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MAKALAH BAHASA INNGRIS II

IMPROVEMENT SPEAKING SKILL


Diajukan sebagai Tugas Mandiri Mata Kuliah NTM
Semester Genap Tahun Akademik 2014 / 2015
Angkatan XIII

Disusun Oleh :
Andri Irawan Sanjaya
( 2130 402 028 )
FAKULTAS MANAGEMENT PERHOTELAN
SEKOLAH TINGGI ILMU EKONOMI PARIWISATA INTERNASIONAL
STEIN

Foreward
Praise to Allah SWT who has given taufik, guidance, and inayah so that we all
can still move as usual as well as the author so I can complete the task creation
Indonesian Language paper entitled "Improvement Speaking Skill".
This paper contains about fairy tales or folk tales that are familiar algi among the
Indonesian people in general and students in particular are presented in the form of
paper.
The paper is organized so that readers can add insight or expand existing
knowledge about the formerly very popular tale that we present in this paper an
arrangement of a concise, easy to read and easy to understand. And so many thanks
to my teacher Mrs. Meylani Tuti, M.Pd.
The authors also wish to express many thanks to his teammates and the
father / mother of teachers who have guided the author in order to make authors of
scientific papers in accordance with the provisions in force so that it becomes a
scientific paper is good and right.
Hopefully, this paper can be useful for readers and expanding horizons about
fairy tales and the details. And do not forget also the author apologizes for any
shortcomings here and there of the paper's authors do.Please critique and suggestions.
Thank you

September 13, 2015

Composer

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
A. Background of the Study
As a professional teachers in the language teaching, especially the
teaching of English a foreign language, teachers mostly spend much of time on
appropriate teaching methodologist for greater effectiveness in students
acquisitions on English, designing and implementing materials, test, and practice
Teacher are responsible to educate the students from little or no knowledge to
sufficient English speaking environment.
Mostly of the teaching method before the past few decades, found the
teacher tend to carry out the teaching process in the classroom by applying
traditional and monolingual principle ways of teaching with unsatisfactory. This
shows that teachers need enrichments with appropriate ways of teaching
atmosphere, that why in teaching English as the second language by applying new
and modified fashions in order that the result of the teaching learning process
would contribute more input to reach satisfied learning outcome. Whole around
the world recently, where the people encourage that English as their target or
second language used based on whole interactions and communication holding
the dominant role of very aspects of their life. English is most widely used in

teaching learning process of broader Educational occasions either formal or


informal environment.
It is reasonable that English is progemmed as the first foreign or second
language in many countries on this earth, furthermore in present global era. That
is why experts on language and language teaching range must invent today
English teaching and learning environment.
According to the 2006 English Curriculum and its supplement, the
emphasis of the curriculum is that the students are able to communicate in English
by mastering the whole skills.1 However, it is not easy to master all the skills;
there must be one important skill that covers the whole skills. Based on the
statement above speaking is the most important skill that should be mastered by
students in order to communicate in English fluently.
In this case, the students must study hard to master it and the teacher
should create a good atmosphere in class. However, it is contrary to the real
situation in class. Speaking activities do not work in class because many factors
prevent students from speaking English with their friends. They are afraid of
making mistakes, of being laughed at by his or her friends and of having lack of
confidence in their ability.
Considering problem, relating to speaking activities in class and helping
students to improve their speaking skill is part of the teachers job. He or she is
expected to have right teaching techniques to provide students with appropriate
teaching materials and to create a positive classroom environment. Therefore, the
students will have opportunity to use English among themselves. The teaching
learning process should not only happen between teacher and students but also
between students and students.
Speaking is an activity used by someone to communicate with other. It
takes place very where and has become part of our daily activities. When
someone speaks, he or she interacts and uses the language to express his or her
1

Curriculum

ideas, feeling and thought. He or she also shares information to other trough
communication.
In the classroom, the teacher must create the situation that can encourage
real communication, many activities can be designed to make majors element
lively. Games is one of the techniques that can be applied in teaching speaking
because games in one of potential activity that gives students feeling of freedom
to express themselves. Games are also potentially useful to encourage students of
interact with each other orally.
In this research, the researcher focuses on the guessing games. The reason
for using guessing games is you give more opportunities to students to make
turns in speaking during the times allocated. The researcher assumes that
guessing games are combination between language practice and fun. They can
express their ideas freely because they do activities with their friends. This game
is also easy to admiser and flexible in terms of subject matter and design.
B. The Identification of the Problem
Based on the background of the study mentioned above, the identification
of the problem of the research are:
1. How far the effectiveness of speaking through games technique?
2. How The English by games more interested to teach speaking trough
games technique
3. How the teachers more interested to teach speaking trough games
technique
4. How to make students confident to talk in learning speaking?
5. How English play game more interesting for student to learn English.
6. Why games suitable to teach speaking at fourth grade?

C. The Limitation of the Problem


4

The researcher limits the discussing of the study about, The Improvement
Students Speaking Skill through Guessing Games Technique.Because the
researcher find, the effective method to teach using this games. Especially for
elementary students for fourth grade.

D.

The Formulation of the Problem


Based on limitation of problem mentioned above, the problem of the
research can be formulated as follows; How to improvement student is speaking
skill through guessing games to the fourth grade of SDN Kelapa Dua II?

E.

Benefit of Research
The researcher hopes that this thesis can develop education institution to
perform a language laboratory, teacher to use the approach and method properly
in teaching speaking to their students; it can be refer for English teacher in
studying which pursuant and guide liner of the better ways to achieve the
successful English Study.
The benefit of this research for elementary in SDN Kelapa Dua II that the
headmaster of the school knows actually teaching and teaching speaking are
really acceded by the teacher. The students of course the headmaster tries
provide the equipment of speaking so that, the students speaking can be
improved by practicing actively.
The students of STKIP Kusuma Negara can have a good reference for
their knowledge and someday they will make tries connected with learning
speaking. Then they may make some references of this thesis because this thesis
can be put in the library of STKIP Kusuma Negara and every body can read it.

CHAPTER II
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

A.

Definition of Teaching
Teaching is a process to give guidance the students to reach the goals.
Teaching known as Instruction it means process that makes someone do
learning. Teaching is a media for learning process includes behavior individual
changes through pre- planned.
Teaching is an exiting job. Today, many references help teachers to get
some solutions of problems in teaching learning process. The teachers can use
some references to find out some techniques of teaching in their classroom. On
the other hand, teaching is not easy to do. The teacher should do much of his
work before entering the classroom. According to Brown,
Teaching is a superior job, is the demanding job. Among the demanding
tasks are modifying the approaches, Syllabus, technique, and exercises to
adopt and maximize the learning of a class as well as of most of its
individual members.2
It can be stated from the definition above that teaching is not just
presenting information or knowledge to students, but it needs strategies and
tactics. The teacher must decide what goals it would be best to teach and what
strategies and tactics are best suited for teaching these goals.
According to Patricia, It is important for teacher to include as many techniques
as possible to enhance student learning3.The knowledge gives the intelligence

James Dean Brown, The Elements of Language Curriculum: A Systematic Approach to


Program Development, ( Boston : Heinle & Heinle Publisher, 1995 )
3
Patricia J. Wentz, The Student Teaching Experience, ( T.tp.: Merrill Prentice Hall, t.t )

concerning to import, as a knowledge before unknown, or rules for practice to


inculcate as true or important to exhibits impressively as, to teach arithmetic,
dancing, music, or the like to teach morals.
The objective of language is to encourage effective communication in
daily life, by practicing effective expression, increasing vocabulary, give sample
opportunities that use language to describe, to compare and relate experiences,
thoughts and felling, creating stories dramas, song, poems, etc. Language should
be embedded throughout all activities.
Moreover, young learner can learn easily many languages. Young learner
are equipped by language acquisition device, therefore, they will not have any
difficulty to learn two or three different language at the same time.
B.

Definition of Speaking
Speaking is one of the skills that have to be mastered by students in
learning English. It is important for students to known definition first. Many
experts define speaking in different ways. Brown and Yule stated in their book.
Speaking is to express the needsrequest, information, service, etc. 4 The
speakers say words to the listener not only to express what in her mind but also
to express what he needs whether information service. Most people might spend
of their everyday life in communicating with other. Revell defines
communication as follow: Communication, of ideas, of opinions, of feeling. 5
Therefore, communication involves at least two people where both sender and
receiver need to communicate to exchange information, ideas, opinions, views,
or feelings.

Gillian Brown and George Yule, Teaching the Spoken Language : Approach Based on the
Analysis of Conversational English (Australia : Cambridge University Press, 1989), p. 14
Jane Revell, Teaching Technique for Commutative English (London Macmillan : Pres Ltd). P.
27

Meanwhile, Jones stated, Speaking is a form of communication. 6 We can say


that the speaker must consider the person they are talking to as listeners. The
activity that the person does primary based on particular goal. So, it is important
that everything we wants to say is conveyed in an effective way, because
speaking is not only producing sounds but also a process of achieving goals that
involves transferring messages across. Jone said, How you say something can
be important as what you say in getting your meaning across. 7 Therefore,
speaking process should pay attention to want and how to say as well as to
whom appropriately.
In expression ones need-request, information, service, we must consider
some points about speaking. Jones stated, Some point should be considered
about speaking, they are clarity, variety, audience and tone.8
Albert Valdman said, The ability to speak a foreign language is without doubt
the most highly prized language skills, and rightly. So, because he was can
speak the language well can also understand it and can learn to read it with
relative case an also the ability to speak a language will greatly expedite and
facilitate learning to write it.9 According to M. Solahudin in his book speaking
is, Kemampuan berbicara dengan bahasa Inggris dan pembicaraan kita
dipahami oleh orang lain.10 In order to express his or her needs, ideas, feeling
and thought in real communication, one must be able to ask as well as answer
questions.
Yusnaini Lubis says, Question and answer, major elements in natural
conversation sessions.11 Beside on that statement we conclude that one of
6
7
8
9
10
11

Rhodi Jones, Speaking and Listening (London : The Bath Press, 1989), p. 14
ibid. Rhodi Jones
ibid. Rhodi Jones
Albert Valdman, Trend in Language Teaching, Mc Graw : Hill Book Co, 1996. P. 194
M. Solahudin, Kiat-Kiat Praktis Belajar Speaking. Diva Press, 2008, p. 16
Yusnaini Lubis, Developing Communicate Proficiency in the English As A Foreign Language
(EFL) Class. (Jakarta. DepDikBud. 1988). P. 25

important aspects in speaking is there is a communication or interacting


between the speaker and listener. So it will make the good attraction /
understanding about the object of topic.
a.

Clarity
It means that the words that the speakers use, must be clear, so that
listeners can understand what the speaker says. Here, the speaker must
consider speed and volume. The speed at which you speak is relevant her.
If you speak quickly, listeners may have difficulty. The volume with
which you speak can also have a bearing. Speak out and do not mumble.
Your words have to be loud enough to reach all your listeners.

b. Variety
Here the speakers must try to vary way of speaking such as pitch
(rise and fall of voice), emphasis, speed, variation, volume and pause. The
speaker is expected to fine variation in saying words do not speak
monotonously.
c. Audience and Tone
The way you speak and the tone you use will be affected by
audience to whom you are speaking. If you are discussing something with
your friends. You are likely to use informal conversational tone. If you are
giving a talk to a group of thirty people. It likely that you would speak more
formally and would raise the pitch and the volume of your voice in order to
make sure that what you say reaches all of your listeners. If you were telling
a comic story, you would speak differently from way you would if you were
putting a point of view about which you felt strongly.

C.

Definition of Guessing Games


According to Klippel, The basic rule of guessing games is eminently
simple; one person knows something that another one wants to find out.12
Wright and Buck say, Essentially, in guessing and speculating games, some one
knows something and the others must find out what it is. 13 In addition,
according to Merriem Webster, Guessing games is game in which the
participates compete individually or team in the identification of something
indicate obscurely (as in riddles or charades).14
Based on the definition, it can be conclude that guessing games is a game in
which a person or participant knows something and competes individually or in
a team to identify or to find out it.
There are many concepts of guessing games, which can be applied in
teaching speaking. According to Lee:
Among them are numbers guessing games that can be played at various levels:
1. Guess what is it? Is it?
2. Guess Who I am? What is my name?
3. Guess what is there in my bag today?
4. Guess where is it?
Then the description ofc each concept is a s follow:
a. Guess What is it? Is it.?
The students things of an object or a person the class knoes the
name of, and the other ask question, putting up their hand waiting to be
called on :

12
13

14

Friederike Klippel, Keep Talking (USA : Cambridge University Press, 1994). P. 13


David Betteridge and Michael Buckby, Games for Language Learning, New Edition (Sidney
Cambridge University Press, 1990), p. 169
Merriem Webster, Websters Third New International Dictionary (USA : Merriem Webster
inc, 1986), p. 1008

10

1. Is a green Is it Martys desk.


2. Is it my face?
3. Is it the pond?
4. Is it Billy and Peter?
5. Is it the cinema?
6. Is it my mother who came this evening?
7. It is your book. Etc
The first guess correctly takes the thinkers place. After such a game has
been successfully played by the class as a whole, it can be played in groups
or even in pairs. The learner who has thought of something may be
questioned by member of another, to keep the whole class active.

b. Guess Who I am? What is my name?


Everybody imagines him self to be some body else a living well
known locally, nationally or internationally or an historical figures such as
Napoleon, Ghandy, Julius Caesar, Galileo, Etc. Each makes up sentences
about him self, e.g.
1. I lived..about..years ago.
2. I was a king / poet / general / scientist, Etc.
There is not much difficulty in guessing, but it should not to be made too
easy (e.g. one should not say, if one is Shakespeare. I lived in Stratford-onAvon and wrote Hamlet).
c. Guess what is there in my bag today?
Alternatively:
1. What is in my bag today?

11

2. What have I got in my bag today?


(This can be teachers or anybody bag, not doubt specially prepared). The
students guess, for instance, theres an apple / photograph / a mirror / a
handkerchief / a ticket / a doll, etc. And the owner of the bag says, No,
theres no a or Yes, theres a.and brings it out and perhaps ask what
colors is it? Or is it a bag or small.? At an appropriate level plurals
come in naturally here, e.g. There some..in my bag.
d. Guess Where is it?
Students turn round the close their eyes while a small object or several
object suh as coin, a ring, a sweet, a doll, is hidden. Question:
1. Is it behind the cupboard
2. Is it in Mr. Clauss bag
3. Is it mams desk
4.

In your shoe

5.

Under those books / etc.

Each student makes at least one guess. Statements can be made instead of
question: it is behind the cupboard / in Mr. Clauss pocket, etc.

D.

Guessing Games in Teaching Speaking


There is common perception that all learning should be serious and
solemn in nature and that if ones is having fun and there is hilarity and laughter,
then it is not learning. This is a misconception. It is possible to learn a language
as well as enjoy oneself the some time. One best way of doing this trough
games.

12

Games can be applied in teaching learning English. This idea is


supported by Andrew Wright, Betteridge and Buckby. Games can be found to
give practice in all skills (Reading, speaking, listening, and speaking) in all
stages on teaching learning sequences..15 Beside on the statements above,
it is clear that all skill can be applied in teaching, one of them is speaking.
There are many reasons a teacher uses games in teaching speaking.
Games give students chance to use English orally, it means that students can
practice and develop their ability to speak English. Games provide fun and
relax while remaining very much within the framework of language learning. It
is expected for shy or slow learners can be active participants to show their
ability and find their confidence in communicating in the foreign language.
Among many techniques of guessing in teaching speaking, guessing
games can be applied in the teaching of speaking. This assumption is beside on
some experts comments. In fact, there are many categories of guessing games.
Patricia and Amato say: Although the categories can overlap, the games here
offered her are dividend into the following types depending on their emphasis:
non-verbal games, board-advancing games, treasure hunt and guessing games.16
According to Richard Amato, Guessing games can be used to
develop or reinforce concept, to add diversion to regular activities, or just to
break the ice. However, their must important function is to give practice in
communication.17 It says that guessing games give students do mot feel bored
during learning process. Nevertheless, the most important thing is to give the
students in practicing their English. They also add that:
15

16

17

Andrew Wright, David Betteridge and Michael Buckby, Games for Language Learning
(Sidney : Cambridge University Press, 1989), p. 2
Patricia , Richard Amato, Making it Happened : Interaction in The Second Language
Classroom, (New York and London : Longman, 1988), p. 156
Patricia A. Richard Amato, Making in Happen : Interaction; the Second Language
Classroom (New York and London : Longman, 1988), p. 155

13

Guessing games can be painless to develop or reinforce any number


concepts. Guessing what I am, Guess who I am for example, can be used
teach about animals profession or people in different age groups (baby, child,
teenager, young adult, elderly person).18 Those statements say that by given
some concepts of guessing games like Guess What I am or Guess Who I
am. The teacher can teach many kinds of topics such as about animals,
profession or people.
Silver says, Real guessing games provide the students with much
needed practice in formulating questions, an essential skill that does not always
receive sufficient attention.19 Based on the statement above, we can conclude
that guessing games give students more chance in formulating question. But we
know that language classes are spent answering questions puts forth by the
teacher or text book. This idea is also supported by Silver : Language classes
are often inadvertently structured so that most of the students speaking time is
spent answering questions put forth by teacher or text book: as a result the
students often have difficultly in forming own question.20
So, by using this game students are asked to practice in formulating
questions. Here the students can apply their ability in using question word
(W H) question. Lee says, Among them are number of guessing games which
can be applied at various age level in general, the challenge to guess arouses
considerable interest and encourages the learners to communicate. 21 That
statement says that guessing games can be applied at various age levels. It has
the same idea Klippel, he says, Every body knows guessing games it is not
18
19

20
21

Ibid. Patricia A. Richard - Amato


Stephen M. Silver, Guessing for the Classroom and The English Speaking Club. Selected
Articles from the English Teaching Forum. 1980 1983, p. 244
Ibid. Stephen M. Silver
W. R. Language Teaching Games and Contest (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1994), p.
13

14

only children that like guessing games; adults like guessing too, as shown by
many popular TV programmer.22
In addition, he adds, Guessing are true communicative situation and
such are very important for foreign language practice with fun and
excitement.23 From the three theories, it is enough clear that guessing games
are liked by students all of ages from children until adult, it arouses
considerable interest and encourages the learners to communicate because it is
combination between language practice with fun and excitement.

E.

The Technique of English Teaching


Teaching of English for young learner using many ways for example
though reading, picture, plays or games etc. Many parents and administrators
are familiar with statement that Play is Children work, but they still make
distinction between work and play. The work is defined as structure task such as
work sheets that children complete in order to learn the alphabet and numbers.
During their playtime children often and spontaneously begin, object
play, fantasy play, and sociodramatic play. Object play is reality based and
involves manipulation of and reference to the object them.
Speaking by using games method English learning for young learner
is fun and enjoyable. Speaking pleasure by using combining word and picture
cards students are ready and interested in seeing the written forms of the
language.
M. Solahudin said, Speaking berkaitan dengan listening. Artinya apa
yang kita bicarakan adalah pengulangan dari apa yang pernah kita dengar

22
23

Klippel. Loc. Cit.


Ibid. Klippel, p. 32

15

sebelumnya.24 From the theories above, it is clear enough that guessing games
are liked. Learning by games is suitable for young learner, games are easily
adaptable to English language classrooms, give the student opportunity to
expand their language experience through fun and play.
This probably the most challenging time in teaching preparation that
the teacher experienced. It is completely different kind of technique, which
requires a new approach to teaching. The teacher has to make more conducive
in the classroom. Eventually that the changes on the technique of English
teaching will be baneful for the students and for the teacher.
There is the technique of English teaching:
1. Begin with a positive message
If you put a new message in the same place every time-on an
overhead or on the board-students will learn to look for it when
they come into the room. Music serves the same purpose it set a
positive mood for the session.
2. Write three important goals for the class so that students can see
them.
Three goals are manageable for one class session. When they are
visible, they keep us all on track. At the end of the class, referring
to the goals gives everyone a sense of progress and closure for the
day.
3. Arrange for model test to be taken in a lab or at home on the honor
system.
Your time with the students is too valuable for you to spend four
hours proctoring each model test. That would add up to twelve
hour of class time for all the model tests.
24

M. Solahudin, Kiat-kiat Praktis Belajar Speaking. Diva Press. PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama,
2008, p. 18

16

4. Ask students to write their question a note card and bring them to
class.
5. Use class time to teach and practice academic skill
6. Focus on speaking and writing in class
7. Provide counseling and encouragement as part of the class routine
A habit is pattern of behavior that is acquired through repetition.
Researches indicate that following study habits are characteristic of successful
students. The teacher must make motivation to the students not only by
technique of the teaching but we can improvement by positive habits from
students.
F.

Definition Action Research


Action research has different meaning and thing when used by different
another. For example, Hopkin treats action research and classroom research by
teachers as synonymous.25 Brown and Robinson suggest that any action
undertaken by teachers to collect data and evaluate their own teaching can be
termed action research, and some highlights the participatory insider nature of
action research.26
Hodgkinson has definition of action research as follows: Action
research is a direct and logical out come of the progressive position. After
showing children how to work together to solve their problems, the next step
was for teachers to adopt the methods they had been teaching their children,
and learn to solve their own problems co-operatively.27

25

26

27

Hopkins, D. (1985) A Teachers Guide to Classroom Research. Milton Keynes : Open


University Press
Brown, H.D. (1994) Teaching by Principles : An Interactive Approach to Language
Pedagogy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
Burns, Anne. 2007. Collaborative Action Research for English Language Teachers. Cambridge.
Cambridge University Press, p.5

17

Put simply, action research is learning by doing it is conducted by the


teacher as classroom participant. As teacher, he/she needs to know what is
actually happening in classroom, collecting data and evaluating her/his own
teaching, do something to solve it, see how successful his/her effort were, and
if not satisfied, try again until showing the increasing of changing.
Nunan sees the important defining aspect of action research as the
controlling role of the teacher: For me the salient distinction between AR and
other form of research process is initiated and carried out by practitioner. 28
Stephen Kemmis has developed a simple model of cyclical of the typical action
research process (figure I) each cycle has four steps; they are, planning, acting,
observing and reflecting.29
a) Planning is we prepare the material that we will teach, making lesson
plan, syllabus and making evaluation that the will examine.
b) Acting is we teach the students based on our plan, the material and the
method we are going to teach and give the evaluation as the result.
c) Observing are we observing the result of the acting is it satisfied or
not?
d) Reflecting is we analyze the weaknesses of the students.
Strickland outlines the following steps in an AR cycle:
1. identify an issue, interest or problem
2. seek knowledge
3. plan an action
4. implement the action
5. reflect on your observations
6. revise the plan
28

Nunan, D. (1993) Action Research in Language Education. In Edge, J. and Richards, K. (eds)
Teacher Developed Teacher Research: Paper on Classroom Research and Teacher Development.
Oxford: Heinemann. Pp. 44

29

18

Based on the steps of Action Research above, it can be concluded that teacher
as researcher has to prepare teaching process as good as possible. Every step
has to be followed in continuous and integrated.
There are cycles within cycles. Some extend across an entire study.
Others occupy only minutes or less. The result can be a very flexible and
responsive process. When each cycle includes a vigorous seeking out of
disconfirming evidence the flexibility is also accompanied by research rig our.
The people affected by the change are involved in the action and the
critical reflection. Understanding is widely shared, and so is commitment to
any planned change. Action research certainly is not the only research process
for researching change. However, it is process well suited to situations where
you wish to achieve change (the action) and understanding (the research )
at some time.
Action research for development, teacher can become more
autonomous, responsible, and answerable through action research, teachers
themselves can take a so decisions concerning change.30

G.

Teaching Speaking at Elementary School


Every student who studies English will study about all components,
which in that subject. Those components are reading, listening, writing and
speaking. All components have great correlation and support each other; one of
those items will be discussed by researcher is teaching speaking.

30

Day, C. (1987) Professional Learning Through Collaborative in Service Activity. In Smyth, J.


(ed.) Educating Teacher: Changing the Nature of Pedagogical Knowledge. London: The Falmer
Press. Pp. 207-222

19

As one of the language skills, speaking can be complex process. The first
speaking has some points to show speaking and productions are related in the
mind of individual for the learners. The learners also need production to get
interaction in receiving messages, result according to Hymes, Communication
competence31.
Penny Ur says, Of all four skills (listening, speaking, reading and
writing) speaking seem intuitively the most important. 32 Based on the statement
above speaking is the most important skill that should be mastered by students
in order to communicate in English fluently. Speaking is essential to all
interaction and his is an ability to understand and master about what an active
process of constructing a message, especially for student elementary school. It is
true that they need to concentrate to what listening for every question. It is
suggested that learning of a new language which is not associated with visual,
action or some intellectual exercises to help identification of meaning because if
it is done it become boring and will not necessary lead to advantageous. Sami
Alrabaa says: Why speaking activities do not work: the classes are too big for
speaking activities;

the students have too little time to speak.

Speaking

section of textbooks gives very few students the chance to talk, while the rest of
classes remain listeners, often inattentive ones.33 Brown and Yule say,
Speaking is to express the needs request information, services, etc.34
H.

The Curriculum of Teaching

31

Hymes, Communication Competence, (Cambridge Press, 1976), p. 16


Penny Ur, A Course in Language Teaching : Practice an Theory (Great Britain : Cambridge
University Press, 1966), p. 120
33
Sami Alrabaa, Games in Speaking English Teaching Forum, Vol XXXIX, No. 3 (July,
1991), p. 39
34
Gillian Brown and George Yule, Teaching the Spoken Language : An Approach Based on the
Analysis of Conversational English (Australia : Cambridge University Press, 1983, p. 27
32

20

Curriculum must build new experiences on existing knowledge and


gradually extend that knowledge since children naturally integrate new
information into their previous experiences. The education experiences must
integrate to all components of children development are physical, social
emotional, and intellectual.
Complex activities with many dimension naturally lend themselves to the
multiple out comes that are characteristic of learning this age. Finally, program
must anticipate that there is wide variation in the rate development of individual
children, especially during the transition stages of Elementary School.
According to the 2006 English Curriculum:

Pengembangan

kemampuan siswa dalam berbahasa Inggris yaitu dengan memiliki empat


ketrampilan dalam berbahasa Inggris (speaking, listening, reading,
writing).

Yang

bertujuan

untuk

mengembangkan

kompetensi

berkomunikasi secara lisan secara terbatas untuk mengiringi tindakan


(language accompanying action).35
SDN Kelapa Dua II by using Curriculum of 2006.
Competency Based Curriculum constitutes a set of planning and
arrangement about competency and learning outcomes that must be achieved by
student. It also constitutes a set of evaluation activity, teaching learning process,
and using education resource efficiently in developing school curriculum.
CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METODOLOGY

A. Purpose of the Study

35

Curriculum Bahasa Inngris 2006

21

The purpose of research is to get the new theory, especially to know


teaching speaking by using games effective at fourth grade of elementary school
SDN Kelapa Dua II Tangerang. Teacher hopes them to active in practicing
English speaking in class. It is expected that the students can enjoy to expressing
their ideas opinion and feeling and can match dialogue with situation and
condition. Besides that, they can also get fun in learning English in school
especially for learning English speaking.
B. The Place and Time of Study
The place to research teaching speaking by using games for fourth grade
students of elementary school in SDN Kelapa Dua II Tangerang. This research
takes place during one semester about four months from June - November 2008.
C. Method of the Research
In this research, the researcher uses the qualitative research with
classroom action research. The qualitative method is the kinds of the data are the
descriptive data. From getting the data, the research wants to describe and explain
the problem that chosen in this researching. In the research, it does not used
questioner but using the work sheet to evaluate the result and using picture as a
material, because the research focused on classroom action research.
Classroom action research method tends to rules of speaking or how to
improve the speaking English trough games. It is true, that uses the three cycles,
and every cycle consists of four steps. On the other hands, of course, it uses the
collaboration method too, for example the role play and the answer question; the
answer question method and guessing games; or collaboration of three methods.
D. Subject of the Research

22

The subject of the research is the students from forth grade elementary
school SDN Kelapa Dua II, Kecamatan Kelapa Dua, Tangerang City. There are 20
(twenty) students on the class. The researches use the method and the technique
teaching speaking through guessing games.
E. Technique of Collecting Data
The collecting data that is the researcher get the data from the students
especially for 4th grade of elementary school. The researcher attends to the data,
which are the result of applying teaching speaking though guessing games.
In the following section, the researcher explains about procedure of
teaching, speaking using guessing games. The procedure is dividing into four
stages. They are socializing guessing games, individually or grouping,
distributing cards, and asking Question and asking giving answer. The researcher
gave speaking skill test before did the presentation of lessons material (pre-test).
After giving the treatment, give the some test (post-test) then made calculation of
result from both test. Trough the cycle I, cycle II, and cycle III. Each cycle
consist of:
1. Planning
2. Acting
3. Observing
4. Reflecting
This research can discuss or collaborate with English Teacher and the others.
The design is as follow:
1. Socializing Guessing Games
a. Teacher introduces guessing games
b. Teacher states the aims of guessing games
c. Teacher explains the definition of guessing games

23

d. Teacher explains the concept of guessing games


e. Teacher has the rules of guessing games
f. Teacher checks students understanding

2. Individually or Grouping
a. Teacher asks students to apply this games individually or
b. Teacher asks students to apply this games in a group
3. Distributing Cards
a. Teacher distributes cards as teaching material
b. Teacher explains the use of cards
4. Asking Questions and Giving Answer
a. Teacher asks to practice the games by asking question and giving
answer to each group
b. Teacher asks each group to perform once.
F.

Analysis of the Research


There, the analysis of the research uses the descriptive analysis. Based on
this method there has some advantages and weaknesses.
Some of the advantages of using teaching speaking using guessing games are as
follows:
1. Using guessing games make students more pleasure from regular activities
in class. It creates a relaxed atmosphere in the classroom.
2. Using guessing games can encourage the students to communicate in
English because the games are combinations between language practice
with fun and excitement.

24

3. Guessing games can practice the students ability in forming many kind of
dialogues.
While the weaknesses are:
1. In applying guessing games, the teacher needs the students who are
skillful formulating question from dialogue.
2. In applying guessing games, the teacher needs the students more carefully
to make communication.
3. In applying guessing games, the teacher needs the students more
controlling how to make right pronunciation.

25

CHAPTER IV
THE RESEARCH RESULT AND DISCUSSION

A. Description of SDN Kelapa Dua II - Tangerang


SDN Kelapa Dua II is located Jalan Cibogo Kulon, Kav. Kelapa Dua,
Kec. Kelapa Dua Tangerang Banten it has been since 1975. The headmaster is
Mr. H. Miftahudin, S. Pd. I. It consists 12 classes pararel and amount of 366
students, 16 Teacher and one English Teacher for all class. SDN Kelapa Dua II
has Visi : Membentuk siswa yang menguasai IPTEK dan IMTAQ di lingkungan
lembaga pendidikan formal berkualitas, and Misi: Pembenahan system
pendidikan

pengajaran,

pelatihan,

bimbingan

menuju

system

yang

berkompetensi.
Mostly the students were from the medium down family. The school
doesnt give students the handbook, but only give the LKS (student work sheet).
They can borrow the books from library or school lends them but not to bring
home. So, for the English book. They were just doing home LKS at home and
lent textbook.
May be it become a problem for them to study at home. With limited
facilities, they cant improve their lessons. They had low ability in English.
Especially in fourth grade. There for, I did research at this school to find out how
they learn English.
B. Teaching Speaking Through the Guessing Games
The researcher choose teaching speaking through Guessing Games for
fourth grade at SDN Kelapa Dua II, it is suitable for them they have just learned

26

English from Fourth grade, because they have little vocabulary knowledge and
little English Study knowledge.
The lesson plan was guidance for the researcher to teach. In planning speaking
process, teacher should find out potential to make simple question, decide what
aspect of speaking to focus on. The teacher has responsibility to create classroom
activities in such away that the instructional objectives that have been formulated
before can be achieved successfully.
Motivating students, managing classroom using good method and
techniques, and transferring knowledge or teaching material and evaluating to the
students are roles of the teacher.
In teaching speaking through Guessing Games, a teacher had to know
purpose of using this method, the procedures of teaching, the techniques will be
applied, and the evaluation accomplished.
The learning processes using Guessing Games give students chance to
use English orally, it means that students can practice and develop their ability to
speak English. Games provide fun and relax while remaining very much within
framework of language learning. It expected for shy or slow learners can be
active participants to show their ability and find their confidence in
communicating in the foreign language.
The speaking teaching that given at fourth grade according the
curriculum KTSP. That to purpose how to improve competent limited
communicates to follow by action (language accompanying action).
Such as focus on specific and usually individualized participants, time words
used to connect events, action words predominate in complication and
resolution, noun groups are very important in describing characters and setting.
1. Activities at Classroom

27

Cycle 1 at fourth grade class, June 1st day 2008


Reconnaisance
At the first time the reseacher entered the class. The students had low
motivation. And the situation was not condusive.
Planning

: The researcher prepared the material a recount by picture


from the text book. Then introduce about the picture.
The researcher condition of student, took the absence of
student and say greeting. Then

the researcher gave

explanation about greeting before giving the main of lesson


and make pre-test (invite student for reciprocating greeting)
by simple dialogue about greeting. It supposed to know and
measure the students achievement comprehending lesson of
English speaking. When done by is simple dialogue
concerning greeting, seen reaction of student not yet give
enthusiastic response. Out of twenty student only five people
that seem is active.
Acting

: The researcher put the picture on the blackboard and read


loudly.The student were asked to answer the question aloud
about the picture one by one that called randomly , the
researcher define kinds of greetings utterances.
Researcher and student repeat articulate greeting utterance
and reciprocation from the greeting.
Then gives explanation concerning greeting utterance
function.
After that the students make partner to demonstrate simple
dialogue concerning greeting if they had wrong pronuciation
the researcher corrected and then students were asked to

28

translate the dialogue into Indonesian language, if they


couldnt the reseacher called the other to translate and if he
or she couldnt too, the researcher translated by herself .
Indecisive flavor and fear to do mistake when replying
question which in rising seen. Of students seen still be
covered by unconvinced and indecisive flavor of themselves
when replying question. Even they are not daring to say by
ear that firms [oppositely; also] heard by approximant
whisper. Researcher gives reinforcement and concludes,
Advice Lessons that will come and give homework to make
simple dialogue with their partner about greeting. Then the
students were asked to answer the work sheet (Execute
evaluation).
Researcher say greeting before class exit.
Observing

: In this part the researcher observed that they had problem in


their pronounciation.

From observation which got, almost

all student unable to answer and say truly. Even arise is each
other

laughing.

This

thing

result

student

is

less

enthusiastically even class atmosphere become clamor. And


their equip the answer showed that they had a few self
confidence.
The result of average from the students in the first cycle, the
competention from the methode is not work properly well. Its
can see in appendix 10.
Reflecting

: They had problems in bad

pronounciation and have not

enough encourages to speak loudly. Even in intonation even


also of students, many doing mistake. Condition of class

29

rather less in control, probably because new situation and


they deal with instructor which less familiar, so that of front
students still for expression their selves in the form of
communications. The material would be equiped that had
simple thing that contents the easy dialogue.
After the researcher did the research, she finds that:
1. The students were afraid to speak aloud because they
didnt know how to pronounce the words.
2. They were motivated by the researcher that they had
to pronounce and intonation

correctly because if

they were wrong in pronunciation they will get the


wrong meaning of the conversation
3. The students had not fun felling because the class
condition is not condusive.
4. They couldnt equip in the correct sentence.
So how with teaching process hereinafter? What have to be
altered and added in process of teaching so that student can
increase the ability in conversing English?
Is that some weakness on technique of teaching, teaching
matter that too difficult to be received or linguistic in
submitting not accurate matter?
This thing will be evaluated at cycle of two
Cycle 2 at fourth grade class, June 2nd of day 2008
Reconaisance

30

At second time the researher entered the class. The students motivater was
rather higher. And the student more condusive. But they were still not
confidence in their pronunciation and dialogue.
Planning

: Firsth the researcher ask 4-students tide for advance and


demonstrate their homework concerning greetings then
researchers introduce matter concerning introduction and say
how to introduce herself and invite student to repeat the
articulate give explanation concerning procedures introduce.
Student with him/her partner demonstrate simple dialogue.

Acting

: The researcher choose the material about hobby same as


clycle 1 and about introduction. Then the researcher giving
pretest before the main of lesson gave. It supposed to know
and measure the students courages to speak. (Lesson from
cycle 1 to reminded). The researcher puts some pictures on
the blackboard and the students ask question of that person as
if they have just meet him. The students reconstruct the
conversation they have created.
The students were asked to choice a partner and make simple
dialogue about introduction and try to make dialogue in
front of the class. They create a new dialod using words they
have learned how to say during their conversation. The
researcher wacth the students and make sure that the
conversiation between students is rigth. The next was same
with cycle 1 and then they were asked to answer the work
sheet in oral and give statement about the dialogue. Activities
of End give reinforcement and conclude. Advise Lesson
which will come. Execute evaluation

31

Observing

: In this part the researcher observed that they had over come
their problems, it prooves that they could speak in simple
dialogue even a lot of mistake about the pronounciation but
at least they almost show their courages and ability to speak
English.
The students are invited to talk about how they felt during the
conversation.
There was increasing from the students ability speaking skill
and answer the question in cycle 2.

Reflecting

: The researcher must make savety felling for the students.


And make the atmosphere of the class being fun.There was a
little increasing in their pronounciation from the dialogue. As
far the tasks were given individually. In the cycle two the
researcher find there is a will to the students to overcome
their problems in pronunciation and speaking skill. Few
students showed increasing their speaking and they could
make simple dialogue with their partner .How is if they do in
group?

Cycle 3 at fourth grade class, June 3rd of day 2008


Reconaisance
At the third time the researcher entered the class. The students motivation
was still high the student had worked cooperatively with their teacher. The
problem was have they hard ability to speak? Because not all students have
good pronouciation and self confidence to speak.
Planning

: The researcher choosed the material that contained three


themes about greeting, introduction and hobby and they had

32

to make dialogue . The researcher took the sample material


from the text book. The reseacher divided them into five
groups. Then make observation of the students activities and
make sure the students feel more comfortable with their
groups.
Acting

: The researcher read loudly dialogue about hobby. The


students had to listen carefully to see if what the teacher say.
And then students folowing what the researcher say. Students
work together in groups of four. Each of groups were asked
to speak in front of the class. After that they were asked to
make more dialogue using three of themes. The researcher
corrects by repeating correctly the sentence the students have
created. And then the researcher gave them to prepare

and

make dialogue in front of the class.


The researcher was being observer and conselor in the class
activities.
Observing

: From these activities the reseacher observed that they could


improve they ability. Although they didnt know all the
meaning of the words, they would do that best. In groups,
students can begin to feel sense of community and learn
from each other as well as the teacher. This was cooperation,
not only competition, and was encourage.
The researchers initial role is that of conselor. It means that
the researcher recognized how threatening a new learning
situation can be for fourth grade elementary school, so the
researcher can support the students in their struggle to master
the target language.There were a lot of different activities

33

that could occur with students working in a groups.


Researcher who use the groups activities believe students can
learn from each other and can get more practice. This could
lead to development of community among class members.
Reflecting

: There was increasing in their speaking ability and the


responses showed that they had motivation in learning
speaking. Their anthussiasme were high when that reseacher
choosed simple conversation from the dialogue that they
make. The students again invited to talk in front of the class.
Developing a community among the class members builds
trust and can help to reduce treat of the speakig skill. And to
know the whole result from this research, the researcher gave
the students the evaluation.
Building relationship with among students was very
important. In trusting releationship, the threat that students
feel is reduced and therefore nondefensive learning in
promoted. Students can learn from their interaction with each
other as well as their interaction the teacher. A spirit of
cooperation, not competition, can prevail.
In cylcle 3 there the competition was held among the groups,
then the students were more interested when did the
conversation with their group. They were still to improve
their speaking ability to be more succesful and more
confident.

2. Result of Collaboration
In this research, the researcher was found one from twenty
students has a trouble to learn English study. There some factor that the

34

researcher find, they are the student from descendant of Chinese, the student
hard to comprehend Lesson. She from inability family, and nobody want to
close and work with her because her inability.
From that finding, the result of the finding that researcher make some
approach to the students by using discuss with the group. And the ability
students can be improvement with their group.
3. Analysis
In activities in the class, the researcher could see the progrees of
speaking ability from the students. The improvement process in teaching
speaking through Guessing Games is figured in this graphic design:

There was increasing the average score from cycle 1, cycle 2 and
cycle 3- the researcher took their score from exercises that they have done. It
was indicated that teaching speaking through guessing games the students
reached better and better in speaking.

35

And as the result of the research, the researcher took the students score from
the evaluation that held at the end of the research. It is figured in this graphic
design:

From graphic shows the result score evaluation are: 9 students got score 7
(63%), 7 students got score 8 (38%), 4 students got score 9 (23%). The
average score is 7.75 , it means

that the method by games is make

improvement for Speaking English for the students

36

From grapich above show the result score evaluation from each
group. The studendts more encourage and more confident to speak and
cooperative with their group.
From the facts and data that I accepted there are many factors why do
they have low ability and low motivation in speaking learning .
The factors are :
1. The Students are afraid to make mistake in pronounciation
2. The Students have little self confidence, and low motivation to speak
extensively
3. The Students are reasons why they cant understand what they speak

37

4. The Students didn t get message , feelings and experience from the
author, and the students have not
5. The students have not enough encourage to speak.
The problems above often arise in speaking learning, especially in the first
at fourth grade, these are some solutions to overcome:
1. They have to practice speaking aloud to develop their pronounciation
2. Choose the suitable games to work on depending their knowledge
level
3. Choose effective guessing to make involve and participant from
students
4. Help the students to do extensive spaking practice
5. And make a group to improve they ability to speaking .

38

CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS

A.

Conclusions and Suggestions


After analyzing some experts theories about improvement students
speaking skill through Guessing Games, now the researcher tries to make
conclusions from cycle 1 to cycle 3.
1. From the cycle 1, the researcher which got, almost all student unable
to answer and say truly. Even arise is each other laughing. This thing
result student is less enthusiastically even class atmosphere become
clamor. And their equip the answer showed that they had a few self
confidence.
2. From the cycle 2, the researcher must make savety felling for the
students. And make the atmosphere of the class being fun. There was
little increasing in their pronounciation from the dialogue. As far the
tasks were given individually. In the cycle two the researcher find
there was a will to the students to overcome their problems in
pronunciation and speaking skill. Few students showed increasing
their speaking and they could make simple dialogue with their partner.
3. There was increasing in their speaking ability and the responses
showed that they had motivation in learning speaking. Their
anthussiasme were high when that reseacher choosed simple
conversation from the dialogue that they make.
In cylcle 3 there the competition was held among the groups, then the
students were more interested when did the conversation with their
group. They were still to improve their speaking ability to be more

39

succesful and more confident. Make some group on the class can
improve the ability to speak.
The conclusion from three cycles that the process of the improvement
students speaking skill through guessing games, first that the researcher must
make situation of the classroom more conducive so that the students can fell
more safely. The researcher has to choose effective guessing to make involve
and participant from students.
The students more encourages and more active when the researcher gives the
materials by group, they more confidence to improve their ability speaking skill
and to make conversation by their group.
Nevertheless, many factors hamper students to speak English,
sometimes it comes from lack of teachers technique teaching. The students
need to learn more speaking of the target language. Guessing games is one of
the techniques that have a positive effect on students speaking knowledge to
make confidence and encourage.
B.

Suggestion
After did the research the researcher has some suggestions for the
students, English teacher and the institution as follow :
a. The recommendation as follow for teacher :
1. The teacher should make condusive and make comfortable in the
class.
2. It is good for teacher to use technique to introduce guessing games
to students
3. Before teaching, teacher should stucture and plan this technique
carefully

40

4. Teacher must be able to manage the class and the time in order to
make students be more active and involved to the activity and make
it runs well.
5. The teacher should keep monitoring during the stages
b. For the students :
1. If student find difficulties in understanding the games, they should
ask the teacher for clearer explanation.
2. The students should be active in participating during the lesson
3. The students should remind their friends to keep speaking English
c. For the institution:
1. Provide facilities that support the students activities in learning
English
2. Maximize the function of the library as a medium for learning
3. Provide the teachers that qualified based on their background
education.
4. Create the good relationship among the students, teachers, staffs, and
the headmaster.

41

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