (-10) =

j) (+7) . (+10) =

l) (-7) . (+10) =

m) (-7) . (-10) =

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

20

n) (+4) . (+3) =

o) (-5) . (+7) =

p) (+9) . (-2) =

q) (-8) . (-7) =

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
r) (-4) . (+6) =

s) (-2) .(-4) =

t) (+9) . (+5) =

u) (+4) . (-2) =

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

v) (+8) . (+8) =

x) (-4) . (+7) =

z) (-6) . (-6) =

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

2) Calcule o produto
a) (+2) . (-7) =

b) 13 . 20 =

c) 13 . (-2) =

d) 6 . (-1) =

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
e) 8 . (+1) =

f) 7 . (-6) =

g) 5 . (-10) =

h) (-8) . 2 =

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
i) (-1) . 4 =

j) (-16) . 0 =

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________

MULTIPLICAAO COM MAIS DE DOIS NMEROS


Multiplicamos o primeiro nmero pelo segundo, o produto obtido pelo terceiro e
assim sucessivamente, at o ultimo fator
exemplos
a) (+3) . (-2) . (+5) = (-6) . (+5) = -30
b) (-3) . (-4) . (-5) . (-6) = (+12) . (-5) . (-6) = (-60) . (-6) = +360

21

EXERCCIOS
1) Determine o produto:
a) (-2) . (+3) . ( +4) =

b) (+5) . (-1) . (+2) =

c) (-6) . (+5) .(-2) =

d) (+8) . (-2) .(-3) =

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
e) (+1) . (+1) . (+1) .(-1)=

f) (+3) .(-2) . (-1) . (-5) =

g) (-2) . (-4) . (+6) . (+5) =

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
h) (+25) . (-20) =

i) (36) .(-36) =

j) (-12) . (+18) =

l) (+24) . (-11) =

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
m) (+12) . (-30) . (-1) =
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
2) Calcule os produtos
a) (-3) . (+2) . (-4) . (+1) . (-5) =

b) (-1) . (-2) . (-3) . (-4) .(-5) =

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
c) (-2) . (-2) . (-2) . (-2) .(-2) . (-2) =

d) (+1) . (+3) . (-6) . (-2) . (-1) .(+2)=

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

22

e) (+3) . (-2) . (+4) . (-1) . (-5) . (-6) =

f) 5 . (-3) . (-4) =

g) 1 . (-7) . 2 =

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
h) 8 . ( -2) . 2 =

i) (-2) . (-4) .5 =

j) 3 . 4 . (-7) =

l) 6 .(-2) . (-4)=

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
m) 8 . (-6) . (-2) =

n) 3 . (+2) . (-1) =

o) 5 . (-4) . (-4)=

p) (-2) . 5 (-3) =

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
q) (-2) . (-3) . (-1) =

r) (-4) . (-1) . (-1) =

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
3) Calcule o valor das expresses:
a) 2 . 3 - 10 =

b) 18 - 7 . 9 =

c) 3. 4 - 20 =

d) -15 + 2 . 3=

e) 15 + (-8) . (+4)=

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
f) 10 + (+2) . (-5) =

g) 31 - (-9) . (-2)=

h) (-4) . (-7) -12=

i) (-7) . (+5) + 50 =

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

23

j) -18 + (-6) . (+7) =

l) 15 + (-7) . (-4) =

m) (+3) . (-5) + 35 =

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
4) Calcule o valor das expresses
a) 2 (+5) + 13 =

b) 3 . (-3) + 8 =

c) -17 + 5 . (-2) =

d) (-9) . 4 + 14 = e) (-7) . (-5) - (-2) =

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
f) (+4) (-7) + (-5) . (-3) =

g) (-3) . (-6) + (-2) . (-8) =

h) (+3) . (-5) - (+4) . (-6) =

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

PROPRIEDADES DA MULTIPLICAO
1) FECHAMENTO: o produto de dois nmeros inteiros sempre um nmero inteiro.
exemplo: (+2) . (-5) = (-10)

2) COMULTATIVA: a ordem dos fatores no altera o produto.


exemplo: (-3) . (+5) = (+5) . (-3)

3) ELEMENTO NEUTRO: o nmero +1 o elemento neutro da multiplicao.


Exemplos: (-6) . (+1) = (+1) . (-6) = -6

4) ASSOCIATIVA: na multiplicao de trs nmeros inteiros, podemos associar os


dois primeiros ou os dois ltimos, sem que isso altere o resultado.
exemplo: (-2) . [(+3) . (-4) ] = [ (-2) . (+3) ] . (-4)

5) DISTRIBUTIVA
exemplo: (-2) . [(-5) +(+4)] = (-2) . (-5) + (-2) . (+4)

24

DIVISO
Voc sabe que a diviso a operao inversa da multiplicao
Observe:
a) (+12) : (+4) = (+3) , porque (+3) . (+4) = +12

b) (-12) : (-4) = (+3), porque (+3) . (-4) = -12

c) (+12) : (-4) = (-3) , porque (-3) . (-4) = +12

d) (-12) : (+4) = (-3), porque (-3) . (+4) = -12

REGRA PRTICA DOS SINAIS NA DIVISO


AS REGRAS DE SINAIS NA DIVISO IGUAL A DA MULTIPLICAO:
SINAIS IGUAIS: o resultado +

(+) : (+) = (+)

(-) : (-) = (-)

SINAIS DIFERENTES : o resultado -

(+) : (-) = (-)

(-) : (+) = (-)

EXERCCIOS
1) Calcule o quocientes:
a) (+15) : (+3) =

b) (+15) : (-3) =

c) (-15) : (-3) =

d) (-5) : (+1) =

e) (-8) : (-2) =

__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________

f) (-6) : (+2) =

g) (+7) : (-1) =

h) (-8) : (-8)=

I) (+7) : (-7) =

__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________

2) Calcule os quocientes
a) (+40) : (-5) =

b) (+40) : (+2) =

c) (-42) : (+7)

d) (-32) : (-8)=

e) (-75) : (-15)=

f) (-15) : (-15) =

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
g) (-80) : (-10) = h) (-48 ) : (+12)= l) (-32) : (-16)=

j) (+60) : (-12)= l) (-64) : (+16) = m) (-28) : (-14)=

___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

25
n) (0) : (+5)=

o) 49 : (-7)=

p) 48 : (-6)=

q) (+265) : (-5) = r) (+824) : (+4) =

__________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
s) (-180) : (-12) =

t) (-480) : (-10) =

u) 720 : (-8) =

v) (-330) : 15 =

__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
3) Calcule o valor das expresses
a) 20 : 2 -7 =

b) -8 + 12 : 3 =

c) 6 : (-2) +1 =

d) 8 : (-4) - (-7) =

e) (-15) : (-3) + 7 =

__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
f) 40 - (-25) : (-5) =

g) (-16) : (+4) + 12 =

h) 18 : 6 + (-28) : (-4) =

i) -14 + 42 : 3= j) 40 : (-2) + 9=

__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
l) (-12) 3 + 6 =

m) (-54) : (-9) + 2 =

n) 20 + (-10) . (-5) =

o) (-1) . (-8) + 20 =

p) 4 + 6 . (-2) =

__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
q) 3 . (-7) + 40=

r) (+3) . (-2) -25 = s) (-4) . (-5) + 8 . (+2) =

t) 5: (-5) + 9 . 2 =

u) 36 : (-6) + 5 . 4

__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________

26

09 - MDIAS
MDIAS ARITMTICAS (M.A.)
Mdia aritmtica de dois ou mais valores o quociente da soma desses valores pelo nmero
deles
Exemplos :
Calcular a mdia aritmtica entre os valores 9,12 e18.
SOLUO:
M.A . = ( 9 + 12 + 18 ) / 3
39 / 3 = 13
Resposta: A mdia aritmtica 13

EXERCCIOS
1) Calcule a mdia aritmtica dos seguintes nmeros:
a) 7 e 15 =

b) 10,2 e 9 =

c) 4,7,15,9 e 10 =

d) 42,18,56 e 34 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

2) Calcule a mdia aritmtica dos seguintes nmeros:


a) 0,4; 3,2 6 0,6 =

b) 1/4 e 1/2 =

c) 2/3 e 4/5 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3) Num campeonato, um time de basquete faz a seguinte campanha:
-------Partidas--------------------Nmero de pontos
---------1--------------------------------74
---------2-------------------------------101

Qual a mdia aritmtica de


pontos por partida?

---------3--------------------------------68
---------4--------------------------------97
---------5--------------------------------86
---------6-------------------------------120
4) As notas de um aluno nas diferentes matrias foram:
NOTAS

5,5

6,0

8,0

6,0

7,8 6,5

4,0

9,2

4,6

Qual a mdia aritmtica destas notas?


______________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

27

5) A mdia aritmtica de dois nmeros 50. Um dos nmeros 35 . Qual o outro nmero?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
6) A mdia aritmtica de cinco nmeros 13. Quatro desses nmeros so 7,8,11,e 14. Qual o
quinto nmero?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
7) A mdia aritmtica de quatro nmeros 5,4. Trs dos nmeros so 2,6 e 3 . Qual o quarto
nmero?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
8) (FUVEST-SP) Ache a mdia aritmtica dos nmeros 3/5, 13/4 e 1/2
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

MEDIA ATITMTICA PONDERADA (M.P.)


Mdia aritmtica ponderada de dois nmeros ou mais nmeros o quociente da soma dos
produtos desses nmeros pela soma dos respectivos pesos.
Exemplos:
Calcular a mdia aritmtica ponderada dos nmeros 5,7,e 8 com pesos 2,3,e 5 respectivamente.
Soluo:
M.P.= (5.2 +7.3 + 8.5) / (2 + 3 + 5)
= 71 /10 = 7,1
Resposta: A mdia aritmtica ponderada 7,1.
EXERCCIOS
1) Calcule a mdia aritmtica ponderada dos nmeros 6,7,5,e 8 com peso 2,2,3 e 3 ,
respectivamente.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2) Um copo de groselha custa R$ 2,50 e m copo de leite custa R$ 1,00 misturando-se 20 copos
de groselha e 30 copos de leite, qual o preo do copo dessa mistura?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3) Um quilograma de caf tipo A custa R$ 12,00 e um quilograma de caf tipo B custa R$ 15,00
misturando-se 4 kg de caf tipo A com 8 kg de caf tipo B obtemos um terceiro tipo de caf.
quanto vale o quilograma de caf dessa mistura?

28

4) Calcule a mdia aritmtica dos nmeros 0,9 e 3,6 ?


______________________________________________________________________________
5) Numa feira, a cebola estava sendo vendida assim:
6 quilos : R$ 5,00 cada quilograma.
Qual o preo mdio do quilo da
10 quilos : R$ 4,00 cada quilograma
cebola?
24 quilos : R$ 3,00 cada quilograma
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
5) A mdia aritmtica dos nmeros 9,16,22,27 3 30 : a( )24

b( )22

c( ) 20,4

d ( ) 20,8

6) A mdia aritmtica dos nmeros 2,1;3,8;5,2 e 2,3 : a( )3,15 b( )3,25

c( )3,35 d( )3,45

7) A mdia aritmtica dos nmeros 4,9/4 e 3,5 :

a( )13/4

c( )7/3

d( )39/4

8) A mdia aritmtica dos nmeros 1/2 e 4/5 :

a( )13/10 b( )13/20 c( )5/7

d( )5/14

b( )39/8

9) (PUC-SP) A mdia aritmtica de um conjunto de 12 nmeros 9. Se os nmeros 10,15 e


20 forem retirados do conjunto, a mdia aritmtica dos restantes :
a) 7
b) 10
c) 12
d) 15
10) ( STA CASA-SP) A mdia aritmtica dos 100 nmeros de um conjunto 56. Retirando-se os
nmeros 48 e 64 . daquele conjunto, a mdia aritmtica dos nmeros restantes ser:
a) 28
b) 38
c) 56
d) 48,5
11) (ESCOLA NAVAL RJ) - A mdia aritmtica de 50 nmeros 38. Se dois dos nmeros , 45 e
55, so suprimidos a mdia aritmtica passa a ser:
a) 35,5
b) 37,5
c) 37,2
d) 37,52
12) (F. C. CHAGAS SP) A mdia aritmtica de um conjunto de 11 nmeros 45. Se o nmero 8
for retirado do conjunto, a mdia aritmtica do conjunto restante ser:
a) 42
b) 48
c) 47,5
d) 48,7
13) (STA CASA SP) A mdia aritmtica dos elementos de um conjunto de 28 nmeros 27. se
retirarmos desse conjunto trs nmeros, de valores 25,28 e 30 , a mdia aritmtica dos elementos
do novo conjunto :
a) 26,80
b) 26,92
c) 26,62
d) 26,38
14) Em uma classe com 30 rapazes e 20 moas, foi realizada uma prova: a mdia dos rapazes foi
7 e das moas 8 . A mdia da classe foi:
a) 7,4
b) 7,5
c) 7,6
d) 7,2
15) (UNIV. UBERABA MG) Comprei 5 doces a R$ 1,80 cada um, 3 doces a R$ 1,50 cada e 2
doces a R$ 2,50 cada . O preo mdio por doce foi de:
a) R$ 1,75
b) R$ 1,85
c) R$ 1,93
d) R$ 2,00

03- CONJUNTO DO NMERO RACIONAIS


CONJUNTO DOS NMEROS RACIONAIS RELATIVOS
Chama-se nmero racional todo o nmero que pode ser escrito em forma de frao,
So exemplos de nmeros racionais;

Os nmeros fracionrios positivos;


+ 5/7, +1/3, +7/2, +9/4

Os nmeros fracionrios negativos;


-5/7, -1/3, -7/2, -9/4

29

concluir que todo nmero inteiro tambm racional, Veja:


a) O nmero 8 pode ser escrito como 8/1, logo 8 tambm um nmero racional.
b) O nmero inteiro (-8) pode ser escrito como -8/1, logo (-8) tambm um nmero racional
c) O nmero inteiro 0 pode ser escrito como 0/1, logo 0 tambm um nmero racional.
O conjunto dos nmeros racionais representado pela letra

Q sendo formado pelos

nmeros inteiros e pelos nmeros fracionrios.

CONJUNTO Q
a) nmeros inteiros positivos e negativos
b) nmero zero
c) nmeros fracionrios , positivos e negativos

CONVEM DESTACAR QUE:


1) O conjunto Q infinito.
2) Os nmeros racionais positivos podem ser escritos sem o sinal de +
Exemplo:
+3/7 escreve-se simplesmente 3/7

3) Nmeros opostos ou simtricos


Exemplos:

a) +3/8 e -3/8 so opostos

b) -1/2 e +1/2 so opostos

4) Regra de sinais
A indicao de uma diviso pode ser feita por meio de uma frao. Ento, para saber o sinal do
nmero racional, basta aplicar a regra de sinais da diviso.
Exemplos:
a) (-3) : (+5) =

b) (-8) : (-7) =

-3/+5 =

-8/-7 =

-3/5

+8/7 =
8/7

NMEROS DECIMAIS
Um nmero racional tambm pode ser representado por um nmero exato ou peridico.

Exemplos:
a) 7/2 = 3,5

b) -4/5 = -0,8

c) 1/3 = 0,333.......

d) 4/9 = 0,444......

30

REPRESENTAO GEOMTRICA
Observe que os nmeros racionais podem ser representados por pontos de uma reta, usando-se
o mesmo processo de representao dos inteiros.
Esquerda (Negativos)

Direita (Positivos)

_-3___/____-2___/____-1_______0__/_____1_____/__2_______3__
.....-5/2........-3/2...................1/5.............5/3
Os pontos que esto direita do zero chamam-se positivos. Os negativos esto esquerda do zero

Dados dois nmeros quaisquer, o que est direita maior deles, e o que est a esquerda, o
menor deles.
Na figura vemos que : a) 1/5 > -3/2

b) -5/2 < -3/2

EXERCCIOS
1) Aplique a regra de sinais para a diviso e d o resultado
a) -5/+9 =

b) -2/-3 =

c) +3/+4 = d) -9/+5 =

e) +7/-5 =

f) -8/7 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2) Escreva os nmeros racionais na forma irredutvel:
a) 10/4 =

b) -12/48 =

c) -7/35 =

d) 18/-36 =

e) -75/50=

f) -25/100= g) 11/99 =

h) -4/128 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3) Transforme as fraes seguintes em nmeros inteiros:
a) -12/6 =

b) -32/8 =

c) 20/10 =

d) -17/1 =

e) -54/18 =

f) -45/15 =

g) 132/11 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
4) D o valor de:
a) (5.(-6))/2 =

b) ((-9) . (-8)) / 2 =

c) (2 . (-6) . (-3)) /(9 . (-2)) =

d) (2 . 0 . 5) / 30 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

31
e) (6 . (-2) . (-3)) / -9 =

f) (-7 . (-8)) / -14 =

g) (-3 7 9) /19 =

h) (6 . (-4) . (-5)) /( 3 . (-8)) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

ADIO E SUBTRAO EM

Para as operaes com nmeros racionais relativos so validas as regras operatrias das fraes
e dos nmeros inteiros relativos.

ADIO
Para adicionarmos nmeros racionais relativos (na forma de frao) procedemos do seguinte
a) (-2/3) + (+1/2) =

b) (+3/4) + (-1/2) =

c) (-4/5) + (-1/2) =

-2/3 + 1/2=

3/4 - 1/2 =

-4/5 -1/2 =

(-4 + 3) / 6 =

(3-2)/ 4 =

(-8 -5) / 10 =

-1/6

1/4

-13/10

modo:

1) Reduzimos (se necessrio) as fraes dadas ao mesmo denominador positivo.


2) Somamos os numeradores de acordo com a regra de sinais da adio de inteiros.
EXEMPLOS:
EXERCCIOS
1) Efetue as adies:
a) (+3/5) + (+1/2) =

b) (-2/3) + (+5/4) =

c) (-4/9) + (+2/3) =

d) (-3/7) + (+2/9) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
e) (-1/8) + (-7/8) =

f) (-1/3) + (-1/5) =

g) (-1/8) + (5/4) =

h) (+1/5) + ( +3/5) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

32

2) Efetue as adies:
a) (-2/5) + 3 =

b) (-1/6) + (+2) =

c) (-5/3) + (+1) =

d) (-4) + (-1/2) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
e) (-0,2) + (-1/5) =

f) (+0,4) + (+3/5) =

g) (-0,5) + (+0,7) =

h) (-02) + (-1/2) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3) Efetue as seguintes adies:
a) (+5/8) + (+1/2) + ( -2/15) =

b) (+1/2) + (-1/3) + (+1/5) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

c) (-1/2) + (-4/10) + (+1/5) =

d) (-3/5) + (+2) + (-1/3) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

SUBTRAO
Para encontrarmos a diferena entre dois nmeros racionais, somamos o primeiro com o
oposto do segundo
Exemplos
a) (+1/2) (+1/4) = -1/4 = 2/4 -1/4 =

Exerccios
1) Efetue as subtraes:

b) (-4/5) (-1/2) = -4/5 + = -8/10 + 5/10 = -3/10

33

a) (+5/7) (+2/3) =

b) (+2/3) (+1/2) =

c) (+2/3) (+4/5) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
d) (-7/8) (-3/4) =

e) (-2/5) (-1/4) =

f) (-1/2) (+5/8) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
g) (+2/3) ( (+1/5) =

h) (-2/5) ( +1/2) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2) Efetue as subtraes:
a) (+1/2) (+5) =

b) (+5/7) (+1) =

c) 0 ( -3/7) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
d) (-4) (-1/2) =

e) (+0,3) (-1/5) =

f) (+0,7) (-1/3) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

3) Calcule
a) -1 =

b) (-3/5) + (1/2) =

c) 2 -1/4 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

34

d) -3 -4/5 + =

e) 7/3 + 2 -1/4 =

f) -3/2 + 1/6 + 2 -2/3 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
g) 1 + - 1/8 =

h) 0,2 + + - =

i) + (-0,3) + 1/6 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
j) 1/5 + 1/25 + (-0,6) =
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
4) Calcule o valor de cada expresso:
a) 3/5 1 2/5 =

b) 3/5 0,2 + 1/10 =

c) -3 2 4/3 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
d) 4 1/10 + 2/5=

e) 2/3 -5 =

f) -5/12 1/12 + 2/3 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
5) Calcule o valor de cada expresses:
a) -1/3 + 2/9 4/3 =

b) -4 + - 1/6 =

c) 0,3 + - =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

35

d) 1 + - 3/2 + 5/8 =

e) 0,1 + 3/2 + 2 =

f) + 0,2 5/2 0,5 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
6) Calcule o valor de cada expresso
a) 1/2 (-3/5) + 7/10 =

b) -(-1) (- 4/3) + 5/6 =

c) 2 ( - 2/3 ) + 0,1 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
d) ( -1 + ) ( -1/6 + 2/3) =

e) 2 [ 3/5 ( -1/2 + ) ] =

f) 3 [ -1/2 (0,1 + )] =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
g) (1/3 + ) (5/6.- ) =

h) (5/2 1/3 ) (1/2 + 1) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
i) (1/4 + + 2 ) + (-1/6 + 2/3) =

j) (-0,3 + 0,5 ) ( -2 - 4/5) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
k) (1/6 + 2/3) (4/10 3/5) + 1/3 =

l) 0,2 + (2/3 ) ( -7/12 + 4/3) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

36

m) (1 ) + (2 + ) (1 - 1/3) ( 2 ) =
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

MULTIPLICAO E DIVISO EM

MULTIPLICAO
Para multiplicarmos nmeros racionais, procedemos do seguinte modo:
1) multiplicamos os numeradores entre si.
2) multiplicamos os denominadores entre si.
3) aplicamos as regras de sinais da multiplicao em Z.

EXEMPLOS :
a) (+1/7) . (+2/5) = +2/35

b) (-4/3) . (-2/7) = +8/21

c) (+1/4) . (-3/5) = -3/20

d) (-4) . (+1/5) = -4/5

EXERCICIOS
1) Efetue as multiplicaes
a) (+1/5) . (+4/3) =

b) (+4/9) . ( -7/5) =

c) (-3/2) . ( -5/7) =

d) (-1/5) . (+1/4) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
e) (+2/3) . (-1/3) =

f) (-5/8) . (-4/3) =

g) (+4/5) . (-1/3) =

h) (-3/5) . (-7/4) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

37

2) Efetue as multiplicaes
a) (+3) . (-1/5) =

b) (+2) . (+4/11) =

c) (-1) . (-3/10) =

d) (-4/7) . (+5) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
e) (-2/5) . (-3) =

f) (+2/9) . 0 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3) Efetue as multiplicaes
a) (-1/2) . (+2/3) . (-3/7) =

b) (-2/5) . (-3/2) . (-8/5) =

c) (-1/2) . (-1/2) . (-1/2) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
d) (-1) . (+5/3) . (+3/5) =

e) (+7) . (-1/7) . (+7) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
4) Efetue as multiplicaes:
a) (-2/3) . (+1/5) =

b) (-7/3) . (-3/7) =

c) (1/5) . (-7/3) =

d) (-2/9) . 5/7 =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

38

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
e) (-3/4) . (-5/7) =

f) (-2) . (-1/6) =

g) 5 . (-4/7) =

h) -2 . (-1/3) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
5) Efetue as multiplicaes:
a) (1/4 . 3/5) . 2/7 =

b) (2 ) . (-2/3) =

c) (-3/4) . (+1/5) . (-1/2) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
d) 4. ( 1 7/5) =

e) (-3/5) . (-2) . (7/5) =

f) ( 1 4/5) . ( 1 ) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

DIVISO
Para Calcularmos o quociente de dois nmeros racionais relativos, em que o segundo diferente
de zero, procedemos do seguinte modo:

1) multiplicamos o dividendo pelo inverso do divisor.


2) aplicamos as regras da multiplicao de nmeros racionais.

Exemplos
a) ( -7/9 ) : (+5/2) = (-7/9) . (+2/5) = -14/45
c) (+3/5) : (-2) = (+3/5) . -1/2) = -3/10

b) (-1/4) : (-3/7) = ( -1/4) . (-7/3) = +7/12

39

EXERCICIOS
1) Efetue as divises:
a) (+1/3) : (+2/3) =

b) (+4/7) : ( -2/5) =

c) (-3/5) : (-3/7) =

d) (-3/7) : (+2/3) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
e) (+1/9) : (-7/5) =

f) (+1/2) : (-3/4) =

g) (-3/4) : (-3/4) =

h) (-7/5) : (+1/2) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3) Efetue as divises:
a) (+5) : (-3/2) =

b) (-4) : (-3/5) =

c) (-3) : (-2/9) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
d) (-5/2) : (+2) =

e) (+4/3) : (-2) =

f) (-3/5) : (+0,1) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

40

4) Efetue as divises:
a) 2/3 : 3/16 =

b) 2/5 : (-3/4) =

c) (-4/5) : (-3/5) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
d) (-4/9) : (-3) =

e) (-7/8) : 2/3 =

f) 0 : (-4/7) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

POTENCIAO E RAIZ QUADRADA EM Q


POTENCIAO
A potenciao uma multiplicao de fatores iguais
Exemplos
a) (+1/5) = (+1/5) . (+1/5) = +1/25

b) (-2/3) = (-2/3) . (-2/3) = +4/9

c) ((-1/2) = (-1/2) . (-1/2) . (-1/2)) = -1/8

Observaes:

1) TODO NMERO ELEVADO A EXPOENTE ZERO IGUAL A 1.


Exemplos:

a) (+5/9) = 1

b) (-3/7) = 1

2) TODO NMERO ELEVADO A EXPOENTE UM IGUAL AO PRPRIO


NMERO.
a) (+3/8) = +3/8

b) (-3/4) = -3/4

41

EXERCICIOS
1) Calcule as potncias:
a) (+1/3) =

b) (-1/5) =

c) (+2/3) =

d) (-3/7) =

e) (+4/5) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
f) (-3/2) =

g) (-8/3) =

h) (-1/4) =

i) (-2/3) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
2) Calcule as potncias:
a) (+1/5) =

b) (-3/7) =

c) (+2/9) =

d) (-1/3) =

e) (+3/2) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

f) (-1/2)=

g) (-2/7) =

h) (-1/6) =

i) (-5/9) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
3) Calcule as expresses:
a) (-1/2) + 2/5 =

b) (-1/2) + 1 =

c) (2/5) - (-1/2) =

d) 2 + (-1/3) - (1/2)

e) 1 + ( (+2/5) ( ) =

______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

42

EXPOENTE NEGATIVO
Observe o exemplo:

Pela regra de diviso de potncias de mesma base sabemos que:

2 : 2 =

2 : 2 =

2 / 2 =

2 =

1/ 2

2
Ento 2 = 1/2

CONCLUSO: Todo o nmero diferente de zero a um expoente negativo igual ao inverso do


mesmo nmero com expoente positivo.
Exemplos: a) 5 = 1/5 = 1/25

b) 2 = 1/2= 1/8

EXERCICIOS
1) Calcule as potncias:
a) 4 =

b) 4 =

c) 5 =

d) 3 =

e) 10 =

______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________

f) 10 =

g) 2 =

h) 7 =

i) 1 =

______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________

2) Calcular as potncias
a) (-5) =

b) (-3) =

c) (-2) =

d) (-5) =

e) (-1) =

f) (-1) =

______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________

2) Calcule as potncias
a) (3/7) =

b) (2/5) =

c) (1/3) =

d) (-5/4) =

e) (-1/3) =

f) (-2/5) =

______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________

43

RAIZ QUADRADA
Extramos separadamente a raiz do numerador e a raiz do denominador,

Exemplos
a) 16/49 = 4/7

b) 25/9 = 5/3

Obs: Os nmeros racionais negativos no tm raiz quadrada em Q


Exemplo -4/3

02 - POTENCIAO E RAIZ QUADRADA EM Z


POTENCIAO
A POTENCIAO UMA MULTIPLICAO DE FATORES IGUAIS
Exemplos 2 = 2 .2 .2 = 8

Voc sabe tambm que:

2 a base

3 o expoente

8 a potncia ou resultado

1) O EXPOENTE PAR
a) (+7) = (+7) . (+7) = +49

b) (-7) = (-7) . (-7) = +49

c) (+2) = (+2) . (+2) . (+2) . (+2) = + 16

d) (-2) = (-2) . (-2) . (-2) . (-2) = + 16

Concluso : Quando o expoente for par, a potencia um nmero positivo

2) QUANDO O EXPOENTE FOR IMPAR


a) (+4) = (+4) . (+4) . (+4) = + 64

b) (-4) = (-4) . (-4) . (-4) = - 64

c) (+2) = (+2) . (+2) . (+2) . (+2) . (+2) = +32

d) (-2) = (-2) . (-2) . (-2) . (-2) . (-2) = -32

Concluso : Quando o expoente impar, a potncia tem o mesmo sinal da base.

44

EXERCCIOS
1) Calcule as potncias ;
a) (+7)=

b) (+4) =

c) (+3) =

d) (+5) =

e) (+2) =

f) (+3) =

______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________

g) (+2) =

h) (+2) =

i) (-5) =

j) (-3) =

k) (-2) =

l) (-5) =

______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________

m) (-1) =

n) (-2) =

o) (-3) =

p) (-3) =

______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________

2) Calcule as potencias:
a) (-6) =

b) (+3) =

c) (-6) = =

d) (-10) =

e) (+10) =

f) (-3) =

______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________

g) (-1) = =

h) (-1) =

i) (+2) =

j) (-4) =

k) (-9) = =

l) (-1) =

______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________

m) (-1) =

n) (-4) =

o) (-8) =

p) (-7) =

______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________

3) Calcule as potencias
a) 0 =

b) (-2) =

c) (-3) =

d) (-11) =

e) (-21) =

f) (+11) =

______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________

45

g) (-20) =

h) (+50) =

______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________

4) Calcule o valor das expresses (primeiro as potncias)


b) 32 (+7) =

a) 15 + (+5) =

c) 18 + (-5) =

d) (-8) + 14 =

______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________

f) 40 (-2) =

e) (-7) - 60 =

g) (-2) + 21 =

h) (-3) - 13 =

______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________

i) (-4) + (-2) =

j) (-3) + (-2) =

k) (-1) + (-3) =

l) (-2) + (-1) =

______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________

CONVENES:
TODO O NMERO INTEIRO ELEVADO A 1 IGUAL A ELE MESMO.
Exemplos:

a) (+7) = +7

b) (-3) = -3

TODO O NMERO INTEIRO ELEVADO A ZERO IGUAL A 1.


Exemplos:

a) (+5) = 1

b) (-8)= 1

IMPORTANTE!
Observe como a colocao dos parnteses importante:
a) (-3) = (-3) . (-3) = +9

b) -3 = -(3 . 3) = -9

PARA QUE A BASE SEJA NEGATIVA, ELA DEVE ESTAR ENTRE PARNTESES.

46

EXERCCIOS
1) Calcule as potncias:
a) (+6) =

b) (-2) =

c) (+10) =

d) (-4) =

e) (+7) =

f) (-10) =

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g) (-1) =

h) (+1) =

i) (-1) =

j) (-50) =

k) (-100) = l) 20000 =

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2) Calcule:
a) (-2) = b) -2 =
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Os resultados so iguais ou diferentes? R: Deferentes


3) Calcule as potncias:
a) (-5) =

b) -5 = c) (-7) =d) -7 =

e) (-1) =

f) -1 =

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4) Calcule o valor das expresses (primeiro as potncias):
a) 35 + 5=

b) 50 - 4 =

c) -18 + 10 =

d) -6 + 20 =

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47

e) -12-1 =

f) -2 - 40 =

g) 2 + 0 - 2 =

h) 2 - 2 - 2 =

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i) -3 + 1 - .65 =

j) 4 - 5 + 0 + 7 =

k) 10 - 7 - 1 + 2 =

l) 3 - 3 + 3 - 3 + 3 =

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PROPRIEDADES
1) PRODUTO DE POTNCIA DE MESMA BASE:
CONSERVA-SE A BASE E SOMAM-SE OS EXPOENTES.
Observe: a . a = ( a .a .a ) . ( a .a ) = a
Note que: a . a = a = a
Exemplos

a) (-5) . (-5) = (-5) = (-5)

b) (+2) . (+2) = (+2) = (+2)

EXERCCIOS
1) Reduza a uma s potncia:
a) 5 . 5 =

b) x. x=

c) 2 . 2 . 2 =

d) x .x . x =

e) m . m . m =

f) a . a . a =

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1) Reduza a uma s potencia:
a) (+5) . (+5) =

b) (+6) . (+6) =

c) (-3) . (-3) =

d) (-4) . (-4) =

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e) (+7) . (+7) =

f) (-8) . (-8) . (-8) =

g) (-5) . (-5) . (-5) =

h) (+3) . (+3) . (+3) =

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48

i) (-6) . (-6) . (-6) =

j) (+9) . (+9) . (+9) =

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2) DIVISO DE POTNCIAS DE MESMA BASE:


Observe: a : a = (a . a . a . a .a ) : (a .a ) = a
Note que: a : a = a = a
Exemplos:

a) (-5) : (-5) = (-5) = (-5)

b) (+7) : (+7) = (+7) = (+7)

EXERCCIOS
1) Reduza a uma s potncia:
a) a : a =

b) c : c =

c) m : m =

d) x : x =

e) y : y =

f) a : a =

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2) Reduza a uma s potncia:
a) (-3) : (-3) =

b) (+4) : (+4) =

c) (-5) : (-5) =

d) (+3) : (+3) =

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e) (-2) : (-2) =

f) (-3) : (-3) =

g) (-9) : (-9) =

h) (-4) : (-4) =

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3) Calcule os quocientes:
a) (-5) : (-5) =

b) (-3) : (-3) =

c) (-4) : (-4)=

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d) (-1) : (-1) =

e) (-7) : (-7)=

f) (+10) : (+10) =

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49

3) POTNCIA DE POTNCIA:
Observe: (a) = a = a
Exemplo: [(-2)] = (-2) = (-2)

EXERCCIOS
1) Aplique a propriedade de potncia de potncia.
a) [(-4) ] =

b) [(+5) ] =

c) [(-3) ] =

d) [(-7) ] =

e) [(+2) ] =

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f) [(-7) ] =

g) [(-1) ] =

h) [(+2) ] =i) [(-5) ] =

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2) Calcule o valor de:
a) [(+3)] =

b) [(+5)] =

c) [(-1)] =

d) [(-1)] =

e) [(-2)] =

f) [(+10)] =

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4) POTNCIA DE UM PRODUTO.
Observe: ( a . b ) = ( a . b ) . (a . b ) . ( a . b ) = ( a . a . a ) . ( b . b . b ) = a . b
Exemplos: [(-2) . (+5) ] = (-2) . (+5)

EXERCCIOS
1) Aplique a propriedade de potncia de um produto:
a) [(-2) . (+3)] =

b) [(+5) . (-7)] =

c) [(-7) . (+4)] =

d) [(+3) . (+5)] =

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e) [(-4) . (+6)] =

f) [(+5) . (-2)] =

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50

RAIZ QUADRADA EXATA DE NMEROS INTEIROS


Vamos recordar:
49 = 7, porque 7 = 49
No conjunto dos nmeros inteiros, a raiz quadrada de 49 pode ser:
+7, porque (+7) = 49.
-7, porque (-7) = 49.
Como o resultado de uma operao, deve ser nico, vamos adotar o seguinte critrio:
Exemplos:
a) +16 = +4

b) - 16 = -4

c) 9 = 3

d) -9 = -3

OS NMEROS NEGATIVOS NO TM RAIZ QUADRADA NO CONJUNTO Z


Veja:
a) -9 = nenhum inteiro, pois (nenhum inteiro) = -9
b) -16 = nenhum inteiro, pois (nenhum inteiro) = -16

EXERCCIOS
1) Determine as razes:
a) 4 =

b) 25 =)

c) 0 =

d) -25 =

e) 81 =

f) -81 =

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g) 36 =

i) 400 =

h) -1 =

j) -121 =

k) 169 =

l) -900 =

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2) Calcule caso exista em Z:


a) 4 =

b) -4 =

c) -4 =

d) 64 =

e) -64 =

f) -64 =

g) -100 =

h) -100 =

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3) Calcule:
a) 25 + 16 =

b) 9 - 49 =

c) 1 + 0 =

d) 100 - 81 + 4 =

e) -36 + 121 + 9 =

f) 144 + 169 -81 =

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51

EXEPRESSES NMERICAS
As expresses devem ser resolvidas obedecendo seguinte ordem de operaes:
1) Potenciao e radiciao;
2) Multiplicao e diviso
3) Adio e subtrao
Nessas operaes so realizados :
1) parnteses ( )
2) colchetes [ ]
3) chaves { }

exemplos:
calcular o valor das expresses :
1) exemplo

2) exemplo

3) exemplo

(-3) - 4 - (-1) + 5

15 + (-4) . (+3) -10

5 + 9 [(+20) : (-4) + 3]

9 4 + 1 + 25

15 12 10

25 + 3 [ (-5) +3 ]

5 + 1 + 25

3 10

25 + 3 - [ -2]

6 + 25

-7

25 +3 +2

31

28 + 2
30

EXERCCIOS
1) Calcule o valor das expresses:
a) 5 + ( -3) + 1 =

b) 10 + (-2) -4 =

c) 12 1 + (-4) =

d) (-1) + 3 9 =

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e) 18 (+7) + 3 =

f) 6 + (-1) - 2 =

g) (-2) - 7 (-1) =

h) (-5) - 1 + (-1) =

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52

i) 5 - ( -10) + 2 =

j) (-2) + (-3) - 25 =

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2) Calcule o valor das expresses:


a) 3 - 4 + 1 =

b) 2 - 2 - 2 =

c) (-1) + 5 - 3=

d) 5 - 5 - 5 =

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e) (-3). (+5) + 2 =

f) (-1) - (-1) =

g) 5 + (-3) + 7 =

h) 49 + 2 - 1 =

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3) Calcule o valor das expresses:


a) (-3) + 5 =

b) (-8) - (-9) =

c) -72 + (-1) =

d) (-12) + (+12) =

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e) 10 - (-10) - 10 =

f) (-7) + (-6) - (-1) =

g) (-1) + (+1) + (-1) + (+1)=

h) 2 - 2 - 2 - 2 - 2 - 2

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53

4) Calcule o valor das expresses:


a) (-3) . (+7) + (-8) . (-3) =

b) (-3) + (+2) - 7 =

c) 8 + (-3 -1) =

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d) (-2 + 6) : (+3 5) =

e) (-5) + (-7 + 4) =

f) (-2) + (+5) . (-2) =

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5) Calcule o valor das expresses:


a) (-3) . (-2) + (3) + 5 =

b) (-1) + 3 + (+2) . (+5) =

c) (-2) . (-7) + (-3) =

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d) 2 . (-5) - 3 . (-1) + 4 =

e) [ -1 + (-3) . (-2)]

f) (5 7) - [ 5 - 2 - (4 6)] =

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h) 8 [ -7 + )-1) . (-6) + 4]=

g) (-3 + 2 1) - ( -3 + 5 1) + 3 =

i) 14 [(-1) . (-2) + (-35) : (+5)] =

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54
l) -3 { -2 [(-35) : (+5) + 2 ]} =

j) 5 - [ 10 + (7 -8) ] - 4 + 2=

k) (-1) + 6 - [15 + (-40) : (-2) ] =

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6) Calcule o valor das expresses:


a) (- 3 + 5 + 2) : (-2) =

b) (+3 1) - 15 =

c) (-2) - (-1 + 2) =

e) 10 [5 (-2) + (-1)] =

i) 7 - [ 6 (-1) - 2]=

f) 2 { 3 + [ 4 (1 2) + 3 ] 4} =

g) 15 [ (-5) - (10 - 2 ) ] =

h) 13 [(-2) (-7) + (+3) ] =

d) 40 : (-1) + (-2) - 12 =

j) 2 - [(-16) : (+2) (-1)] =

k) 50 : { -5 + [ -1 (-2) : (-2) ]} =
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7) Calcule o valor das expresses:


a) 10 + (-3) = 19

b) (-4) - 3 = 13

c) 1 + (-2) = -7

d) -2 + (-5) = 23

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55

e) (-2) + (-3) = -23

f) 15 + (-1) - 2 = 12

g) (-9) -2 (-3) = 82

h) 5 + (-2) + 6 = 3

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8) Calcule o valor das expresses:


a) 5 { +3 [(+2) -(-5) + 6 4 ]} = -17

b) 15 { -3 + [(5 6) . (9 -8 ) + 1]} = 16

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c) 18 { 6 [ -3 (5 4) (7- 9) ] 1 } = 17

d) -2 + { -5 [ -2 (-2) - 3- (3 -2 ) ] + 5 } = -4

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e) 4 {(-2) . (-3) [ -11 + (-3) . (-4)] (-1)} = 16


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EXERCCIOS EM FORMA DE TESTE:


1) O resultado de (-1001) :
a) 11 011 b) -11 011
c) 1 002 001 X d) -1 002 001
2) O valor da expresso 2 - 2 - 2 :
a) -4
b) -5
c) 8
d) 0
3) O valor da expresso (-10) - 10 :
a) 0
b) 40
c) -20
d) -40
4) O valor da expresso 16 - 4
a) 2
b) 4
c) 6
d) 12
5) O valor da expresso 10 + 9 1 :
a) 14
b) 18
c) 12
d) 20
6) O valor da expresso (-4) - (-4) :
a) 20
b) -20
c) 252
d) 260
7) O valor da expresso (-2) + (-9) - (-3) :
a) 8
b) 12
c) 16
d) -26
8) O valor da expresso (-7) + (+3) . (-4) (-5) : a) 7
b) 37
c) 42
d) 47
9) A expresso (-7) : (-7) igual a:
a) (-7) b) (-7) c) (-7)
d) (-1)
10) O valor da expresso [-2 + (-1) . (-3)] :
a) -1
b) -4
c) 1
d) 4
11) O valor da expresso numrica -4 + (3 -5) . (-2) + 3 - (-2)
a) 7
b) 8
c) 15
d) -7